Syriac 2

東シリア語・東シリア文字の入門を兼ねて、 Juliana Jendo のアルファベットの歌を少しずつ学んだ(2013年2月17日から4月14日)。 アルファベットの歌を覚えると文字の順番が分かるので、辞書を引くときなどに便利だ。 平行して、動詞の変化の基本なども少し研究した。 この頃には、シリア語のキーボード(フォネティック配列)にもだいぶ慣れた。 これが終わったら、西シリア語と平行してアムハラ語(セム語で文字も同系統)の勉強を始めようかと思い、ある程度準備もしていたが、 それは先送りにして実際にはラテン語の復習を始めた。

CAL; Dic; Dic2; Dic3; Jessie (IA) | TUS; Wiki; Map; Map2 | Alan; Qărăhbăš (1|2); Nöldeke


Ālap Bēt: The Final Two Lines

2013-04-14

I know older versions of Mozilla can’t handle dir="rtl" tables, but you can live with that.

I’ve found a workaround: add e.g.
<colgroup span="4" style="width:160px"></colgroup>

ܬܲܡܲܢ ? ܗܵܘܲܚ ??? ܐܲܝܟ݂ ܙܵܘܥܹ̈ܐ
tămăn *1 [tʰɛːmʊn(ə)] hāwăḥ *2 [hɑ(ː)wɑχ] ʾăyχ *3 [æɣ] zāwʕ̈ēʾ [zɔːʕɪː]
there / là here we are / nous voici like / comme vowels / des voyelles

*1 ? Possibly ܬܲܡܵܡ (tŭmâm) “completely, altogether” (Ar. تمام), but maybe not.

*2 Perhaps related to ܗܘܵܐ. Cf. Qochanis**: ܗܵܘܚܵܐ hāwḥāʾ = Urmiah: ܕܘܼܝ݇ܘܵܚ dūẙwāḥ “here we are”; Al Qosh ܗܘܿܠܲܢ holăn “here we are”

**Qochanis is called Qudshanis (Q) in Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Synac, belonging to the Northern group. Its dialect is Northern Assyrian, as opposed to Urmi Assyrian. Today the place is called Konak, located in the Hakkâri Province of Turkey.

*3 Soft k is here: Kap is always aspirated word-finally (Alan 104).

ܓܵܘ ܐܵܬ݂ܘ̈ܵܬ݂ܲܢ ܫܸܛܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ
gāw [ɡʊː] † ʾāθẅāθăn *4 [ɑt.wɑːtɐn] ** ʃĭṭr̈ānēʾ *5 [ʃʊtˤ.ɾɑːnɪ]
in, into / dans, à our letters / nos lettres (f.) beautiful / belles

† 2013-08-12: = Classic Syriac ܒܓ̥ܰܘ. Dictionary of the Dialects 45: ܓܵܘ gô U[rmia]. J[ilu]. Sp. [Sipurghan/Soporgān] Al[qosh]. as OS., or ܓܘܿ gû K[urdistan]. Sal[amas]. Sp. Az[erbaijani Jews, meaning in this case NW Persian Jews, i.e. Lishán Didán (trg) and Hulaulá (huy)]. and rarely U. [...] in (local); into [...]; within [...] But in Al. Ash. ܓܵܘ‎ = ܒ and is not only local, also by, by menas of
PNG Image
BTW: Juliana Jendo is from Tal Tamer, near Al-Hasakah, NE Syria. So geographically her dialect could be West Syriac (tru), but Ethnologue shows the area as an “isolated island” of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (aii).

*4 ܐܳܬܘܽܬܳܐ “a letter of the alphabet”, pl. ܐܳܬܘܴ̈ܬܳܐ. Or in Madnhaya, ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ and ܐܵܬ݂ܘ̈ܵܬ݂ܵܐ. It is not very clear how many of those Tăw’s are soft, but in the singular form, the first Taw is supposed to be soft (R1.2: Soft after a syllable-ending ā), and the second Taw is too (R3.2). For the plural form, the first Taw is soft thanks to R2.3 (Soft when closing a word-initial syllable); the second Taw is also soft, again by R1.2. In short, all of the four Taw’s are soft. Note that ܐܳܬܳܐ “a sign” has the same pl. form.

About the plural form of ʾāθūθāʾ, see Alan 65 (8). The plural form of a word ending in ܬܵܐ like this one is created by giving a Zqāphā ‏◌ܵ to the letter preceding the Tăw, while making the second preceding letter vowelless. An example is, ܡܲܠܟܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ “kingdom”, and ܡܲܠܟ̈ܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ “kingdoms”.

*5 In theory, this should be ʃĭṭrāntēʾ or something, because it’s supposed to be feminine; in reality, the normal (masculine) plural form is used here. /ʃ/ may sound somewhat like [ʂ] here.

** In the intro, ܐܵܬ݂ܘ̈ܵܬ݂ܲܢ is pronounced like [ɑtwɑːtɛn(ɪ)], while here it’s more like [ɑtwɑːtɐn], where the difference between [ɑ] and [ɐ] is not very clear.

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Shīn and Tăw

2013-04-07

ܫܝܼܢ ܫܲܥܪ̈‌ܹ (?) ܫܲܡܥܵܢܹ̈ܐ
ʃīn [ʃiːn] ʃăʕr̈ē *1 [ʃɛ(ʕ)ɾɘ] ?? ʃămʕān̈ēʾ [ʃɛm.mɑnɪː]
Shīn poems / des poèmes hearer / quelqu'un qui entend
ܬܲܘ ܬܲܫܥܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܬܲܢܝܵܢܹ̈ܐ
tăw [tɔw] *2 tăʃʕīθāʾ *3 [tɛʃ.ʕiːtɔ] tănyān̈ēʾ [tɛn.jɑ.nɪʔ]
Taw history / l'histoire tellers / des raconteurs

*1 Urmiah. The singular form is ܫܲܥܪ. According to the subtitles, the actual word is plural, which I don't know how to spell.

*2 Alan says ܬܵܘ, but it is ܬܲܘ‎. ܐܶܢܳܐ ܐܳܠܰܦ݂ ܘܶܐܢܳܐ ܬ݁ܰܘ “I am Olaph and Thau” (Rev. 22:13)

*3 īBā is soft (R1.4): tašˁīṯā.

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Qōp and Rēsh

2013-04-05

ܩܘܿܦ ܩܵܪܘܿܝܵܐ ܩܵܪ݇ܢܵܢܹ̈ܐ (?)
qoᵽ [qɔp] qāroyāʾ [qɑɾʊjɔ] qār̊nān̈ēʾ *1 [qɑnɑnɪː]
Qōph cock (rooster) / un coq horns / des cornes

*1 Urmiah: ܩܵܪ݇ܢܵܐ; again an additional -nā. Cf. ܩܲܪܢܵܢܵܐ “horned”.

ܪܹܫ ܪܘܼܡܬܵܐ ܪܹܝܚܵܢܹ̈ܐ
rēʃ [ɾɛːʃ] rumtāʾ [ɾumtɔ] rēyḥān̈ēʾ *2 [ɾeːχɑːnɪʔ]
Rēsh hill / une colline fragrant / parfumé

*2 Perhaps the plural of ܪܹܝܚܵܢܵܐ “fragrant”.

am-Ethi: [amh] Amharic

»Amharic Road to Ethiopia - Camino a Etiopia: My journey to Ethiopian culture | Amharic A400

Type: language
Subtag: am
Description: Amharic
Added: 2005-10-16
Suppress-Script: Ethi
2013-08-09

am: [amh] A language of Ethiopia. 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 14,750,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 21,811,560. 4,000,000 L2 speakers.

ti: [tir] Tigrinya/Tigrigna, A language of Ethiopia, 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 2,820,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 6,915,000. Tigrigna Online

Type: language
Subtag: ti
Description: Tigrinya
Added: 2005-10-16
Suppress-Script: Ethi

[tig] Tigré, 1,050,000 in Eritrea (2006), increasing. A language of Eritrea. Also in Sudan.

[stv] Silt'e, 935,000 (2007 census). A language of Ethiopia. Wolane [wle] is similar.

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Pē and Ṣādhē

2013-04-04

ܦܹܐ ܦܸܩ̈ܚܹܐ (ܦܸܩܚܹ̈ܐ) ܦܲܥܘܵܢܹ̈ܐ (?)
pēʾ [pɛː] ¶ pĭq̈ḥēʾ *1 [pɪqχeː] păʕwān̈ēʾ *2 [pɑ.wɑnɪː]
blossoms / des fleurs branches / des branches

*1 Sg. in the subs; prob. Pl.

*2 Urmiah: ܦܲܥܘܵܐ; I don’t know where the additional -nā came from.

ܨܵܕܹܐ ܨܲܘܡܵܐ ܨܲܠܝ̈ܵܢܹܐ (?)
ṣāðēʾ [sˤɑde] ** ṣăwmāʾ [sˤɔw.mɔ] ṣălÿānēʾ [sˤʌl.jɑnɪʔ] *3
Ṣādhē fasting / le jeûne prayers / des prières

*3 Eastern Syriac: ܡܨܲܠܝܵܢܵܐ

** Soft after a syllable-ending ā (R1.2).

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Hē, Waw, Zain, Ḥēth

2013-04-03

ܗܹܐ ܗܹܒ݂ܝܼ ܗܲܡܵܢܬܵܐ
hēʾ [hɛː] ¶ hēʋī [hɪːwɪj] hăm(m)āntāʾ [hɛmen.tɑː] **
hope / l'espoir believing / le fait de croire
ܘܵܐܘ ܘܵܠܝܵܐ ? ܘܵܠܝܘܼܬܵܐ
wāʾw [wɑːw] wālyāʾ *1 [wɘl.jʌ] wālyutāʾ [wʌ.lɪːtɑʔ] ***
Wāw / Waw *2 fitting / adéquat fitness / convenance

*1 Urmiah: ܘܵܠܝܵܝܵܐ

*2 Wāw is often written Waw, as if Wăw.

