Syriac 1

2013年1月16日までは、ターナ文字に没頭していたが、 ひと区切りついたため、 1月18日からはシリア語・シリア文字の勉強を始めた。 たまたま最初に出会った learnassyrian.com が東シリアだったので、東シリア文字から始めることになった。 learnassyrian.com の資料には正確でない点もあるが、とりあえず文字に慣れるのには役立った。 平行して、アッシリア・カルデア・シリアの歴史的・文化的背景も少しずつ調べていった。 このファイルには、シリア語の勉強を始めた最初のころのメモを保存してある。

Dic; Dic2; Dic3; TUS; Wiki; Map; Map2; Alan; Smith Nöldeke


2013-02-15

SEMKATH-TETH liga (Serto): ܣܛ

2013-02-11

ܩ‎ 100; ܪ‎ 200; ܫ‎ 300; ܬ‎ 400;

ܢ̇ܢ‎ 500 = U+0722 [ ܢ ] SYRIAC LETTER NUN: U+0307 [ ̇ ] COMBINING DOT ABOVE: U+0722 [ ܢ ] SYRIAC LETTER NUN
or: ܬܩ

ܣ̇‎ 600 = U+0723 [ ܣ ] SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH: U+0307 [ ̇ ] COMBINING DOT ABOVE
or ܬܪ

ܥ̇‎ 700; or ܬܫ
ܦ̇‎ 800; or ܬܬ
ܨ̇‎ 900;
ܐ݈‎ or ܐ݇‎ 1000;
ܒ݈‎ 2000;
ܐ̱‎ 10,000;
ܐ̭‎ 10,000,000 = U+0710 [ ܐ ] SYRIAC LETTER ALAPH: U+032D [ ̭ ] COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW (cf. TUS Table 8-12) ܐ̤
[Cf. Lv 2, Lesson 23]

Table added on April 1, 2013
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ
10×
ܥܸܣܪܵܐ
ܝ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܨ
100×
ܡܵܐܐ or ܡܐܵܐ
ܩ ܪ ܨ ܬ ܢ̇ ܣ̇ ܥ̇ ܦ̇ ܨ̇
1000×
ܐܲܠܦܵܐ or ܐܵܠܹܦ
10,000×
ܥܸܣܪܵܐ ܐܲܠܦܹ̈ܐ
ܐ̱ ܒ̱ ܓ̱ ܕ̱ ܗ̱ ܘ̱ ܙ̱ ܚ̱ ܛ̱
100,000×
ܡܵܐܐ ܐܲܠܦܹ̈ܐ
ܝ̱ ܟ̱ ܠ̱ ܡ̱ ܢ̱ ܣ̱ ܥ̱ ܦ̱ ܨ̱
1,000,000× ܩ̱ ܪ̱ ܨ̱ ܬ̱ ܢ̱̇ ܣ̱̇ ܥ̱̇ ܦ̱̇ ܨ̱̇
10,000,000×

See also: Grammaticae syriacae §8 (Anoter version)

2013-02-10

Файл:Turoyo-rus.png — Википедия (Map of Turoyo/Surayt language area)

A Syriac abbreviation generally extends from the last tall character in the word until the end of the word.

ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ tiš ' buḥ ta (praise)

ܬ܏ܫܒܘ

ܬܶܫܒܽܘܚܬܳܐ

ܬ܏ܫܒܘ

ܬܶ܏ܫܒܽܘ

ܦܛܪܝܪܟܐ paṭr ' iar ka (Patriarch)

܏ܦܛܪ

ܦܰܛܪܝܰܪܟܳܐ

܏ܦܛܪ

܏ܦܰܛܪ

An incorrect spelling in TUS ch. 8, Fig. 8-7

2013-02-09

The Şurayt Latin Alphabet consists of thirty-six (36) letters. Twenty-six (26) of these are borrowed from the English alphabet (ISO Basic Latin alphabet) and the remaining ten (10) are modified letters with diacritics.

The Şurayt Latin Alphabet has been in use since 1983 (for the history of its use, see Otto Jastrow and Jan Beṯ-Şawoce, Svensk-nyvästsyrisk Lärobok, 2008).

The following is the Şurayt Latin Alphabet:

Aa Bb Cc Čč Dd Ḏḏ Ee Ëë Ff Gg Ǧǧ Hh H̱ẖ Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Şş Šš Tt Ṯṯ Ţţ Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Žž

A B C Č D Ḏ E ËF G Ǧ H H̱ I J K L M N O P Q R S Ş Š T Ṯ Ţ U V W X Y Z Ž

a b c č d ḏ e ë f g ǧ h ẖ i j k l m n o p q r s ş š t ṯ ţ u v w x y z ž

The Şurayt Latin Alphabet has 10 modified letters, with the following four (4) diacritics.

Diaeresis         ¨       Ëë

Cedilla            ¸       Şş Ţţ

Macron           ̱       Ḏḏ H̱ẖ Ṯṯ

Caron              ˇ       Čč Ǧǧ Šš Žž

Note that Ǧǧ is not the same as Ğğ:

Breve              ˘       Ğğ

Caron and breve look similar but they are two different diacritics.

There is no use for any other letter or sign except the 36 letters listed above. This is a simple standard alphabet. It has a different purpose than the Semitic standard alphabet that scholars and universities use. (For example, the scholars employ Āā Ōō Ēē Īī Ūū Ḇḇ Ḡḡ Ḫḫ Ḵḵ P̄p̄ etc. while we do not).

Suroyo/Suraya with semkat?

2013-02-08

Edessa / Edesse God / Dieu necessary / nécessaire
ur 'hai ' il (ēl) a nan ' qa: ia: (ānanqāyā)
ܐܘܪܗܝ
ܐܘܪܗܝ
ܐܘܿܪܗܵܝ
ܐܝܠ
ܐܝܠ
ܐܹܝܠ
ܐܢܢܩܝܐ
ܐܢܢܩܝܐ
ܐܵܢܲܢܩܵܝܵܐ

The majority of Assyrians today (Western Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Tyaraye at the very least) still have the "th" and "dh" sounds. I highly doubt that the remaining minority of Assyrians who say shedaanaa instead of shedhaanaa have carried on the Akkadian pronunciation for thousands of years; if that were true, then they would pronounce "book" like ktaabaa and "yours" like deeduk. They most likely just lost the "th" and "dh" within the last few centuries.

I think, historically, the Hakkari Assyrians were fairly cut off from Urmi and especially Western Assyrians, so language contact would have been minimal. Most of the Urmi influence, for example, didn't come through until the 20th century when people started to speak "Iraqi Koine." Even today you don't get too many people who speak a pure dialect anymore, it's all mixed together.

Is the "d" right or the "th"

2013-02-07

East vs. Estrangela vs. Serto
Ad ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
No ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Ni ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Qu ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
An ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Mi ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Ta ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Ed ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Je ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
Kh ܐܒܓܕܗ ܘܙܚܛܝ ܟܠܡܢܣ ܥܦܨܩܪ ܫܬ
  1. Estrangela is different from Madnhaya only in a few letters, esp. ܐܕܗܪܬ‎.
  2. In Estrangelo Edessa: (a) ܓܙܫ‎ are written more or less like in Serto. ܙ‎ ZAIN looks like a dotless i; ܫ‎ SHIN looks like a Y (or a heart mark) above a horizontal line. (b) Additionally, ܐ‎ looks like a λ rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise; ܝ‎ looks like a comma (or an angle quotation mark › ).
  3. Serto is different from Madnhaya in many letters. However, if you compare it with Estrangelo Edessa (older forms of letters), only a few glyphs are greatly different, viz. ܟ‎ KAPH, ܠ‎ LAMADH, ܥ‎ E, ܨ‎ SADHE, and ܬ‎ TAW. ܗ‎ is not like in Estrangela, but it's easily recognizable as it's like Madnhaya ܗ‎.

See also: Gr. Appendix.

