Syriac 5 (+Latin)

未分類のメモ。主にシリア語とラテン語の学習ノート。このファイルは、ʿAbd‑mšīḥō d‑Qarah‑baš: Hergē d‑Qeryōnō 第1巻(西シリア語)の13~18課と、Wheelock’s Latin の27~28章に当たる。それ以前の部分は過去ログ参照。

CAL ?; Dic, 2, 3 Jessie, Ana; TS1 2 | TUS; Wiki; Map, 2, 3 | Alan; Qarahbaš, 1, 2; Nöldeke, fem, de | Per; Gaf


Qarahbaš 2 (37) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18

2013-08-10

0037mq.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܒܳܢܝܐ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ ܣܳܝܡܐ ܚܘܪ
bānyā bîʕē sāymā ḥūr
she builds f. eggs she puts Look!
ܗܐ ܩܶܢܐ، ܗܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
Look, a nest (qennā, m: though CAL says f). Look, a little bird.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܳܢܝܐ ܩܶܢܐ.
The little bird builds (f) a nest.
ܗܝ ܣܳܝܡܐ ܒܶܗ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ.
She lays in it (m) eggs.

2013-08-11

ܫܰܒܐ ܚܘܪ ܩܶܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
Šabbā (m), look at this nest.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ.
There are, in it (m), four (f) eggs (f).
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܩܶܢܐ.
The little bird is sitting (f) near the nest.
ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ (ʕal yaḏ), “by, near” (lit. “on the side [of]”)

Memo: ḥamšā, ḥammiš

🔊 [ħɐm.ʃɑ q.nɛɪ.jɑˑ]
ܚܰܡܫܐ ܩܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ
ḥamšā qnayyā
five (m) pens (m)

The a in ḥamšā, and especially the a’s in ḥammiš ḥaḡlāṯā, sound slightly darker than the front a in ʾarbʕā or šaḇʕā. [Oro. 16; GoD §6]

A masculine noun of type CaCyā has a plural form CəCayyā (Alan 63, 2): ܩܰܢܝܐ (qanyā) “pen” — pl. ܩ̈ܢܰܝܳܐ (qnayyā)

🔊 [ħɐm.miʃ ħɐɣ.lɑː.θɑˑ]
ܚܰܡܶܫ ܚܰܓ̥̈ܠܳܬ̥ܐ
ḥammiš ḥaḡlāṯā
five (f) hen partridges

ܚܰܓܠܐ (ḥaḡlā) “partridge” ⟦perdīx⟧ is m/f, with two pl. ܚܰܓ̈ܠܶܐ (ḥaḡlē), ܚܰܓ̈ܠܳܬܳܐ (ḥaḡlāṯā) — Note: Thesaurus syriacus 1192 has an entry, ܚܰܓ̈ܠܬܴܐ, where the Lāmaḏ is vowelless (Jessie also spelled the word like this). But the same word is written ܚܰܓ̈ܠܳܬܴܐ in the following text in TS, which should be the proper vocalization.

PNG Image

2013-08-12

0038EP.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܳܘܢ [ܡܽܘܢ] ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܨܘܪܬܐ ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܘܒܝܥ̈ܐ.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܘܒܝܥܶܝ̈ܗ̇.

— What (mọ̄n) is/are in the image? — A little bird and eggs. — A little bird and her eggs.

2 ܡܰܢ ܒܳܢܶܐ ܩܶܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܳܢܝܐ ܩܶܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ.

— Who builds (m) this nest? — The little bird builds (f) this nest.

3 ܟܡܐ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ [ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܩܶܢܐ ؟]
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܥ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ.

— How many eggs are there in the nest? [The second half of the question is missing in the syriacstudies.com version. I have taken this one from syrianorthodoxchurch.com.] — There are four eggs in it.

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܣܳܒܐ ؟
ܗܘ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.

— What does the old man buy? [This is getting really weird. The old man from the previous lesson?] — He buys apples.

2013-08-15

Fill in the blank — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ

ܒܝܥ̈ܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ ܩܶܢܐ
bîʕē ʾīlānā ḥalyā qennā
f. eggs m. tree sweet, pleasant m. nest
5 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ .....
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.

— A sparrow has two wings. (None of the given options would work, as we need a masculine plural noun.)

6 ܠܳܩܛܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ .......
ܠܳܩܛܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.

— She gathers fruits from a tree.

7 ܣܳܝܡܐ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ......
ܣܳܝܡܐ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢܐ.

— She puts eggs in the nest.

8 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܩܳܠܐ ......
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.

— A sparrow has a sweet (m. emph.) voice (m. qālā).

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.
This sparrow has a sweet voice.

Today’s Words

PNG Image

Wheelock 28: Sententiae Antīquae

2013-08-10

1. Ratiō dūcant, nōn fortūna.
Let reason lead, not fortune.
2. Arma togae cēdant.
Let arms (n. pl.) give way to togas.
3. Ex urbe nunc discēde nē metū et armīs opprimar.
Go away (imperat. sg) from the city now so that I may not be overwhelmed by fear and arms (=violence).
4. Nunc ūna rēs mihi prōtinus est facienda ut maximum ōtium et sōlācium habeam.
Now I have to do one thing immediately so that I may have the greatest peace and comfort.
5. Rapiāmus, amīcī, occāsiōnem dē diē.
Let us seize, O friends, the opportunity of the day.
¶ rapiō, rapiere, “seize, snatch” ¶ occāsiō, occāsiōnis, f. ¶ diēs, abl. diē
6. Corpus enim sommō et multīs aliīs rēbus eget ut valent; animus ipse sē alit.
A body, in fact, needs sleep and many other things to be strong; a soul itself supports itself.
¶ egeō, egēre, +abl. “need, lack, want”

2013-08-12

7. Quī beneficium dedit, taceat; nārret quī accēpit.
Let him be silent, who has done favor; let him tell (about it), who has accepted it.
¶ taceō, tacēre, “be silent, leave unmentioned” ¶ nārrō, nārrāre
Somewhat like: 桃李不言,下自成蹊
8. Dē mortuīs nihil nisi bonum dīcāmus.
Let us say nothing but good about the dead.
¶ mortuus, adj. “dead”
9. Parēns ipse nec habeat vitia nec toleret.
Let a parent himself neither have nor tolerate vices.
¶ vitium, n. “fault” ¶ tolerō, tolerāre
10. In hāc rē ratiō habenda est ut monitiō acerbitāte careat.
In this matter consideration (f) should be had, so that the warning/admonition may be without harshness. (=This is a touchy subject; try to say it nicely.)
¶ monitiō, monitiōnis, f. “admonition, warning” ¶ careō + abl. ¶ acerbitās, acerbitātis, f. “harshness”

2013-08-13

11. Fēminae ad lūdōs semper veniunt ut videant—et ut ipsae videantur.
Women always come to the games so that they may watch (them), and so that they themselves may be seen (by others).
¶ lūdus, m. “game, sport, school”
12. Arma virumque canō quī prīmus ā lītoribus Trōiae Italiam vēnit.
I sing about arms and the man who came first from the shores of Troy to Italy.
¶ arma, armōrum, n. pl. ¶ prīmus: another essive-like adjective. ¶ lītus, lītoris, n. “shore, coast”

Please Remove My Name From Your Mailing List!

Cūr nōn mittŏ meōs tibi, Pontiliāne, libellōs?
Nē mihi tū mittās, Pontiliāne, tuōs.
Why do I not send my booklets to you, Pontiliānus?
So that you may not send to me, Pontiliānus, yours.
¶ Elegiac couplet (hexameter + pentameter) ¶ mittŏ = poetic license (systole) ¶ libellus (liber + lus), dim.

2013-08-15

To Have Friends One Must be Friendly

Ut praestem Pyladēn, aliquis mihi praestet Orestēn.
Hoc nōn fit verbīs, Mārce; ut amēris, amā.
So that I may offer a Pyladēs, let someone offer me an Orestēs.
This is not done with/by words, O Mārcus; so that you may be loved, love.
{Mar}{ce u}{t a}{mē}{ri}{s a}{mā} —vv—vv—
¶ praestō, praestāre, “excel, exhibit, show, offer, supply” ¶ fit = pres. pass. of faciō ¶ Mārcus: or Mărcus

The Days of the Week

Etymologiae (Orīginēs) 5:30, by Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – 636), rewritten.