** Possibly [hɛ̞men.tɑː] — the first vowel is wider than [e], but not quite [ɛ], while the second vowel is basically [e], though it may be centralized. hăm(m)ānθāʾ if classic (R3.3), but this is Urmiah (aii).

*** wālyuθāʾ if classic (R3.2), but this is Urmiah (aii).

ܙܲܝܢ ܙܝܼܘܵܢܵܐ ܙܪܘܼܥܬܵܐ
zăyn [zɛːn] ¶ zīwānāʾ [ziːwɑnɘ] zruʕtāʾ [zɾuːtɑː]
Zain weed / une mauvaise herbe sowing / l'action de semer
ܚܹܝܬ݂ ܚܘܼܒܵܐ ܚܹܐܪܘܼܬܵܐ
ḥēyθ [χɛːt] ¶ ḥubbāʾ [χob.bɔ] * hēʾrūθāʾ [χeːɾutɑ] **
Hēth love / l'amour freedom / liberté

¶ Possibly narrower than [ɛː]. Actually, this sounds like [ɛ̞ːɛ], that is, the mouth is opened wider while you are saying ‘eh’.

* B in CuBā is usually hard, possibly doubled (Q2.2): ḥubbā.

** t is soft in -utā (R3.2): ḥērūṯā.

Active Participle: Plural

2013-04-02

Plural Participles with Pronouns
ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܹ݁ܝܢ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܚ݇ܢܲܢ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܚ݇ܢܲܢ
kāθbīn ʾăn̊tton *1 kāθ̈bān ʾăn̊ttēyn *1 kāθbīn ḥ̊năn *2 kāθ̈bān ḥ̊năn *2
ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܬܘܿܢ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܬܹ݁ܝ̈ܢ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢܲܢ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢܲܢ
kāθbīton kāθbātēÿn kāθbīnăn kāθ̈bānăn *3
You guys are writing You girls are writing We (m.) are writing We (f.) are writing

*1 Alan 130 has ܐ݇ܢܬܘܿܢ‎, ܐ݇ܢܬܹ݁ܝܢ‎ for ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ‎, ܐܲܢ݇ܬܹ݁ܝܢ‎, respectively (cf. Alan 90); these must be typos.

*2 Alan 91 says ܚܢܲܢ (we) becomes ܚ݇ܢܲܢ after a plural -n. In Prin. 43 (The principles of Syriac grammar, by Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann & B[enjamin] Harris Cowper, page 43, §91), the ܚ is not marked silent. However, Prin. 33 does say: ܚܢܰܢ as a verb subst. frequently rejects ܚ, and coalesces with the previous word. Even when ܚܢܰܢ is written separately after a p[articiple], many drop the ܚ in pronunciation. (Sidenote: The Internet Archive version of Prin. is much higher-quality than Google’s.)

*3 According to Prin. 43, the short form is ܟܳܬ݂ܒܻܝܢܰܢ, that is ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢܲܢ, for both 1 m. pl and 1 f. pl.

Plural Participles with Past forms of hwā
ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܗ݇ܘܵܘ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܬܘܿܢ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܢ
kāθbīn h̊wāw kāθbīn h̊wăyton kāθbīn h̊wăyn
They (m) were writing You guys were writing We (m) were writing
ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܗ݇ܘܲܝ̈ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܬܹ݁ܝ̈ܢ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܢ
kāθ̈bān h̊wăÿ kāθ̈bān h̊wăytēÿn kāθ̈bān h̊wăyn
They (f) were writing You girls were writing We (f) were writing

The part. and pron. form a true present: ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܳܐ [yāhex ʾånāʾ] ‘I am giving.’ We have already shown that the pret. [preterite] and imperf. are similarly expressed, generally by means of ܗܘܳܐ ‘he was’; ‘they were eating’, ܐܰܟܠܻܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ [ʾăxlīn h̊wăw (sic, not h̊wāw)].

Prin. 117 (§211, 4)

Active Participle: Singular

2013-04-01

Active Participles of KTB (to write)
ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܝܼܢ ܟܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ
kāθēʋ 1 kāθbāʾ 2 kāθbīn 2 kāθ̈bān 2
m. sg. f. sg. m. pl. f. pl.

1 Soft after a syllable ending ā (R1.2).
2 Soft when closing a word-initial syllable (R2.3): one could also say that originally this was an open syllable θə.

Alan 130. Nöldeke 165.

The Part. act. Peal, has ā after the 1st rad., and e after the 2nd, which falls away without a trace, when it comes into an open syllable (§106): sg. m. ܩܳܛܶܠ [qāṭel]; sg. f. ܩܳܛܠܴܐ [qāṭlāʾ]; pl. m. ܩܳܛܠܻܝܢ [qāṭlīn]; pl. f. ܩܴ̈ܛܠܴܢ [q̈āṭlān].

Nöld. 106

The usual form of the Act. Part. of the simple stem of the verb has e after the 2nd: ܪܴܚܶܡ [rāḥem] “loving”; ܪܴܚܡܳܐ [rāḥmāʾ], ܪܴܚ̈ܡܺܝܢ [rāḥmīn—Seyame sic], ܪ̈ܳܚܡܶܐ [rāḥmeʾ—what is this form?], &c.

See also: The Principles of Syriac Grammar, p. 43 (91.) It has a good table like Alan’s, in Serto.

Participle (m. sg.) with an Enclitic — a pronoun or a pf. form of hwā
ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܗ݇ܘܵܐ ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܬ ܟܵܬܹܒ݂ ܗ݇ܘܹܝܬ݂
kāθēʋ ʾăn̊t kāθēʋ ʾånāʾ kāθē(ʋ) h̊wāʾ kāθē(ʋ) h̊wăyt kāθē(ʋ) h̊wēyθ
you are writing I am writing he was writing you were writing I was writing
Participle (f. sg.) with an Enclitic Pronoun
ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ‌ܝ (ܐܲܢ݇ܬܝ) ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ
kāθbāʾ ʾăn̊ty̱ kāθbāʾ ʾånāʾ
you (f.) are writing I (f.) am writing
Participle (f. sg.) with an Enclitic Pf. form of hwā
ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܵܬ݂ ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܲܝܬ‌ܝ (ܗ݇ܘܲܝܬܝ) ܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܹܝܬ݂
kāθbāʾ h̊wāθ kāθbāʾ h̊wăyty̱ kāθbāʾ h̊wēyθ
she was writing you (f.) were writing I (f.) was writing

The Verb hwāʾ (to be / être): Future (or Imperfect)

2013-03-31

The Verb hwāʾ (Future Sg)
ܢܸܗܘܸܐ ܬܸܗܘܸܐ ܬܸܗܘܸܐ ܬܸܗܘܹܝܢ ܐܸܗܘܸܐ
nĭhwĭʾ (nĭhwĕʾ) tĭhwĭʾ (tĭhwĕʾ) tĭhwĭʾ (tĭhwĕʾ) tĭhwēyn ĭhwĭʾ
he will be she will be you will be m. you will be f. I will be
The Verb hwāʾ (Future Pl)
ܢܸܗܘܘܿܢ ܢܸܗܘ̈ܝܵܢ ܬܸܗܘܘܿܢ ܬܸܗܘ̈ܝܵܢ ܢܸܗܘܸܐ
nĭhwon nĭhəwyān ? *1 tĭhwon tĭhəwyān ? *2 nĭhwĭʾ (nĭhwĕʾ)
they will be m. they will be f. you guys will be you girls will be we will be

*1 “nihiwyan” (Alan 129). *2 “tihiwyan”.

Rarely, a shorter form without w is used (Nöldeke 183): ܢܗܶܐ‎ [ܢܗܸܐ‎], ܬܗܶܐ‎ [ܬܗܸܐ‎], etc.

The Verb hwāʾ (to be / être): Past (or Perfect)

2013-03-30

The Verb hwāʾ (Perfect Sg)
ܗܘܵܐ ܗܘܵܬ݂ * ܗܘܲܝܬ ܗܘܲܝܬܝ (ܗܘܲܝܬ‌ܝ) ܗܘܹܝܬ݂
hwāʾ hwāθ hwăyt hwăyty̱ hwēyθ
he was she was you were m. you were f. I was
The Verb hwāʾ (Perfect Pl)
ܗܘܵܘ ܗܘܲܝ̈ ܗܘܲܝܬܘܿܢ ܗܘܲܝܬܹ݁ܝ̈ܢ † ܗܘܲܝܢ
hwāw hwăÿ hwăyton hwăytēÿn hwăyn
they were m. they were f. you guys were you girls were we were

* One dot (Rukkāxā) is shown below the Tau, not the feminine mark (ܗܘܵܬ݀ ?), in Alan 129 (+ 3fp.gif); cf. Nöldeke 183 (8).

† Alan has a Syām̈ē originally.