Estrangelo Edessa is based on Estrangelo Talada, which is based on a 7th c. MS. Estrangelo Nisibin was designed by a German publisher, W. Drugulin, used by the Assyrian Press in Mosul, and digitalized helped by Mar Emanuel Emanuel of the Assyrian Church of the East. Estrangelo Quenneshrin was designed by the same person, George Kiraz. While he belongs to a west (the Syriac Orthodox) Church, the font face is Madnhaya-ish. Estrangelo Antioch is based on a 11th c. MS of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Library. Estrangelo Midyat is based on a 13th century manuscript, originally of the Church of Mort Shmoni in Midyat, now at Mor Gabriel Monastery in Tur Abdin (Syriac Orthodox).

2013-02-06

drunken / ivre beautiful / beau chess / le jeu d'échecs peace / paix history / l'histoire
ra ' va: ia: (ravāyā) ša ' pi: ra (šapīrā) ' ši:t rAndj (šētrandj) ' šla ma: (šlāmā) taš ' i: tha: (tašʿīṯā)
ܪܲܘܵܝܵܐ ܫܲܦܝܼܪܵܐ ܫܹܬܪܲܢܓ̰ ܫܠܵܡܵܐ ܬܲܫܥܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ

An examination of the peculiarities of speech in different districts would lead us to divide the language into four main divisions, the two first of which [Urmi/Northern] may be called the non-aspirating, and the two last [Ashiret/Southern] the aspirating dialects, the difference being in the hardening or softening of the letters Tau and Dalath.

Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Synac as spoken by the eastern Syrians of Kurdistan

The Urmi group
TAW is not spirantized. Incl. Naqadeh (SW. of Lake Urmia), Sipurghan, Gavilan.
The Northern group
TAW is dropped at the end of a word, or replaced with WAW. Incl. Salamas (NW. of Lake Urmia), Qudshanis, Gawar, Jilu.

A Modern Syriac-English Dictionary ... Pt. 1 (1900)

"ES Nohadra" is less known, but it seems to be a good Madnhaya font. ES Nohadra.ttf I like it better than East Syriac Adiabene/East Syriac Ctesiphon. (Nohadra = The Syriac name of Dohuk, Iraq)
2014-02-07 Apparently ES Nohadra was created by the Barutha Assyrian Language Centre.

Assyrian Scholar Offers New Classifications for Syriac Script - It's easy to see that any church may use Estrangela anyway.

ALA-LC Romanization Tables

Hértevin [hrt]-Syrn ? 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi).; Koy Sanjaq Surat [kqd] 900 (1995 H. Mutzafi).; Senaya [syn]-Syrn? 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460. http://multitree.org/codes/aii http://llmap.org/languages/aii.html

OLAC resources in and about the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic language

Lehrbuch der Turoyo-Sprache : Jastrow, Otto : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

With the 'Common Christological Declaration', signed in 1994 by Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV, the main dogmatic problem between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church has been resolved.

Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East

The controversies of the past led to anathemas, bearing on persons and on formulas. The Lord's Spirit permits us to understand better today that the divisions brought about in this way were due in large part to misunderstandings.

The Holy See - Vatican web site

kaldu.org is the website of St. Peter Diocese of the Chaldean Catholic Church. You can actually see that they are using Madnhaya (with Estrangela for titles). This page is even in Unicode, and the font is "East Syriac Adiabene" for the body, "Estrangelo Nisibin" for the title.

HE-YUDH: a Madnhaya-only optional ligature. East Syriac Adiabene: ܗܝ
East Syriac Ctesiphon: ܗܝ
ES Nohadra: ܗܝ
Serto: ܗܝ
Estrangela: ܗܝ

2013-02-05

Rukkakha dots in action: Serto and Estrangela fonts handle them perfectly. East-style fonts may have trouble, as Gamal and Dalath already have a dot below on its own. Problem cases - in East Syriac Adiabene: (1) Gamal-Rukkakha [ɣ] Mid and Fin. (2) Dalath-Rukkakha [ð] (unless this is intentional). (3) Kaph-Rukkakha [x] Fin. - in East Syriac Ctesiphon: (1) Gamal-Rukkakha [ɣ] Mid. Gamal-Rukkakha Fin. is handled carefully, though the dot is placed too right and possibly confusing.

In Serto fonts, Rukkakha dots are controlled carefully. For example, ܕ vs. ܕ݂ looks pretty.

ܒܒܒ ܓܓܓ ܔܔܔ ܕܕܕ ܟܟܟ ܦܦܦ ܬܬܬ
ܒ݂ܒ݂ܒ݂ ܓ݂ܓ݂ܓ݂ ܔ݂ܔ݂ܔ݂ ܕ݂ܕ݂ܕ݂ ܟ݂ܟ݂ܟ݂ ܦ݂ܦ݂ܦ݂ ܬ݂ܬ݂ܬ݂

ܒܒܒ ܓܓܓ ܔܔܔ ܕܕܕ ܟܟܟ ܦܦܦ ܬܬܬ
ܒ݂ܒ݂ܒ݂ ܓ݂ܓ݂ܓ݂ ܔ݂ܔ݂ܔ݂ ܕ݂ܕ݂ܕ݂ ܟ݂ܟ݂ܟ݂ ܦ݂ܦ݂ܦ݂ ܬ݂ܬ݂ܬ݂

ܒܒܒ ܓܓܓ ܔܔܔ ܕܕܕ ܟܟܟ ܦܦܦ ܬܬܬ
ܒ݂ܒ݂ܒ݂ ܓ݂ܓ݂ܓ݂ ܔ݂ܔ݂ܔ݂ ܕ݂ܕ݂ܕ݂ ܟ݂ܟ݂ܟ݂ ܦ݂ܦ݂ܦ݂ ܬ݂ܬ݂ܬ݂

ܒܒܒ ܓܓܓ ܔܔܔ ܕܕܕ ܟܟܟ ܦܦܦ ܬܬܬ
ܒ݂ܒ݂ܒ݂ ܓ݂ܓ݂ܓ݂ ܔ݂ܔ݂ܔ݂ ܕ݂ܕ݂ܕ݂ ܟ݂ܟ݂ܟ݂ ܦ݂ܦ݂ܦ݂ ܬ݂ܬ݂ܬ݂

ܒܒܒ ܓܓܓ ܔܔܔ ܕܕܕ ܟܟܟ ܦܦܦ ܬܬܬ
ܒ݂ܒ݂ܒ݂ ܓ݂ܓ݂ܓ݂ ܔ݂ܔ݂ܔ݂ ܕ݂ܕ݂ܕ݂ ܟ݂ܟ݂ܟ݂ ܦ݂ܦ݂ܦ݂ ܬ݂ܬ݂ܬ݂

Another bug of East Syriac Adiabene is, the glyph for ā is void (falsely supported, showing white space). This is a big problem for a Syriac font.

ܬܸܫܒܘܼܚܬܵܐ tišbuḥtā (a praise), for which: ܬܫܒܘ܊ with U+070A [ ܊ ] SYRIAC CONTRACTION.
ܬܶܫܒܽܘܚܬܳܐ tešbuḥto, for which: ܬ܏ܫܒܘ with U+070F [ ܏ ] SYRIAC ABBREVIATION MARK - oh no Firefox can't handle this, while IE can.
or with vowel makrs: ܬܶ܏ܫܒܽܘ
ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ tešbuḥtā. for which ܬ܏ܫܒܘ

܏ܝܗ

15 (ḥam ' ša sar) IE can't handle SAM as the first letter. It's not good when only one letter belongs to SAM either. Still better than Firefox which can't handle SAM at all.

ܒ܏ܝܗ

Syriac Typesetting on Windows XP
SAM (Serto) SAM (Estrangela) Optional Ligature
Correct
IE8
Firefox18
You ܏ܝܗ ܒ܏ܝܗ ܏ܝܗ ܒ܏ܝܗ ܠ ܐ

SAM = U+070F SYRIAC ABBREVIATION MARK. See TUS (The Unicode Standard, Version 6.2), Chapter 8, pp. 267–8.