Diēs dictī sunt ā deīs quōrum nōmina Rōmānī quibusdam stēllīs dēdicāvērunt. Primum enim diem ā Sōle appellāvērunt, quī prīnceps est omnium stēllārum ut īdem diēs est prae omnibus diēbus aliīs.
Days have been named after gods whose names the Romans dedicated to certain starts. Indeed they called the first day after Sōl, who is the leader of all the stars just as the same day is before all/any other days.
Secundum diem ā Lūnā appellāvērunt, quae ex Sōle lūcem accēpit. Tertium ab stēllā Mārtis, quae vesper appllātur.
They called the second day after Lūna, who receives light from Sōl. [They called] the third one after the star of Mārs, which is called evening star. (This is interesting: maybe the older tradition was related, where Venus had been “Mars” i.e. Ishtar. Apparently they believed that the morning star and the evening star were two different stars. But then where was “our” Mars, the 4th planet of the Solar System, in this system of theirs?)
Quārtum ab stēllā Mercuriī. Quīntum ab stēllā Iovis. Sextum ā Veneris stēllā, quam Lūciferum appllāvērunt, quae inter omnēs stēllās plūrimum lūcis habet. Septimum ab stēllā Sāturnī, quae dīcitur cursum suum trīgintā annīs explēre.
[They called] the fourth one after the star of Mercurius. The fifth after the star of Iuppiter. The sixth after the star of Venus; they called it Lūciferus; it has the most (=brightest) light amongst all the stars. The seventh after the star of Sāturnus, which is said to complete its course in 30 years (a pretty good estimation—the accurate value is around 29.5).
Aqud Hebraeōs autem diēs prīmus dīcitur ūnus diēs sabbatī, quī in linguā nostrā diēs dominicus est, quem pāgānī Sōlī dēdicāvērunt.
Among the Hebrews, however, the first day is called Day One (יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן) of the Sabbatum; in our language it is the day of the Lord, which pagans dedicated to Sōl.
Sabbatum autem septimus diēs ā dominicō est, quem pāgānī Sāturnō dēdicāvērunt.
Sabbatum, however, is the seventh day from the Lord [day]; pagans dedicated it to Sāturnus.

Qarahbaš 2 (35) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 17

2013-08-06

0035De.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܩܰܪ̈ܢܐ ܡܰܣܬܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܐܰܪܝܡ
qarnē mastā ʕesbā arīm
f. horns f. yogurt m. green herb, grass he raised
Syriac Ap̄ʕel (Aphel) vs. Hebrew Hip̄ʕīl (Hiphil)
Sg 3m 3f 2m 2f 1c
Syriac ܐܰܩܛܶܠ ܐܰܩܛܠܰܬ ܐܰܩܛܶܠܬ ܐܰܩܛܶܠܬܝ ܐܰܩܛܠܶܬ
a-qṭel a-qṭlaṯ a-qṭelt a-qṭeltẙ a-qṭleṯ
Hebrew הִקְטִיל הִקְטִילָה הִקְטַלְתָּ הִקְטַלְתְּ הִקְטַלְתִּי
hi-qṭīl hi-qṭīlāh hi-qṭaltā hi-qṭalt † hi-qṭaltī

† 2015-12-31 This form ends in two occurrences of Šĕwā Quiēscēns.

2013-08-07

ܥܺܐܕܐ ܚܙܝ ܥܶܙܐ.
ʿĪḏā, look, it’s a goat (m/f).
Syc: ܥܶܙܐ (ʕezzā) — Ṭuroyo: ܥܺܙܐ (ʕēzō)
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܥܶܙܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ [ܪܳܥܝܳܐ] ܥܶܣܒܐ.
This (f) goat is grazing (f) grass.
ܪܳܥܶܐ (rāʕe), ܪܳܥܝܐ (rāʕyā) part. “graze”
ܫܳܬܝܐ [ܫܳܬܝܳܐ] ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܓܘܒܐ.
She drinks water from a water hole.
ܫܳܬܶܐ (šāṯe), ܫܳܬܝܐ (šāṯyā) part. “drink”
ܥܶܙܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܩܰܪ̈ܢܐ.
The goat has (f) two horns (f).
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
She gives to us, every day, milk. (She gives us milk every day.)
ܝܳܗܶܒ (yāheḇ), ܝܳܗܒܐ (yāhbā) part. “give”
ܟܽܠܝܘܡ‎ = ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ‎ [§3] (kul yōm/kul yūm) “every day”
ܚܰܠܒܐ ܕܥܶܙܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܒܰܣܝܡ.
Milk (m) of a goat (=Goat milk) is very sweet (m. abs).

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2013-08-08

0036cZ.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Match words with sentences — ܫܰܠܶܡ ܠܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ

Note: ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ (petgāmē) was written ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ (peṯḡāmē) before.

ܩܰܪ̈ܢܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܓܘܒܐ
qarnē ḥalbā ḥalḇā ʕesbā gubbā
f. horns m. milk m. grass m. water hole

Fun Fact: Armenian գուբ (gowb, /gub/) is from Syriac ܓܘܒܐ — or rather its abs. st. ܓܘܒ (goḇ MAYBE gub OR guḇ).
This is my first time hand-writing Armenian letters :) → PNG: ‘gowb’ in Armenian alphabet [And 3 years later]

1 ܥܶܙܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ .....
ܥܶܙܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ.

— This (f) goat is grazing (f) grass.

2 ܫܳܬܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ......
ܫܳܬܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܓܘܒܐ.

— She drinks water from a cistern/reservoir/water hole.

3 ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ .....
ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ.

— Every day she gives us milk.

Perform what you read — ܩܪܝ ܘܰܥܒܶܕ

This section has a lot of irregular (weak) imperative forms. Regular forms are like this:

Except for Peal, pf 3m = impt 2m
ܩܛܰܠ ܩܛܘܿܠ ܩܰܛܶܠ ܐܰܩܛܶܠ
qṭal qṭol (W-Syr. qṭul) qaṭṭel ʾaqṭel
Peal pf. Peal impt. Pael pf/impt Aphel pf/impt

For example, qūm “Stand!” √QWM could be understood as *qwum. BTW these Semitic verbs are somewhat like Japanese Korosu/buKKorosu, Taosu/Taoreru/buTTaosu/buTTaoreru, etc.

4 ܩܘܡ ܥܰܠ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
Stand on [your] feet.
ܩܳܡ (qām) √QWM “stand” — impt. ܩܘܡ (qūm) [§177 A]
5 ܙܶܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
Go near (ləwāṯ) the door.
ܙܶܠ (zel), ܙܶܠܝ (zelẙ) = irregular imperat. [§183 (4)] of ܐܶܙܰܠ (ʾezal) “go” (Peal with 1st. Alep̄, which gets e)
6 ܬܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.
Sit on the chair (kursyā).
ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ (yīṯeḇ) “sit” is a Peal with 1st. Y, which gets ī. The 1st Y is lost in fut. ܢܶܬܶܒ (netteḇ) and impt. ܬܶܒ (teḇ) [§175]. Not to be confused with ܬܳܒ (tāḇ) √TWB “return”, nor with ܛܳܒ (ṭāḇ) “good”.
7 ܚܰܘܐ ܠܰܢ ܩܰܢܝܐ.
Show (to) us the pen.
ܚܰܘܝ (ḥawwī) Pa. √ḤWY “show” — imperat. ܚܰܘܐ (ḥawwā), ܚܰܘܳܝ (ḥawwāẙ ḥawwāy). This guy is double-weak, but practically it’s just a 3rd-Y. Pael perfect forms have ī, while Pael imperative forms have ā [§176 B, D].
8 ܐܰܪܝܡ ܐܝܕܳܟ ܠܥܶܠ.
Raise your (m) hand (ʾīḏāḵ) upward.
ܐܰܪܝܡ (ʾarīm), ܐܰܪܝܡܰܬ̥ (ʾarīmaṯ) Aphel √RWM “raise” — imperat. ܐܰܪܝܡ (ʾarīm: same as 3m), ܐܰܪܝܡܝ (ʾarīmẙ) [§177 B].