Another Bug in TUS: Combining (MINUS SIGN vs. MACRON) Below

2013-03-29

Sheva sign, or “Half-Zlama” sign (Alan 41; Nöldeke 12, 17). Only rarely used.

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Mīm, Nūn, Sĭmkăth, and ʕē

2013-03-28

ܡܝܼܡ ܡܲܕܪܲܫܬܵܐ (ܡܲܕܪܸܫܬܵܐ) ܡܲܠܦܵܢܹ̈ܐ
mīm [mi(ː)m] măḏrăʃtāʾ [mad.ɾɛʃtɔ] mălpān̈ēʾ [mæl.pɑːnɪː]
Mīm school / une école teachers / enseignants

ܡܲܕܪܲܫܬܵܐ (Eastern Syriac): generally, d is soft (R2.3), though it may be hard in this case since it’s an Arabic word (مَدْرَسَة). Also, ܡܲܕܪܸܫܬܵܐ (Urmiah). [ʃ] might be [ʂ]-ish here, unlike in lĭʃānēʾ. Maybe this is like [mad.ɾɛ.ʃ(ᵊ)tɔ] ??

ܢܘܼܢ ܢܲܪܓܝܼܣ ܢܝܼܣܵܢܹ̈ܐ (ܒܹܝܢܝܼܣܵܢܹ̈ܐ) (?)
nūn [nuːn] nărgīs [naɾɡes] nīsān̈ēʾ [niːsɑːnɪʔ]
Nūn narcissus / une narcisse spring / du printemps
ܣܸܡܟܲܬ݂ ܣܸܡܹܠܹܐ (?) ܣܵܗܕܹ̈ܐ *
sĭmkăθ [simkɛt] sĭm(m)ēlēʾ [seːmeːlɘ] sāhð̈ēʾ [sɑh.dɘː]
Semkath Simele (Sumail) martyrs / des martyrs

* When the word does not have a Rēsh, the second preference for the Syām̈ē may be a Dālath (Alan 40). The plural of sāhdāʾ is actually written this way (Alan 63). Dālath + Syām̈ē can be slightly confusing, because it looks like Rēsh + Syām̈ē except it has an additional dot below. Since Dalath + Syame is not a ligature, you don’t need to worry about Normalization.

Note 1: However, the Syame is on Hē in J. Payne Smith: ܣܳܗ̈ܕܶܐ.

Note 2: Apparently, d is soft: sāhd̠ā. This is like R1.2 (Ṭāʋā), except that the first syllable is closed with -h.

ܥܹܐ ܥܲܝܒ݂ܵܬ ??? ܥܢܵܢܹ̈ܐ
ʕē {ʕăyn} [ʕajɪn] ʕăyʋāt [ʕaɪwɑːt] (?) ʕnān̈ēʾ (enānē) [ʕɔnɑːnɪʔ] (?)
ʿĒ cloud / un nuage (?) clouds / des nuages

The Syriac name of the letter is ʿĒ but apparently it is called ʿAy(i)n here, like Arabic or Hebrew.

Eastern Syriac: ܥܲܝܒܵܐ, also ܥܲܝܡܵܐ; Urmiah: ܥܲܝܒ݂ܵܐ. For some reason, it has -t in this song. Cf. Arabic غَيْمَةٌ

Alan 52: The final one of his 5 Lessons on Quʃʃāyā vs. Rukkāxā

2013-03-27

R3.1 Dēʾʋā Type A consonant (bgdkpt) is soft after ēʾ or ēy.

ܕܹܐܒ݂ܵܐ ܣܢܹܐܓ݂ܪܵܐ ܥܹܐܕ݂ܵܐ ܡܹܐܟ݂ܠܵܐ (ܡܸܐܟ݂ܠܵܐ) ܪܬܹܝܬ݂ܵܐ
dēʾʋāʾ snēʾɣrāʾ ʕēʾðāʾ mēʾxlāʾ (mĭʾxlāʾ) rtēyθāʾ
wolf / un loup defender / un défenseur festival / une fête fodder / le fourrage fear

R3.2 Ţăybūθā Type A word final -uθāʾ is soft.

ܣܲܟ݂ܠܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܥܲܒ݂ܕܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܛܲܝܒܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ
săxlūθāʾ 1 ʕăʋduθāʾ 2 ṭăybūθāʾ
stupidity / l'imbécilité service / le service goodness / la bonté

R3.3 Tbăʕθā Type A word final -ăCθāʾ is soft.

ܣܒܲܪܬ݂ܵܐ ܬܒܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܡܲܚܫܲܒ݂ܬ݂ܵܐ
sbărθāʾ tbăʕθāʾ măḥʃăʋθāʾ 2
trusting / l'espoir request / une demande making think / l'action de faire réfléchir

1 k is also soft (R2.3). 2 b is also soft (R2.3).

Ālap Bēt: Lines for Kāph and Lāmadh

2013-03-27

ܟܵܦ݂ ܟܵܡܲܬܪܹ̈ܐ * ܟܲܪ̈ܡܵܢܹܐ **
kāᵽ [kʲap] kāmătr̈ēʾ [kʲam.metɾeo̯] kăr̈mānēʾ [kermɑːnɪː]
Kāph pears / des poires (m) vineyards / des vignes

* If typed normally and normalized (Rēsh + ē + Syām̈ē), any font (East Syriac Adiabene/East Syriac Ctesiphon/ES Nohadra) does not show the ligature right (ܟܵܡܲܬܪܹ̈ܐ). The non-normalized version (ܟܵܡܲܬܪܹ̈ܐ) appears to be auto-normalized on Firefox (but not on MSIE). As a work around, this one is Rēsh + Syām̈ē + ZWJ + ē.

ܟܵܡܲܬܪܵܐ (m) une poire, s'écrit aussi ܟܵܡܸܬܪܵܐ en soureth oriental et en Al Qosh.

** Normally, ܟܲܪܡܵܐ pl. ܟܲܪ̈ܡܹܐ. Not sure why it has 'n'.

ܠܵܡܲܕ (ܠܲܡܲܕ) ܠܸܥܙܵܐ ? ܠܸܫܵܢܹܐ
lāmăð [lam.mad̥] lĭʕzāʾ [laːzu] * lĭʃānēʾ [liʃɑːnɪ]
Lāmadh speech / la parole languages / des langues

* ܥ following ‏◌ܸ, lengthens it into ‏◌ܹ (Oro. 17) i.e. /eː/; here it sounds like [aː].

Juliana Jendo’s Ālap Bēt: Lines for Ṭēth and Yōdh

2013-03-26

ܛܹܝܬ݂ ܛܹܝܪܵܐ ܛܘܼܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ (?)*
ţēyθ [tˤe̝ːt̚] ţēyrāʾ [tˤe̝ːɾɔ] ** ţur̈ānēʾ [tˤu(ː)ɾɑːnɪː]
Ṭēth bird / un oiseau mountains?

After the vowel e sounds narrower, more constrained, than the normal [e], somewhat like [ɪ], or perhaps like [ø]. On the other hand, in ṭur̈ānēʾ sounds like [nɪ] though it is still a kind of [ne].

* ܛܽܘܪ‎ ṭur, ܛܽܘܪܳܐ‎ ṭurōʾ pl. ܛܽܘܪ̈ܺܝܢ‎ ṭur̈īn, ܛܽܘܪ̈ܶܐ‎ ṭur̈ēʾ m. a mountain (Smith 170). Urmiah : ܒܢܲܝ ܛܘܼܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ : mountaineers of Hakkari (ܛܘܼܪܵܐ): mountains? mountaineers?

** ā may be pronounced [ɔ(ː)] after r (Oro 16). However, the same does not happen in in ṭur̈ānēʾ. It might be somewhat like [rɒː], but more like [rɑː], and certainly not like [nɔː].

ܝܘܿܕ ܝܘܼܠܦܵܢܵܐ ܝܘܼܬ݂ܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ *
yōð [jud̥] yulpānāʾ [jul.pɑːnɔ] yuθr̈ānēʾ [jut.ɾɑːnɪʔ]
Yōdh (Yūdh) knowledge / les études advantages / les avantages

* Singular: ܝܘܼܬ݂ܪܵܢܵܐ. The subtitle says “advantage” but this should be plural.

Also, though the subtitle says “student”, the second word appears to be “study”.

2013-03-25

R2.2 Ărnʋā Type — Soft after two consonants. Perhaps like ā.ʋ / ī.ʋ ?

ܐܲܪܢܒ݂ܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܬ݂ܵܐ (ܡܲܠܟܬ݂ܵ‍ܐ) ܫܲܪܒܬ݂ܵܐ ܙܡܲܪܓܕ݂ܵܐ
ʾărnʋāʾ mălkθāʾ (?) ʃărbθāʾ (?) zmărgðāʾ *
hare / un lièvre queen / une reine generation / une génération emerald / émeraude

* Gr. σμάραγδος /zmáraɡdos/

R2.2a For the purpose of this clause, ܐ‎, ܘ‎, or ܝ‎ is not considered as a consonant.

ܬܹܐܪܬܵܐ ܚܹܐܪܬܵܐ ܐܲܝܠܬܵܐ
tēʾrtāʾ ḥēʾrtāʾ ʾăyltāʾ
conscience / la conscience free (f) / libre (f) hind / une biche

R2.3 ʃăʋrā Type — Soft when closing a word-initial syllable. In general, when ܒ &c is vowelless, standing second, and is preceded by a letter that has a vowel.

ܫܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܦܲܓ݂ܪܵܐ ܓܲܕ݂ܝܵܐ ܡܲܬ݂ܠܵܐ
ʃăʋrāʾ păɣrāʾ găðyāʾ măθlāʾ
infant / un bébé body / le corps kid / chevreau parable / parabole

This rule explains why d is soft in ܡܲܕܢܚܵܝܵܐ (măðnḥāyāʾ).

2013-03-24

Word-final «Tăw* + Ālăᵽ» Ligature: (1) after a left-connecting character, usually like ܒܬܐ‎; (2) otherwise generally like ܕܬܐ‎ (although, there seems to exist a non-right-joining form of the ligature). Note also that the non-ligature form of (1) is forced by ZWJ (ܒܬ‍ܐ‎), and not by ZWNJ (ܒܬ‌ܐ‎ = WRONG).

* Alan calls it “ܬܵܘ” but it is ܬܰܘ (or ܬܰܐܘ) that is ܬܲܘ (Smith 601).

Alan 51: ܪܘܼܟܵܟ݂ܵܐ Rukkāxāʾ Part 2

R2.1 Pθāḥā Type — Ḇ in CḆV is soft: that is, the second consonant of a syllable-starting consonant cluster is soft. [Perhaps only when followed by ā. See rtēyθāʾ (R3.1), sbărθāʾ & tbăʕθāʾ (R3.3).]

ܚܒ݂ܵܠܵܐ ܩܕ݂ܵܠܵܐ ܦܟ݂ܵܪܵܐ ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ
ḥʋālāʾ qðālāʾ pxārāʾ pθāḥāʾ rʋāṣāʾ ḥʋāṣāʾ
destruction / la destruction neck / le cou bond / un lien to open / ouvrir Rwasa Hwasa

Syllable-starting is soft after o or ī

2013-03-23

A Bɣăð-kpāθ [bghadh-kphath] consonant (ܒ &c) is soft when it is a syllable-starting phoneme followed by ā, if the previous syllable ends in o or ī. In other words, a bghadh is soft after a syllable-ending o or ī, if the following vowel is ā.

R1.3 Māloxā Type — Ḇ in -oḆā is soft: that is, a syllable-starting ܒ etc. is soft after ܘܿ (Ruʋāṣā) and before ‏◌ܵ (Zqāphā).

ܟܵܬ݂ܘܿܒ݂ܵܐ ܡܵܙܘܿܓ݂ܵܐ ܥܵܒ݂ܘܿܕ݂ܵܐ ܡܵܠܘܿܟ݂ܵܐ ܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܬ݂ܵܐ
kāθoʋāʾ *1 māzoɣāʾ ʕāʋoðāʾ *2 māloxāʾ nāxoθāʾ *3
writer / un écrivain mixer / un mélangeur doer / un acteur counselor / un conseiller biter / quelqu’un qui mord

*1 t is also soft due to R1.2. *2 b is also soft due to R1.2. *3 k is also soft due to R1.2.

R1.4 Ṣlīʋā Type — Ḇ in īḆā is also soft: that is, a syllable-starting ܒ etc. is soft after ܝܼ (Ḥʋāṣā) and before ‏◌ܵ (Zqāphā).

ܨܠܝܼܒ݂ܵܐ ܒܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ ܥܒ݂ܝܼܕ݂ܵܐ ܚܲܬܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ (ܚܲܬܝܼܬ݂ܵ‍ܐ)
ṣlīʋāʾ brīxāʾ *1 ʕʋīðāʾ *2 ḥăttīθāʾ *3
cross / une croix blessed / béni done / fait accurate / exact

*1 b is hard word-initially (Q1.1). *2 b is soft, the second of initial two consonants (R2.1). *3 B in ăBī is usually hard, often doubled (Q1.2).

2013-03-22

R1.2 Ṭāʋā Type — Ḇ in -āḆV is soft: that is, a syllable-starting ܒ etc. is soft after ‏◌ܵ (Zqāphā). Soft after a syllable-ending ā.

ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܥܝܵܕ݂ܵܐ ܬܵܓ݂ܵܐ ܣܵܟ݂ܵܐ ܣܵܒ݂ܵܐ
ṭāʋāʾ ʕyāðāʾ tāɣāʾ sāxāʾ sāʋāʾ
good / bon a custom / une coutume crown / une couronne boundary / une limite old / vieux

This rule explains why ph in Zqāphā is soft, even though this word is pronounced as Z̥qāpā in East Syriac. Also: Rukkāxā.

R1.2.1 (Comment): The same may happen even when there is an -h closing the first syllable, as in: sāhd̠ā.

2013-03-21

Alan 50: ܪܘܼܟܵܟ݂ܵܐ Rukkāxāʾ Part 1

x in Rukkāxā - soft after a syllable-ending ā (R1.2).

R1.1 Kuθmā Type — Ḇ in uḆC is soft: that is, a syllable-closing (=vowelless) ܒ etc. is soft after ܘܼ.

ܫܘܼܒ݂ܚܵܐ ܩܘܼܕ݂ܫܵܐ ܬܘܼܟ݂ܠܵܢܵܐ ܟܘܼܬ݂ܡܵܐ ܕܘܼܟ݂ܪܵܢܵܐ
ʃuʋḥāʾ quðʃāʾ tuxlānāʾ kuθmāʾ duxrānāʾ
praise / l'éloge holy / saint trust / la confiance a blot / une tache remembrance / le souvenir

2013-03-19

#2984 (SSA subs with \frx and \fry tags) – Media Player Classic - Home Cinema; SSA subtitles: Fix outline background with \frx or \fry tags. · 0a5d45e · mpc-hc/mpc-hc · GitHub

Alan 49: ܩܘܼܫܵܝܵܐ Quʃʃāyāʾ Part 2

Q2.1 Ĭbbā Type B in CĭBā: Hard after ĭ, when followed by ā (often doubled too). Bā is hard after ĭ.

ܣܸܕܵܐ ܚܸܬܵ‍ܐ ܐܸܒܵܐ ܣܸܟܵܐ ܚܸܟܵܐ
sĭdāʾ ḥĭtāʾ ʾĭbbāʾ sĭkkāʾ ḥĭkā
100 paces bag ? fruit coin palate

Q2.2 Ḥubbā Type B in CuBā: Usually hard after u, when followed by ā (possibly doubled too). Also, Bā is usually hard after u.

ܚܘܼܒܵܐ ܕܘܼܓܵܐ ܥܘܼܒܵܐ ܫܘܼܒܵܚܵܐ
ḥūbbāʾ dūgāʾ ʕŭbbāʾ ʃūbāḥāʾ
love deaf-mute bosom anthem

Q2.2a Exceptions (soft B in CuBā):

ܬܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܣܘܼܕ݂ܵܪܵܐ ܐܲܒܘܼܒ݂ܵܐ
tŭθāʾ sûðārāʾ ʾăbbūʋāʾ *1
mulberry turban flute

*1 b in ăbbu is hard. This is like ăbbā / ăbbī (Q1.2) but undocumented.

Note: Unlike ā vs. ă or ī vs. ĭ, ū vs. ŭ is only informative, based on Sureth dictionary by Association Assyrophile de France.

Q2.3 Mălkā Type B in CăCBā is hard.

ܚܲܪܒܵܐ ܠܲܥܓܵܐ ܘܲܪܕܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ
ḥărbāʾ lăʕgāʾ (la'iga) wărdāʾ măl(ɨ)kā
a sword a stammerer a rose a king

Q2.3a Exceptions (soft B in CăCBā)

ܒܲܪܕ݂ܵܐ ܪܲܩܒ݂ܵܐ ܪܲܛܒ݂ܵܐ
bărðāʾ (?) răqʋāʾ (?) răṭʋāʾ
hail, a hailstone a canteen * moisture

* A leather flask used by soldiers or travellers to carry water.

2013-03-18

Alan 48: ܩܘܼܫܵܝܵܐ Quʃʃāyāʾ Part 1

Q1.1 Hard word-initially.

ܒܲܝܬܵܐ (ܒܲܝܬܵ‍ܐ) ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ * ܕܝܼܢܵܐ ܟܬ݂ܵܟ݂ܵܐ ܬܲܥܠܵܐ
băytāʾ *1 găʋrāʾ dīnāʾ kθāʋāʾ *2 tăʕlāʾ / täʕlāʾ **
house man judgment book fox

*1 B in ăCBā is also hard (Q2.3 Mălkā Type). *2 2nd of a consonant cluster is soft (R2.1); B in āBā is soft (R1.2 Ṭāʋā Type).

** ă (only in an open syllable?) may be pronounced like ā before r or ʕ (Alan 45). Perhaps not here.

Q1.2 Ăkkārā Type Let B be a bgad-kpat consonant. B in ăBā or ăBī is usually hard and doubled (ăBBā / ăBBī). In other words, B is usually hard if preceded by ă and followed by ā or ī. ăB is hard if followed b ā or ī.

ܫܠܲܕܵܐ * ܐܲܟܵܪܵܐ * ܓܲܒܵܝܵܐ ܥܲܒ݁ܝܼܛܵܐ ܢܲܓܝܼܪܵܐ *
ʃlăddāʾ ʾăkkārāʾ bbāyāʾ ʕăbbīṭāʾ ggīrāʾ
corpse farmer tax collector thick, dense slow in response (?)

* Notice the special (Afx) form of Alaph, following Dalath/Rish.

Q1.2a B in {Alaph + Bā/Bī} may be soft (but see ʾăkkārāʾ above).

ܐܲܒ݂ܝܼܠܵܐ ܐܲܟ݂ܝܼܦܵܐ ܐܲܓ݂ܝܼܪܵܐ ܐܲܒ݂ܵܐ ܐܘܼܕ݂ܵܐ
ʾăʋʋīlāʾ ʾăxxīpāʾ ʾăɣɣīrāʾ ʾăʋ(ʋ)āʾ ʾûðāʾ
sad (?) diligent a worker father a wooden poker

Q1.3 Qyāmtā Type t is hard in {a closed syllable -āC} + t.

ܩܝܵܡܬܵ‍ܐ ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪܵܝܬܵ‍ܐ ܢܘܼܟ݂ܪܵܝܬܵ‍ܐ ܫܟ݂ܵܚܬܵ‍ܐ ܦܣܵܥܬܵ‍ܐ
qyāmtāʾ ʾāθorāytāʾ *1 nuxrāytāʾ *2 ʃxāḥtāʾ *3 psāʕtāʾ
arising Assyrian f. stranger f. finding measure (?)

*1 Soft after a syllable-ending ā (R1.2). *2 A syllable-closing (=vowelless) B is soft after u (R1.1). *3 The second of a consonant cluster is soft (R2.1).

2013-03-17

“We are here”
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܚܢܲܢ
hārkāʾ ḥnăn
here we are

The enclitic form of ܚܢܲܢ‎ — ܚ݇ܢܲܢ‎ — is used only after the word ending in the plural n (Alan 91); not here (Alan 92).

ZQAPHA (Z̥qāp̱āʾ): /ɑː/ is an open back vowel, as in a in psalm (Alan 27)—or, more simply, in palm. PTHAHA (Pθāḥāʾ): for it we use /æ/ since Alan calls it a in fat (28), but it may be also written as /a/, as in Northern English. That is, a (near-)open front vowel.

ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ
hārkāʾ ʾăńttôn
here you guys are
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܹܝܢ
hārkāʾ ʾăńttēyn
here you girls are

As in the following examples, the pronouns ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ and ܗܸܢܹܝܢ lose h- when used as a copula.

ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ
hārkāʾ ʾĭnnôn
ici ils sont
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܸܢܹܝܢ
hārkā ʾĭnnēyn
ici elles sont

2013-03-15

A Compendious Syriac Dictionary: Founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus of R[obert] Payne Smith, D.D. Edited by J[essie] Payne [Margoliouth née] Smith (Oxford, 1908)

https://ia600401.us.archive.org/29/items/ACompendiousSyriacDictionary/ACompendiousSyriacDictionary_text.pdf (145 MiB)

The above PDF is searchable.

6 Extended Syriac Characters (Unicode 4.0 / PDF: N2422)
Supported Only by Estrangelo Edessa and FreeSans
(The Other Syriac Code Points Were Defined in Unicode 3.0)
U+072D SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN BHETH ܭ ܭ [v]
U+072E SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN GHAMAL ܮ ܮ [ɣ]
U+072F SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN DHALATH ܯ ܯ [ð]
U+074D SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN ZHAIN ݍ ݍ [ʒ]
U+074E SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN KHAPH ݎ ݎ [x]
U+074F SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN FE ݏ ݏ [f]

More examples of pronouns used like a copula verb (often enclitics)

2013-03-14

“I am here”
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ
hārkāʾ ʾánāʾ
Here am (encl. of ܐܸܢܵܐ ʾĭnnāʾ)
“You are here” (m sg)
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ
hārkāʾ ʾăńt
here are (2m sg: no special encl. form)
“You are here” (f sg)
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ‌ܝ (ܐܲܢ݇ܬܝ)
hārkāʾ ʾăńtẙ
here are (2f sg: no special encl. form)
“He is here”
ܗܵܪܟܵܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣
hārkāʾ h́ẉ /w/
ܗܳܪܟܰܐ ܗ݇ܘ
hōrkăʾ (< hōrkōʾ) h́w
here is (3m sg, encl. of ܗ̤ܘ h̤w)

West Syriac: A word ending in -ōʾ (with a Z̥qāp(h)āʾ — or rather a Z(ə)qōfōʾ) is pronounced as -ăʾ (with a Pθāḥāʾ — or rather a Pθōxōʾ), when followed by ܗ݇ܘ (East: ܗ݇ܘ̣).

Another example:
ܕܰܟ݂ܝܳܐ dăxyōʾ (clean) — but:
ܕܰܟ݂ܝܰܐ ܗ݇ܘ dăxyăʾ h́w (He is clean)

Note: In the original (Alan 92), ܕܰܟ݂ܝܳܐ is written like ܕܰܒ݂ܝܳܐ — perhaps an exmaple of Bēth–Kōf confusion.

http://web.archive.org/web/20060227023854im_/http://www.assyrianlanguage.com/Level_Four/04_images_01/01_dakhya_w.gif

http://web.archive.org/web/20060227024034im_/http://www.assyrianlanguage.com/Level_Four/04_images_01/01_dakhya2_w.gif

“She is here”
ܗܵܪܟܲܐ ܗ݇‌ܝ̣ (ܗ݇ܝ̣)‏
hārkăʾ (< hārkāʾ) h́ỵ /j/
ܗܳܪܟܳܐ ܗ݇ܝ
hōrkōʾ h́y
here is (3f sg, encl. of ܗ̤‌ܝ h̤y)

East Syriac: A word ending in -āʾ (Z̥qāphāʾ) or -ēʾ (Zlāmāʾ Qăʃyāʾ) is pronounced as -ăʾ (Pθāḥāʾ), when followed by ܗ݇‌ܝ̣.

ܗܵܕܹܐ hāðēʾ (this f.) → ܗܵܕܲܐ ܗ݇‌ܝ̣ hāðăʾ h́ỵ

ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ ṭāʋāʾ (good m.) → ܛܵܒܲܐ ܗ݇‍ܝ̣ ṭāʋăʾ h́ỵ

2013-03-13

“You are the salt of the earth.”
ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ ܡܸܠܚܵܗ̇ ܕܐܲܪܥܵܐ
ʾăńtton ʾĭnnon mĭlḥāḣ * d-ʾărʕāʾ (=därā) ***
you guys are (2/3 pl m, encl.)** salt (mĭlhāʾ) - her of the earth (f)

* ܗ̇ (instead of Alaph), with a dot-above: Nöldeke §6 says, we must note the employment of ܗ̇ almost without exception to signify the suffix of the 3rd pers. fem. sing. Also see Alan 96. The SyrCOM Meltho Fonts (melthoguide.doc) also states that one should use this dot (U+0307) on the feminine he ending. This dot is essentially redundant if vowels are explicitly marked (-ēh, “his” vs. -āh, “her”). Obviously, this suffix means her as in the earth’s. Though it feels somewhat redundant when we explicitly have d-ʾărʕāʾ, this is how it is in Syriac. See: Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Matthew 5:13'. This h is not silent, but practically inaudible.

** ʾĭnnon is the encl. form of hĭn(n)on (3m pl), but used for 2m pl as well.

*** ʕ may be dropped in E-Syriac. ă (only in an open syllable?) may be pronounced like ā before r or ʕ (Alan 45) — perhaps not here.

2013-03-12

“You are a great teacher.”
ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܼ ܡܲܠܦܵܢܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ
ʾăńtu (=attū) mălpānāʾ răbbāʾ
you’re (m sg) a teacher (m) great (m)

The singular pronoun of the 3rd person is often used even when the subject is 1st or 2nd person. The expression ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܼ is ܐܲܢ݇ܬ (you, m.) plus ܗ݇ܘ̣ (is, m. encl).

2013-03-11

“We do not know where you are going.” (Alan Lv. 4 L. 91)
ܠܵܐ ܝܵܕ݂ܥ̇ܝܼܢ ܚ݇ܢܲܢ ܠܐܲܝܟܵܐ ܐܵܙܹ̇ܠ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ
lāʾ yāðʕ̇īn̊ ḥ́năn l-ʾăykāʾ (=l'eikā) ʾāżĕl ʾăńt
not yðʕ (to know)
part. m pl
we (encl.) to where ʾzl (to go)
part. m sg
you (encl.)

The enclitic form of ܚܢܲܢ‎ — ܚ݇ܢܲܢ‎ — is used only after the word ending in the plural n (Alan 91). In the above example, we have the m. pl. form, yāðʿīn, of an active participle, yāðēʿ yāḏăʕ; this plus the encl. (1m pl) could be written as one word: ܝܵܕܥܝܼܢܲܢ, yāðʕīnăn (Alan 130), where the two n’s in yāðʕīn + ḥ́năn being merged into one.(a) Originally in 91, there is a dot-above between Dālaθ and ʕē, whose function is unclear (implying a schwa between those two consonants? or implying that the word-final n is slent and to be read as one word with the following enclitic?).??? Perhaps to mark the present tense (cf. melthoguide; Nöldeke 6).(b) Also, Rukkāxāʾ is explicit for Dālaθ.