Optional Ligature = LAMADH SPACE ALAPH (Serto). See TUS, Table 8-17. Cf. Theodor Nöldeke, Compendious Syriac grammar, p. 3.

Fonts: Meltho Fonts. Serto Kharput Version 1.20 for Serto, Estrangelo Edessa Version 5.00 for Estrangela.

2013-02-04

"LAMADH ALAPH" is an obligatory ligature in Serto; it's usually ligated in East and in Estrangela too. "LAMADH SPACE ALAPH" is an optional ligature, used only in Serto. This means that a word ending with LAMADH and the next word beginning with ALAPH may be connected (Compendious Syr. Gr. p. 3). Serto Jerusalem and Serto Kharput do support it; Serto Batnan and Serto Urhoy do not.

East
ܠ‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠܐ
ܠ‎ + SPACE‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠ ܐ
Serto
ܠ‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠܐ
ܠ‎ + SPACE‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠ ܐ
The LAMADH SPACE ALAPH ligature does not work on Firefox18; it works on IE8.
Test1: ܒܠ ܐܒ
Test2 (nbsp): ܒܠ ܐܒ
Test3 (2 spaces): ܒܠ ܐܒ
Test4 (newline instead of space): ܒܠ ܐܒ
Estrangela
ܠ‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠܐ
ܠ‎ + SPACE‎ + ܐ‎ = ܠ ܐ

Until the 1950s, Chaldean Catholics were mostly settled in Mosul — in 1932, 70 percent of Assyrian Christians of all denominations lived there, but by 1957, only 47 percent remained, as they migrated southward due in part to ethnic and religious violence and regional and political tensions. It was estimated that about half of Iraq's Assyrian Christian's lived in Baghdad by 1979, accounting for 14 percent of that city's population This period also marks the intensification of denominational antagonism among Aramaic speakers in Iraq as some church institutions began to distance themselves from the members of the Assyrian Church of the East who were seen as magnets for Muslim antagonism.

Assyrians in Iraq - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Type: language
Subtag: syc
Description: Classical Syriac

Type: language
Subtag: syr
Description: Syriac
Scope: macrolanguage

Type: language
Subtag: src
Description: Logudorese Sardinian
Added: 2009-07-29
[N. of Sardinia, Italy]

Type: language
Subtag: sc
Description: Sardinian
Scope: macrolanguage
[Sardinia, Italy]

Type: region
Subtag: IQ
Description: Iraq

Type: region
Subtag: IR
Description: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: region
Subtag: SY
Description: Syrian Arab Republic

Type: region
Subtag: TR
Description: Turkey

Type: region
Subtag: 143
Description: Central Asia

Type: region
Subtag: 145
Description: Western Asia

OK, this is how we're going to handle HTML language tags for Syriac languages. If it's written in Madnhaya, we tag it as syr (aii or cld if we want to be more specific), without saying -Syrn. It's acceptable, because syr means the modern dialects which is usually written in Madnhaya. Of course if it's not modern, we'll tag it as syc-Syrn. Similarly, Serto will be tagged as tru if modern, syc-Syrj if classic.

We use syc to mean Estrangela by default (same as syc-Syre).

In case a modern dialect is written in Estrangela (as in a title etc.), that'll be syr-Syre if East, tru-Syre if West.

The above works neatly if we have something like this in our CSS file:

:lang(syc) {
    font-family: "Estrangelo Edessa";
}
:lang(syr), :lang(aii), :lang(cld), :lang(syc-Syrn) {
    font-family: "East Syriac Adiabene";
}
:lang(tru), :lang(syc-Syrj) {
    font-family: "Serto Kharput";
}
[*|lang $= "-Syre"] {
    font-family: "Estrangelo Edessa" !important;
}

-Syre is marked as !important, since it's more important than lang; otherwise lang would take precedance. One thing that wouldn't work is Garshuni (e.g. ar-Syrj). It's easy to add a few more lines to support Garshuni, though. Also, we won't use Syrc at all, because just saying Syriac is not sufficient for our purpose (that is, to select a font). It might be a good idea to assume that Syrc means Syre, but then again that could be a bad idea. Maybe we could use Syrc when the style is neither Estrangela nor Madnhaya nor Serto.

PS. Maybe syc should default to syc-Syrj. Not sure. Font-wise, the code syc is not specific enough. It's as ambiguous as Syrc.

2013-08-10: Perhaps it is acceptable to use -TR (cf. Edessa, Midyat) to mean W-Syr. and -IR (cf. Urmia) to mean E-Syr. — for example in syc-Latn-TR (Classical West Syriac, romanized).

a cross / une croix an example / un exemple potency, power / la puissance, la force paper / le papier a word / un mot
' ṣli: va: (ṣlīvā) ' ṭu sa: (ṭusā) ' qu: vat (qūvat) qar ' ṭi: sa (qarṭīsa) ' mil ta: (miltā)
ܨܠܝܼܒ݂ܵܐ ܛܘܼܦ̮ܣܵܐ ܩܘܼܘܲܬ ܩܲܪܛܝܼܣܵܐ ܡܹܠܬܵܐ

Compendious Syriac grammar - Content - SSG Vorderer Orient digital [Compend.]

J.F. Coakley and the Library of Congress are working on an official transliteration schema for Syriac books and authority records: see here for their provisional schema (PDF link).

2013-02-03

TUS says: In Modern Syriac usage, when a word contains a rish and seyame, the dot of the rish and the seyame are replaced by a rish with two dots above it: Rish + Seyame (pl. marker) = Rish with 2 dots above (i.e. "Dotless Dalath-Rish" + Seyame written lower)

ܪ‎ + ̈‎ = ܪ̈ (Cf. ܕ̈)

It's called "RISH SEYAME" in TUS Table 8-17 (though they didn't define SEYAME). The ligature form is obligatory in all three styles, including Estrangela, which is not so Modern.
Serto: ܪ̈
Estrangela: ܪ̈

Gr. §16D - With the point of the letter ܪ the plural sign generally blends into ܪ̈ - so it's not only in Modern Syriac.

a festival / une fête in love / amoureux a translation / une traduction spreading / le développement a physician / un docteur en médecine
' i: da: (ʿīdā) ' a: šiq (ʿāšiq) pu: ' ša qa (pūšāqā) ' pras ta (prāstā) fu: ' zi: qa: (fūzīqā)
ܥܸܐܕܵܐ ܥܵܫܸܩ ܦܘܼܫܵܩܵܐ ܦܪܵܣܬܵܐ ܦ̮ܘܼܙܝܼܩܵܐ

Have any of you Maerwaye [=Magarbaya (West)] speakers heard the Chaldean dialect? If so, do you understand it more then standard east dialect? There are a lot of similarities.

... If you were to read pure Chaldean(not spoken one because it has too much Arabic) i think the east dialect would make a lot more sense to you..

Assyrian: East meets West

2013-02-02


主要3方言の基準となる地点。 アッシリア方言(イラン北西部、西アゼルバイジャン州ウルミエ)。 カルデア方言(イラク北部、ニナワ県アルコーシュ)。 スライト(トゥロヨ)方言(トルコ南西部、マルディン県ミドヤト およびシリア北西部ハサカ県カミシリ)。

an Assyrian / un assyrien Assyrian (people and language) / assyrien (peuple et langue) a witness, a martyr / un témoin (oculaire), un martyr moon / la lune language : Sureth, Syriac / langue : le soureth, le syriaque
a: thu: ' ra: ia: (āṯorāyā) a: tu ' ra: ia (āturāyā) ' sa:h da: (sāhdā) ' sa:h ra: (sahrā) ' su rith (suriṯ)
ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪܵܝܵܐ ܐܵܬܘܿܪܵܝܵ̈ܐ ܣܵܗܕܵܐ ܣܲܗܪܵܐ ܣܘܼܪܸܬ݂

Syriac Orthodox Church in Canada - Learn Syriac [tru]

[PDF] Turoyo/Surayt in Russian.

sh1t, you east dialet speakers are so complicated, one say this while the other says that... Haha, that's why we have dialects while you Western speakers only have one Turoyo. :) This is also the reason why we need a standard language. It's not as simple as learning two different dialects.