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܥܶܙܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܡܰܣܬܐ ܓܘܒܢ̈ܐ.
A goat gives (f) us milk, yogurt, cheeses (guḇnē).

2013-08-09

Memo: ḥawwī (Pael, 3rd-Y)

Luke 24:40 “He showed them his hands and his feet.”
ܚܰܘܺܝ ܐܶܢܽܘܢ ܐܺܝܕ݂ܰܘܗ݈ܝ ܘܪܶܓ݂ܠܰܘܗ݈ܝ
ḥawwī ʾenōn ʾennōn ʾīḏawh̊y w-reḡlawh̊y
he showed them his hands (f) and his feet (f)
John 10:32 “I have shown you many good works”
ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܥܒ݂ܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܫܰܦ݁ܺܝܪܶܐ ܚܰܘܺܝܬ݂ܟ݂ܽܘܢ
saggīyē (saggīʾē) ʕeḇāḏē ʕəḇāḏē šappīrē ḥawwīṯ-ḵon
many, m pl deeds, m pl beautiful, m pl I showed you (m pl)
John 7:4 “shew thyself to the world”
ܚܰܘܳܐ ܢܰܦ݂ܫܳܟ݂ ܠܥܳܠܡܳܐ
hawwā nap̄šāḵ lə-ʕālmā
show! (2m sg) your (m) soul to the world
Matthew 22:19 “Show me the denarius of the head-silver.”
ܚܰܘܰܐܘܽܢܝ ܕ݁ܺܝܢܳܪܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܟ݂ܣܶܦ݂ ܪܺܫܳܐ
ḥawwaʾu-ny ḥawwâʾūnẙ dīnārā da-ḵsep̄ rīšā
Show (2m pl) me! denarius of silver (m sg const [=abs]) head

2013-08-10

Memo: Surayt or Ṣurayt?

Otto Jastrow (1942–) [Tallin University, Estonia] : The Turoyo Language Today (PDF Link), Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, Vol. 1, 1986

ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܬܐ ܛܘܪܳܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܬ ܨܘܪܝܬ
suryāyā suryāytā ṭurāyā (ṭurōyō) surayt (?) ṣurayt (?)
Syriac, m Syriac, f mountainous Syriac (and Surayt ?) Şurayt* (?)

*As in: Şurayt-Swedi.

ܐ̱ܣܘܪܳܝܬܐ ܛܘܪ ܥܰܒܕܝܢ ܛܘܪ ܥܰܒܕܝܢ
åsurāytā (?) ṭūr ʕaḇdīn ṭūr ʕaḇdīn
CPA Assyrian (?) Tur Abdin m. abs/const mountain m. pl. abs. servants
ܡܶܕܝܰܕ ܬܠܳܬܐ «ܬܠܳܣܐ» ܟܬܳܒܳܢܳܝܐ
miḏyaḏ tlāṯā tlāsā kṯobonoyo (?)
Midyat three (f) Mlahsö: three literary language

Unfortunately, however, the Church remained hostile to the idea of developing Şurayt into a written language, and this proved a major obstacle. The negative attitude of the church led to a division of the people which continues to this day and which has prevented Şurayt from becoming the written language of the whole people.

Xëzne d xabre Ordlista: Şurayt-Swedi [mëḏyoyo]

Qarahbaš 2 (33) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 16

2013-08-02

0033hD.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܓܰܒܪܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ
gaḇrō mzabben ḥazzūrē bḡaw
m. (strong) man selling m. apples inside, within

܏ܓ ܣܽܘܪܝܳܝܳܐ (gaḇrō sūryōyō) “a Syrian”

ܐܳܗ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
Wow, fragrant (m. pl. emph.) fruits (m. pl)!
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
The man is selling fruits.
ܙܒܰܢ (zḇan) “buy” — part. ܙܳܒܶܢ (zōḇen) — Pael ܙܰܒܶܢ (zabben) “sell” — part. ܡܙܰܒܶܢ (mzabben)
ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ، ܡܘܙ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
He sells figs, bananas and apples.
ܗܐ ܣܳܒܐ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܘܣܳܐܶܡ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܰܠܐ، ܟܶܢ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܶܗ ܙܘܙ̈ܐ.
Look, an old man buys apples and puts [them] in [his] basket, and then gives money to him (the seller).
ܣܘܡ (SWM), or rather SYM [Nöld. §177] — ܣܳܡ (sōm) “put” — part. ܣܳܐܶܡ (sōʾem), ܣܳܝܡܳܐ (sōymō)
ܝܗܒ (YHB), ܝܰܗ̱ܒ (yah̊ḇ) “give” — part. ܝܳܗܶܒ (yōheḇ), ܝܳܗܒܳܐ (yōhbō). This guy is not only week (1st-Y), but irregular [§183 (6)], though participles look quite normal.
Jpegܙܘܙ (zūz), ܙܘܙܐ (zūzā) m. “coin” — pl. ܙܘܙܝ̈ܢ (zūzīn), ܙܘܙ̈ܐ (zūzē) “coins, money” — Jessie says: a coin equal to a quarter shekel of Jewish money, or to a Greek drachma, or Arabic dirhem, worth nearly ten [pre-decimal] pence [10/240 pounds]. Though Stephen Kaufman and CAL explain it as “half shekel”, a zuz seems to be actually a quarter of one shekel (Jastrow and Payne-Smith agree). One shekel is typically 14–17 grams, or roughly one half of a troy ounce (≈31.1 g). Let’s say it was 50% silver, then 1 shekel = 1/4 oz. and 1 zuz = 1/16 oz. in silver. Today a 1 oz. silver coin is worth 20 USD, which makes a zuz = 1.25 USD or 1 Euro. According to Kaufman, zūzu is Akkadian; American Heritage Dictionary states: “from Akkadian zūzu, half, division, unit of weight, from zâzu, to divide”. [Image: an ancient zuz coin (2nd century?)]

2014-08-31: (1) Encyclopedia Britannica (1911) says that light shekel weighed from 210 to 210.55 grains (13.6 g); the heavy shekel was twice that amount. (2) Monetary unit and the unit of mass/volume may be different concepts. While obviously a one-shekel coin is worth a Shekel, it may not weight 1 shekel. However, a one-zūzā coin seems to be worth 1/4 shekel, and perhaps 1 zūzā = 1/8 oz. = 3.5 g = roughly 1/4 shekel-weight. (3) Original ancient Shekel may have been 180 grains (11.7 g).

2015-07-14: If zūzā = 10/240 pound, it is roughly = 0.06 USD. If zūzā = 1/4 Israeli New Shekel, it is roughly = 0.07 USD. Apparently, zūzā may be about 10 cents, or maybe about 1 USD/EUR (see above). In Book 3, Lesson 31, a kid’s mom gives him 30 zūzīn to buy 1 kg of bread. In this case, 1 zūza = 1 USD would be too much and 1 zūza = 10 cents may work better.

2013-08-03

0034W9.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܨܘܪܬܐ ؟
ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܙܘܙ̈ܐ.

— What are in the picture? — Fruits and money.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܓܰܒܪܐ ؟
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

— What does the man sell? — The man sells fruits.

3 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ؟
ܗܘ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ، ܡܘܙ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.

— What (pl.) fruits does he sale? — He sale figs, bananas, and apples.

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܣܳܒܐ ؟
ܣܳܒܐ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.

— What does the old man buy? — The old man buys apples.

5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ؟
ܗܘ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܰܠܐ.

— Where does he put the apples? — He puts the apples in [his] basket.

2013-08-04

Note: Starting today I will transliterate a Zqāp̄ā as ā instead of ō even when handling W-Syr., though probably I will sometimes make exceptions. This ā is pronounced /o/ in W-Syr. and /ɑ/ in E-Syr. I’ll do this to differentiate it from a ʕṣāṣā pronounced ō, aka Rwāḥā. I mean, it could be confusing if you transliterate ܙܥܘܪܐ as zʕōrō. So I’ll make it zʕōrā.

