Syriac 3 (+a little Latin)

2013年1~4月に少しずつ東シリア文字を覚えたが、辞書の多くは西シリア文字で書かれており、これを学ばないと先へ進めない。4月25日、西シリア文字に慣れるため ʿAbd-mšīḥō d‑Qarah-baš: Hergē d‑Qeryōnō 第1巻の学習を開始。このファイルは1~8課に当たる。5月13日からは平行して Wheelock’s Latin に少しずつ取り組んでいる(このファイルは23~24章に相当)。ラテン語を強化しようと思い立った理由の一つは、シリア語の主な大辞典がラテン語で書かれていること。

CAL; Dic; Dic2; Dic3; Jessie (IA) Costaz | TUS; Wiki; Map; Map2 | Alan; Qarahbaš (1|2); Nöldeke (fem.|de)


Wheelock 24: The Satirist’s Modus Operandi

2013-06-03

Rīdēns saturās meās percurram, et cūr nōn? Quid vetat mē rīdentem dīcere vērum, ut puerīs ēducandīs saepe dant crūstula magistrī? Quaerō rēs gravēs iūcundō lūdō et, nōminibus fictīs, dē multīs culpīs vitiīsque nārrō. Sed quid rīdēs? Mūtātō nōmine, dē tē fābula nārrātur!
While laughing I will run through (I will say quickly) my satires, and why not? What forbids me, while smiling, to say the truth, just like teachers often give cookies to boys to be educated? I seek serious things with agreeable play (=in a playful manner) and, with names having been made up, I talk about many blames and faults. But why dost thou laugh? [Because,] with the name having been altered, the story is told—about thee!

Wheelock 24 SA (cont.)

2013-06-01

5. Haec omnia vulnera bellī tibi nunc sānanda sunt.
Now you have to heal all these wounds of war. (Lit. All these wounds of war are now to be healed for thee.)
6. Nec tumultum nec hastam mīlitis nec mortem violentam timēbō, Augustō terrās tenente.
I will not worry about a disturbance nor the soldier’s spear nor a violent death, with Augustus holding the lands (world).
7. Tarquiniō expulsō, nōmen rēgis audīre nōn poterat populus Rōmānus.
After Tarquinius (Tarquin) had been expelled, the Roman populace could not hear (could not tolerate hearing) the word “king”.
8. Ad ūtilitātem vītae omnia cōnsilia factaque nōbīs regenda sunt.
For the usefulness of [our] life (= To make our lives fulfilling), all the plans and actions must be controlled by us.

What would happen if the subject was Neutral + Feminine (e.g. factum et philosophia)? Fem. pl. or neut. pl.?

2014-08-20: Maybe the closest word would “win”: e.g. factum et philosophia mea AND philosophia et factum meum.

Dē Cupiditāte

Homō stultus, “Ō cīvēs, cīvēs,” inquit, “pecūnia ante omnia quaerenda est; virtūs et probitās post pecūniam.”
A foolish man says, “O citizens, citizens, first of all money must be sought; virtue and honesty [must be sought] after money.”
Pecūniae autem cupiditās fugienda est. Fugienda etiam est cupiditās glōriae; ēripit enim lībertātem. Neque imperia semper petenda sunt neque semper accipienda; etiam dēpōnenda nōn numquam.
The desire for money, however, should be avoided. Also the desire for fame should be avoided; it actually takes away [your] freedom. Powers should not always be sought nor always be accepted; sometimes they should even be resigned.
Caelō receptus propter virtūtem, Herculēs multōs deōs salūtāvit; sed Plūtō veniente, quī Fortūnae est fīlius, āvertit oculōs. Tum, causā quaesītā, “Ōdī,” inquit, “illum, quod malīs amīcus est atque omnia corrumpit lucrī causā.”
After having been admitted to the sky (=the heavenly world) because of [his] virtue, Hercules saluted many gods; but when Plutus [Πλοῦτος, “Wealth”] was coming—who is the son of Fortuna—, Hercules turned away [his] eyes. Then, when the reason was asked, he said, “I hate him, because he is a friend to evil men, and also he corrupts everything because of profit.”
Original Version

Fabulae (Phaedrus) - Liber IV 12

v- --- vv- - -- v-
vv -v -v -- -v --v-

-- v-- [-- -]-- -v-
- -v-- [-v]--- v-
vv-v -- [- --]- - -v-
--v vv- [--] --- v-
-- -v -- vv v- v-v -
v-v vv-- -v --- v-

Opēs invīsae meritō sunt fortī virō,
Quia dīves arca vēram laudem intercipit.

Caelō receptus propter virtūtem Herculēs
Cum grātulantēs persalūtāsset deōs,
Veniente Plūtō, quī Fortūnae est fīlius,
Āvertit oculōs. Causam quaesīvit păter.
«Ōdī» inquit «illum, quia malīs amīcus est
Simulque obiectō cū̆ncta corrumpit lucrō».

ops, opis, f. “resources” — opēs, pl. “riches, wealth” ¶ invīsae sunt, pass. pf. (3pl fem.) of invideō, “Riches were (once) looked askance at”, i.e. “With scorn Hercules turned his eyes away from Plutus” ¶ meritus, pass. part. of mereō, “earn” — meritō fortī virō can be dat. or abl., “to [by?] a deserved (an honorable), strong man.”

quia, “because” ¶ dīves, adj. “rich” ¶ arca, f. “box (for money)” Cf. ark ¶ laus, laudis, f. ¶ intercipiō, intercipere, intercēpī, interceptum — “a rich (≈heavy) box of money intercepts (steals) true praise”

grātulāns = pres. part. of grātulor, “congratulate” — grātulantēs, mas. pl. acc. — “although he had (completely/politely) saluted the gods, who were congratulating” ¶ per-salūtāsset [? wikt. has it as per-salūtăsset; this a is long by pos. anyway, but given it’s the contraction of āvi, perh. it’s long by nature too] = per-salūtāvisset = subj. pluperf. of per-salūtō

pater = Iuppiter (Zeus)

simul, “at the same time” ¶ obiectō, neut. abl. of ōbiectus, pass. part. of ōbiciō, “throw before, offer” — “with profit having been offered” ¶ cūnctus [OR cŭnctus], adj. “whole” — cūncta [OR cŭncta], n. pl. “everything at once”

Wheelock 24 SA

2013-05-31

1. Carthāgō dēlenda est.
Carthage is to be destroyed. (Carthage must be destroyed.)
2. Asiā victā, dux Rōmānus fēlīx multōs servōs in Italiam mīsit.
Asia having been conquered, the happy Roman leader sent many slaves to Italy.
3. Omnibus ferrō mīlitis perterritīs, quisque sē servāre cupiēbat.
All the men having been (completely) terrified by / because of the soldier’s sword, everyone was wishing to save himself.
4. Quidquid dīcendum est, līberē dīcam.
Whatever is to be said, I will say [it] freely.