A lot of [we] Chaldeans think that Assyrians have better grammar than us because we use some Arabic. The thing is, I think our grammar is actually better but our *words* are replaced with lots of Arabic. ... I don't think that the Assyrian [aii] grammar is very good. Maybe someone can correct me? I think our grammar [cld] is better although we have Arabic words in our vocabulary.

I wouldn't worry about the "correct" form of modern words (since none exist in the classical language :)). But yeah, all dialects have foreign words to some degree or other. The Urmi dialect is riddled with Persian words, and my own dialect has plenty of Kurdish/Turkish/Arabic/English words. In the case of the Chaldean dialect, I think the vast majority of your foreign words are very recent borrowings (within the last 60 years or so) and they're mostly from Arabic.

Question: Different Verb Tenses in Modern Dialects

I'm trying to learn the Western dialect of Assyrian so I bought a book to learn, its called "Modern Aramaic - (Assyrian/Syriac)" Its a dictionary and phrasebook in both modern Aramaic dialects, Eastern (Swadaya) and Western (Turoyo).

West Grammer Help

2013-02-01

BBC NEWS | Middle East | Who are the Chaldean Christians? Chaldeans are members of an autonomous Catholic Church that retains a unique liturgy and tradition while recognising the Pope's authority. Chaldeans form the majority - about 550,000 - of Iraq's estimated 700,000 Christians. The Eastern-rite Church [is what] the Chaldeans belong to...

The literary revival in the early 20th century was mostly due to the Lazarist Pere Bedjan, an ethnic Assyrian Chaldean Catholic from Iran. (Chaldean Christians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Paul Bedjan (27 November 1838 – 9 June 1920) ... born into a Chaldean Catholic family...

Of his works, his seven edited volumes of Syriac lives of saints and martyrs (Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum) and five volumes of verse-homilies of Jacob of Serugh (Homiliae selectae Mar Iacobi Sarugensis) are the most significant. He was able to complete a Neo-Aramaic Bible translation...

Paul Bedjan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[PDF] The Aramaic Language and Its Classification – Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies

Jastrow、Hobermanなどは現代東アラム語を3つに分ける。 Turoyo/Surayt、北東グループ、Mandaic。 実際には、もう少し複雑。

Turoyo/Surayt はトルコにおいて Tur abdin *1 のほか Midyat 付近のアッシリア人の間でも使われる。 近くにはアッシリア=カルデア人地域もある。 Şırnak [ʃɯɾnak] 県 Hassana 地域のプロテスタントが使う方言 ([bhn]?)も [tru] に近い。

*1 トルコ南西部の一角。イラクに近いシリア国境に面する。マルディン県の Nusaybin (Nisibis: 国境を挟んで Qamishli の反対側) 付近。 Midyatはそのすぐ北(地図)

トルコのアッシリア=カルデア人居住地の例: Harbul [Harabale?], Bespen [?], Mer [M’aré, Mardin?], Ishshi [?], Gaznach [?], Beznaye [?]

トルコのアッシリア=カルデア人。 南東・国境沿いの3県(Mardin - Şırnak - Hakkari)特に Mar. Hak. に集中。 標高3000-4000メートルの山がある。 言語学的には Mardin は tru 圏。 Neo-Aramaic dialect of Jīlū Assyrians Of The Van District

イラクには、Syrian-Antiochians (Monophysites)** とアッシリア=カルデア人がいて、 後者の方が多い。 前者は宗教上は西シリア語を使うが、日常ではアラビア語が優勢。 後者はアラム語を使うが、アラビア語の影響を受けている。 19世紀、UrmiaとHakkariへの伝道者により一般人の識字率が上がった。

**著者 Efrem Yildiz が指しているのは、シリア正教会(Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch)所属者のことだろう。 複数の教会が Patriarch of Antioch をトップとするが。

イランにも、アッシリア系カルデア系キリスト教徒の地域があり、 ウルミエ方言(ペルシャ語の影響あり)が話される。 シリアには、多数の Ashiret アッシリア人がいる。

国外に脱出した人々は、特に世代が新しくなると、アラム語を使わなくなる傾向がある。

東アラム語と西アラム語という伝統的区別は、 東アラム語がさらに東シリアと西シリアに分かれるため「東と西」の意味が紛らわしい。 混乱を避けるため、 「中央アラム語」を創設する一方「東アラム語」を3分割する方法がある。 宗教的区分と関連付けることは好ましくないが、事実上は、おおむね首尾一貫している。 「シリア Jacobites」=西・中央、 「カルデア Catholic」=南東、 「アッシリア Nestorians」=北東

現代アラム語の分類は、WW1前の地理的分布に基づくべき。 現在の分布に基づくと、亡命移住者が大規模・複雑過ぎて訳が分からなくなる。 背景として、移住後には移住先の主要言語から影響を受ける(方言のもともとの特徴なのか最近の変化なのか分かりにくい)。 異なる方言地域からの移住者が一緒になってコイネー化している(方言の特徴が失われる)。 移動・避難の結果の地理的分布は、もともとの地理的分布と整合していない。 例えば、地理的に中央アラム語地域のユダヤ教徒が西アラム語地域のイスラエルに移動していることなど。

「カルデア語(cld)とは、現代東アラム語の南方言、 アッシリア語(aii)とは、現代東アラム語の北方言だ」とも言えるだろう。

[GotD] Maclean, Arthur John, 1858-1943: Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Synac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. (1895, London)

The variation of the dialects is geographical; there are practically no differences of class among the people, and all in the same place have more or less the same tongue. (GotD, xii) - アッシリア語・カルデア語という区分は、 アッシリア教会 vs. カルデア教会という誤解につながる。 同じ町でも、所属教会が違う人は話す方言が違う…という「ボスニア的」誤解だ。 現実には、例えば、 cld 地域 Alqosh に古くから住むアッシリア東方教会の人も、同じ Alqosh の言葉、つまり「カルデア語」 cld を話す…。 アッシリア vs カルデアという区分は、90%のケースでは実用的かもしれないが、こういうケースでは直観に反している。

cld は「南の地域(たまたまカルデア教会の人が多いが東方教会の人もいる地域)」の方言、 aii は「北の地域(東方教会の人も多いがカルデア教会の人もいる地域)」の方言で、 地理的区分を便宜的・一方的に、教会名で近似表現したもの。 アッシリア教会 vs. カルデア教会は文化的にわずかに影響するだろうが、 方言の違いとは直接関係ない。 Babai the Greatの説を見る限り、Nestorianismに由来する東方教会の独自性自体、非常に小さい。 GotD をよく見てみないと何とも言えないが、 ウルミエ方言 U. vs Alqosh 方言 Al. を言語差(aii vs cld)とする一方、 U. vs Ashiret を方言差とすることは、どの程度正当なのだろうか…。 方言と言語は連続的で、結局どこかで人為的に線を引かなければならないことだとはいえ、 この区別に、 「Nestorians は異端だから」のような 宗教的差別が関係していたら嫌なことだ。

I. The Urmi group (U.); the dialect of the great plain of Urmi, 
in Azerbaijan, to the west of the sea of that name [Lake Urmia]; the dialect of the 
smaller plain of Solduz [Naqadeh] to the south of the sea, which is almost the 
same, though in a few of its Syrian villages Syriac has given place to 
Azerbaijani Turkish ; the dialect of the north part of the plain of 
Urmi, noted here as ' Sp.' i.e. Sipurghan, which is somewhat affected 
by the Salamas dialect (Group II), as is also that of the small 
plain of Gavilan between the two. 

II. The Northern group. This group is especially noticeable for 
dropping Tau. 

a. (Sal.) Plain of Salamas, in Persia, to the north-west of the 
Sea of Urmi. 

b. (Q) Qudshanis, in Turkey, the village of the Patriarch Mar 
Shimun, gives its name to the dialect of the neighbouring district, 
which is a little south of the Sea of Van. 

c. (Gaw.) The plain of Gawar, in Turkey, a high table-land to 
the west of the Perso-Turkish frontier. This plain and the district 
round Qudshanis are called ' Rayat ' or Subject, being entirely under 
the direct government of the Turks. 

d. (J.) The dialect of Jilu is practically the same. This very 
mountainous district lies a little to the west of Gawar, and geogra- 
phically belongs to Group III., being Ashiret ; but philologically it 
belongs to Group II. Its people are very different in appearance 
and character from most of the other Syrians, being of a more Jewisli 
cast.

Ashiret: トルコのVan湖(北)とイラクのモースル(南)の間の山岳地帯。

III. The Ashiret group. K. in the following pages denotes the 
dialects of the Ashiret or Tribal (semi-independent) districts of Central 
Kurdistan, which consist of inaccessible mountains and valleys lying 
between Van and Mosul. Over these districts the Turks exercise 
little more than a nominal sway, and the soldiers seldom penetrate it. 
Of these districts we have : — 

a. (Ti.) Upper Tiari, to the north-west of the group; this is by 
far the largest Ashiret district. 

b. (Tkh.) Tkhuma, a large valley east of Tiari, south-west of 
Jilu. 

c. Tal, Baz, Diz, Waltu, smaller Ashiret districts, north and east 
of Tkhuma. 

d. (Ash.) Ashitha, in Lower Tiari, to the south-west of the 
group. This is the principal village in the Ashiret districts, and its 
dialect differs very greatly from that of Upper Tiari, and approaches 
rather those of the fourth group. 

e. (MB.) Mar Bishu ; (Sh.) Shamsdin. These are districts in 
Turkey close to the Persian frontier, south-west of Gawar, and are 
inhabited by colonies from Tiari. Their dialects are closely related 
to that of Tiari, but are somewhat influenced by the first, or Urmi, 
group. This is still more the case with the dialects of Tergawar, 
Mergawar, and Bradust, three neighbouring upland plains on the 
Persian side of the frontier. The village of Anhar in the plain of 
Urmi, near Tergawar, is also a colony from Tiari, and retains several 
Tiari peculiarities of language, grafted on the Urmi speech. These 
districts are separated from the rest of this group by Gawar and Jilu. 

IV. The Southern group,

a. (Al.) The Alqosh dialect [cld], spoken 
in the villages of the plain of Mosul. In the town of Mosul itself 
vernacular Syriac almost entirely gives place to Arabic. This dialect 
receives its name from the village of Alqosh, about thirty miles north 
of Mosul, where is the famous monastery of Raban Hurmizd. The 
language of the other villages, Telkief, Teleskof, and the rest, differ 
in small particulars from that of Alqosh itself. 

b. (Bo.) The Bohtan dialect [bhn], spoken in Bohtan, in Western 
Kurdistan, a district lying on the Eastern branch of the Upper 
Tigris.  

c. (Z.) The Zakhu [Zakho] dialect, spoken by the Jews of that place, 
which is about sixty miles north of Mosul. It greatly resembles that 
of Alqosh. [Lishana Deni: lsd]
sudden / soudain slow / lent quick / rapide
na ' gis tan (nāgistān) ' ni: ḥa (niḥā) ' djal di (g̃aldē)
ܢܵܓܸܣܬܵܢ ܢܝܼܚܵܐ ܓ̰ܲܠܕܹܐ

2013-01-31

So I found another cool thing here: Learn Syriac | The American Foundation for Syriac Studies. The cool part is, the lessons are written in the Serto style. One down side, however, is, they are all huge JPEGs, and are cumbersome to handle, unless your screen is really big. (Edit: pages are much easier to read through this i/f with JavaScript enabled.) Nevertheless, it's nice to see that the Serto style is alive, as in contemporary. They say aii/cld are written in the Eastern style. So what language is this exactly?

Hm it says it was originally written in 1930s by Malfono Naaman Qarabashi. So it's not contemporary after all. Revised in 2008 for the use of the "St. Ephraim Syriac School"...

QARABASHI, Abdulmasih: Herge d'qeryono. (Insgesamt 6 Übungshefte und eine Grammatik. In Qamishli/Syrien 1967-1975 für die Schulen der syrisch-orthodoxen Kirche (1.-6. Klasse) konzipiert) It seems that the school was (and possibly still IS but maybe not) in Qamishli, Al Hasakah, Syria. Which means, the language is probably Turoyo/Surayt [tru], and not aii/cld (though they are closely related). It says Suryoyo. I guess that's why the title says "Learn Syriac (Aramaic)".

I've heard of those books, there's one called Toxu Qorena thats apparently focused on Turoyo. The only sources I have are basic Lessons and Qarabashi lessons from here http://syrianorthodoxchurch.com/p_syriac.htm http://www.syriacstudies.com/AFSS/Learn_Syriac_%28Aramaic%29/Learn_Syriac_%28Aramaic%29.html But the second source is heavily focused on Kthobonoyo

West Assyrian Verbs [Kthobhonoyo = written lang.]

The city of Qamishli was founded in 1926; on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Turkish city of Nusaybin.

https://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/syria_pol_2007.jpg

There are also other churches who pray in Suryoyo. They are the Maronites, Chaldeans, Syrian Catholics and the Church of the East (or Assyrians). The followers of these churches are also called Suryoye. - says the Syriac/Syrian Orthodox Church.

The Archbishops of the United States, Mor Clemis Eugene Kaplan and Mor Cyril Aphram Karim, requested that the Church be called "Syriac Orthodox Church" in English. The recommendation was motivated by the current realities in English-speaking countries where the term "Syrian" is widely recognized as referring to the nation of Syria. While noting the historical antecedents for the use of the term "Syrian Orthodox Church" (Syr. `idto suryoyto treeysath shubho), the Synod approved the recommendation and declared that the Church should be called the "Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch" in English. This name will be adopted gradually by the Church. (ed. The names of the Church in other languages were not considered by the Holy Synod).

SOCNews - The Holy Synod approves the name "Syriac Orthodox Church" April 3, 2000

a language / une langue a tablet / une tablette to learn / apprendre to cause to learn / faire apprendre
li ' ša: na: (lišānā) ' lu: ḥa: (luḥā) lup ? ' ma lip
ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ ܠܘܼܚܵܐ ܝ݇ܠܘܼܦ ܡܵܠܸܦ
a furlough / une permission (autorisation d'absence) the East / l'est, l'orient a feast / un festin
mu: ' ra ḥaṣ (murāḥāṣ) ' madn ḥa (madnḥā) miš'tu:tha (mištutā)
ܡܘܼܪܵܚܵܣ (?)
ܡܘܼܪܵܚܵܨ
ܡܲܕܢܚܵܐ ܡܸܫܬܘܼܬܵܐ

cld: Mosul, Baghdad, Basrah, southeast Iraqi Kurdistan... High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] - aiiよりもlsdに近い。 *Mosul - The majority of people in Mosul are Sunni Muslims, though Mosul had a proportion of Assyrian Christians who also have a presence in the villages around of Mosul in ancient Nineveh since the foundation of the city (majority follow the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church and the Syriac Orthodox Church, and a minority follow the Assyrian Church of the East).