Bigger or smaller — ܣܝܡ «ܪܰܒ» ܐܰܘ «ܙܥܘܪ» ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܝܰܘܢܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
Like: A dove is bigger than a little bird. [ܝܰܘܢܐ is m/f and it is m. here.]
6 ܬܰܘܪܐ ....... ܓܰܡܠܐ.
ܬܰܘܪܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܡܠܐ.

—A bull is smaller than a camel. [An adult camel stands 6 feet at the shoulder and 7+ feet at the hump. It’s about as tall as a tall person. A bull can be more than 5 feet at the shoulder, but a camle is taller in general. Though, probably a bull is heavier.]

7 ܛܰܠܝܐ ...... ܡܶܢ ܓܰܒܪܐ.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܒܪܐ.

—A (7- to 12-year-old) boy is smaller than a (grown-up) man.

8 ܟܰܠܒܐ ...... ܡܶܢ ܩܰܛܐ.
ܟܰܠܒܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܩܰܛܐ.

—A dog is bigger than a cat.

The English word cat is based on Late Latin cattus, which probably is of Afro-Asiatic origin. This means that Syr. ܩܰܛܐ (qaṭṭā) and Ar. قِطّ (qiṭṭ) are perhaps related to cat. It is possible, though, that Syr. qaṭṭā was re-imported from somewhere else, like Byzantine Greek κάττα.

9 ܥܺܕܬܐ ....... ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܥܺܕܬܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ.

—A church is bigger than a house.

ܥܺܕܬܐ (ʕēḏtā) f. “assembly, church” — ḏ is dropped in West Syriac and t is hard [Nöld. §26B]. More explicitly, ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ (ʕēd̊tā).

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ ܡܘܙܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܚܰܘܚ̈ܐ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ
Fruits figs banana grapes peaches apples

Neo-W-Syr. ܚܰܘܚܳܐ (ḥawḥā) = Neo-E-Syr. ܚܵܘܚܵܐ (ḥāwḥā / ḥōḥā) f. “peach” (Prunus persica), Lat. malum Persicum. [Thesaurus syriacus 1219]

*1 (2016-12-10) az. turk. (= Azerbaijani Turkish) means the Azerbaijani language [az]; however, I can’t find such an Azerbaijani word in Azerbaijani English Dictionary - azerdict.com: “peach” is şaftalı, “plum” is gavalı.

2013-08-05

Memo: ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ.Amo linguam Syriacam.

J’aime le Syriaque.
ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ
rāḥem ånā rāḥmā ånā liššānā sūryāyā
I love (m) I love (f) m. language Syriac

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2016-12-10

ʕḗ(d)tā

ܘܰܗ̣ܘܳܬ̥ ܕܶܚܠܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܒܟ̥ܽܠܳܗ̇ ܥܺܕ̱݁ܬܐ܂ ܘܰܒܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܗܳܢܘܢ ܕܰܫܡܰܥܘ܀
ܘܲܗܘ̤ܵܬ݂ ܕܸܚܠ݈ܬ݂ܵܐ ܒܟ̣ܠܵܗ̇ ܥܹܕܬܵܐ ܘܲܒ݂ܟ݂ܠܗܘܿܢ ܗܵܢ̇ܘܿܢ ܕܲܫܡ̣ܲܥܘ.܀
And great fear (OR awe) was in the whole church, and in all of those who heard [about it]. (Ac5:11⁎)

Like Meṯeḡ-related problems in Hebrew, Syriac text is sometimes not normalization-safe by default. Even if you want to put a dot below (i.e. after) U+0732 [ ܲ ] SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED in ܫܡܲܥ, the dot-below will come before it when normalized, as ܫܡ̣ܲܥ. This is because Canonical_Combining_Class=Above for U+0732 [230] (when it’s more like “Above and Below”), and that for U+0323 COMBINING DOT BELOW is Canonical_Combining_Class=Below [220]. So it’s difficult to put anything below U+0732, because “0732 + Something-Below” will be normalized as “Something-Below + 0732”, which will display U+0732 even lower than Something-below. Practically, perhaps one can type ܫ̣ܡܲܥ instead. On the other hand, both ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ and ܐܵܡ̇ܲܪ are normalization-safe.

Wheelock 28: Practice and Review

2013-08-02

1. Auctor sapiēns et dīligēns turpia vītet et bona probet.
Let the wise and diligent author avoid ugly things and approve good things.
¶ turpis, turpie, “ugly, shameful, base, disgraceful” ¶ probō, probāre, “approve”
2. Itaque prō patriā etiam maiōra meliōraque nunc faciāmus.
And so for our fatherland, let us do even greater and better things now.
3. Nepōs tuus ā mēnsā discēdat nē ista verba acerba audiat.
Let your grandson go away from the table so that he may not hear these hash words (of yours).
¶ discēdō, discere, “go away”
4. Nē imperātor superbus crēdat sē esse fēlīciōrem quam virum humillimum.
Do not let the arrogant general believe that he (himself) is happier than a very humble man.
¶ imperātor, imperātōris, m. “general, commander-in-chief, emperor” ¶ superbus, adj. “arrogant” ¶ fēlīx, fēlīcis. ¶ humilis, humile.
5. Quisque petit quam fēlīcissimum et urbānissimum modum vītae.
Each one seeks the happiest and most elegant mode of life possible.

2013-08-05

Studeo linguae Latinae ut hunc librum legam.

6. Quīdam dēlectātiōnēs et beneficia aliīs praestant ut beneficia similia recipiant.
Some people offer enjoyments and favors to others in order to receive similar favors.
¶ dēlectātiō, dēlectātiōnis, f. “delight, pleasure, enjoyment” ¶ beneficium, n. “benefit, kindness, favor” ¶ praestō, praestāre, (+ dat.) “exhibit, show, offer, supply” ¶ recipiō, recipere.
7. Multī medicī lūcem sōlis fuisse prīmum remedium putant.
Many doctors think that the light of the sun was the first cure.
8. Imperium ducī potentiōrī dabunt ut hostēs ācerrimōs āvertat.
They will give the power to command to a stronger leader so that he may avert the very fierce enemy.
¶ hostēs, hostium, m. pl. “the enemy” (hostis, hostis, m. “an enemy”)
9. Hīs verbīs trīstibus nūntiātīs, pars hostium duōs prīncipēs suōs relīquit.
After these grim words had been announced, some of the enemy abandoned their two leaders.
¶ nūntiō, “announce, report, relate” — nūntiātus. ¶ prīnceps, prīncipis, m/f. ¶ relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictum, “leave behind, leave, abandon”
10. Maiōrēs putābant deōs superōs habēre corpora hūmāna pulcherrima et fortissima.
[Our] ancestors used to think that the gods above had very beautiful and strong human bodies.

2013-08-06

11. Uxor pudīca eius haec decem ūtilissima tum probāvit.
His modest wife at that time recommended these 10 very useful things.
¶ provō, provāre, “approve, recommend, test”
12. Let him not think that those dissimilar laws are worse than the others.
Nē putet illās dissimilēs lēgēs esse peiōrēs aliīs (OR: peiōrēs quam aliās).

2013-08-07

13. They will send only twenty men to do this very easy thing in the forum.
Tantum vīgintī virōs mittent ut hoc facillimum in forō faciant.
¶ send = mittō, mittere — mittent
14. They said: “Let us call the arrogant emperor a most illustrious man in order not to be expelled from the country.”
Dīxērunt: “Apellēmus imperātōrem superbum (esse ?) clārissimum vīrum nē expellāmur ex patriā.”
15. Therefore, let them not order this very wise and very good woman to depart from the dinner.
Nē igitur iubant haec fēminam sapientissimam et optimam discēdere ā cēnā.
¶ iubeō, iubēre

Qarahbaš 2 (32) — ܫܽܘ̈ܳܐܠܶܐ

2013-07-31

0032s6.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܨܘܪܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ؟
ܘܰܙܐ.
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܨܘܪܬܐ ܕܘܰܙܐ.

— What is this picture? — A goose (swan). — This is a picture of a goose. (Maybe this works too?)

ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ (mōnō h̊y) = E-Syr. 🔊 ܡܵܢܲܐ ܗ݇‌ܝܼ (māna h̊y) = Neo-Syr. 🔊 ܡܘܿܕܝܼ ܝ݇ܠܵܗ̇ (moḏī ẙlāh) [Alan 94] — aii ܡܘܼܕܝܼ ܝ݇ܠܵܐ (mudī ẙlā), or ܡܘܼ ܝ݇ܠܵܐ (mu ẙlā) [Oro. 24, 28]; or Muyleh

ܨܘܪܬܐ (ṣūrtō) f. “form, image, picture”

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܣܳܚܶܐ ܘܰܙܐ ؟
ܣܳܚܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ.

— Where does the goose swim? — He swims in the river.

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܘܰܙܐ ؟
ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܚܶܛ̈ܐ.

— What does the goose eat? — He eats grains of wheat.

4 ܟܡܐ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ؟
ܐܝܬ ܠܶܗ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.

— How many wings does he have? — He has two wings.

5 ܘܰܙܐ ܪܰܒ ܐܰܘ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ؟
ܘܰܙܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ.

— Is a goose bigger, or a rooster? — A goose is bigger than a rooster.

Write 2 or 4 — ܣܝܡ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܘ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

Fem. forms are used above. Fem. are default when counting?

ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܰܠܝܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ... ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ... ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.

6 ܟܰܠܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ...... ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
ܟܰܠܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.

A dog has four feet (f).

7 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ...... ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.

A little bird (f) has two wings (m).

Note: The vowel e in ܨܶܦܪܐ (ṣepprō) is, at least in East Syriac, pronounced “darkly” at the back of mouth. This vowel sound is roughly [ɯ] (back close), though sometimes laxer.

8 ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ...... ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ.
ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ.

A bull has two ears (f).

9 ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ...... ܐܝ̈ܕܐ.
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܝ̈ܕܐ.

Maryam (f) has two hands (f).

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܘܰܙܐ ܣܳܚܶܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܢܘܢܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ.
A goose swims, like a fish, inside a river.

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2013-08-01

More on Ṣipprā

In the E-Syr. word ṣipprā (W-Syr. ṣepprō), the vowel i after the is pronounced [ɯ] (back close). The actual sound may be slightly laxer, and sometimes centralized ([ɯ̽]), approaching [ɘ] (central close-mid). The (possibly) laxer version can be heard in the third example below. This one has rīn—a syllable with a tense, long vowel—after ṣip; perhaps that’s why ṣip becomes relatively unstressed and they “go easy” on that part.

2016-12-10 The vowel is perhaps a central-to-back version of [ɪ], sounding like [ɘ].

🔊 [sˤɯpː.ɾɑ ħəðɑː biː.ðɑˑ]
ܨܸܦܪܵܐ ܚܕܵܐ ܒܐܝܼܕܵܐ
ṣipprā ḥḏā b-ʾīḏā
f. sparrow one (f) in a hand
🔊 [tˤɑː.wɛɪ min ʕəsaːɾ]
ܛܵܒܲܐ ܗ݇‌̣ܝ ܡܸܢ ܥܣܲܪ
ṭāḇa h̊i (ā to a) min ʕsar
is (f) good (f abs) than ten (f)
🔊 [sˤɯpː.ɾiːn d.ʕal ʔɨː.lɑː.nɑˑ]
ܨܸܦܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܕܥܲܠ ܐܝܼܠܵܢܵܐ
ṣipprīn d-ʕal ʾīlānā
sparrows (alt pl) of above m. tree

ܬܠܵܬ݂ ܨܸܦܪܹ̈ܐ 🔊 [tlɑːθ sˤɯp.ɾeˑ] “three birds” [ܪܹ̈ should look like ܖܹ̈, but this does not work on Firefox (as of v17)].

2013-08-12: While CAL says ṣeppar, ṣepprā, Thesaurus syriacus 3433 has ܨܶܦ݂ܰܪ‎, ܨܶܦ݂ܪܳܐ (Notice a dot below Pē), that is ṣep̄ar, ṣep̄rā. Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament also has it like this. Then again, LS2 says ܨܶܦ݁ܪܴܐ, abs. ܨܶܦܱ݁ܪ.

2013-08-22: DoD 267 says: ܨܸܦܪܵܐ, ṣiprâ, OS., f.

Qarahbaš 2 (31) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 15

2013-07-29

0031oM.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܣܳܚܶܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ ܚܰܩܠܐ
sōḥe ḥɪwwōrō
(syr: ḥwārā)
pōraḥ (e to a) ḥaqlō
bathing, swimming, √SḤY white flying f.(m.?) field
ܗܐ ܘܰܙܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ.
Look, (it’s) a white goose (≈ a swan).
ܘܰܙܐ (wazzō) f. (but here used as m. [Nöld. §85]) “goose” ⟦anser/ānser?⟧ — this can also mean “swan” though there is a separate word for it (ܩܘܩܢܳܘܣ, qūqnāws = Gr. κύκνος = La. cygnus). ¶ Traditionally, both True Geese [tribe Anserini] and True Swans [tribe Cygnini] belong to the same subfamily Anserinae, though Cygnini may be considered as a separate subfamily, Cygninae. The point is, they are roughly the same birds. Some geese are white too.
ܘܰܙܐ ܣܳܚܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ.
The goose is swimming in the river.
ܒܓ̥ܰܘ (bḡăw) “within” — Urmiah: ܒܓܵܘ (bgā(w)) ? ¶ ܢܰܗܪܐ (nahrō) m. “river”
ܠܳܩܶܛ ܚܶܛ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܩܠܐ.
He picks up grains of wheat from the field.
ܚܶܛܬ̥ܳܐ (ḥeṭṭəṯō) f. “a grain of wheat” — pl. ܚ̈ܶܛܶܐ (ḥeṭṭē) — A large number of feminines, particularly names of plants, have a feminine termination in the singular, but not in the plural. [Nöld. §81] For example, ܡܶܠܬ̥ܳܐ (melləṭō) “word” — pl. ܡ̈ܶܠܶܐ (mellē); ܥܶܢܒܬܳܐ (ʕenbṯō) “grape” — pl. ܥܶܢ̈ܒܶܐ (ʕenḇē)

2013-07-30

ܘܰܙܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
The goose has two wings.
ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܐܰܝܟ ܝܰܘܢܐ.
But he does not fly well like a dove.
ܐܶܠܐ (ellō) “but” ¶ ܐܰܝܟ (ʾayḵ [a(ː)x]) “as” ¶ ܫܰܦܝܪ (šappīr) “beautiful”, Adv. “well, rigthly” — Perhaps the author means that a swan is much heavier than a dove and can not start flying very quickly.
ܘܰܙܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ.
A goose is bigger than a rooster. ⟦Anser est maior quam gallus.⟧

Memo: Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

JBA: Jewish Babylonian Aramaic [tmr: Talmudic Aramaic] = a form of Middle Aramaic (ca. 200–1200). A language of Iraq. Northeastern like aii, cld.

Wheelock 27: Sententiae Antīquae

2013-07-27

1. Trahit mē nova vīs: videō meliōra probōque, sed peiōra tantum faciō et nesciō cūr.
A new power drags me: I see and approve better things, but I only do worse things and I do not know why.
¶ trahō, trahere, “draw, drag, derive, acquire”
2. Quaedam carmina sunt bona; plūra sunt mala.
Certain songs are good; more [songs] are bad.
¶ carmen, carminis, n. “song, poem” ¶ quaedam f. sg. = n. pl.
3. Optimum est. Nihil melius, nihil pulchrius hōc vīdī.
It is the best. I have seen nothing better, nothing prettier than this.
¶ hōc = abl.
4. Spērō tē et hunc nātālem et plūrimōs aliōs quam fēlīcissimōs āctūrum esse.
I wish that you will do both this birthday and many, many other things as happy as can be.
āctūrum esse is sg. mas., so its subject is and not tē et hunc nātālem et...; et... et... should be the object of āctūrum.
5. Quoniam cōnsilium et ratiō sunt in senibus, maiōrēs nostrī summum concilium appellāvērunt senātum.
Since wisdom and reason are in old men (senex), our ancestors called the highest council senate.
¶ quoniam = since ¶ cōnsilium (counsel, plan, wisdom; délibération) ≠ cŏncilium (council; assemblée) ¶ maior, maiōris = mājor, mājōris maiōrēs (mājōrēs) means “ancestors, forefathers” [Lewis & Short: magnus II.B.1.], and nostrī is a possessive adjective, not the objective genitive of nōs (as in timor nostrī), much less the partitive genitive nostrum (as in multi nostrum).