(a) Nöldeke §64: Enclitic forms of the 1st and 2nd pers. often coalesce with participles and, —though more rarely,—with adjectives; in such cases marked transformations occasionally occur. In particular in the plural, the first portion [i. e. the participle] loses its final n, while the second [the pronoun] loses its or a(n).
ܩܳܛܠܺܝܢܱܢ qōṭlīnăn (we are killing)
or written separately, though pronounced in exactly the same way:
ܩܳܛܠܺܝܢ ܚܢܱܢ (qōṭqī ḥ̊năn)

ܐܵܙܹ̇ܠ also has a dot-above (of unknown function) over Zăyn. Meaning “Read together with the following enclitic,” maybe??? Perhaps to mark the present tense (cf. melthoguide; Nöldeke 6).(b)

(b) 2013-12-03: One dot is placed over all active participles to distinguish them from orthographically similar forms, as ܟ̇ܬܒ kāṯeḇ ‘writing’ versus ܟܬ̣ܒ kṯaḇ ‘he wrote.’ These dots may occur anywhere in the word. (Thackston, xxii)

2013-03-10

ܗ̤ܘ ܝܵܘܣܸܦ ܗ݇ܘ̣
h̤w (=hū) yāwsĭp (=yō(s)sĭpp) h́ẉ (=ū)
He Joseph is (encl.)

The enclitic ܗ݇ܘ̣ (h́ẉ) has a dot-below, as opposed to a Rʋāṣā — ܗ݇ܘܼ (h́u).

ܗ̤ܘܝܘܼ ܟܵܬ݂ܘܿܒ݂ܵܐ ܣܦܝܼܪܵܐ
h̤wyu (=hūyu) kāθoʋāʾ spīrāʾ
He is a writer skilled
ܗ̤ܝ ܡܲܪܝܲܡ ܗ݇ܝ̣
mar-yamm h́ī
She Mariam is

2013-03-09

Old Mozilla can’t show this table right.
syc ܗ̤ܘ ܗ̤‌ܝ ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ ܗܸܢܹܝܢ
h̤w (=hū)*1 h̤y (=hī)*1 hĭṇon *3 hĭnnēyn
aii ܗ̇ܘ
ܗ̇ܘܘܿܢ
ܗ̇‌ܝ
ܗ̇ܝܸܢ
ܐܵܢܝܼ
ḣw (ow)*2
ḣwon (ow-wun)*2
ḣy (ei)*2
ḣyĭn (ey-in)*2
ʾānī
he she they m. they f.
Old Mozilla can show this table right.
ܗܸܢܹܝܢ ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ ܗ̤‌ܝ ܗ̤ܘ syc
hĭnnēyn hĭṇon *3 h̤y (=hī)*1 h̤w (=hū)*1
ܐܵܢܝܼ ܗ̇‌ܝ
ܗ̇ܝܸܢ
ܗ̇ܘ
ܗ̇ܘܘܿܢ
aii
ʾānī ḣy (ei)*2
ḣyĭn (ey-in)*2
ḣw (ow)*2
ḣwon (ow-wun)*2
they f. they m. she he

*1 This word has U+0324 [ ̤ ] COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW, which indicates that 'h' is not silent. *2 This word has U+0307 [ ̇ ] COMBINING DOT ABOVE, which seems to indicate that the 'h' is read as a vowel (o if followed by w, e if followed by y). *3 This word seems to have U+0323 [ ̣ ] COMBINING DOT BELOW under the first 'n', possibly meaning it's not doubled (???)

ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܪܵܥܝܵܐ ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ
ʾĭnnāʾ ánāʾ rāʿyāʾ ṭāʋāʾ
I am (encl.) a shepherd (m.) good (m.)
ܐܸܢܵܐ ܝܵܘܣܸܦ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ
ʾĭnnāʾ yāwsĭp (=yōsĭp) ánāʾ
I Joseph am (encl.)
ܐܸܢܵܐ ܡܩܝܼܡ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܥܲܡܵܟ ܩܝܵܡܵܐ
ʾĭnnāʾ mqīm ánāʾ ʿamm-āx * qyāmāʾ
I (part. of 'to make' ???) am with you (sg. m.) statute

* Quʃʃāyāʾ/Rukkāxāʾ is usually not marked for a word-final Kap, because it is always soft anyway (except in -ăyk where the k is hard). - Alan 104.

2013-03-08

syc ܐܸܢܵܐ ܚܢܲܢ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܝ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܹ݁ܝܢ
ʾĭnnāʾ ḥnan ʾańt (i.e. “at”) ʾańty ʾańt(t)on ʾańtēy
aii ܐܵܢܵܐ ܐܲܚܢܲܢ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܐܲܢ݇ܬܝ ܐܲܚܬܘܿܢ ܐܲܚܬܘܿܢ
ܐܲܚܬܹܝܢ
ʾānāʾ ʾaḥnan ʾańt ʾańty ʾaḥton ʾaḥton
ʾaḥtēyn (rare)
I we you m. sg. you f. sg. you guys you girls

Impf. of Q-Ṭ-L

2013-03-06

Impf. (Future) of Q-Ṭ-L to kill: W-Syriac & E-Syriac
sgpl
3 m. ܢܷܩܛܘܿܠ nĕqṭol ܢܸܩܛܘܿܠ nĭqṭol ܢܷܩܛܠܽܘܢ nĕqṭlȗn ܢܸܩܛܠܘܼܢ nĭqṭlȗn
3 f. ܬܷܩܛܘܿܠ tĕqṭol ܬܸܩܛܘܿܠ tĭqṭol
ܬܷܩܛܘܿܠܝ tĕqṭolẙ ܬܸܩܛܘܿܠܝ tĭqṭolẙ
ܢܷܩ̈ܛܠܴܢ nĕq̈ṭlōn ܢܸܩ̈ܛܠܵܢ nĭq̈ṭlān
2 m. ܬܷܩܛܘܿܠ tĕqṭol ܬܸܩܛܘܿܠ tĭqṭol ܬܷܩܛܠܽܘܢ tĕqṭlȗn ܬܸܩܛܠܘܼܢ tĭqṭlȗn
2 f. ܬܷܩܛܠܻܝܢ tĕqṭlīn ܬܸܩܛܠܝܼܢ tĭqṭlīn ܬܷܩ̈ܛܠܴܢ tĕq̈ṭlōn † ܬܸܩ̈ܛܠܵܢ tĭq̈ṭlān
1 m/f ܐܷܩܛܘܿܠ ʾĕqṭol ܐܸܩܛܘܿܠ ʾĭqṭol ܢܷܩܛܘܿܠ nĕqṭol ܢܸܩܛܘܿܠ nĭqṭol

† Unlike Pf. 2f pl, Impf. 2f pl. has syām̈ēʾ originally (Gr. §168). They are placed over the 3rd Plur. fem. of the perfect tense and the 3rd and 2nd Plur. fem. of the imperfect tense of the verb. (Alan 40).

Exmaple

2013-03-05

“The rocks will become bread.” (from Matthew 4:3 - And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.) Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Matthew 4:3'

ܟܹ̈ܐܦܸܐ ܢܸܗܘܝܵܢ ܠܲܚܡܵܐ
kēp(h)i (?) ni-hwyān laḥmā
ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܶܐ ܢܶܗܘܝܳܢ ܠܰܚܡܳܐ
ki(ᵓ)phē nehwəyān laḥmā

ܟܹܐܦܵܐ kēpa f. stone. ܗܘܐ to be. Future 3f pl *ni-hwʾān > ni-hwyān

2013-03-04 Impf.

An easy way to memorize the paradigm for ܢܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ in 4 steps :)

  1. Start with the three easiest forms: ܢܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂‎, ܬܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂‎, ܐܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂‎. They are basically ti/ni/i + khtow. Just remember: I am I (i-khtow); we like him (1 pl = 3m sg); and boy, you like her (2m sg = 3f sg). This already covers 50% (5) of the 10 forms.
  2. Tackle the harder parts by first memorizing the 2f sg form ܬܸܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܝܼܢ (ti-khtʋīn). It's ti-khtoʋ (2m sg) minus O plus ĪN.
  3. You can get 2m pl / 2f pl just by replacing the final vowel of this ܬܸܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܝܼܢ.
  4. Then, you can get 3m pl / 3f pl just by replacing the ti- with ni-.
sgpl
1i-khtoʋni-khtoʋ
2mti-khtoʋti-khtʋȗn
2fti-khtʋīnti-khtʋān
3mni-khtoʋni-khtʋȗn
3fti-khtoʋni-khtʋān

2013-03-03 Pf. in Serto

Madnhaya ܒ vs. ܟܟ‍ vs. Serto ܒ vs. ܟܟ‍ = confusing! The thing is, the Serto version of BETH looks like the Madnhaya version of KAPH.

Gr. p. 3:
soft ܓ = γ (gh) is nearly the Dutch g (like the Arabic غ) [the voiced velar fricative [ɣ]]
soft ܟ‍‏ = kh, or the German ch in ach (not that in ich) [the voiceless velar fricative [x] (not palatal [ç]); note that this is not the uvular fricative [χ], which the author calls “Swiss ch”]

Gr. p. 4:
ܙ = is a soft s as in chosen, German s in Rose, French [s] in choisir or French z in zéro. [[z] in IPA]
ܚ = is quite a foreign sound to us, an h rattled in the throat (Arabic ح) [i.e. the pharyngeal fricative /ħ/; possibly epiglottal fricative [ʜ]]. The East-Syrians pronounce it as a very hard Swiss ch (Arabic خ) [the uvular fricative [χ]].
ܥ = ʿ is a guttural breathing, again quite foreign to us, which is formed by a peculiar compression of the upper part of the windpipe [voiced pharyngeal fricative /ʕ/; possibly epiglottal approximant [ʢ]]. It is nearly related to ܚ [voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/], and even to the Spiritus lenis (ܐ) [glottal stop /ʔ/]. Those who render it by the latter sound will make the least considerable mistakes. Wer ihn wie letzteren spricht, macht immer noch den geringsten Fehler. (I think what the author is saying is that although /ʕ/ sounds somewhat like /ħ/ and /ʔ/, it's still a mistake to confuse them, though not a major error at all.)

Lat. velum = sail, veil. Lat. uva = grape. Gr. φάρυγξ, φάρυγγος = windpipe, throat.

velar/uvular/pharyngeal fricatives in some Syriac languages
EastWestHértevin
ܚ‎ / ܚ uvular [χ] *1 pharyngeal [ħ] pharyngeal [ħ]*4
ܥ‎ / ܥ pharyngeal [ʕ] *2 pharyngeal [ʕ] ?
ܟ݂‍‏‎ / ܟ݂‍‏ velar [x] (possibly [χ]) *3 velar [x] pharyngeal [ħ]*4
ܓ݂‎ / ܓ݂ velar [ɣ] (possibly [ʁ]) *5 velar [ɣ] ?

*1 The East-Syrians pronounce it as a very hard Swiss ch (Arabic خ) (Nöldeke); It is somewhat harsher than the Scottish and North German ch. Has two pronunciations, actually both are common. People from the plain of Nineveh [cld] use a pronunciation which is midway between h and the ordinary kh [the sound he denotes by h: — maybe [ħ] ? Or does he mean a milder version of the ordinary Assirian [χ] that is x~χ ?]. (Alan Lesson 8) “In Lesson 8, you learned that letter Khéith has two sounds and both are acceptable.” (Les 69) Probably he means: ḵ=[x], ḥ=[χ] or [ħ], and ḵ can be [χ] too. [See L81]

You can hear this uvular [χ] sound in Juliana Jendo’s Ālap Bēt, when she sings ḥā lĭʃānā (one language). It sounds pretty clear.

*2 Syriac Turoyo ܐܰܪܥܳܐ [arʕo] 'earth (planet)' ʕ is often not pronounced in Eastern Syriac varieties Voiced pharyngeal fricative; This letter is difficult to pronounce. It has a deeper sound, during pronunciation the flow of breath is usually compressed low down in the throat. It unusually falls and constantly interchanged with letter Alap. (Alan, Les. 16)

*3 kh, or the German ch (Alan, Les. 42) Kap, in vernacular is never aspirated (Alan, Lesson 125); ܚ cannot be distinguished in pronunciation from ܟ݂‍‏. Their equivalent nearly is found in the German ch (Bach). (Oro. p. 10)

*4 Its major phonetic feature is the loss of the voiceless velar fricative x, which has become a voiceless pharyngeal fricative, ħ. The original voiceless pharyngeal fricative has retained that pronunciation. In all the other dialects of eastern Neo-Aramaic the opposite is true: the voiceless pharyngeal fricative has been lost and merged with the voiceless velar fricative. (Hértevin language)

*5 gh, nearly the Dutch g (Alan, 42); the sound of gh (the Persian غ [[ɣ] / [ɢ]]), and is perhaps more deeply guttural than ܟ݂‍‏, which seems to a beginner to resemble it. (Oro. 10).

My first Syriac calligraphy :) - using MS Paint with a regular mouse.

2013-03-02


ܟܬܲܒ݂ /kθæʋ/, “he wrote” and ܟܸܬ݂ܒܹ݁ܬ݂ /kɪθbeːθ/, “I wrote”.

Aramaic and Syriac handwriting (Estrangela, not Madnhaya)

Examples: ܟܬܒ kthaw (to write)

[1 sg] 2Corinthians 2:4 I wrote unto you with many tears ܟ݁ܶܬ݂ܒ݁ܶܬ݂ kėthbēth

[1 pl] Acts 21:25 we have written and concluded ܟ݁ܬ݂ܰܒ݂ܢ kthawn

[3m sg] Mark 10:5 he wrote you this precept ܟ݁ܬ݂ܰܒ݂ kthaw

[3m pl] Acts 15:23 And they wrote letters ܘܰܟ݂ܬ݂ܰܒ݂ܘ wa-khthaw(w)

Examples: ܢܦܠ nfal (to fall)

[1 sg] Revelation 1:17 I fell at his feet ܢܶܦ݂ܠܶܬ݂ neflēth.

[2m pl] Galatians 5:4 from grace you have fallen ܢܦ݂ܰܠܬ݁ܽܘܢ nfalton

[3m pl] Matthew 17:6 when the disciples heard, they fell upon their faces ܢܦ݂ܰܠܘ nfal(w)

[3f sg] Mark 5:33. she fell before him ܢܶܦ݂ܠܰܬ݂ neflath.

[3f pl] Revelation 16:19 the cities (f) fell ܢܦ݂ܰܠܝ nfal(y) - W-Syr.

2013-03-01

ܘܲܚܙܵܐ ܫܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܙܥܘܿܪܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܝܼܣܵܐ ܘܫܲܩܠܹܗ
wa-ḥzā shaʋrā zʿōrā l-ḵīsā w-shaql-ēh
and (he) looked a kid little m. at the bag and took it

ܚܙܵܐ to see (*ḥzaʾa > ḥzā). ܫܩܵܠܵܐ to take, to get.

Review

ܟܬܒ‎ (ܟܬܲܒ݂) kṯaʋ

ܟܬܒܬ‎ (ܟܸܬ݂ܒܹ݁ܬ݂) kiṯbēṯ

2013-02-28

ܢܦܲܠ ܡܸܢܹܗ ܟܝܼܣܵܐ ܡܠܹܐ ܙܘܼܙܹ̈ܐ ܘܠܵܐ ܝܕܲܥ ܒܹܗ
npal min-nēh kīsā mlē zūzē w-lā ydhʿ b-ēh
fall pf. 3m sg from him a pouch (filled) coins and not know pf. 3m sg about it (?)

rt. ܢܦܠ to fall.

min: n is doubled by the ĭ vowel ([ɛ]-[ɪ]: Z'lāmā p'shīqā = easy/simple/smooth oppression). The other Zlama (ē) is Z'lāmā qashyā (hard/dense/heavy). Those two names have been switched in Oro. Their Unicode names are DOTTED ZLAMA HORIZONTAL and DOTTED ZLAMA ANGULAR, respectively. Zlama pshiqa is an open (i.e. less close) I, short, relaxed. Almost like an English I, less tense, maybe. Zlama qashya is a narrow E, semi-long, tense.

-ēh: suffix 3m sg.

ܘܠܐ to fit; to become

2013-02-27

Perfect of Q-Ṭ-L (to kill): W-Syriac & E-Syriac
sgpl
3 m. ܩܛܰܠ qṭal ܩܛܲܠ ܩܛܰܠܘ qṭal ܩܛܲܠܘ
ܩܛܰܠܽܘܢ qṭalun ܩܛܲܠܘܼܢ
3 f. ܩܷܛܠܱܬ݂ qeṭlath ܩܸܛܠܲܬ݀ qiṭlath ܩܛܰܠ qṭal † ܩ̈ܛܲܠ
ܩ̈ܛܰܠܝ qṭal ‡ ܩ̈ܛܲܠܝ
ܩܛܰܠܷܝ̈ܢ qṭalên ܩܛܲܠܹܝ̈ܢ
2 m. ܩܛܰܠܬ݁ qṭalt ܩܛܲܠܬ݁ ܩܛܰܠܬ݁ܘܿܢ qṭalton ܩܛܲܠܬ݁ܘܿܢ
2 f. ܩܛܰܠܬ݁ܝ qṭalt ܩܛܲܠܬ݁ܝ (ܩܛܲܠܬ݁‌ܝ) ܩܛܰܠܬܷ݁ܝܢ qṭaltên †
ܩܛܲܠܬܹ݁ܝ̈ܢ ?
ܩܛܲܠܬܹ݁ܝܢ ?
1 m/f ܩܷܛܠܷܬ݂ qeṭlēth ܩܸܛܠܹܬ݂ qiṭlēth ܩܛܰܠܢ qṭaln ܩܛܲܠܢ
ܩܛܰܠܢܰܢ qṭalnan ܩܛܲܠܢܲܢ

† no seyame originally (Gr. §168). Alan says that sᵊyām̈ē are placed over the 3rd Plur. fem. of the perfect tense and the 3rd and 2nd Plur. fem. of the imperfect tense of the verb. in Lesson 40, with which Nöldeke’s table agrees too. However, Alan also says in Lessons 123 that Syamé are placed over the 3rd and 2nd Plur. fem. of the perfect tense and the 3rd and 2nd Plur. fem. of the imperfect tense of the verb. Probably, 2f pl. gets syām̈ē in Impf. but NOT in Pf.

‡ Western Syriac.

Perfect: The 1st letter of the rt. is hard; the 2nd letter of the rt. is soft; the 3rd letter of the rt. is usually soft, except 1 sg and 3f sg. The "soft" stem is KTHaW; the "hard" stem is KiTHB;

Perfect of K-T-B, to write / Syriac
1 KiTHB-ēth KTHaW-n
2m KTHaW-t KTHaW-ton
2f KTHaW-ț KTHaW-tên
3m KTHaW KTHaW̥
3f KiTHB-ath K̈THaW
Perfect of K-T-B, to write / Arabic
1 katab-tu katab-
2m katab-ta katab-tum
2f katab-ti katab-tunna
3m kataba katabū
3f katab-at katabna
Perfect of K-T-B, to write / Hebrew
1 katav-ti
(kā·ṯaʋ·tî)
katav-nu
()
2m katav-ta
(kā·ṯāʋ·tā)
ktav-tem
()
2f katav-t
()
ktav-ten
()
3m katav
(kā·ṯaʋ)
katvu
(kā·ṯə·ʋū)
3f katv-a
()
katvu
()

2013-02-26

The Past Tense (The Perfect)
sgpl
3 m. ܟܬܲܒ݂ kthaw ܟܬܲܒ݂ܘ kthaw *1
ܟܬܲܒ݂ܘܼܢ kthawun
3 f. ܟܸܬ݂ܒܲܬ݀ kithbath *2 ܟ̈ܬܲܒ݂ kthaw(#1)
ܟܬܲܒ݂ܝ̈ kthaw *3
ܟܬܲܒܹܝ̈ܢ kthawên
2 m. ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬ kthawt ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬܘܿܢ kthawton
2 f. ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬ‌ܝ kthawt *4 ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬܹ݁ܝ̈ܢ kthawtên
(ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬܹ݁ܝܢ)
1 m/f ܟܸܬ݂ܒܹ݁ܬ݂ kithbēth ܟܬܲܒ݂ܢ kthawn
ܟܬܲܒ݂ܢܲܢ kthawnan

*1 ܘ is silent. *2 Feminine dot (U+0740, Shift+Y): East: ܬ݀ / West: ܬ݀‎. *3 West. ܝ is silent. *4 ܝ is silent. With Taw-Yudh liga. (East only) ܟܬܲܒ݂ܬܝ. For silent letters see also: Gr. §50. See also §158.

b is hard after a closed syllabale: kithbath (3 f sg) / kithbēth (1 sg)

sg: kthaw - kithbath - kthawt - kithbēth

#1 More commonly, the short form of the 3f.pl does not have a seyame, as long as it is identical to the 3m.sg [Nöld. §16B, §168; See also Healey’s paradigms; Mura. also agrees at least superficially in his Paradigms, which however are inconclusive since he says, The seyame has also been omitted from some fem. pl. forms for the sake of clearer presentation.]. The long form with -ēn might be older. The “fancy y” form is W-Syr. Thus we have ܟܬ̥ܰܒ (or W-Syr. ܟ̈ܬ̥ܰܒܝ̱), and ܟܬ̥ܰܒܶܝ̈ܢ.

The Future Tense (The Imperfect)
sgpl
3 m. ܢܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ nikhtow ܢܸܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܘܼܢ nikhtwȗn
3 f. ܬܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ tikhtow
ܬܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ܝ tikhtow
ܢܸܟ݂̈ܬܒ݂ܵܢ nikhtwān
2 m. ܬܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ tikhtow ܬܸܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܘܼܢ tikhtwȗn
2 f. ܬܸܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܝܼܢ tikhtwīn ܬܸܟ݂̈ܬܒ݂ܵܢ tikhtwān
1 m/f ܐܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ ikhtow ܢܸܟ݂ܬܘܿܒ݂ nikhtow
ܓܵܡܲܠ ܓܲܢܵܢܵܐ ܓܲܢܬܵܐ
gāmal gannānā gantā
Gāmel gardener garden

ܬܐ = ‍ܬܐ

2013-02-21

ܐܵܠܲܦ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܐܵܬ݂ܵܐ
ālap alāhā āthā
Alap God flag
ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܒܵܒܵܐ ܒܪܘܿܢܵܐ ܒܪܵܬ݂ܵܐ
bêth bābā brōnā brāthā
Beth dad son daughter

When a consonant has a vowel and is preceded by Pthāḥā, that consonant is doubled; ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ is an exception (alāhā, not allāhā). [Lv2L45] Plus, this Pthāḥā sounds like Zqāpā (cf. Oro. p. 13).

2013-02-19

ܚܲܕ݇ ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܲܢ
ḥā [χæ] lĭʃānāʾ ʾīθ * lăn(ī) *
one (m.) language (m.) there’s to us

* ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܲܢ ʾīθ lăn = we have (Alan 105). The original text has this as IK-LA but perhaps it should be IT-LA (???); the song sounds like IT-LA too.

ܐܲܢܹܐ ܝܼ݇ܢܵܐ (?) ܐܵܬܘ̈ܵܬܲܢ
ʾănnēʾ * ýīnāʾ (='nā)??? ʾāθẅāθăn(ī)
these m/f are (3 pl.) letters-our f.

ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ āṯūṯā f. letter; pl. ܐܵܬ݂ܘ̈ܵܬ݂ܵܐ āṯwāṯā

ܐܲܢܹܐ 'these' f. m. * P'tahha has generally the sound of short and close a. In the great majority of cases, when a consonant follows it (excepting ܐ ܗ ܥ, and cases specified on pp. 10, 11), which has a vowel of its own, that consonant is doubled in pronunciation, e.g. ܐܲܢܹܐ, these... (Oro. p.12)
In some situations a single consonant is pronounced as if it was written twice, without placing any sign to indicate that. When a consonant has a vowel and is preceded by Pthakha. Also, When a consonant has a vowel and is preceded by Zlama Psheeq:a. (Alan Lv2 L45)

ܝ݇ܢܵܐ (ܝܼܢܵܐ)    (they) are; Oro. p. 28

2013-02-17

Juliana Jendo - Alap Beet

ܐܵܠܲܦ ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪ ܝܸܡܲܢ
ʾālăp ʾāθor yĭmmăn(ī)
Ālaph Assyria mother-our
ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܢܲܗܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܲܬ݂ܪܲܢ
bēyθ bēyθ năhr̈īn ʾăθrăn(ī) [ʌtræn]
Bēth Mesopotamia country-our

ܐܵܠܲܦ ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪ ܝܸܡܲܢܝܼ (ܝܸܡܲܢ)
ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܢܲܗܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܲܬ݂ܪܲܢܝܼ (ܐܲܬ݂ܪܲܢ)

ܝܸܡܵܐ yimmā = ܐܸܡܵܐ immā. ‏ـܲ‍ܢ -an = 'our'

Note ܐܲܬ݂ܪܵܐ 'country'; in athran, the first 'a' sounds like ŭ [ʌ], while the second 'a' sounds like ă [æ]. See syriac_oroomiah p. 13.

Postscript

2016-11-05

In addition to [Stod. Gr.] aka [Oro] D. T. Stoddard (1853), Grammar of the Modern Syriac Language, as spoken in Oroomiah, Persia and in Koordistan, the following is useful: [Macl. Gr.] Arthur John Maclean (1895), Grammar of the Dialects of Verbacular Syriac as Soken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, North-West Persia, and the Plain of Mosul… [uni-halle.de]. Also: P. J[acques] Rhétoré (1912): Grammaire de la langue soureth, ou chaldéen vulgaire selon le dialecte de la plaine de Mossoul et des pays adjacents [uni-bonn.de][archive.org]

2016-11-08 Also [uni-frankfurt.de] has many good books. I just happened to find Marshall/Turner (1929), Manual of the Aramaic language of the Palestinian Talmud.

Macl. Gr. says:

2016-11-07

K. (Kurdistan: Ashiret districts) means today’s Hakkari area, Turkey, minus Qudshanis/Gawer/Jilu. The principal village in the districts was Ashitha, near Iraqi border.

Macl. Dict. has:

Juliana Jendo uses a hard T. This means that her dialect is not K. (assuming that the above entry of the dictionary is correct).

However, she was born in Tell Tamir, Syria. Originally it was a town of Assyrian settlers who had been forced to leave their original homeland, the Hakkari area in Turkey, in the first half of the 20th century. (Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies: Alberto M. Fernandez, 1998, Dawn at Tell Tamir: The Assyrian Christian Survival on the Khabur; Tragedy of the Assyrians) Her dialect is most probably aii, and likely to be K, because (according to Fernandez) many of the inhabitants of Tell Tamir were originally from Upper Ṭiari. If we believe Maclean, this was in the “K.” area (Group III), where they had soft T. There are several possibilities about this, including:

2016-11-08

ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪ in 2Kgs 15:19. CAL says, however, ʾāṯū-.

aii version and syc translation

ܐܵܠܲܦ، ܐܵܬ݁ܘܿܪ ܝܸܡܲܝܢܝܼ. ܒܹܝܬ݁، ܒܹܝܬ݁ ܢܲܗܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܲܬ݁ܪܲܝܢܝܼ.
ܐܳܠܰܦ̥: ܐܳܬ̥ܘܿܪ ܐܶܡܰܢ. ܒܶܝܬ̥: ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܢܰܗܪ̈ܝܢ ܐܰܬ̥ܪܰܢ.

Before /m/, /ɪ/ may become u-like (Stod. Gr. pp. 16–17), possibly [ɯ~ɘ].

/ay/ as [eː]

bēṯ nahrīn as like “bet nahren”

2016-11-24 ʾatrayni is pronounced like ʕat- (Macl. Gr. p. 11)

2016-11-22

Hakkari

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