ニナワ県モースル。イラク第三の都市。古代都市ニネベ付近。 この地域のアッシリア人は、 主にカルデア、シリア・カトリック、シリア正教に属し、 アッシリア東方教会は少数派だという。 aii/cld を分けるとしたら、まさに cld 地域だ。 ニナワ県 Alqosh: Rabban Hormizd Monastery: From this monastery came Yohannan Sulaqa, who decided to unite with the Catholic Church in 1553 and established the Chaldean Church. ニナワ県 Aqrah; *Tel Keppe; Bakhdida (w/ Syriac Catholic Churches and Syriac Orthodox Churches In 1580, certain Jacobites of Bakhdida began to build relations with Rome through the monastery of Mar Bihnam, but it was not until the 18th century that these Jacobites began to join the Vatican and became known as Syrian Catholics.) Tel Isqof (most of whose inhabitants are members of the Chaldean Catholic Churc); Baqofah (The population of Baqofah are all Assyrians followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church); Batnaya (All the people in the town are Assyrian belonging to the Chaldean Catholic Church.)); *Bartella.
Araden (Iraqi Kurdistan - Dohuk Governorate) Originally prior to the 18th century the inhabitants belonged to the Assyrian Church of the East, but gradually converted to Catholicism.; *Dohuk (Iraqi Kurdistan - the capital of Dohuk Governorate).

Baghdad; Basrah - イラク南東部。A small number of Chaldean Christians also live there. Mangesh (populated by Assyrians); Tisqopa ? Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan) [Cizre, Şırnak, Turkey] Cf. [bhn]

Additional towns from Predominantly Assyrian Chaldean Catholic towns in Iraq (Chaldean Christians): Shaqlawa, Arbil Province, Kurdistan, Iraq; Karamlish, 18 miles (29 km) south east of Mosul (Today, the inhabitants of Karamlish are mainly members of the Chaldean Catholic Church, but there are also members of the Syriac Orthodox Church and Assyrian Church of the East.); Araden, Dohuk, Kurdistan, Iraq (Originally prior to the 18th century the inhabitants belonged to the Assyrian Church of the East, but gradually converted to Catholicism.); Ankawa, Arbil, Kurdistan, Iraq (The town is predominantly Catholic Assyrian ... commonly called Chaldean).

2013-01-30

a remedy / un remède a book / un livre / كتاب a Chaldean / chaldéen
' tša: ra: ' kta: va: kal ' da: ia:
ܟ̰ܵܪܵܐ ܟܬܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܟܲܠܕܵܝܵܐ

標準の文章語(アッシリア語の)は、ウルミエ(Urmia / ペルシャ語 Orūmīyeh)方言に基づく。 During the 19th century, the region became the center of a short lived Assyrian renaissance with many books and newspapers being published in Syriac. From the 1830s to the end of World War I, Urmia was the spiritual capital of the Assyrians by the influence of four Christian missions (see above), which also founded four printing-houses. In 1915-17 the missionary stations in Urmia were able to offer refuge to thousands of Assyrians from the Turkish territory of Hakkari who, under the leadership of their Nestorian patriarch, had to leave their homes to save themselves from the persecution of the Turkish government determined to exterminate all Christians in the Turkish territory. In the early years of the Iranian constitution, the Assyrians had a deputy in the Iranian Parliament... Prior to World War I Assyrians were heavily concentrated in the border regions of present day Turkey, Iraq, and Iran (the area between Lake Urmia, Lake Van, the town of Mosul; and further beyond, in the major cities of Damascus, Aleppo, Mārdīn, Medyāt, and Baghdad). Today they are widely dispersed the world over.

1840年ごろ、ウルミエ ( ‏ارومیه‎, Orūmīyeh) で、 Perkinsたちにより、 最初の現代アッシリア語の本が印刷された(The "Gutenberg Bible" of Modern Syriac)。 このとき以降、ウルミエの方言が文章語の標準となった。 ウルミエはイランの北西の端・西アゼルバイジャン州。 ウルミエ湖のほとり。 トルコ国境に近く、トルコ/イラクとの3重点にも近い。北はアゼルバイジャンとアルメニア。 カスピ海の南西に当たる。

Ethnologue の方言分類は:

Ethnologue の想定する aii エリア = おおむね イランの西アゼルバイジャン州(特にウルミエ)、 イラクの北3県(Dohuk/Nineveh/Arbil)(?少なくともドホーク県)、 トルコのハッカリ県。

The Central and Western groups are often grouped together as Ashiret dialects. They, and especially the Western group, have more in common with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic than with General Urmian. Ashiret dialects are often characterised by the presence of the fricatives θ (th) and ð (dh), where other dialects pronounce them either as stops (t and d) or, in the case of the Northern group, often eliding them.

*

Syriac Orthodox Church は確かにSerto体を使っている。 ただし、ロゴなどでは古体も見られる。 Syriac-English-Arabic-French Dictionaryでは、Serto Urhoyフォントを使っている(Derived with changes from Syriac books published in Syria And Lebanon)。 Sureth dictionary (Syriac Dictionary @ The Hittite Grammar Homepage / Association Assyrophile de France) では、西シリアに対して、 デフォルトでSerto Kharputを使っている(originally designed by the Swedish designer O. Tullberg; one of the first Serto types that contained a good deal of ligatures)(設定で変更可能)。

http://www.peshitta.org/lexicon/ Using an ASCII font, "Estrangelo (V1.1)"

http://dukhrana.com/peshitta/index.php This one is awesome!

Good online lessons 200708 200411

Assyrian Church of the East (Nestorian Church) located to Iraq with about 300,000 adherents, plus about 450,000 Iraqis in foreign exile. ... their members are called "Assyrians", even if many of Assyrian decent are not Nestorian Christians. ... The core of the teaching of Nestorius, was that there was a clear division between Jesus' qualities as god and human. These 2 natures were morally united through their will. The opposing view, which came to be adopted by the Catholic Church, was that these 2 qualities were unified in the same character of Jesus. The present-day Nestorian Church of Iraq is related to original Nestorianism mainly in name only, since its Christology was redefined around 600 by Babai the Great, who taught that Christ has two qnomes (essences), unmingled and eternally united in one parsopa (personality).

Syrian Orthodox Church uses the Antiochene liturgy, and performs it in Syriac Syria 600,000 0.4% Jordan 50,000 0.7% Iraq 12,000 0.1%

Chaldean Catholic Church The head of the church is based in Baghdad, Iraq ... The Chaldeans still embrace their East Syrian liturgy of Addai and Mari, performing it in Syriac Iraq 420,000 1.7% Syria 20,000 0.1% Lebanon 12,000 0.4%

Syrian Catholic Church The official centre of their church is Antakya, Turkey, but the Patriarch ...has his headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon. ... Despite its name, the Syrian Catholic Church is today strongest in Iraq and Lebanon. Iraq 100,000 0.4% Syria 30,000 0.2% Lebanon 25,000 0.8%

Babai's teaching Babai in the 'Book of Union' teaches two qnome..., which are unmingled but everlastingly united in one parsopa Babai the Great would in the early 7th century redefine the Christology, stating that that Christ has two qnome (essences), unmingled and eternally united in one personality. While this deviates somewhat from Nestorianism, it has survived as the core theology of the Nestorian church until modern times.

The Unofficial Website of The Nestorian Church

2013-01-29

Jesus the Messiah / Jésus le Messie a student / un étudiant heavy / lourd light / léger
' i šoʿ ' mši: ḥa: ia ' lu: pa: ia: ' qu: ra: qal ' lu: la
ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܡܫܝܼܚܵܐ ܝܵܠܘܼܦܵܐ ܝܵܩܘܼܪܵܐ ܩܲܠܘܼܠܵܐ

古典シリア語 [syc] と現代アラム語

現代東アラム語は「現代シリア語」とも呼ばれるが、古典シリア語が直接変化したものではないらしい。 そもそもアラム語は、東アラム語と西アラム語に分かれる。 西アラム語とは、アンチレバノンで細々と使われる現代西アラム語 [amw] とサマリア・アラム語 [sam] である。 古典シリア語は、全体として東アラム語に含まれる。つまり「西シリア語」も大分類は東アラム語ということになる…。

  1. 東アラム語
  2. 西アラム語

* One might think Assyrian is called "aii" simply because they didn't like to use "ass" (lol). Actually, "ass" is for Ipulo aka Assumbo, a language spoken in Cameroon. It's possible that aii is related to the name of the language in Russian, Айсорский/Ассирийский. Or simply, you can think it as AssIrIan.

** According to this PDF, more Assyrians-in-Georgia live in Dzveli Kanda, than in Gardabani.

この東アラム語は、中央の諸語とマンダ文字のマンダ語に分かれる。 東アラム語(中央)をさらに分類すると、北東アラム語と北西アラム語に二分される。 北西アラム語はトルコの Turoyo/Surayt [tru] を含む。 北東アラム語、特に北東新アラム語(NENA)には、例の aii + cld が含まれる。 aii/cldを区別する言語学的必然性は、よく分からない…。 宗教的にはアッシリア/カルデアとなるが…。 それ以外には、Hulaulá [huy] が話者1万となっている。 地理的にはイスラエルの言語であり、言語学的に「東アラム語(中央)の北東新アラム語」といっても地理的には「西」の地域も入っている。 同様に Lishana Deni [lsd] がイスラエルの少数言語で話者7500となっている。

現代シリア語 [syr] は aii+cld で、北東新アラム語(NENA)の一種である。 NENAも古典シリア語 [syc] も、東アラム語に含まれることは変わりないが、syr がかなり下位の分類であるのに対して、 syc は上位で枝分かれしている(というより分類未定?)。 現代シリア語から見た古典シリア語は、 上記 huy lsd のようなユダヤ・アラム語から見た古典シリア語とあまり変わらない。 古典シリア語は現代シリア語の父というより、大伯父のような位置にある。

古典シリア語 [syc] の東方言・西方言などの細分類と、 現代シリア語 [syr] の同様の細分類を混同してはいけない。 syc は、北はトルコから南はエジプトまで、西はレバノン・イスラエルから東はイランまでの広大な範囲で使われた大言語である。 一方、aii+cld は、イラク北部を中心とする比較的狭い範囲で使われる。 Ethnologueによれば、aiiは次の場所でも使われる。 30,000 in Syria (1995): シリア北部のKhabur川流域; 15,000 in Iran (1994): Urmia. Most in Tehran; 3,409 in Armenia (2001 census): Assyrians in Armenia today mostly belong to Assyrian Church of the East, but there is a small community belonging to the Chaldean Catholic Church as well. ; 3,299 in Georgia (2002 census) The biggest groups of Assyrians are located in Tbilisi, in Gardabani and in the village of Dzveli Kanda in Mtskheta district. Around 80% of Assyrians are Orthodox Christian (both Georgian and Russian Orthodox) and about 20% are Roman Catholics. The mother tongue of the Assyrians is the Syriac language, which belongs to the Aramaic branch of the family of Semitic languages and has its own highly distinctive Syriac alphabet. Although most Assyrians can speak their own language, only a minority can write it. There are no Assyrian schools in Georgia.The main problem facing the Assyrian community is the fact that they are a smallminority with no kin state outside Georgia and therefore they receive very little materialsupport. West of Tbilisi (for example in the village of Kanda) they face assimilation into the Georgian population as they are surrounded by Georgian communities and many young people no longer know the Assyrian language. In Tbilisi, Rustavi and Gardabani, on the other hand, Assyrians have problems integrating due to their poor knowledge of Georgian


カルデア・カトリック教会で使われる紋章(部分)。東シリア体?


アッシリア東方教会の紋章(部分)。 ܗ の文字から、古体(ʾEsṭrangēlā)と分かる。

AsChEast AnChEast: syc-Syrn, aii[-Syrn]
CldCath          : syc-Syrn, cld[-Syrn]
SyrOrth SyrCath  : syc-Syrj, tru[-Syrj]

東シリア方式の儀式(典礼): ①アッシリア東方教会α&古代東方教会β=アッシリア人。②カルデア・カトリック教会γ=アッシリア人(カルデア人この二つは1553年に分かれた。民族的にはアッシリア系(シリア人/カルデア人)。 ①と②両教会は、最初は分裂・敵対関係だったが、1990年代以降、歩み寄りが見られる。 αとβの対立はグレゴリオ暦への改暦問題だが、2010年以降、歩み寄りが見られる。

西シリア方式の儀式(祈祷・典礼): ①シリア正教会δ=西シリア人(アッシリア・シリア人)。②シリア・カトリック教会ε(比較的小規模)=(西)シリア人。 この二つは1781年に分離。民族的にはαβγと同様にアッシリア系。 ③シリア・マロン派教会ζ=(シリア・)マロン人。民族的アイデンティティーはアッシリア系ではない。

規模の比較的大きいものは、アッシリア東方教会α、カルデア教会γ、シリア正教会δ。



シリア北西部、アレッポのシリア・カソリック教会 (2006) 天井近くにエストランゲラ体のシリア文字が…。 By chill CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 You can tell from the dust that this church doesn't get much use, unlike the other Christian churches in this area.*

2013-01-28

  1. シリア語文語
  2. 現代アラム語諸方言
  3. Garshuni: アラビア語をシリア文字で書いたもの Syriac Christian
  4. Christian Palestinian Aramaic (Palestinian Syriac)
a mountain / une montagne mountains (pl) a sleeper / un dormeur the shade / l'ombre
' ṭu ra: ṭurânē ṭa ' la: na: ṭla: ' ni: ta:
ܛܘܼܪܵܐ ܛܘܼܪܵܢܹ̈ܐ ܛܵܠܵܢܵ ܛܠܵܢܝܼܬܵܐ

en-wikt は މޭޒު の語源をペルシャ語 میز だとしている。 GODL 28は、これをポルトガル語 mesa だとする。

ކޮންޕީޓަރު

konpeetaru / ގުލްޗަންޕާ ? ގުލްޗަމްޕާ ? gulchampaa / Champaapool ? / Pampu ޕަންޕު or ޕަމްޕު

ބަސް bas; ބަހެއް baheh; މަސް mas; މަހެއް maheh; މީހާ meehaa (a person); މީހުން meehun (persons); ކަކުނި kakuni (crab); ކަކުނިތައް kakunithah (?) (crabs); ބައްޕަމެން މަންމަމެން bappamen mammamen (fathers/mothers); އަހަރެމެން aharemen (we);

ފޮތަށް fothah (to the book); ފޮތުގެ fothuge (of the book); ފޮތުން fothun (from the book) instr.; ފޮތުގަ fothuga (in the book) loc.; acc.=nom.

2013-01-27

the union / l'union , l'unité freedom / la liberté Easter (1st of Spring)
ḥu: ' ia da ḥi ' ru: ta: ' ḥa: b ' ni: sa:n
ܚܘܼܝܵܕܵܐ ܚܸܐܪܘܼܬܵܐ ܚܲܕ݇ ܒܢܝܼܣܵܢ ??

説明: ܒ は両接続的であり、従って後続する Alaph ともつながる。 東シリア文字において、この Alaph にはセディーユ状のものが付く。 ܗ は右接続的であり、後続する Alaph とはつながらない。 東シリア文字において、この Alaph にもセディーユ状のものが付く。 ܕܪ も同様に右接続的であり、後続する Alaph とはつながらない。 東シリア文字において、これらの場合は、 Alaph にセディーユ状のものが付かない。

2013-01-26

money (pl.) sunrise moon / la lune a song, singing / une chanson, un chant
' zu: zi ' zra: qa: ' d ' šim ša ' sa:h ra: ' zmar ta:
ܙܘܼܙܹ̈ܐ ܙܪܵܩܵܐ ܕ ܫܸܡܫܵܐ ܣܲܗܪܵܐ ܙܡܵܪܬܵܐ

Assyrian Church of the East [CIRED | Commission on Inter-Church Relations and Educational Development; Assyrian Church News] / Chaldean Catholic Church (@Baghdad, Iraq) / Ancient Church of the East (@Baghdad) -- Eastern var [Syrn]

Syriac Orthodox Church (@Eastern Mediterranean) / Syriac Catholic Church (@Levant) / Maronite Church (@Lebanon)-- Western var [Syrj]

アッシリア人の子どもたち by Chaldean / ライセンスCC BY-SA 3.0


シリア語(アラム語)が使われるエリア。現代では主に濃い紅色の範囲。(パブリックドメイン)

1 イラン北西部


イラン北西部(ウルミエ付近)の風景(Khan Takhti)。 by TruthBeethoven, 2012 / ライセンスCC BY-SA 3.0

2 イラク北部

(パブリックドメイン)
イラク北部ニナワ県アルコーシュ Alqōsh の風景(モースルのすぐ北)。 カルデア方言 [cld] の基準になる場所として名前が出る。 アルコーシュのカルデア教会 Rabban Hormizd 修道院。


イラク最北部の町アクレの景色。(by Ara Qadir, 2009 / CC BY-SA 3.0)


イラク北部 Simele。(by Mikael, 2012 / CC BY-SA 3.0)

3 トルコ南東部


トルコ・マルディン県の風景。(by Dûrzan Cîrano, 2011 / CC BY-SA 3.0) この県では、Turoyo/Surayt語 [tru] が使われる。 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 84,000. 東・中央アラム語=北東群(aii/cld)+北西。 Modern Western Syriac = Central Neo-Aramaic 標識 の文字は Syre ?


by MikaelF, 2008 : CC BY-SA 3.0


Mor Gabriel修道院(シリア正教)。 トルコ南東部マルディン県ミドヤト付近 (Tur Abdin高原) by Nevit Dilmen, 2011 : CC BY-SA 3.0

4 シリア北東部


シリア北東部。 ハーブール川沿いの町Al-Hasakahにあるシリア正教の教会。(by Bertramz, 2009 / CC BY 3.0)


シリア北東部。 ハーブール川の上流の町(トルコ国境沿い) Raʾˈs ʾAlʿain にあるシリア正教の教会。(by Bertramz, 2009 / CC BY 3.0)


ユーフラテス川の支流ハーブール(Khabur)川(シリア北部)。(by Bertramz, 2009 / CC BY 3.0)

5 シリア西部


シリアのダマスカスにあるシリア・カトリック教会。 (West Syrian) (by Bernard Gagnon, 2010 / CC BY-SA 3.0)


シリア西部の小さな町マアルラ Maʿlulâ。Modern Western Aramaic = Western Neo-Aramaic [amw] が使われる数少ない場所の一つ。 (West Syrian)
(by Heretiq, 2005 / CC BY-SA 3.0)

http://www.archive.org/stream/journalasiatiqu16frangoog#page/n241/mode/2up
http://www.archive.org/stream/journalasiatiqu16frangoog#page/n443/mode/2up
http://www.archive.org/stream/journalasiatiqu22fragoog#page/n129/mode/2up

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tabelayeke_bi_suryan%C3%AE_D%C3%AAra_Zehferan%C3%AA_2008.jpg

2013-01-25

HAA-SSAA-NAAY HAAJ-YAAT / HAA-JEE HAA-NAA-Gu-TAA
easy / simple spelling / spell (verb) joke
ܗܵܣܵܢܵܝ ܗܵܓ̰ܝܵܬ ܗܵܢܵܓܘܼܬܵܐ
wardâ bĕblâ (biblâ) wâhḥšī wârâqâ
rose flower savage paper
ܘܲܪܕܵܐ ܒܸܒܠܵܐ ܘܵܗܚܫܝܼ ܘܵܪܵܩܵܐ
Syrc;135;Syriac;syriaque;Syriac;2004-05-01
Syre;138;Syriac (Estrangelo variant);syriaque (variante estranghélo);;2004-05-01
Syrj;137;Syriac (Western variant);syriaque (variante occidentale);;2004-05-01
Syrn;136;Syriac (Eastern variant);syriaque (variante orientale);;2004-05-01
a flower / une fleur
Eastern Syriac (Syrn)
' bib la
Western Syriac (Syrj)
ܒܸܒܠܵܐ ܒܶܒܠܳܐ

2013-01-24

do-rraa daa-teed DAARR-WAA-ZAA D' AAISH-TAARR
century future gate of Ishtar
ܕܘܿܪܵܐ ܕܥܵܬܝܼܕ ܕܵܪܘܵܙܵܐ ܕܿ ܥܸܫܬܵܪ

2013-01-23

GAMAL [ɡ] +Majlīyānā +Dippa (RUKKAKHA?)
g j gh [ɣ]
ܓܵܡܲܠ ܓ̰ ܓ݂

http://www.aramaicbible.org/downloads.htm

2013-01-22 http://www.learnassyrian.com/aramaic/

BET NAH-REN BE-TAA GIKH-KAA
Mesopotamia house laugh
ܒܲܝܬ ܢܲܗܪ̈‌ܹܝܢ (?) ܒܲܝܬܵ‌ܐ ܓܸܚܟܵܐ

ܐܹܠܝܼ ܐܹܠܝܼ ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܣܵܒܵܟܬܵܢܝܼ

One diacritic, which looks like ~, is missing below ܟܟ. Woud that be a RUKKAKHA? As in:

ܐܹܠܝܼ ܐܹܠܝܼ ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܣܵܒܵܟ݂ܬܵܢܝܼ

It's KAP + something called Maaj-lee-aa-naa, which would make KAP into CHAP. For now, I'll just do this w/ U+0330 [ ̰ ] COMBINING TILDE BELOW:

ܐܹܠܝܼ ܐܹܠܝܼ ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܣܵܒܵܟ̰ܬܵܢܝܼ

En-wiki: A mark similar in appearance to a tilde, called Majlīyānā (ܡܓ̰ܠܝܢܐ), is placed either above or below a letter in the Maḏnḥāyā variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value

2013-01-21

http://www.learnassyrian.com/aramaic/

ܐܵܫܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ ܐܵܫܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ AA-SHOO-RRAA-YAA

ܐܪܵܡܵܐܝܼܬ AA-RRAA-MAA-EET Aramaic

http://www.learnassyrian.com/aramaic/vowels/vowels.html

ah ba wa* ga da
East ܐܵ ܒܵ ܒ݂ܵ ܓܵ ܕܵ

*w = b + RUKKAKHA

uh buh guh duh huh
East ܐܲ ܒܲ ܓܲ ܕܲ ܗܲ
i bi gi di hi
East ܐܸ ܒܸ ܓܸ ܕܸ ܗܸ
eh beh geh deh heh
East ܐܹ ܒܹ ܓܹ ܕܹ ܗܹ
oh boh goh doh hoh
East ܐܘܿ ܒܘܿ ܓܘܿ ܕܘܿ ܗܘܿ
oo boo goo doo hoo
East ܐܘܼ ܒܘܼ ܓܘܼ ܕܘܼ ܗܘܼ
ee bee gee dee hee
East ܐܝܼ ܒܝܼ ܓܝܼ ܕܝܼ ܗܝܼ
West ܐܝܼ ܒܝܼ ܓܝܼ ܕܝܼ ܗܝܼ
West ܐܝܼ ܒܝܼ ܓܝܼ ܕܝܼ ܗܝܼ

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SyriacJohn.svg

ʾEsṭr. ܒܪܫܝܬ
Serṭo ܒܪܫܝܬ
East ܒܪܫܝܬ
Ālaph Bēth Gāmal Dālath Waw Zain
Hebrew א ב ג ד ה ו ז
ʾEsṭrangēlā ܐ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ
Serṭo/Serṭā/West Syriac
(Serto Jerusalem)
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ
East Syriac
(East Syriac Adiabene)
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ
Ḥēth Ṭēth Yudh ? Kāph Lāmadh Mīm Nūn
Heb. ח ט י כ,ך ל מ,ם נ,ן
ʾEsṭr. ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ
Serṭo ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ
East ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ
Semkath ʿĒ Ṣādhē Qaph ? Rish ? Shīn Taw
Heb. ס ע פ,ף צ,ץ ק ר ש ת
ʾEsṭr. ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ
Serṭo ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ
East ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ

2013-01-18 http://www.learnassyrian.com/aramaic/ ܐܹܠܝܼ ??

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