2013-07-28

6. Plūs operae studiīque in rēbus domesticīs nōbīs nunc pōnendum est etiam quam in rēbus mīlitāribus.
More effort and eagerness should be now put in domestic affairs by us, even more than in military affairs.
plūs is a singular neuter noun (Plūs ... pōnendum est), used with a genitive of the whole. ¶ in rēbus domesticīs nōbīs (“[it is necessary] for us in domestic affairs”): nōbīs is the dative of agent in the passive periphrastic; not to be confused with in rēbus domesticīs nostrīs (“in our domestic affairs”), where nostrīs is an adjective modifying rēbus.
7. Neque enim perīculum in rē pūbulicā fuit gravius umquam neque ōtium maius.
Indeed the danger in the republic has never been more serious, and peace has never been greater either.
¶ gravis, grave — gravior, gravius
8. Sumus sapientiōrēs illīs, quod nōs nātūram esse optimam ducem scīmus.
We are wiser than those (people), because we know that nature is the best (as) leader.
optimam ducem is not so strange if you think ducem as essive (“we know that nature—being a leader—is the best”). This is somewhat similar to the “adjective as adverb” phoenomenon, as in quī imperia libēns accēpit (“he who—being free—accepted orders”)
9. Nātūra minimum petit; nātūrae autem sē sapiēns accommodat.
Nature demands very little; moreover, a wise man adapts himself to nature.
¶ Seneca: Epistulae morales ad Lucilium (Liber II) XVII:9 [Moral letters to Lucilius]

"But," you say, "I shall lack the necessities of life." In the first place, you cannot lack them; because nature demands but little, and the wise man suits his needs to nature.

10. Maximum remedium īrae mora est.
The greatest remedy of anger is delay.
11. Quī animum vincit et īram continet, eum cum summīs virīs nōn comparō sed eum esse simillimum deō dīcō.
He who conqures his (own) soul and holds his anger—I do not compare him with highest men, but I say that he is most god-like.
12. Dionȳsius, tyrannus urbis pulcherrimae, erat vir summae in vīctū temperantiae et in omnibus rēbus dīligentissimus et ācerrimus. Īdem tamen erat ferōx ac iniūstus. Quā ex rē, sī vērum dīcimus, vidēbātur miserrimus.
Dionysius, tyrant of the very beautiful city [Syracuse], was a man of the highest temperance in his mode of life, and [a man who was] very diligent and very keen in everything. The same man, however, was savage and unjust; because of which, to tell the truth, he was seen as very wretched/lamentable.
Διονύσιος [ῡ] (c432–367 BC): a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, Sicily. ¶ vīctus, vīctūs, m. “living, mode of life” ¶ temperantia, f. “moderation, temperance, self-control” ¶ dīligēns, dīligentis, adj.
13. Nisi superōs vertere possum, Acheronta movēbō.
If I [Juno] can not turn (=persuade) those above, I will move the Acheron.
¶ moveō, movēre
Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta mouebo. (Aeneis 7:312) — “But if my divine strength is not enough, I won’t hesitate to seek help wherever it might be: if I cannot sway the gods, I’ll stir the Acheron.

2013-07-30

Alley Cat (Catullus 58)

Caelī, Lesbia nostra, Lesbia illa,
illa Lesbia, quam Catullus ūnam
plūs quam sē atque suōs amāvit omnēs,
nunc in quadriviīs et angiportīs
glūbit magnanimī Remī nepōtēs.
O Caelius, our Lesbia, that girl Lesbia,
Lesbia, that girl, whom—as [only] one woman—Catullus
loved more than himself and even his all men (friends),
[she] now at crossroads and in (back-)allays
is “peeling” descendants of noble-hearted Remus.
¶ The first quam is a relative pronoun (fem. acc.); the second quam is a conjunction. ¶ Gāĭus Vălărĭus Cătullus (ca. 84–54 BC): a lyric poet of the Roman Republic. ¶ Remus = legendary founder of Rome and the twin brother of Romulus.
hendecasyllablic = xx -vv- v-v-- = xx + choriamb + v-v--

-- [-v v-]v -v{-}- # Lesbi{a il}la
-v [-vv -]v-v--
-- [{-}vv-] v-v -- # {sē at}que suōs
-- [-vv-] v-v--
-- [-vv-] v-v--

2013-07-31

Thanks a lot, Tully! (Catullus 49)

Dīsertissime Rōmulī nepōtum,
quot sunt quotque fuēre, Marce Tullī,
quotque post aliīs erunt in annīs,
grātiās tibi maximās Catullus
agit, pessimus omnium poēta,
tantō pessimus omnium poēta
quantō tū optimus omnium patrōnus.
O most eloquent one amongst the descendants of Romulus,
as many as they are and they have been, O Marcus Tullius,
and as many as they shall be afterwards in coming years,
the greatest thanks to you does Catullus
give, the worst poet of all,
the worst poet of all just as much
as you [are] the best patron of all.
¶ Romulus = (1) legendary founder of Rome and the twin brother of Remus; (2) the homeworld of the Romulans in Star Trek (lol) ¶ quot... = “as many (as) they/there are”, “however many they/there are”, “all who are” (Cf. The Poetry of Gaius Valerius Catullus/49) ¶ fuēre = fuērunt ¶ Marcus Tullius Cicerō (106–43 BC)

An Uncle’s Love for his Nephew and Adopted Son

Adulēscēns est cārior mihi quam ego ipse! Atque hic nōn est fīlius meus sed ex frātre meō. Studia frātris iam diū sunt dissimillima meīs. Egō vītam urbānam ēgī et ōtium petīvī et, id quod quīdam fortūnātius putant, uxōrem numquam habuī. Ille, autem, haec omnia fēcit: nōn in forō sed in agrīs vītam ēgit, parvum pecūniae accēpit, uxōrem pudīcam dūxit, duōs fīliōs habuit. Ex illō ego hunc maiōrem adoptāvī mihi, ēdūxī ā parvō puerō, amāvī prō meō. In eō adulēscente est dēlectātiō mea; sōlum id est cārum mihi.
The young person is dearer to me than myself! And this is not my son but from my brother. The persuits of my brother are (=have been) very different from mine for a long time now. I have led an urban life and sought leisure and, (as something) that which certain persons think rather fortunate, I have never had a wife. He, on the other hand, did all these things: not in the market place but in his farm he led his life, earned a small amount of money, led (=married) a modest wife, [and] had two sons. From him I have adopted the elder one for me, raised [him] from a small boy, [and] I have loved [him] as my own [son]. My pleasure is in this young person; only this is dear to me.
¶ frāter, frātris. ¶ dissimilis — dissimilior — dissimillimus (studium, n.) ¶ urbānus, adj. ¶ petō, petere, petīvī, petītum. ¶ dēlectātio, dēlectātiōnis, f. “delight, pleasure, enjoyment”

Terence, Adelphoe (160 BC) 39–49, adapted. Publius Terentius Afer (185?–159 BC) = a playwright of the Roman Republic, apparently of North African descent, brought to Rome as a slave.

Qarahbaš 2 (30) — ܫܽܘ̈ܳܐܠܶܐ

2013-07-26

0030Uk.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܰܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܓܰܡܠܐ ؟
ܓܰܐܝܐ.

— Who sees the camel? — Gaʾyō.

2 ܟܡܐ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ؟
ܐܰܪܒܰܥ.

— How many feet (fem) does he have? — Four (fem).

“four”
ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ
ʾarbʕō ʾarbaʕ
🔊 ܐܲܪܒܥܵܐ 🔊 ܐܲܪܒܲܥ
“four teachers, four doves”
ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܡܰܠܦܳܢ̈ܐ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ
ʾarbʕō malpōnē (malləp̄ōnē) ʾarbaʕ yăwnē
🔊 ܐܲܪܒܥܵܐ ܡܲܠܦܵܢܹ̈ܐ 🔊 ܐܲܪܒܲܥ ܝܵܘܢܹ̈ܐ (yāw- [joː])
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܓܰܡܠܐ ؟
ܥܶܣܒܐ.