Wheelock 24 PR (cont’d)

2013-05-30

14. When the common danger had been averted, two of our sons and all our daughters came back from Asia.
Perīculō commūnī āversō, duo ex fīliīs nostrīs et omnēs fīliae nostrae ex Asiā revēnērunt.

TODO: Why is ex Asiā preferred over ab Asiā?

ab Italiā pellere (to drive ~ out of Italy) Ch. 25 PR4

15. Our hopes must not be destroyed by those three evil men.
Spēs nostrae istīs/illīs tribus malīs nōn dēlendae sunt.
16. Since the people of all nations are seeking peace, all leaders must conquer the passion for (=of) power.
Populō omnium gentium pācem petente, cupiditās imperiī omnibus ducibus superanda est.

2013-05-31

17. The leader, having been driven out by both the free men and the slaves, could not regain his command.
Dux, et ā līberīs et ā servīs expulsus, imperium recipere nōn potuit.

Qarahbaš 2 (18)

2013-05-28

0018zY.jpeg (JPEG Image, 1700×2200 pixels)

ܫܽـ̈ܘܳܐܠܶܐ (šuwōʾlē) or ܫܽܘ̈ܐܴܠܶܐ (šuwʾōlē / šūʾōlē) — Questions / Problems

Answer by pointing
1 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ ؟
Which is the house?
2 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܐܰܒܐ ؟
Which is the father?
3 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܐܶܡܐ ؟
Which is the mother?
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܳܒܐ ؟
Where is the baby?

ܐܰܝܟܳܐ (ʾaykō) “where” → ܐܰܝܟܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ (ʾaykă w)

Say the answer
5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܒܐ ؟
ܩܳܐܶܡ ܥܰܡ ܐܶܡܐ.

— Where is the father standing? (Where is the father?) — He is standing with (=by) the mother.

ܩܘܡ (QWM), ܩܳܡ (qōm), act. part. ܩܳܐܶܡ (qōʾem). “to rise; to stand up, be present; to be, exist” He. קָם

6 ܡܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܨܶܝܕ ܬܰܪܥܐ ؟
ܐܶܡܐ.

— Who is (there) at the door? — The mother.

7 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡ ܐܶܡܐ ؟
ܒܳܒܐ.

— What is (there) with the mother? — The baby.

8 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܒܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ؟
ܒܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ.

— What is this baby drinking? — This baby is drinking milk.

9 ܡܳܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܣܰܓܝ ؟
ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

— What does he like very much? — He likes fruits.

Write this line once
10 ܒܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ.
This baby boy likes fuits very much.
Memo
“Reading Lessons, [Volume] 1, Composed…”
ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܘܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܣܺܝܡ
hergē d-qeryōnō * qadmōyō sīm
m. pl. lessons; study, musing m. of calling, of reading first composed (as an author): pass. part. of SWQ

* ܩܪܳܐ (qrāʾ/qrōʾ) and ܩܪܺܝ (qrī(y)) “to call, invoke, to summon; to read, recite; to study”
Cf. Ar. قَرَأَ‎ (qaraʾa) “to recite; to read” — قُرْآن (qurʾān) “act of reciting”

“…by Malfono ‘Abdmshiho [Naaman] d-Qarahbash”
ܠܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܥܰܒܕܡܫܝܼܚܐ [ܢܰܥܡܰܢ] ܕܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ
l-malp̄ōnō (l-malle̊p̄ōnō) ʿabdmšīḥō [ʿəḇeḏ- ?] naʿman d-qarahbaš
By Malfono [=Master] Abd-mshiẖo Naaman d-Qarah-bash

About the dot below the Yōḏ in ʿabdmšīḥō, see 2013-09-08.

malle̊p̄ānā: “apt to teach, learned, a teacher, master, schoolmaster, doctor” — given as a title to many of the Fathers esp. to St. Ephrem Syrus, and to St. James of Sarug. (Jessie 278)

d-Qarahbash (“of Qarahbash”) OR Qarabashī. — Qarabash (Ar. قرة باش) was a large Assyrian village, near (NE? E?) of Diyarbakır /dijaɾbakɯɾ/ (Amid), Turkey; distroyed in May, 1915. He was born in this village in 1903, and died in Beirut on 24 June 1983 (Abd Mshiho Karabashi).

U.Ü. Üngör: Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950

Wheelock 24 PR (cont’d)

9. Ille, ab arce urbis reveniēns, ab istīs hominibus premī coepit.
He, while returning from the citadel of the town, began to be chased by those men.
10. Cupiō tangere manum illīus mīlitis quī metū caruit atque gravia scelera contrā rem pūblicam oppressit.
I want to touch the hand of that soldier who was without fear and suppressed the grave crimes against the republic.
11. Iste dux prōtinus expulsus est, ut imperium excipiēbat.
That leader was immediately expelled, just as he was taking command.
12. Illae servae, autem, perfugium sōlāciumque ab amīcīs quaerēbant.
Those female servants, however, were seeking shelter and comfort from [their] friends.
13. Cornū audītō, ille mīles, incertus cōnsiliī, cōpiās ad mediam īnsulam vertit.
With the horn having been heard, that soldier, uncertain about (OR uncertain of) the plan, turned the troops (back) to the middle of the island.

Qarahbaš 2 (17) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 8

2013-05-27

0017xf.jpeg (JPEG Image, 1700×2200 pixels)

ܒܰܝܬܐ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ
baytō *1 tarʿō ḥalḇō *2 pīrē (fīrē)
f. a house / une maison m. a door / une porte m. milk / le lait m. pl. fruits / des fruits

*1 East: 🔊 baytā (bētā) — Ar. بَيْتٌ — He. בַּיִת (memo: I don’t like the way Firefox shows a Hiriq below a Yod. It’s too high, as if replaced by a U+FB1D ligature.)

*2 Ar. حَلِيبٌ — He. חָלָב

ܗܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
Look, (it’s) a big house.

Why not ܪܰܒܬܐ ? ‎[2013-08-04: Is this the fem. abs. st.? Maybe that’s it. And a better translation is, “Look, the house is big.”] But that wouldn’t be a good explanation.

2013-08-23: I’m going to say that’s the only logical explanation after all. “Look, the house [is] big.”

2013-10-06: The thing is, "house" can be m/f. If it's used as m. the meaning is simply “Look, (it’s) a big house.” Which seems to be a better interpretation.

2013-10-14: Usually m. and that’s it. The next page even has: ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ

ܗܐ ܐܰܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܐܶܡܐ.
Look, a father (is) with a mother.
ܗܐ ܐܶܡܐ ܨܶܝܕ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
Look, the mother (is) at the door.
ܗܐ ܒܳܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܐܶܡܐ.
Look, the baby (is) with the mother.

The elusive word ܒܳܒܳܐ:

Thesaurus Syriacus has it:
ܒܳܒܽܘܣܳܐ dim. vocis ܒܳܒܳܐ, m. puerulus, [...] it. filiolus, [...] it. adolescentulus [...]; Photius etiam Bibl. p. 555 ed. Haesch. ex. Damascii vita Isidori dicit Syros et praesertim Damascenos infantes nuper natos et puerulos vocare βαβίας, Angl. babies. (Translation: Photius [a patriarch of Constantinople from the nineth century] ... says that Syrians (esp. people in Damascus) call newly-born infants and little boys “babias”.)

ܒܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܐܳܦ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ.
This baby boy drinks milk, and he likes fruits very much.

Wheelock 24 PR (cont’d)

2013-05-26

5. Laudēs atque dōna huius modī ab ōrātōribus dēsīderābantur.
Praises and gifts of this mode (this sort) were desired by the orator.
6. Imperiō acceptō, dux magnanimus fidem suam reī pūblicae ostendit.
With the power having been taken, the greathearted leader showed his loyalty to the republic. OR: Any greathearted leader shows... once he takes command.
7. Aliquis eōs quīnque equōs ex igne ēripī posteā iusserat.
After that someone had ordered those five horses to be rescued from the fire. (OR: ordered that those five horses be rescued... OR: ordered the rescue of those five horses...)
8. Cernisne omnia quae tibi scienda sunt?
Do you perceive all things that are to be known by you?

HTML: funny lists

2013-05-25

<ol start="2147483645">
<li>item1</li>
<li>item2</li>
<li>item3</li>
<li>item4</li>
<li>item5</li>
</ol>

<ol class="numbered" style="counter-reset:NUM 2147483645">
<li>item1</li>
<li>item2</li>
<li>item3</li>
<li>item4</li>
<li>item5</li>
</ol>

Qarahbaš 2 (16)

2013-05-24

00164n.jpeg (JPEG Image, 1700×2200 pixels)

(Answer by pointing)

1 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܐܰܕܰܝ ؟
Which one is Adai? (East: 🔊 aynāw; aii: aynylēh)

Memo: The HTML code
<span xml:lang="syc-Latn"><em>aynāw</em></span>
does not work as expected CSS-wise. That is, if you have (1) a :lang(syc) selector to select a Syriac font, and (2) a [*|lang $= "-Latn"] selector to select a Latin font, aynāw is shown with the Syriac font, not the Latin font, even if the second selector is !important. One solution is to change the first selector to :lang(syc):not(:lang(syc-Latn)), but that has a very bad side effect—the new selector will win against :lang(syc-Syrj), etc. Another solution is to change the second selector to [*|lang $= "-Latn"], [*|lang $= "-Latn"] *, which is doable and perhaps logically needed. A quick workaround in this case is just to add a lang attribute to the innermost element, like this:
<span><em xml:lang="syc-Latn">aynāw</em></span>
Also, not defining a :lang(syc) pseudo-class at all may be a good idea in this specific case (as "syc" is written in several different scripts and to select a font you’ll have to say "syc-Something" anyway), though in general you do have to define both :lang(X) and :lang(X-Latn) pseudo-classes. A better example of this problem would be ar vs. ar-Latn.
BTW: Styling using the lang attribute is wrong in that a semicolon is missing at the end of @namespace xml "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace";.
(2013-07-12) Another example that doesn’t work as expected because of the above reason:
<tr xml:lang="ar-Latn"><td>qāmūs</td><td>suryānī</td>...</tr>

2 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܣܰܪܐ ؟
Which one is Sara? (East: 🔊 ayday; aii: aynylāh)

A mnemonic about the word ending in ā/ō + 3sg suffixes

3 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܨܶܡܕ̈ܐ ؟
Which are the bags?

ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ (ayleyn) — “which” (pl. m/f)

ܐܶܢܘܢ (ennōn) — encl. of ܗ̣ܶܢܘܢ (hennōn), “they” (m.). The dot below the Hē denotes “a weak [=close] vowel” (Nöld. 6).

ܨܶܡܕܳܐ (ṣemdō) — pl. ܨܶܡ̈ܕܶܐ (ṣemdē)

4 ܚܰܘܐ ܠܝ ܩܰܢܝܐ ؟
Show me the pen?

ܚܘܐ √ḤWY — not used in Pe. Pa. ܚܰܘܺܝ (ḥawī / ḥawwī?), imper. ܚܰܘܳܐ (ḥawō / ḥawwō?) “to show” [Jessie 129]. This is basically a Verba Tertiae Yōḏ (Nöld. 176), although being double-weak.

ܠܝ‎ (lī) = ܠ + suffix 1sg. (Cf. Alan 105)

(Say the answer)

5 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ؟
ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܰܕܰܝ.

— What is the name of this boy? — The name of this boy is Adai.

ܡܳܢܳܐ (mānā/mōnō) “what” — Notice the West shortening before W: mōnō → mōna w

6 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ؟
ܫܶܡ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܣܰܪܐ.

— What is the name of this girl? — The name of this girl is Sara.

7 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡ ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ؟
ܨܶܡܕܐ.

— What exists with each one? (What does each one have?) — A bag.

ܚܰܕ (🔊 ḥaḏ) m. “one” — ܚܕܳܐ (🔊 ḥḏā) f.

2013-05-25

8 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܶܡܕܐ ؟
ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܘܩܰܢܝܐ.

— What’s in it, in each bag? — A book and a pen.

9 ܐܰܕܰܝ ܪܰܒ ܐܰܘ ܣܰܪܐ ؟
ܐܰܕܰܝ.

— (Is) Adai elder, or (is) Sara? — Adai.

If they are the same brother and sister that appear in Lesson 1, then we have a line that says,
ܗܘ ܐܰܚܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ.
In general, these words could mean either an elder sibling or a younger one. ܪܰܒ means “older, elder” of siblings (Jessie 525).

CSS memo: I had to add the following to my .css so that the above would work properly:
q[dir='rtl'] { quotes: '«' '»' '”' '“'; }
The thing is, U+201C/201D etc. are not mirrored; nevertheless, Firefox uses them by default for Q, resulting in a visually wrong pair of quotation marks if dir is RTL, because then « “ » comes BEFORE the quoted text that is the rightmost position as this is RTL, while « ” » is placed at the leftmost position. The result is quasi German style, like ”.CIBARA“, which is not what most people would expect.
The mirroring property of 11 directional quotation marks (viz. ‘’‚‛“”„‟〝〞〟) had been “fixed” in Unicode 5.0 (July, 2006), but then reverted on August 10, 2007 (Corrigendum #6: Bidi Mirroring).

10 ܐܰܕܰܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܣܰܪܐ.
Adai is a good boy (who)Adai, a good boy, much loves his sister Sara.

‏ـܶܗ (-eh) = suffix sg. 3m. It is added to the stem, after removing the original stem-ending ā/ō (Alan 97).

Wheelock 24 PR

2013-05-23

1. Igne vīsō, omnēs virī et uxōrēs territae [sic] sunt et ultrā urbem ad lītus īnsulae nāvigāvērunt, ubi perfugium inventum est.
As fire had been seen, all the men and [their] wives were terrified and they navigated beyond the city toward the shore of the island, where shelter was found.

Note: Since the subject of territae sunt (sic) is omnēs virī et uxōrēs, the correct form is territī sunt; that is, when the subject is a group of persons with mixed genders (including at least one man), the predicate should take the plural masculine form, not the plural feminine form. Said differently, the default gender in Latin is masculine, even though that may not be politically correct by today’s standards. Here territae is used just because it directly follows uxōrēs, which is kind of childish and near-sighted, just like saying “He and I am”, ignoring the “He and” part. The original sentence by Wheelock was “Igne vīsō, omnēs fēminae territae sunt.” That was not only grammatically correct, but also shorter, simpler, and more suitable for Practice and Review. In the current version, someone has lengthened it arbitrarily without thinking carefully. This is not the first time I’ve felt that the older version was better.

2. Populō metū oppressō, iste imperātor nōbīs ex urbe pellendus est.
The people having been oppressed by fear, that general is for us to be expelled from the city. (=Since the people have been overwhelmed by fear, that general should be expelled by us from the city.)
3. Ōrātor, signō ā sacerdōte datō, eō diē revēnit et nunc tōtus populus Latīnus gaudet.
The orator, as the signal having been given (≈ since the instruction/permission had been given) by the priest, came back on that day, and now the whole Latin populace rejoices.
4. Gēns Rōmāna versūs illīus scrītōris magnā laude quondam recēpit.
The Roman clan once received verses of that writer with great praise.

Qarahbaš 2 (15)

2013-05-22

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ܫܶܡ (ܫܡܳܐ) ܥܰܡܗܘܢ ܨܶܡܕܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ
šem (šmō) ʿamhun (ʿamhon) ṣemdō qanyō
m. a name / un nom with them (m.) / avec eux m. a case, bag / un étui m. a pen / un stylo

ܗܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܗܐ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ.

Look, (here’s a) boy. Look, (here’s) a girl.

ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܰܕܰܝ.

The name of this boy is Adai.

2013-05-23

ܫܶܡ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܣܰܪܐ.

The name of this girl is Sara(h) [Sarrō].

ܐܰܕܰܝ ܐܰܚܐ ܕܣܰܪܐ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ ܨܶܡܕܐ.

Adai is a brother of Sara. There is a bag with them (=They have a bag with them).

ܟܽܠ ܨܶܡܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܘܩܰܢܝܐ.

Every bag has a book and a pen in it.

Qarahbaš 2 (14)

2013-05-21

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1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܚܘܡܐ ؟
ܒܩܰܝܛܐ.

— When does the heat become strong? — In summer.

2 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܩܘܪܐ ؟
ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.

— When does the coldness become strong? — In winter.

3 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܣܳܓܶܝܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ؟
ܒܩܰܝܛܐ.

— When do fruits increase (in number)? — In summer.

ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱‎ (ʾimmaṯẙ) = ܐܶܡܰܬܝ̱‎ — ܐܸܡܲܬܝ‎ (ʾimmattī) = “when?” (Classical Syriac) — NENA: 🔊 ܐܝܼܡܵܢ‎ (īmān) — Heb. מָתַי (matai) — Ar. 🔊 مَتى‎ (matā)

4 ܒܩܰܝܛܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ...... ܚܘܡܐ.

In summer, (the heat) increases.

5 ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ...... ܩܘܪܐ.

In winter, (the coldness) increases.

6 ܒܘܰܝܛܐ ܣܳܓܶܝܢ ...... ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

In summer, (fruits) multiply.

7 ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ...... ܬܰܠܓܐ.

In winter, (snow) falls.

8 ܚܘܡܐ ܕܩܰܝܛܐ ‐ ܩܘܪܐ ܕܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܀

The heat of summer - the coldness of winter.

NOTE: For some reason, as of 2013, most Syriac fonts (including ES Nohadra) except Estrangelo Edessa don’t have a glyph for U+002D [ - ] HYPHEN-MINUS (not even mapped), while they have a glyph for U+2010 [ ‐ ] HYPHEN. Firefox is cool with both, but IE8 shows a .notdef glyph if U+002D is specified. So perhaps it is wise to use U+2010 instead of U+002D. However, the Syriac Keyboard Layout does not support U+2010, while it does support U+002D. Using a colon instead of a hyphen/dash may be an acceptable compromise.

Today’s words

Wheelock’s 23 — Participles (Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis)

2013-05-20

(Virgil, Aeneid 2.13–52 prose adaptation)

Oppressī bellō longō et ā deīs aversī [āversī], ducēs Graecōrum, iam post decem annōs, magnum equum ligneum arte Minervae faciunt. Uterum multīs mīlitibus complent, equum in lītore relinquunt, et ultrā īnsulam proximam nāvigant. Trōiānī nūllās cōpiās aut nāvēs vident; omnis Trōia gaudet; panduntur portae. Dē equō, autem, Trōiānī sunt incertī. Aliī eum in urbem dūcī cupiunt; aliī eum Graecās īnsidiās appellant.

Prīmus ibi ante omnēs, dē arce currēns,40
Lāocoōn, sacerdōs Trōiānus, haec verba dīcit:

“Ō miserī cīvēs, nōn estis sānī!
Quid cōgitātis?
Nōnne intellegitis Graecōs et īnsidiās eōrum?
Aut inveniētis in istō equō multōs mīlitēs ācrēs,45
aut equus est machina bellī, facta contrā nōs,
ventūra in urbem, vīsūra casās et populum.
Aut aliquid latet. Equō nē crēdite, Trōiānī:
quidquid id est, timeō Danaōs et dōna gerentēs!”

Dīxit, et potentem hastam magnīs vīribus manūs sinistrae 50
in uterum equī
iēcit; stetit illa, tremēns.

The Original Version: Lines 48–53

In this section, a u with a dot below () means a v.

48 aut aliquis latet error; equō nē crēdite, Teucrī. or some deception is hidden; do not trust the horse, Teucrians.
49 quidquid id est, timeō Danaōs et dōna ferentīs.' Whatever it is, I fear the Danaans, including those carrying gifts.”
  1. error, errōris, m. “a going astray, error, mistake” ¶ Teucrus, Teucrī, adj., “of Teucer (king of Troy), Trojan”; pl. as noun, Teucrī, Teucrōrum (here in pl. voc.), “Teucrians”
  2. ferentīs, the older form of ferentēs, act. pres. part., m. pl. acc.
50 sic fātus ụalidīs ingentem ụīribus hastam Thus said, (he hurled) a huge spear, with strong power,
51 in latus inque ferī curụam compāgibus alụum into a side, and into the beast’s belly that was curved with joints—
52 contorsit. stetit illa tremēns, uterōque recussō he hurled (it). It was stuck, vibrating, the womb having been shaken;
53 īnsonuēre caụae gemitumque dedēre caụernae. the hollow parts resounded and made a groan-like (OR: creaking) noise.
  1. fātus = “having said” ¶ validus, adj. “strong” ¶ ingēns, ingentis, “huge”
  2. latus, lateris, n. “side” ¶ ferus, adj. “wild”; n. “wild animal” ¶ curvus, adj. “bent, curved” ¶ compāgēs/compāgĕs *1, compāgis, f. “connection, joint” ¶ alvus, alvī, f. “belly” Cf. alvine
  3. con-torqueō, 2, con-torsī, “hurl, brandish” ¶ re-cutiō, 3, [re-cussī], re-cussum, “shake again, shock” (re + quatiō)
  4. īn-sonō, 1, īn-sonuī, “make a sound in, sound loudly” — īnsonuērĕ, alt. form of īnsonuērunt, pf. 3pl. ¶ cavus, cava, cavum, “hollow, excavated, concave” ¶ gemitus, gemitūs, m. “groan, sigh”; Of inanimate things, “a deep or hoarse sound” Cf. Fr. geindre, gémir ¶ dō, dare, dedī, datum — dedērĕ, alt. form of dedērunt, pf. 3pl. ¶ caverna, f. “hollow place” Cf. cavern, cavernous

*1 Two of my dictionaries and Dictionnaire Gaffiot mark the e long. Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short does not.

Wheelock’s 23 — Participles (Sententiae Antīquae)

2013-05-19

1. Vīvēs meīs praesidiīs oppressus.
You will live, oppressed by (=under the supervision of) my guards.

oppressus is a pf. part., but the timing of its action is (mostly) at the same time as that of the main verb. That is, you live as a prisoner, WHILE you are guarded. Technically, this could be interpreted as: “You will live having been oppressed...” That is, you will be arrested or put into prison BEFORE you start living as a prisoner.

2. Illī autem, tendentēs manūs dextrās, salūtem petēbant.
Those men, however, stretching their right hands, were seeking safety.
3. Tantalus sitiēns flūmina ab ōre fugientia tangere dēsīderābat.
Tantalus, being thirsty, kept desiring to touch the rivers which were fleeing from his mouth.
4. Signa rērum futūrārum mundō ā dīs ostenduntur.
Signs of things that are about to be (=things to come) are shown to the world by the gods.
5. Graecia capta asperum victōrem cēpit. [Graecia capta ferum victōrem cēpit.]
Greece that had been captured (=Captive Greece) [culturally] captured her uncultured conquerer.

Cultural note: Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. [...] Roman culture was highly influenced by the Greeks; as Horace said, Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit. (Roman Greece)

6. Atticus Cicerōnī ex patriā fugientī multam pecūniam dedit.
Atticus gave a lot of money to Cicero, who was fleeing from his country.
7. Sī mihi eum ēducandum committēs, studia eius fōrmāre ab īnfantiā incipiam.
If you are going to entrust him, who is to be educated, to me (=If you entrust me with his education), I will begin forming his studies since [his] infancy.
8. Saepe stilum verte, bonum libellum scrīptūrus.
Invert your stylus (=Erase what you write) often, if you are to write a good little book.

A stylus is ... a metal instrument resembling a pencil in size and shape, used for writing or recording impressions upon waxed tablets. At one end it was sharpened to a point for scratching the characters upon the wax, while the other end being flat and circular served to render the surface of the tablets smooth again, and so to obliterate what had been written. Thus, vertere stilum means to erase, and hence to correct, as in the well-known precept saepe stilum vertas.

9. Cūra ōrātōris dictūrī eōs audītūrōs dēlectat.
The care of an orator who is about to speak delights those who are about to listen. (=The audience will be happy when an orator carefully prepares his speech beforehand.)
10. Mortī Sōcratis semper illacrimō, legēns Platōnem.
Reading Plato, I always weep over the death of Socrates.
11. Memoria vītae bene āctae multōrumque bene factōrum iūcunda est.
The memory of a well-spent life, and of many well-done things, is pleasant.
12. Quī timēns vīvet, līber nōn erit umquam.
He who will live (He who lives) in fear will not ever be free.
13. Nōn is est miser quī iussus aliquid facit, sed is quī invītus facit.
He who does something, as having been ordered, is not miserable; but he who does [something], while being unwilling, [is miserable]. (=Just because you have to follow an order doesn’t mean you’re miserable, but you’re miserable if you do something against your will.)
14. Verbum semel ēmissum volat irrevocābile.
A word, once emitted, (just) flies, being irrevocable.

Wheelock’s 23 — Participles (cont.)

2013-05-18

8. Tollēturne fāma huius medicī istīs versibus novīs?
Will the fame of this doctor be ruined/raised with/by those new verses?

Basically, this is a bad problem where students are asked to translate something ambiguous. In a way, it’s kind of interesting, though. After skimming Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, tollo, I think that the meaning “fame will be ruined” is totally possible, and the meaning “fame will be elevated” is probably possible too, at least poetically. It has been attested that one can “elevate” clamorem (shouting) or animos (spirits).

However, I’m not sure about the 2nd choice. For one thing, istīs sometimes has contemptuous meaing. As in: Now that he wrote (absurd) things like that, maybe his reputation will be ruined, won't it?

9. At vīta illīus modī aequī aliquid iūcundī atque fēlīcis continet.
But you see, a life of that impartial mode (=such an impartial way of life) contains something of the pleasant and happy (=contains a certain kind of pleasantness and happiness).
10. Quō diē ex igne et ferrō atque morte certā ēreptus es?
On what day were you (sg. m.) rescued from fire and sword, and certain death?
11. We gave many things to nations lacking hope.
Gentibus spē carentibus multa dedimus.
12. Those ten men, (when) called, will come again with great eagerness.
Illī decem virī, vocātī, magnō (cum) studiō iterum venient.
13. Through the window they saw the second old man running out of his neighbor’s house and away from the city.
Senem secundum ex domō suī vīcīnī et ab urbe currentem per fenestram vīdērunt.
OR: Per fenestram vīdērunt senem secundum ē vīcīnī casā et ab urbe currentem.
14. He himself was overpowered by uncertain fear because he desired neither truth nor liberty.
Ille ipse metū incertō oppressus est, quod neque vēritātem neque lībertātem cupīvit.

ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ‎ — 2 (13) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 6

2013-05-16

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ܩܰܝܛܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥
qayṭō saṯwō tōqep̄ nōḥeṯ
m. summer m. winter part. of ܬܩܶܦ
to wax strong
part. of ܢܚܶܬ
to go down

Note: Qōf is connected; Wau is not: ܩܐ‎ vs. ܘܐ‎ — ܩܐ‎ vs. ܘܐ‎ — ܩܐ‎ vs. ܘܐ

ܐܶܙܰܠ ܩܰܝܛܐ: ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.

The summer has gone; the winter has come.

ܒܩܰܝܛܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܚܘܡܐ: ܘܣܳܓܶܝܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

In summer, heat strengthens; and fruits increases (in number).

ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܩܘܪܐ ܘܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܘܬܰܠܓܐ.

In winter, coldness strengthens, and rain and snow fall.

ܟܽܠ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܬܰܠܓܐ.

Every child loves snow.

Wheelock’s 23 — Participles (cont.)

4. Quī vir magnanimus aliās gentēs gravī metū servitūtis līberābit?
What magnanimous man will liberate the other tribes from the great fear of servitude?
5. Nēmō fidem neglegēns timōre umquam carēbit.
Nobody that disregards faith/trust ever will be without fear.
6. Illa fēmina fortūnāta haec cōnsilia contrā eōs malōs quondam aluit et salūtis commūnis causā semper labōrābat.‌
That fortunate woman once supported these plans against those evil men, and always worked for the communal safety/welfare.
7. Illam gentem Latīnam oppressūrī et dīvitiās raptūrī, omnēs virōs magnae probitātis premere ac dēlēre prōtinus coepērunt.‌
Being about to (=Ready to) conquer that Latin clan and seize [their] wealth, they (m.) started to pursue and kill all men of great honesty right away.
OR: It was just a matter of time before they (m.) conquered that Latin clan and seized their wealth; they started to...

Note: The modifiee of prōtinus is either coepērunt or dēlēre. The difference is between “immediately started to pursue and kill” and “started to pursue and immediately kill”. The former seems more natural (otherwise maybe one would say ac prōtinus dēlēre). The above translation works both ways.

Qărăhbăš 2 (12)

2013-05-15

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1 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܘܙܐ؟

Which is a banana?

2 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ؟

Which are figs? (f. pl.)

3 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ؟

Which are grapes? (f. pl.)

4 ܡܘܙܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܡܶܢ ...... ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

A banana is sweeter than... figs.

5 ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ...... ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.

On this vine, there are... grapes.

6 ܡܰܬ̥ܰܝ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ...... ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

Matthay (Matthew) really loves... figs.

7 ܡܰܬ̥ܰܝ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

Matthay (Matthew) really loves figs. [The same sentence as 6.]

Today’s words

🔊 ܐܲܝܢܵܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣ (ܐܲܝܢܵܘ) — Note, this na is long in Eastern Syriac.

Qărăhbăš 2 (11) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 5

2013-05-14

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ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ ܐܳܦ
ʾăyleyn (aylēn) băssīm ʾĕnneyn (ennēn) ʾōp̄
who, which (pl. m/f)
🔊 ܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ
sweet, fragrant, pleasant, tasty
— pass. part. of ܒܣܶܡ, “to be fragrant”
ܒܰܣܝܡܐ (emph)
they (f.)
The enclitic (copula) form of ܗܶܢܶܝܢ (hĕnneyn)
🔊 ܗܸܢܹܝܢ
also, and, even

Note 1: As a rule, ey is pronounced like ē — it’s what is called ăssāqā in Assyrian. As such, the text in parentheses for example in ʾăyleyn (aylēn) is actually redundant.

Note 2: We use an ō when transliterating a West Syriac zqāfā ◌ܳ, just like an ā is commonly used for an East Syriac zqāpā ◌ܵ. In both cases, the macron does not imply a long vowel (the vowel may or may not be long).

ܡܘܙܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܡܶܢ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

A banana is sweeter than figs.

ܥܰܠ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܣܰܬܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.

On (OR Above) this vine, there are grapes.

ܡܰܬ̥ܰܝ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

Matthay (Matthew) really loves figs.

ܐܰܚܐ ܬܐ ܚܙܝ ܡܘܙܐ.

Brother, come and look! (It’s) a banana. [According to page 7, the brother really likes bananas. :)]

ܗܐ ܐܳܦ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܡ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

Behold! (There are) even grapes together with figs.

This concludes Page 11. 33 more pages to go.

Today’s words

🔊 ܗܵܕܹܐ [hɑːðeː]

Wheelock’s 23 — Participles (cont.)

3. Certī frūctūs pācis ab territō vulgō atque senātū cupiēbantur.
The certain fruits (definite benefits) of peace were desired by the frightened populace and the senate.
terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum — territus, pass. pf. part. (-tō, neut. sg. abl.) ¶ vulgus, vulgī, n. “the common people” (in sg.) Cf. vulgar.
Note: vulgus, like vīrus, is a rare 2nd decl. neuter noun ending in -us. However, its grammatical gender is not observable in this example, as m. sg. abl. and n. sg. abl. of territus are identical.

Qărăhbăš 2 (10)

2013-05-13

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1 ܡܘܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܰܐܝܐ؟

ܡܽܘܢ (mun) = ܡܳܢ‎ = ܡܳܐܢܳܐ‎ — interrog. and rel. pron. “what, what is it? why?” (Jess 258) — 🔊 ܡܘܿܢ‎ (mōn) = ܡܵܢ‎ = ܡܵܐܢܵܐ‎ (Alan 94)

What does Payo love? — Payo loves fruits. — ܦܰܐܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܦܝܠܐ؟

Where is the elephant? — The elephant is in the mountain. — ܛܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܦܝܠܐ.

3 ܦܝܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܐܰܘ ܓܰܡܠܐ؟

Is the elephant large? Or is the camel? — The elephant. — ܦܝܠܐ.

4 ܦܰܐܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ...... ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

Payo loves... fruits.

5 ܦܝܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܡـ ...... ܓܰܡܠܐ.

The elephant is larger than the cam... camel.

6 ܗܐ ܦܝܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܰܘ ܛܘ ...... ܛܘܪܐ.

Look, an elephant is on (in) that moun... mountain. — Obviously ܗܰܘ‎ (hăw) works as a demonstrative adjective (that) here, though Jessie 101 has it as demonst. pron. The meaning of Sentence 6 is clear anyway.

ܐܳܪܳܡ ܚܙܝ ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܦܝܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ

Aram, look! How large this elephant is! — ܚܙܳܐ‎ (ḥzō), “to see; to perceive; to look, watch”, imper. ܚܙܺܝ‎ (ḥzī) [Jessie 136]

Today’s words

Wheelock’s Latin (6th Ed. Rev.), Chap. 23 — Participles: Practice and Review

Maybe I should improve my Latin since it’s not uncommon that a Syriac dictionary or a Syriac grammar book is written in Latin.

1. Aliquid numquam ante audītum cernō.
I am aware of something never before heard.
numquam, adv. “never” ¶ audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum — audītus, pass. pf. part. (-tum, n. sg. acc.) ¶ cernō, “to distinguish, discern” Cf. dis-cern, con-cern
2. Illum ōrātōrem in mediō senātū iterum petentem fīnem bellōrum ac scelerum nōn adiūvistis.
You guys did not help (assist, support) that orator who, in the middle of the senate, was again seeking the end of wars and crimes.
ōrātor, ōrātōris, m. ¶ medius senātus, m. “middle of the senate” (adj. used partitively) — abl. mediō senātū ¶ petō, petere, petīvī, petītum, “seek, aim at” — act. pres. part. petēns, petentis ¶ scelus, sceleris, n. “crime” Cf. scelerophobia ¶ adiuvō, adiuvāre, adiūvī, “to help”

Qarahbash 2 (9)

2013-05-12

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ܦܰܐܝܐ ܦܘܡܐ ܦܝܠܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ
păyō pūmō pīlō pīrē (pērē)
(a male name) m. mouth
— Ar. فم — He. פֶּה
m. elephant
— Ar. فيل — He. פִּיל
m. pl. fruits
sg. ܦܺܐܪܳܐ, pl. ܦܺܐܪ̈ܶܐ
— He. פְּרִי

2016-11-29/2016-12-10 “elephant” = fa پیل

ܗܳܢܐ ܦܝܠܐ ܪܰܒܐ.

This (m) elephant is large. — ܪܰܒܳܐ‎ (răbbō) = ܪܰܒ‎ (răḇ) = “great, large, long”. Mas. Emph. when Mas. Abs. is expected

2013-08-23: Maybe this one just means, “This [is] a big elephant.” Yeah! I guess that’s it. So simple I almost feel like a fool. All the Demonstratives are used both as Substantives and as Adjectives. In the latter case they stand sometimes before, sometimes after, the substantive [§226]

ܦܰܐܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

Payo loves fruits.

ܛܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܦܝܠܐ.

The mountain has in it an elephant. (=There is an elephant in the mountain.) — ܛܽܘܪܳܐ‎ (ṭūrō) — ܛܘܼܪܵܐ‎ (🔊 ṭūrā [tˤʊːɾʌ]) = “mountain, hill”.

ܦܝܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܪܝܫܐ ܪܰܒܐ.

An elephant has a large head. — ܪܺܝܫܳܐ‎ (rīšō) — ܪܝܼܫܵܐ‎ (rīšā) = m. “head” — Ar. رأس (raʾs) — He. רֹאשׁ (rosh) Mas. Emph. St. just like Nöld. says.

Today’s words

The ascender of a Nūn should be long enough so that it won’t look like a Yōdh.

🔊 ܗܵܢܵܐ

Qarahbash 2 (8)

2013-05-11

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1 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܓܰܐܝܐ؟

What’s Gayo drinking? — ܡܳܢܳܐ‎ = ܡܳܢ‎ = “what”. Answer = ܚܰܠܒܐ‎ (milk)

ܓܰܐܝܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ.

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ؟

Where is water? — ܐܰܝܟܐ‎ (ăykō / ēḵō) = “where”. Answer = ܓܘܒܐ‎ (cistern, water hole)

ܓܘܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.

3 ܡܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܡܘܙܐ؟

Who loves a banana? — ܡܰܢ‎ = “who” (≠ ܡܳܢ‎ = “what”). Answer = ܒܳܒܐ‎ (the baby)

ܒܳܒܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܡܘܙܐ.

4 ܓܰܐܝܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ...... ܗܰܠܒܐ. ܚܰܠܒܐ.

Gayo drinks... milk.

5 ܓܘܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ...... ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.

The water hole has in it... water.

6 ܟܽܠ ܒܳܒܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ...... ܚܰܠܒܐ.

Every baby loves... milk. (OR: the answer could be “bananas”.) ܟܽܠ‎ = “all, every”

7 ܓܰܐܝܐ ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ.

Gayo drinks milk every day. ܝܽܘܡ‎ = “a day”

Today’s words

Lesson 2 of Syriac Orthodox Church in Canada - Learn Syriac shows how to hand-write in Serto.

Qarahbash 2 (7)

2013-05-10

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ܓܰܐܝܐ ܓܘܒܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܚܰܠܒܐ
găʾyō gŭbbō săggī hălʋō
(a male name) m. a well, water hole adv. much milk

ܓܰܐܝܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ.

Gayo is drinking milk.

ܒܳܒܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܡܘܙܐ.

The baby much loves banana(s).

ܓܘܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.

The water hole has water in it.

ܓܰܐܝܐ ܗܐ ܓܘܒܐ.

Gayo, look, it’s a water hole.

ܐܰܚܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܡܘܙܐ.

The brother really likes banana(s).

ܓܘܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.

This water hole has water in it.

Qarahbash 2 (6)

2013-05-07

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ܚܰܘܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܪܶܡܙܐ

Show by pointing.

1 ܐܰܝܕܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܨܶܦܪܐ؟

2 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܓܰܡܠܐ؟

1. Which one is the sparrow? 2. Which one is the camel?

ā/ō > ă before ܗ̱ܘ، ܗ̱ܝ: West W/East Y

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡܶـ̈ܠܐ

Answer by words.

ܡܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ؟

Who has a book? — Answer = ܙܰܐܗܝ. (Zahee)

ܡܽܘܢ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܓܰܡܠܐ؟

What is the camel grazing? — Answer = ܓܶܠܳܐ. (Grass)

ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ؟

Where is the sparrow sitting? — Answer = ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ. (On a branch.)

ܫܰܠܶܡ ܠܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

Complete the words.

ܗܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܥܰܠ ...... ܣܰܘܟܐ.

Look, a sparrow (is) on... the branch.

ܓܰܡܠܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ...... ܓܶܠܳܐ.

The camel is grazing... grass.

ܙܰܐܗܝ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ...... ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.

Zahee has... a book.

ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

For writing

ܓܰܐܝܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ

Gayo (a male name) is writing the lesson on (his) clean notebook. (OR: writing the lesson on his notebook neatly)

Qarahbash 2 (5) cont'd

2013-05-06

ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ.

The sparrow is sitting on a branch.

ܓܰܡܠܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܓܶܠܐ.

A camel (m.) is grazing grass.

Qarahbash 2 (5)

2013-05-05

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ܗܶܪܓܐ 2

ܡܰܢ ܡܘܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܟܡܐ
măn *1 mun *2 ʾăykō (ēkā) kmō
who? what? where? how much?

*1 Alan 94. ܡܲܢ Also: ܡ̇ܢ ? (Oro 20, 24); maybe not ܡܿܢ ?

*2 or ܡܵܐ

ܙܰܐܗܝ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.

Zahee has a book.

ܙܰܐܗܝ ܬܐ ܚܙܝ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.

(??? maybe), Zahee! Come and look at this bird! OR Zahee comes and sees this bird.

Qarahbash 2 (4) continued

2013-05-03

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Answer by writing. (Write your answer.)

ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܡܶܢ ..... ܐܰܚܐ. — The sister is nicer than... the brother.

ܐܰܚܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ..... ܩܰܢܝܐ. — The brother has a... pen.

ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ..... ܠܘܚܐ. — The sister has a... writing-tablet.

ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — [This is] for writing. (=Write this.)

l- becomes lă- because the first letter of the noun (ܟܬ̥ܺܝܒܬܳܐ) is vowelless (Alan 46).

ܪܳܪܐ ܕܳܕܐ ܚܘܪ ܗܐ ܐܰܚܐ ܥܰܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ.

One last thing: I didn’t check the title of the lesson: ܗܶܪܓܐ 1
Anyone could guess it says Lesson 1, and indeed ܗܶܪܓܳܐ = “study, musing”. And that concludes Lesson 1.

Qarahbash 2 (4)

2013-04-30

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ܫܽܘܐܳܠܴܐ (šu(w)ʾōlō), ܫܽܘܳܠܴܐ (šuwōlō) — “question” — pl. ܫܽـ̈ܘܳܐܠܶܐ ʃuwōlē [ ܠܐ‎ = ܠ‍ܐ‎‎ ]

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܪܶܡܙܐ — Answer by pointing

ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܐܰܚܐ؟ — Which one is the brother?

ܐܰܝܕܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ؟ — Which one is the sister?

ܐܰܝܢܐ ܪܰܒ ܒܗܘܢ؟ — Which is the big (=bigger) one of those [two] guys?

A Question About Zlāmā Qăʃyā: [ɛ] or [e]?

2013-04-28

Short Answer: It’s not phonemic; whatever.

*

A Zlāmā Qăʃyā (aka Rʋāṣā Kăryā) is a vowel sign for e as in ܟܹܐܢܵܐ, “right, just” (West: ܟܻܐܢܳܐ).

Alan 30 says that its pronunciation is the same as the e in egg, that is [ɛ]. His page has an audio file for the above word, kēnā, and the ē in it does sound [ɛ] ([ˈkɛː.nɐ]) and not [e]; though it may be narrower than [ɛ], it is noticeably wider than [e].

Wikipedia says, this sign represents [e], while a Zlāmā Pʃīqā would represent [ɛ]. Only one of them can be correct in this case, and let’s see, we have an audio file here, so at the very least it should be fair to say that this one is more like [ɛ] when pronounced by a teacher who speaks Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.

Also, in the audio file for Dăyrāyē bθulīn in Alan 40, the vowel ē sounds like [ɛ̞] (not [ɛ] itself). The same is true in Nīnwē (Alan 56).

A good example with an audio file is ܓܹܗܲܢܵܐ Gēhānnā, “Gehenna”, in Alan 57. It is read [ɡɛːhæn.nɑ]. This [ɛ] may be still slightly narrower than the standard [ɛ], but clearly it’s not near [e].

On the other hand, Oro. 12 says it’s “between e in elate and a in hate.” Additionally, Oro. 14 says that the sound “is not exactly that of long e, nor of long a, but something between these sounds, approaching a little nearer to that of e than of a.” This appears to mean [e̞ː] or [ɪː], assuming that the author means [iː] and [eɪ] by “long e” and “long a” respectively.

Also, Traité de grammaire syriaque shows this vowel as é, as opposed to è (p. 68, etc.). Since this book is written in French, it would be a natural interpretation that é means [e] and è means [ɛ].

One audio file where an ē sounds somewhat like [e] is ܣܵܗܕܹ̈ܐ, sāhdē, “martyrs” in Alan 63. This ē is still wider than [e], but significantly narrower than [ɛ]. Maybe ē in a plural ending is somewhat narrower.

Qarahbash 2 (3) cont.

2013-04-27

ܗܘ ܐܰܚܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ.
ܗܝ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܚܐ.

Translation: He, the brother, is bigger than the sister. She, the sister, is better (=better-natured, nicer, or cuter) than the brother.

First of all, I’d like to point out once again that the West Syriac Bēth is confusing in the sense that it looks like the East Syriac Kāph. So, let’s see what those words will look like if we do use Kāph instead of Bēth:

ܪܰܒ‎ — ܪܰܟ — Okay, this guy is obviously wrong.

ܛܳܒ݂ܳܐ‎ — ܛܳܟ݂ܳܐ — This one is more confusing. Bēth has a longer, gradual slope while the upper part of Kāph is shorter and curly—in Serto anyway. If we put both side by side, the difference is not so hard to see. I guess the reason this is confusing to me, is not because Bēth and Kāph look similar in Serto, but because, specifically, Serto Bēth and Badnhaya Kāph look similar. I mean, I learned the East Alphabet first, and I tend to assume that the upper line of Bēth is horizontal and if it’s not horizontal, it’s not a Bēth but a Kāph, but that’s a wrong assumption when you’re dealing with the West Alphabet. Now that I have made this mental note, I think I’ll be fine. But let’s not forget that even the Unicode Standard and Alan’s respectable online textbook have them wrong too.

Secondly, I think the feminine form ܛܳܒ݂ܬܳܐ should be used here. Don’t they use feminine forms of adjectives anymore? Though, the masculine form kind of makes sense too, because the sentence says, “She is nicer than he is (nice),” where implicitly both genders are involved. [2013-08-04: Actually, tōḇō IS a feminine form—it is the abs. st. fem.; the abs. st. is the standard form when the adjective is predicative. So the above Syriac sentense is perfectly fine.]

Another thing: This is not related to Syriac, but Kasrah+Shadda is displayed differently by different fonts. Times New Roman looks more like it; Tahoma shows Kasrah in its normal position below the letter, rather than right below the Shadda.

(Note: This one is Arabic, not Syriac.)

2013-05-17: According to a SIL font page (UPDATE: Scheherazade 2.000), the Lowered Shadda+kasra placement is preferred in Urdu (India/Pak; 63 mil), Sindhi (Pakistan; 26 mil), and Rohingya (Myanmar; 1.8 mil).

Some people don’t like the default (raised) behavior, either. Arabic fonts issues - Tanzil

Okay, so this is the end of Page 3. Yay.

2014-12-08 The Egyptians write [Shadda over a high stroke] instead of [Shadda and Kasrah]; but elsewhere, at least in old manuscripts, [Shadda over a high stroke] may stand for [Shadda under Fatḥa] as well as [Shadda and Kasrah]. (Wright I, p. 14 D)

Qarahbash 2 (3)

2013-04-25

So, time for a little West Syriac...

ܗܐ ܗܘ ܗܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ
hu hōnō hōðē
Behold He She This (m) This (f)

Hōnō and Hōðē are classic forms (Alan 93).

ܐܰܚܐ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ (ܩܰܢܝܳܐ) ܠܘܚܐ ܡܶܢ
ă(ḥ)ḥō ḥōθō qăn-yō CAL luḥō mĕn (East: mĭn)
A brother Sister m. A pen f. Blackboard, tablet From

ܗܳܢܐ ܐܰܚܐ. ܗܳܕܶܐ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ.

(hōnō ăḥḥō. hōdē ḥōθō.) This is a brother. This is a sister.

ܐܰܚܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܩܰܢܝܐ.

The brother has a pen.

ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܹܗ = he has (ʾīθ lēh)‎ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇: ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܵܗ̇ = she has (ʾīθ lōh/lāh)‎

Alan 105. Lēh and Lōh are probably L- + suffix forms of pronouns (Alan 96), i.e. “(there is) to him” etc. Notice, the 3rd singular feminine form -āh (-ōh) has a dot above.

ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܠܘܚܐ.

The sister has a blackboard.

Subtitles parser: small optimizations. · 891d6cc · mpc-hc/mpc-hc · GitHub

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