— What is the camel eating? — Grass.

4 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܐܰܘ ܬܰܘܪܐ ؟
ܓܰܡܠܐ.

— A camel is bigger, or a bull? — A camel.

Memo: Mandaic and Lepcha Unicode fonts

For the Mandaic Unicode font, see http://bit.ly/GTirzG (Dr. Charles G. Häberl): MandaicUnicode.ttf [C.G. Haberl. 2011]

Mingzat Lepcha Unicode font based on JG Lepcha by Jason Glavy (GlavyFonts).

2015-06-03 GNU Unifont also supports Mandaic, Lepcha, etc. Moreover, Unifont Upper (unifont_upper*.ttf) supports Psalter Pahlavi, Old North Arabian, etc. This is really cool, even though its glyphs may not be very high quality.
Keywords: Mandaic font, Lepcha font, Psalter Pahlavi font, Old North Arabian font

2013-07-27

Fill in the blank — ܣܝܡ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܣܳܡ (sōm) √ܣܘܡ (SWM) “to put” — imper. ܣܺܝܡ (sīm) [Nöld. §177] ¶ ܡܶܠܳܐ (mellō) f. “word” — pl. ܡ̈ܶܠܶܐ (mellē) ¶ ܕܽܘܟܳܐ (dukkō) m/f “place” — const. ܕܽܘܟܰܬ (dukkaṯ) No preposition before this word?ܢܽܘܩܙܳܐ (nuqzō) m. “point” — pl. ܢܽܘܩ̈ܙܶܐ (nuqzē)

5 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܒܝܰܕ ......
ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ.

This camel sees with... (his) eyes. (ʕaynō, f.)

ʕaynō has multiple plural forms. When it literally means eyes, the plural is ʕaynē: 🔊 ܥܲܝܢܹ̈ܐ. When it means “springs (of water)”, the plural is ʕaynōṯō [Nöld. §82, Alan 67]. This is such a feminin noun that does not have a feminine ending in the singular. Very frequently a transferred meaning takes āthā; while the word in its proper meaning takes ē. The latter is properly a dual form in this case. Cf. Ar. عَيْنَانِ ʕaynāni

Another example is: ܐܶܕܢܳܐ (ʾeḏnō) f. “ear, handle” — ܐܶܕ̈ܢܶܐ (ʾeḏnē) “ears” — ܐܶܕܢ̈ܳܬܳܐ (ʾeḏnōṯō) “handles”

6 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܒܝܰܕ ......
ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ.

This camel hears with... (his) ears. (ʾeḏnō, f. — Also, notice the e-to-a change in šōmaʕ caused by a guttural.)

7 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܝܰܕ ......
ܦܘܡܐ.

This camel eats with... (his) mouth. (pūmō, m.)

8 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܒܝܰܕ ......
ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.

This camel walks with... (his) feet.

In Syriac, √HLK “to go” is not used in Peal, but used in Pael: ܗܰܠܶܟ (halleḵ) → part. ܡܗܰܠܶܟ (mhalleḵ), ܡܗܰܠܟܳܐ (mhalkō). (This is not true in Hebrew, where HKL is used in Paal: הָלַךְ (hālaḵ).)

The Pael participle is formed with an m- prefix [mqaṭṭel], just like the Piel part. in Hebrew [mqaṭṭīl] and the Stem II part. in Arabic [muqattīl] (except that this m- is vowelled in Arabic).

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܪܓܐ.
This camel grazes grass from the meadow.
ܪܥܳܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܐܶܟܰܠ ܐܳܟܶܠ
rʕō rōʕe ʾeḵal ʾōḵel
to feed (on), graze, browse part. to eat, devour part.

rʕō [*rʕay] is √RʕY [Nöld §176]. The 3rd Y is like ʾalif maqṣūra in Arabic—it is a Y, more or less, but pronounced ā (and in Syriac written ā). Act. part. = rōʕeʾ (m.), rōʕyō (f.)—revealing the Y.

The e in ʾeḵal is an auxiliary vowel of Ālap̄ [Nöld. §34]

Today’s Words

PNG Image

Qarahbaš 2 (29) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 14

2013-07-25

0029TU.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܥܶܣܒܐ ܡܰܪܓܐ ܬܰܘܪܐ ܟܰܪܣܐ
ʕesbō *1 margō tawrō *2 karsō
m. green herb, grass m. meadow m. bull, ox f. belly

*1 b is hard in sg.; soft in pl. (ʕesḇē)

*2 Proto-Semitic *θawr-: Cf. Proto-Indo-European *táwros (Lat. taurus)

ܓܰܐܝܐ ܚܙܝ ܓܰܡܠܐ.
Gaʾyo, look, (it’s) a camel.
ܡܐ ܪܳܡ ܪܝܫܐ ܕܓܰܡܠܐ.
How high the head of the camel is.
ܗܘ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
He is grazing grass.
ܓܰܡܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܘܪܐ.
A camel is bigger than a bull. ⟦Camēlus est maior quam taurus.⟧
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܰܪܣܐ ܪܰܒܐ. [ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ]
He has a big belly.
Again rabbō vs. raḇ [men] is Emph. vs. Abs.; but WHY NOT karsō rabṯō (Emph. st. fem.)? Nöld. §203 does say, “with a word standing in the emph. st., but indefinite in meaning, and in form exchangeable with the abs. st., the attributive adjective occasionally assumes the abs. st.” I’m not sure if that applies in this case.
ܗܐ ܓܰܡܠܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܪܓܐ.
Look, this camel is coming from the meadow.
ܐܶܬ̥ܳܐ (ʾeṯō) “come” — part. ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ (ʾōṯe) [e in ʾeṯō is auxiliary]

Wheelock 27: Practice and Review

2013-07-24

1. Quisque cupit quam pulcherrima atque ūtilissima dōna dare.
Each person wants to give the prettiest and most useful gifts possible.
2. Quīdam turpēs habent plūrima sed etiam plūra petunt.
Certain shameful persons have most things but they seek even more things.
3. Ille ōrātor, ab tyrannō superbissimō expulsus, ducem iūcundiōrem et lēgēs aequiōrēs dehinc quaesīvit.
That orator, having been expelled by the most arrogant tyrant, then looked for a more pleasant leader and fairer laws.
4. Summum imperium optimīs virīs semper petendum est.
The highest command is always to be desired/sought by the best men.
5. Senex nepōtibus trīstibus casam patefēcit et eōs trāns līmen invītāvit.
The old man opened his house to his unhappy grandsons and invited them across the threshold.
6. Ostendit hostēs ultimum signum lūce clārissimā illā nocte dedisse.
He showed that the enemy had made the final signal with a very bright light on that night.
7. Iste tyrannus pessimus negāvit sē virōs līberōs umquam oppressisse.
That worst tyrant denied that he had ever oppressed free men.

2013-07-25

8. Fidēlissimus servus plūs cēnae ad mēnsam accipiēbat quam trēs peiōrēs.
A very loyal slave used to receive more dinner at the table than three worse [slaves].
¶ cēna f. “dinner” Cf. cēna Dominī, cēna ultima, cenacle. BTW: kēnā means “just” in Syriac.
9. Āiunt hunc auctōrem vītam humillimam hīc agere.
They say that this author is leading a very humble life here.
¶ humilis, humile — humilior — humillimus
10. Cūr dī superī oculōs ā rēbus hūmānīs eō tempore āvertērunt?
Why did the gods above turn their eyes away from the human-related matters at that time?
¶ suprus = “that is above, upper, higher, celestial” — not the same as Eng. supreme.
11. Habēsne pecūniam et rēs tuās prae rē pūblicā?
Do you have your money and posessions in front of the republic? (Do you consider them more important than the republic?)
12. Sōlem post paucās nūbēs gracillimās in caelō hōdiē vidēre possumus.
We can see the sun behind a few very thin clouds in the sky today.
¶ gracilis, gracile, “slender, thin” — gracilior — gracillimus, Cf. gracile (unrelated to gracious, graceful)

2013-07-26

13. Some believe that very large cities are worse than very small ones.
Quīdam crēdunt maximās urbēs esse peiōrēs quam minimās.
¶ quīdam can be both sg. and pl.
14. In return for the three rather small gifts, the young man gave even more and prettier ones to his very sad mother.
Prō tribus minōribus dōnīs, adulēscēns etiam plūra et pulchriōra (suae) mātrī trīstissimae dedit.
¶ in return for = prō + abl. ¶ suus, sua, suum (reflexive: Fr. son, sa) ≠ eius (non-reflexive)
15. Those very large mountains were higher than these.
Illī montēs maximī altiōrēs erant/fuērunt quam hī.
¶ mōns, montis, m. ¶ erant/fuērunt = Fr. étaient [etɛ]/furent [fyʁ] (‘aie’=[ɛ])

2013-07-24

Memo: Firefox and Kharosthi

I hate it. Firefox (v17) crashes when there are a lot of Kharōṣṭhī letters on the page to show. Both Damase and ALPHABETUM are crashy with Firefox. Firefox v22 seems ok.

Qarahbaš 2 (28) — ܫܽܘ̈ܳܐܠܶܐ

2013-07-22

0028rx.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܰܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܟܰܪܡܐ ؟
ܣܳܒܐ.

— Who sees the vineyard? — An old man. (?)

I’m not sure what these Man ḥōze questions are supposed to mean. Previous text does not say anything about anyone who is seeing or looking at the vineyard. So maybe “Who sees” means “Who’s there”? But in Lesson 12, there is no one there in the story and yet there is a question asking who sees the rooster. One logical answer would be “Me”—the reader is seeing it, though. This time, an old man and two girls are in the story anyway.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ؟
ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܘܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

— What are there in it? — Grapes and figs.

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܣܳܒܐ ؟
ܗܘ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.

— What is the old man doing? — He is picking grapes.

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܠܳܩܛܐ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ؟
ܗܝ ܠܳܩܛܐ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

— What is Mary gathering? — She is gathering figs.

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܣܰܪܐ ؟
ܗܝ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ.

— What is Sara carrying? — She is carrying a basket of olives.

Complete the sentence — ܫܰܠܶܡ ܠܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܣܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܰܪ......
ܟܰܪܡܐ.

This old man has a... vineyard.

7 ܗܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܥܶـ......
ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.

Look, now he is picking... grapes.

8 ܚܙܝ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܠܳܩܛܐ ܬܺܐ‍ ......
ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.

See, Mary is gathering... figs.

9 ܣܰܪܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܙܰ......
ܕܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ.

Sara is carrying a basket of... olives.

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܠܳܩܶܛ ܚܶܛ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
A rooster is picking up grains of wheat from the earth. [Same sentence as the one in the prev. lesson]

Memo: Participles kōṯeḇ and kṯīḇ

Active (“writing”)
ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ̥ ܟܳܬ̥ܒܳܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܒܺܝܢ ܟܳܬ̥̈ܒܳܢ
kōṯeḇ kōṯbō kōṯbīn kōṯbōn
m. sg. f. sg. m. pl. f. pl.
Passive (“written”)
ܟܬ̥ܺܝܒ̥ ܟܬ̥ܺܝܒ̥ܳܐ ܟܬ̥ܺܝܒ̥ܺܝܢ ܟܬ̥ܺܝ̈ܒ̥ܳܢ
kṯīḇ kṯīḇō kṯīḇīn kṯīḇōn
m. sg. f. sg. m. pl. f. pl.

Today’s Words

PNG Image Quality olives of Görmeli (JPEG) Olives of Karaman Province, Turkey

Qarahbaš 2 (27) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 13

2013-07-18

00271A.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܟܰܪܡܐ ܣܰܬܐ
zaytē ʕenbē ṭʕīnō karmō sattō
m. olives (trees/fruits) m/f. berries, grapes to bear (pass. part. f.) m. vine(yard) m. (f.?) vine
ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܟܰܪܡܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
How large this vineyard is.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܘܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.
There are in it grapes and figs.
ܗܐ ܣܳܒܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.
Look, an old man is picking grapes.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܟܰܪܡܐ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܐ [ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ].
There are two daughters in the vineyard.
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܠܳܩܛܐ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.
Mary is gathering figs.
ܣܰܪܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ.
Sara(h) [Sarrō] is bearing a basket of olives.

2013-07-20

Example from The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite

ܢܫ̈ܐ ܕܝܢ ܛܥܝ̈ܢܢ ܗܘ̈ܝ ܡܝ̈ܐ܆
ܢܷܫܷ̈ܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܛܥܻܝ̈ܢܳܢ ܗ̄ܘܱ̈ܝ ܡܱܝ̈ܳܐ
neššē deyn ṭʕīnān h̊way mayyā
(married) women, wives: pl. of an̊təṯā however, then (Greek δέ) carrying (f. pl.) were (3f pl.): apparently Yōḏ is not silent. water (always pl.)
🔊 ܡܲܝ̈ܵܐ

Example from John 12:6

He (Judas) was carrying everything that was put into it (the bag).
ܘܡܶܕ݁ܶܡ ܕ݁ܢܳܦ݂ܶܠ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܒ݁ܶܗ ܗܽܘ ܛܥܺܝܢ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ
w-meddem d-nāp̄el h̊wā beh ṭʕīn h̊wā
and everything that was falling (=being thrown) into it he was carrying

Note that the Syriac version simply says that Judas was carrying whatever was in the bag; it does not say that he actually pilfered some of it. The Greek version says ἐβάσταζεν, which basically means the same thing (“he was bearing”), though it could also mean “he was carrying off” (the implication that the Syriac version does not have). The Syriac text simply states that Judas was a (potential) thief, and he was carrying the bag, implying that it was possible for him to take some money. KJV is more faithful in a way, saying: “he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein.” Recent versions tend to be more unsubtle and slightly pulpy, as in: “he used to help himself to what was put into it” or even “he often stole some for himself”. That might be what is more or less implied, but that is certainly not what is written.

2013-07-22

Example from Revelation 17:7

“the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her”
ܪܳܐܙܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܐܢ݈ܬ݁ܬ݂ܳܐ ܘܰܕ݂ܚܰܝܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܛܥܺܝܢܳܐ ܠܳܗ
rāʾzā d-an̊təṯā wa-ḏ-ḥayuwṯā da-ṭʕīnā lāh
W-Syr. m. secret, mystery, = årāzā of the woman and of the animal (m/f) that is carrying (f.) her

The direct object her is expressed with ܠ, as if it were an indirect object. This may be related to the point Nöldeke mentioned (“the circumstance that the verbs concerned may be doubly transitive”), as in, “Someone made the animal (direct obj.) carry her (second obj. in a way)”, or “the animal was laden with her”.

2016-12-10 The above comment doesn’t make sense, as ܠ is often put before the direct object too.

Also, I see that you don’t really need those many vowel marks. If we rewrite this à la Qarahbaš, it will only have five vowel marks, of which three are simply on d- or w-:

ܪܐܙܐ ܕܰܐܢ̱ܬܬ̥ܐ ܘܰܕܚܰܝܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢܐ ܠܳܗ

So actually we only need two vowel marks here, in order to show that: (1) The first letter of ܚܝܘܬܐ has a, and this is ḥayūṯa, not ḥīwṯā. This should be a no-brainer for anyone who actually speaks the language and knows the word for “animal” (not yet including me); and, (2) ܠܗ is lāh (“to her”) and not leh (“to him”). In theory, this one is obvious because the animal is carrying a woman, but this could get subtle and confusing. It seems fair to say though that they are “少し「振り仮名」がいるけど日本語の漢字より、はるかにやさしい,” so to speak. I guess anything is better anyway compared with Japanese kanji. They are exceptionally crazy (perhaps even hieroglyphs are not harder than Japanese orthography, if not easier). Good thing I alraedy know it, which makes any writing system look relatively simple to me.

Archive

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture