Syriac 6 (F) (+Latin)

未分類のメモ。主にシリア語とラテン語の学習ノート。このファイルは、ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第1巻{2013年4月25日開始}19~21(最終)課{9月3日終了}、第2巻{9月7日開始}1~11課と、Wheelock’s Latin の29~30章に当たる。2013年9月14日から30日までは「冥王星」、2013年10月5日から12月1日は「カラバシ注解」のため、こちらには時間をかけていない。それ以前の部分は過去ログ参照。

[ Archive ]

CAL ?; Dic, 2, 3 Jessie, Ana; TS1 2 | TUS; Wiki; Map, 2, 3 | Alan; Qarahbaš, 1, 2; Nöldeke, fem, de | Per; Gaf


Qarahbaš 3 (22) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 11: ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ

2013-12-03

0022vO-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0023rn-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܡܗܝܪܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܓܶܢ̱ܒ ܐܳܒܝ̱
mhīrā yaḇ geḇ āḇ
trained, skilled, √MHR to give (pf) N §183 (6) the side my father*
ܓܰܒܪܐ: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ:
Gaḇrā (prop. n.), an intelligent student (m. yālōp̄ā) says: [Ca. ܙܰܗܝܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ “Zahyā, an intelligent student”]
ܐܶܢܐ: ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܘܐܶܡܝ̱ [ܘܶܐܡܝ̱].
I—I love my father (long ā) and my mother.
ܕܳܕܝ̱: ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ.
My paternal uncle—he gave me five coins.
ܚܳܬ̥ܝ̱: ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܓܶܢ̱ܒ ܐܳܚܝ̱.
My sister—she sits ‘with the side of’ (=by) my brother (long ā).

2013-12-04

ܚܳܬ̥ܝ̱: ܣܰܒܝ̱ ܨܶܡܕܐ. ܬܳܝ ܬܶܒܝ̱.
My sister: Take (saḇ √NSB §173C) the bag. Come (tāy*), sit. [Ca. ܨܶܡܕܐ ܕܝܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ “the bag of yours”]
*The -y is not silent in ܬܳܝ (tāy), imperat. 2f.sg. — Muraoka (2005) §67 explicitly shows /tāy/; Nöld. §183(2) is unclear about this.
ܐܶܢܐ: ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱.
I—I read the lesson of mine. [Ca. ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܒܐ ܗܳܫܐ “I am reading now”]
ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱: ܟܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܺܝܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱.
You (sg.f)—you write the lesson of yours (f).
ܡܐ ܛܳܒ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܕܪܳܚܶܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
How good the student is, who loves the sister of his. [Ca. does not have this line here, which makes more sense.]

ܬܳܝ (tāy) in John 4:16

ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇ ܝܶܫܘܥ: «ܙܶܠܝ̱ ܩܪܳܝ ܠܒܰܥܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܘܬܳܝ ܠܗܳܪܟܐ.»
Yešūʕ says to her: “Go, call your husband (baʕlā), and come [back] here.”

2013-12-05

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܠܡܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܓܳܒܪܐ؟ [ܠܡܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܙܰܗܝܐ؟]
ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ ܘܶܐܡܶܗ.

— Who does Gāḇrā/Zahyā love? — He loves his father (ʾaḇūy*) and his mother.

* Or simplified as (ʾ)aḇū, without y: Qara.0095r4 / 0082T8(=0082VN) ܐܰܒܽܘܗ̱ܝ (ʾaḇūy); Nöld.146 ܐܱܒ̥ܽܘܗ̄ܝ (ʾaḇūy ?); Alan4-98 ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܝ (a(ḇ)ḇūy); Leshono VI.F ܐܰܒ݂ܽܘܗ̱ܝ (ʾaḇūy); Mura43 ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗ̄ܝ (ʾaḇūy); Thackston12.3 ܐܒܘܗ̄ܝ (aḇū without y); Peshitta Tool ܐܰܒ݂ܽܘܗ݈ܝ (ʾaḇū without y). ¶ ū is long (Nöld146). Since the word originally ends in ū, it gets an after-vowel-form suffix.

2 ܡܰܢ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ؟
ܕܳܕܶܗ.

— Who gives him money? — His uncle.

3 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܳܡ ܓܶܢ̱ܒ ܐܳܚܘܗ̇.

— Where does his sister sit? — She sits by her brother (ʾaḥḥūh).

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܠܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇: «ܣܰܒܝ̱ ܨܶܡܪܐ. ܬܳܝ ܬܶܒܝ̱.»

— What does Gaḇrā say to his sister? — He sais to her: “Take the bag. Come and sit.”

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܘܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܓܳܒܪܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ. ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܟܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇.

— What are Gaḇrā and his sister doing? (sg. verb for ‘A and B’) — Gaḇrā reads the lesson of his. His sister writes the lesson of hers.

Aruoxam

Aruoxam Arabi Gadi First lesson is Arabic lessons for beginners written in Dhivehi, which I can use to learn Dhivehi.

هذا (هٰذَا) باب.

މިއީ ދޮރެއް.

mi=this. ee=is. dhoru (ދޮރު) =door. dhoreh=a door.

A fun fact: The Arabic KL does not support the Dagger alif (U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF), while the Syriac KL does (AltGr+H: ٰ ).

2013-12-06

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܒܢܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܠܐ [ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ ܩ̈ܳܠܐ] ܐܰܝܟܐ ܕܠܳܚܡ̈ܳܢ

6 ܐܰܚܐ ܬܐ ܣܰܒ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ.
Brother, come and pick up the book of yours!
7 ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܬܰܘ ܣܰܒܘ̱ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܟ̥ܘܿܢ.
Brothers, come and pick up the books of yours!
8 ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܬܳܝ ܣܰܒܝ̱ ܟܬ̥ܰܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱.
Sister, come and pick up the book of yours!
9 ܐܰܚܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ [ܬܳܝܶܝ̈ܢ] ܣܰܒ̈ܝ̱ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܟ̥ܶܝܢ.
Sisters1, [come and]2 pick up the books of yours!
1 From ܐ̱ܚܳܬ̥ܐtype -āṯā §78 ܟܪܳܬ̥ܐ “thumb”, pl. ܟܪ̈ܰܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ (kra(w)wāṯā); ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ “portion, part” pl. ܡ̈ܢܰܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ (mna(w)wāṯā); etc. [Alan Lv3 L65 has -āwāṯā instead of -a(w)wāṯā; different from Jess. etc. but quite understandable] so *ʔḥa(w)wāṯā > ʾaḥwāṯā. This is quite similar to ܡܰܐܬ̥ܐ (maʾṯā) “one hundred (f)” pl. ܡܰܐܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ (maʾwāṯā) “hundreds”
2 Probably “come and” has been omitted on purpose here, because it is irregular.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܡܐ ܛܳܒ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܕܪܳܚܶܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
How good the student is, who loves the sister of his!

Aruoxam

هذا مسجد.

މިއީ މިސްކިތެއް.

masjid(un); miskitheh; މިސްކިތް (miski(i)y)

Enclitic forms with participles and adjectives (Nöld. §64)

2013-12-02

Examples: ܩܳܛܶܠ “he kills” — ܓܳܠܶܐ “he uncovers” √GLY — ܫܰܦܝܪ “beautiful” — ܕܟ̥ܶܐ (dḵē) “clean” pass. part. of √DKY

Sing.

2013-12-03

Plural

(*0) In Thackston §8.2 and in Mura. §10, two n’s are kept. Alan, on the other hand, shows only one n, just like Nöld. There is even an audio file where /yāḏʕī(n) nan/ is included, and where there is only one n even though this is written as two words (Lv 4 L 91).

(*1) In Nöld. the first Yōḏ is missing in the uncontracted form, like ܫܰܦܺܪܝܢ. A typo?

(*2) Nöld. does not show any contracted forms for 1f pl. Instead, he says: For the feminine form the masculine form qāṭlīnan, etc. sometimes appears.

(*3) Thackston says that the n of the 2nd pl. participles assimilates to the t of the enclitic, contracted or not. Mura. §10 agrees. Nöld., however, states that the n is simply dropped, contracted or not.

(*4) It is unclear in Nöld. whether or not the two forms are identical in pronunciation. According to him, the -n is dropped in pl. when contracted. For 1m pl and 2m pl he further says, “or written separately, though spoken in the same way”; but for 2f he only says, “or written separately”. In Thackston, the 2f pl form is -ttēn, contracted or not.

Qarahbaš 3 (20) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 10: ܐܶܢܐ ‐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ

2013-11-29

0020rL-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0021a6-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ ܓܘܝܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ
saʕrā ʾarīḵā gōyā summāqā
hair long (hair/time) ball red

2016-11-18 pal gōy PNG [gwd (=gwy)] MacK37/201 گوی pes guy

ܐܶܢܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ.
I have a beautiful book.
ܐܰܝ̱ܬ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.
You (m) have a red pen.
ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ.
You (f) have long hair.
ܗܘ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܓܘܝܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
He has a big ball.
ܗܝ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ.
She has long hair.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܨܶܡܕܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
A boy-student (yālōp̄ā): He has a small bag.
ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ.
A girl-student (yālṓp̄tā hard t after ōC/ūC): She has long hair.

[pal-Phli][xmn-Mani][ae-Avst][sog]

3rd Iranian Unicode Conference | 2nd Iranian Unicode Conference: Material | Sogdian Primer

2013-11-30

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

  1. ܐܰܢ̱ܬ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.
  2. ܗܝ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.
  3. ܐܶܢܐ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.
  4. ܗܘ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.
  5. ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܟܝ̱ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.

Singular - Plural — ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ

6 ܚܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܒܐ
ܚܰܡܫܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ

— One book. — Five books.

7 ܚܰܕ ܩܠܝܕܐ
ܐܰܪܢܥܐ ܩܠܝܕ̈ܐ

— One key. — Four keys. κλείς , ἡ — κλειδός — m. in Syr.

8 ܚܰܕ ܨܶܡܕܐ
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܨܶܡܕ̈ܐ

— One bag. — Two bags.

9 ܚܰܕ ܟܶܪܟܐ
ܫܰܒܥܐ ܟܶܪ̈ܟܐ

— One notebook. — Seven notebooks.

10 ܚܰܕ ܩܰܢܝܐ
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܩܰܢܝ̈ܐ
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܩܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ

— One pen. — Three pens.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

11 ܟܽܠ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ.
Every daughter has long hair.

Qarahbaš 3 (18) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 9: ܟܰܪܡܐ ܕܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ

2013-11-26

0018JD.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ ܦܳܐܶܫ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܥܕܰܡܐ
bassīmē pāʾeš tammān ʕ(ə)ḏammā
sweet (m.pl.emph.) remains √PWŠ there until (+ ܠ)
ܟܰܪܡܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣ̈ܰܬܐ ܘܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
The vineyard has vines and trees in it.
pl. of ܣܰܬܐ (sattā, f.) — ܣ̈ܰܬܐ — is unusual (§80), in that it is like mas. US=ܘܐܺܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ
ܣܰܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.
A vine gives [us] grapes.
ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
A tree gives [us] sweet apples.
ܣܳܒܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ، ܘܦܳܐܶܫ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܠܪܰܡܫܐ.
The old man goes to the vineyard every morning, and remains there until evening.
*Now we have no choice but to interpret ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ as “every morning” and not “all morning”.
ܣܳܠܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܘܩܳܛܶܦ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
He goes up onto trees and picks apples.
ܘܗܳܦܶܟ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܟܰܕ ܛܥܝܢ ܣܰܠܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
And he comes back in the evening when he carries a basket of fruits.
*I think the last two words should be ܣܰܠܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ, unless we can assume that ܣܰܠܐ is in the Construct state.

2013-11-27

0019cp.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)|0019cp-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܟܳܪܡܐ؟
ܟܳܪܡܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣ̈ܰܬܐ ܘܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.

— What is in the vineyard. — The vineyard has vines and trees in it.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܣܰܬܐ؟
ܣܰܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ (ܠܰܢ) ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.

— What does a vine give? — A vine gives (us) grapes.

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ؟
ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ (ܠܰܢ) ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.

— What does a tree give? — A tree gives (us) apples.

4 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܣܳܒܐ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ؟
ܐܳܙܶܠ ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ.

— When does the old man go to the vineyard? — He goes every morning.

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܛܥܝܢ ܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ؟
ܛܥܝܢ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

— What does he carry when he comes back in the evening? — He carries a basket of friuts.

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

6 ܣܰܬܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ .... ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ....
ܣܰܬܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܟܰܪܡܐ. ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ.

— A vine within the vineyard. Trees within the garden.

7 ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ .... ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ....
ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܬܐ. ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.

— Grapes on a vine. Fruits on a tree.

Make 3 sentences — ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܟܰܪܡܐ»

8 ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܰܪܡܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ...

  1. ܟܰܪܡܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣ̈ܰܬܶܐ.
  2. ܣܳܒܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ.
  3. ܟܰܪܡܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܪܰܒ.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܣܳܒܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܘܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܪܡܐ.
The old man picks up apples and grapes from the vineyard.

2013-11-28

[jpa]

Y.=Y’rushalmi (Palestinean [Palestinian] Talmud*). Sabb.=Sabbath (Talmud). Snh.=Sanhedrin (Talmud). Ber.=B’rakhoth (Talmud). *Jerusalem Talmud; notes on the 2nd-century Mishnah (Jewish oral tradition), compiled during the 4th-5th c; written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic [1?-7c]

Qarahbaš 3 (16) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 8: ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ

2013-11-21

0016PX.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ (šāʕṯā), f. moment of time, hour. (here: “clock”*) — Type -āCṯā — the ṯā is soft in this case (§23E), even though CAL says it’s not, and even though the Type -āCtā is more common. Cf. שַׁעֲתָא Also: ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ (ṭāḇṯā)

* Jess. has ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܫܳܥ̈ܶܐ “a clock, or a clock tower”

ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܪܰܡܫܐ ܫܶܬ̥ ܛܳܥܶܢ
ʕeddānā ramšā šeṯ ṭāʕen
time evening six (f) intr. carry
ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
A large clock (f).

2013-11-22

ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܢܳܩܫܐ: ܬܝܩ ܬܰܐܩ.
The clock makes a sound (NQŠ): Tick tock. {#intr. See 2014-01-13}
ܪܰܒܝ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ.
Rabbī (=my teacher/my elder/or just a name) has a small clock.
ܒܳܗ̇ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ: ܨܰܦܪܐ، ܪܰܡܫܐ.
With (instrumentative) it he knows (yāḏaʕ: e→a) time (ʕeddānā): morning, evening.
ܟܰܕ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܢܳܩܫܐ ܫܶܬ̥ ܕܨܰܦܪܐ:
When the clock strikes {#kind of transitive} 6 in the morning:

We have the feminine form of six here (ܫܶܬ̥ as opposed to ܫܬܐ), because hour ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ is feminine. But be careful: if you actually want to say 6 o’clock in full, you must use the plural form in the absolute state, i.e. ܫܶܬ̥ ܫܳܥܺܝ̈ܢ. Also note that ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ is one of those nouns that look like masculine when in plural.

ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܐܳܦ ܪܰܒܝ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ.
Everyone gets up from sleep; also Rabbī gets up from sleep.
ܘܛܳܥܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܶܗ ܘܐܳܙܶܠ (ܘܳܐܙܶܠ) ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
And he carries (OR: picks up) his bag and goes to school. CANADA=ܘܳܐܙܶܠ

2013-11-24

00174S.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ؟
ܪܰܒܝ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ.

— Who has a clock? — Rabbī has a clock.

2 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܩܳܠܳܗ̇ ܟܰܕ ܢܳܩܫܐ؟
ܬܝܩ ܬܰܐܩ.

— How [is] its (f) sound when it (f) is making a sound? — Tīq taʾq.

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ؟
ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ. (ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܦܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ؟ / ܝܳܠܦܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ.)

ܝܺܠܶܦ (yīlep̄) to learn √ʾLP (as if YLP in Peal)

— What do you learn from a clock? — I learn time.

4 ܟܡܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܫܐ؟
ܚܰܡܶܫ (ܫܳܥܺܝ̈ܢ) ܕܪܰܡܫܐ.

— What time is it now? — Five in the evening.

Time Expression? I’m not sure exactly how time is to be expressed. The closest thing I found is Acts 2:15: “until now are [there but] three hours” (=it is but the third hour of the day).
2014-04-15 Vol. 3 Lesson 2 has: ܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܫܶܬ̥ ܕܨܰܦܪܐ “at 6 o’clock in the morning”.

5 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܢܳܩܶܫ ܙܰܓܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ؟
ܬܫܰܥ ܕܨܰܦܪܐ.

— When does the bell (zaggā) of [school] lessons ring {#intr. see 2014-01-13}? — 9 in the morning [*should be close enough].

2013-11-25

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

6 ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ... ܣܰܗܪܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ...
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ. ܣܰܗܪܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ܒܠܺܠܝܐ (ܒܠܺـܠܝܐ).

— The sun rises in the morning. The moon (sahrā) illuminates at night (le̦lyā WS līlyā).

7 ܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܳܪܶܒ ... ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ...
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܳܪܶܒ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ. ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ܒܺܐܝܡܳܡܐ.

— The sun sets in the evening. The sun shines in the daytime (ʾīmāmā). CANADA=ܒܺܐܝܡܳܡܐ / US=ܒܐܺܝܡܳܡܐ

Look at the lesson and show — ܒܨܝ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܘܚܰܘܐ

8 ܟܡܐ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܥܗܺܝܕ ܫܶܡ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ؟
ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ.

— How many times is the name of šāʕṯā mentioned? — Four times.

9 ܟܢܐ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܥܗܺܝܪ ܫܶܡ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ.

— How many times is the name of ṣap̄rā mentioned? — Two times (Twice).

10 ܒܰܐܝܢܐ ܣܶܪܛܐ ܥܗܺܝܕ ܫܶܡ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ؟
ܒܰܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ ܣܶܪܛܐ.

— In which line the name of ʕeddānā mentioned? — In the fourth (rḇīʕāyā) line. US=ܒܐܰܝܢܐ

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

11 ܒܝܰܕ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ: ܨܰܦܪܐ، ܪܰܡܫܐ.
With a clock I know time: morning, evening.

Qarahbaš 3 (14) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 7: ܡܰܢ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ

2013-11-18

0014B1.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܪܳܟ̥ܶܒ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܙܳܒܶܢ
mzabben rāḵeḇ mhalleḵ zāḇen
sells rides (in Pa) walks, goes buys
ܗܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
Look, a boy (7–12 year old) is selling fruits.
ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܪܳܟ̥ܶܒ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܘܳܐܙܶܠ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ.
Every morning he rides a donkey (ḥmārā) and goes to the vineyard [orchard]. US=ܘܐܳܙܶܠ
ܩܳܛܶܦ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ، ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
He picks olives, figs, and apples.
ܗܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܪܡܐ.
Look, now he comes back (hāp̄eḵ) from the vineyard [orchard].
ܘܣܳܡ ܥܰܠ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ، ܘܟܰܠܒܐ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܩܕܳܡ ܚܡܳܪܐ.
And he (has) placed (SWM pf.), on the donkey, a basket of fruits, and a dog (kalbā) is walking before (qəḏām) the donkey.
ܗܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ: ܡܰܢ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ؟
Look, the boy is shouting: “Who buys (Does anyone want) fruits?” [apparently, peddling]

2013-11-20

0015KR.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܫܽܘ̈ܐܠܐ — Answer by pointing — ܦܰܢܐ ܪܶܡܙܳܢܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܚܡܳܪܐ؟
Which is the donkey?
2 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
Which is the boy?
3 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܟܰܠܒܐ؟
Which is the dog?

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

4 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܪܡܐ.

— From where does the boy come (ʾTY)? — The boy comes from the vineyard.

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܚܡܳܪܐ؟
ܥܰܠ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܣܰܠܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

— What is on the donkey? — On the donkey there is a basket of fruits.

6 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܩܕܳܡ ܚܡܳܪܐ؟
ܩܕܳܡ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܰܠܒܐ.

— What is in front of the donkey? — In front of the donkey there is a dog.

7 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܠܐ؟
ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.

— What is inside the basket? — Inside the basket there are fruits.

8 ܡܳܢܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ: «ܡܰܢ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ؟»

— What does this boy shout? — This boy shouts, “Who buys fruits?”

Fill in the blanks — ܠܰܚܶܡ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܠܚܶܡ intr. to be fitting: Pa. ܠܰܚܶܡ (laḥḥem) to fit, adapt. [Canada] says: ܚܘܪ ܒܨܘܪܬܐ : ܘܠܰܚܶܡ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ “Give heed to the picture and…” but the picture does not tell you anything about 9, and it is incompatible with 11.

9 ܣܰܠܐ ܣܝܡܐ ....... ܚܡܳܪܐ.
ܣܰܠܐ ܣܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܚܡܳܪܐ.

— The box is put (pass. part.) on the donkey.

10 ܟܰܠܒܐ ܪܳܕܶܐ ....... ܚܡܳܪܐ.
ܟܰܠܒܐ ܪܳܕܶܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܚܡܳܪܐ.

— The dog travels (rāḏē √RDY) in front of the donkey.

11 ܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ....... ܚܡܳܪܐ.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܚܡܳܪܐ.

— The boy walks behind the donkey. (Probably now that the basket is on the donkey, the boy is walking, no more riding on it himself.)

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒ̥ܬ̊ܐ

12 ܗܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ: ܡܰܢ ܙܳܒܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ؟
Look, the boy is shouting: Who buys fruits?

Qarahbaš 3 (13) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 6: ܟܰܕ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ

2013-11-15

0013vw.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܒܐܰܦܰܝ̈ (ܒܰܐܦܰܝ̈) ܪܳܫܶܡ ܡܛܰܝܶܒ ܨܳܐܶܒ
b-appai rāšem mṭayyeḇ ṣāʾeḇ
in front of me make a mark, draw prepare to be congregated, come, visit
ܟܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ
When I get up from sleep,
ܨܠܝܒܐ ܒܐܰܦܰܝ̈ (ܒܰܐܦܰܝ̈) ܪܳܫܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ
I make the sign of the cross (ṣlīḇā) in front of me. CANADA=ܒܰܐܦܰܝ̈

2013-11-16

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܠܳܒܶܫ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܐܢܰܝ̈
And after (bāṯar) I wear my clothes (mānā/mānē pl),
ܫܳܩܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܬܳܒ̈ܰܝ ܘܰܩܢ̈ܰܝ
I lift up/take my books and my pens.

When a pl. mas. noun ends in -ayyā, that -ayyā altogether—not only the final -ā—is generally dropped (“shorter form”) before a possessive suffix II is attached. Pure substantives have always the shorter form. (Nöld. §145K; Alan Lv.4 L.105; Thackston §9.3)

ܩܰܢܝܐ (qanyā) — ܩܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ (qnayyā) pl — ܩܢ̈ܰܝ (qnay) [pl. type -a-yā / --ayyā Alan 63]
ܒܪܐ (brā) — ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ (bnayyā) — ܒܢܰܝ̈ (bnay)
ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ (mayyā) — ܡܰܝ̈ (may) BUT ALSO ܡܰܝܰܝ̈ (mayyay)

ܩܕܳܡ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ
Before (qəḏām) the table, I sit.
ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ
I read or I write.
ܘܟܰܕ ܟܽܠܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܛܰܝܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ
And when I prepare everything (kolmeddem),
ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܨܳܐܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ
At (lwāṯ) the school, I gather (I go to school).
ܢܶܩܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥: ܟܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ..... ܘܫܰܪܟܐ.
In the feminine gender: When from sleep I wake up... etc.
ܣܰܓܺܝܳܐܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥: ܟܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܩܝܡܝܢܰܢ ..... ܘܫܰܪܟܐ.
Plurally (saggīyānāʾīṯ): When from sleep we wake up (qāymīnan)... etc.

QWM: part: ܩܳܐܶܡ (qāʾem), ܩܳܝܡܐ (qāymā); pl. ܩܳܝܡܝܢ (qāymīn), ܩܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ (qāymān).

Ethiopic

2013-11-16

Ethiopic [HA]

Ethiopic (Ethiopian Language) Grammar by August Dillmann : August Dillmann, et al : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

Ethiopic Grammar / by August Dillmann. 2. ed. enlarged and improved (1899) by Carl Bezold. Translated by James A. Crichton. London : Williams & Norgate, 1907

U+1200 [ ሀ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HA
هُ
U+1201 [ ሁ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HU: has a hook at the center right; maybe like an Arabic Ḍammah
هِ
U+1202 [ ሂ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HI: has a hook at the bottom right (in this case, of the attached leg); maybe like an Arabic Kasrah
هَ
U+1203 [ ሃ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HAA: a leg attached to the right part; conceptually a Fatḥah
U+1204 [ ሄ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HEE: ē; a semi-circle to the right leg
U+1205 [ ህ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HE: ĕ or vowelless; has a zigzag
U+1206 [ ሆ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HO; a semi-circle to the upper right

2013-11-17

More Ethiopic

Normal vs. Zigzag: ሀ ህ

ל λ
U+1208 [ ለ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LA
لُ
U+1209 [ ሉ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LU
لِ
U+120A [ ሊ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LI: this guy is like ሂ but is simpler as it already has a leg.
لَ
U+120B [ ላ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LAA
U+120C [ ሌ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LEE
U+120D [ ል ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LE: this guy is strange but think the curly part as a bent-in (broken) upright line; then it is like a zigzag after all.
U+120E [ ሎ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LO: a semi-circle added, not to the upper right but to the middle right

3[rd Letter ḤA]

U+1210 [ ሐ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHA: originalaly [ħ], later = HA
U+1211 [ ሑ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHU
U+1212 [ ሒ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHI
U+1213 [ ሓ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHAA
U+1214 [ ሔ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHEE
U+1215 [ ሕ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHE
U+1216 [ ሖ ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHO: a longer left leg (ō=left leg OR right ring)

[Table]

DillmannTbl1.jpg (JPEG Image, 1140×1150 pixels) 245 KiB
Dillmann Table 1

DillmannTbl1_L.jpg (JPEG Image, 2270×2315 pixels) 661 KiB
Dillmann Table 1 (Large)

[MA]

  1. U+1218 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MA
  2. U+1219 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MU
  3. U+121A [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MI: Add a leg, then a right hook, just like ሂ
  4. U+121B [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MAA: Add a right leg
  5. U+121C [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MEE
  6. U+121D [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ME: 'broken' by a left leg
  7. U+121E [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MO

[ŚA]

  1. U+1220 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZA: ś or š; שׂ (SIN) ; *ś [ɬ] — later just 's'
  2. U+1221 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZU
  3. U+1222 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZI: Add a leg, then a right hook
  4. U+1223 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZAA
  5. U+1224 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZEE
  6. U+1225 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZE: 'broken' by a left leg
  7. U+1226 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZO: 'left' leg

2013-11-18

Ethiopic [Voiceless Alveolar Lateral Fricative]

First, a few things about the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ] in Proto Semitic, aka Welsh "ll". In the Welsh language, does anyone know how to make the 'LL' (ll) sound? please!!! i'd really really apre

GWYBODIADUR: the dreaded LL sound

ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyfr (book)

Welsh/Pronunciation - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

there are still clear instances of realisations with the unexpected palatal fricative as well as the alveolar lateral fricative (Llanwrtyd Wells, Llanelli and Machynlleth in particular sound palatal to me). I find it very intriguing that these differences do not seem to be discernible to native Welsh speakers' ears.

John Wells's phonetic blog

🔊 Dw i'n byw yn Llangollen [duː ɪn bɪw ʊ̈n ɬaŋ.ɡɔ.ɬɛ̝n] (I live in Llangollen); taken from Croeso: beginners' Welsh: 3 Sesiwn 3 - OpenLearn - Open University

Dw i is the first person for the present tense. It also must be connected with 'n to use verb-nouns. | am I in [the] living in

U+1220 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZA

U+10A66 [ 𐩦 ] OLD SOUTH ARABIAN LETTER SHIN - ś OR s2

2014-02-27

#1 #2 These “strange” phonemes are still found in Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri [gdq] (Mahrah, Yemen; Oman), not only in Old South Arabian (though an ejective phoneme /ʼ/ may be now pharyngealized /ˤ/ à la Arabic).

2014-12-29: *1 /ç/ in Arabic in the eighth century.

2014-05-19

2015-11-16: With Amharic Input Method (version 1.0), use [S] for , [S][S] for , [X] for . For s1/s2/s3 in Et., see also 20151116.

[RA]

  1. U+1228 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RA: the base - this guy has a kind of right hook by default; Ar. ر; He. ר
  2. U+1229 [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RU: special - this guy, though strange, appears to have a right middle hook as usual: the explanation is: “the lower line again has to be broken off, but this time in a downward direction, so that the vowel-line, as distinguished from that lower line, may readily catch the eye”
  3. U+122A [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RI: special - no usual right bottom hook; make the whole thing like a big fish hook (or an unclosed '6'); “by the turning upwards of the lower line”
  4. U+122B [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RAA: special - add a right 'hand' instead of the usual right leg, to the base; “breaks off its horizontal line in an upward direction and attaches the prop to this”
  5. U+122C [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE REE
  6. U+122D [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RE: special - make it C-shaped; “an upright line in the letter either broken, or bent in, whether above or below...”
  7. U+122E [  ] ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RO: add a upper right ring to the C-shaped guy

2013-11-20

Ethiopic [SA, QA, BA]

𐩪
sa s(e)* sō**

*“broken” by using an upright stroke in a sloping position. **long-left-leg (easier than a small ring at the upper part)

𐩤 ϙ ק Q ܩ
qa q(e)* qō**

*left top stroke **upper ring; “long left leg” is impossible.

𐩨‎ ܒ‎ ב
bā (bä) bū (bu) bī (bi) ba bē (be) b(e)/b(ə)*

*a short line attached to left-middle, not left-top, perhaps to differentiate it from (ka)

[EAE] Encyclopaedia Aethiopica Transcription/Transliteration

2013-11-23

[TA, ḪA, NA]

ܬ T
ta t(e)
𐩭‎ خ [x~χ]
ḫa ḫū ḫī ḫā ḫē ḫ(e) ḫō

the horizontal part broken off; an oblique short line, from lower left to higher right, added instead

significantly modified, before adding the small ring; more like a (nō) with a stroke

𐩬 N ן
na n(e)

2013-11-26

[ʔA, KA, WA, ʕA]

𐩱‎ א
ʾa ʾū ʾī ʾā ʾē ʾ(e) ʾō
𐩫 κ ך
ka k(e)
𐩥 w ܘ
wa w(e)

One may think ዉ is wī and ው is wū... but that’s not it!

𐩲‎ ע
ʕa ʕū ʕī ʕā ʕē ʕ(e) ʕō

2015-11-25

zä/yä/dä

Z ζ ז
zu zi za ze zo
𐩺 Y
yu yi ya ye yo
д δ
du di da de do

2015-12-01

gä/ṭä/p̣ä

Γγ
gu gi ga ge go
𐩷‎ ט
ṭä ṭu ṭi ṭa ṭe ṭə ṭo
ጸ Mod
p̣ä p̣u p̣i p̣a p̣e p̣ə p̣o

2015-12-02

ṣä/ṣ́ä/fä/pä

𐩮‎ צ
ṣä ṣu ṣi ṣa ṣe ṣə ṣo
𐩳‎ ض
ṣ́ä ṣ́u ṣ́i ṣ́a ṣ́e ṣ́ə ṣ́o
𐩰‎ ف
fu fi fa fe fo
ተ Mod?
pu pi pa pe po

LLA 1025: ዐፅም (ʕäṣ́m) etiam ዐጽም (ʕäṣm) /ʕæsʼm/ “os (ossis)”,
amh. አጽንት (ʔäṣnət ??) et አጥንት (ʔäṭnət ?) Tigrinya ዓጽሚ (ʕaṣəmi) /ʕa̠sʼɨmi/, ዓጽማ (ʕaṣəma) /ʕa̠sʼɨma̠/ ‖ עֶצֶם ‎‖ عَظْمٌ ‎‖ ܥܰܛܡܐ

2015-12-09

First 12

8 Easy Ones
λ μ ש ר mirrored
Ϙ, Q ܒ rotated t N
4 Harder Ones
𐩠, H 𐩢, “super h” 𐩭, η 𐩪

South Semitic (and a Few Other) Languages

2013-11-17

1 Samaritan [smp] = the ancient language of Samaritan Pentateuch; this is not Samaritan Aramaic [sam], which is a newer language of Western Aramaic.

2 Sabaean [xsa], Minaean [inm], etc.

South Semitic = Ethiopian + (Modern) South Arabian; Afro-Asiatic = Berber + Chadic + Cushitic + Egyptian + Omotic(?) + Semitic; Some say Semitic is closely related to Berber (and Cushitic). Blin language [byn] Cushitic 91k may be also written in Ethi.

2015-01-20: File:Semitic languages - Chronology.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014-05-19

Minor Languages Written in the Ethiopic Script

While Blin is important too, other languages written in Ethi and spoken by more people include Silt'e [stv] (0.9 mil) and Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw] (0.44 mil) — such as Chaha language. Sebatbet is interesting Unicode-wise, as a lot of letters were added specifically for it in the Ethiopic Supplement and Ethiopic Extended blocks. Gamo-Gofa-Dawro (Omotic) has more speakers (2 mil), but it is officially written in Latn.

http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n1846.pdf (1998); http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2004/04143-n2747-ethiopic-ext.pdf (2004), http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2004/04265-n2814r-ethiopic-supp.pdf (2004); http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2009/09050r-ethiopic.pdf (2009)

2015-11-26 http://yacob.org/papers/DanielYacob-IUC15.pdf (1999)

2014-05-20

Silt'e

  1. Səlṭē (ስልጤ) people live in the Səlṭē Zone (which was a part of the Gurage Zone in the 20th century) in the SNNPR, Ethiopia, about 150 km south of Addis Ababa; near Butajira, Lake Z(i)way, and Hosa'ina (Hosaena). They speak the Silt'e language [stv].
  2. Səlṭī (ስልጢ) is an older name; also it may refer to the main subgroup of Səlṭē, known as Summus Səlṭi.
  3. The Səlṭē people are mostly Muslim.
  4. In this case, ⟨ṭ⟩ or ⟨t'⟩ means an ejective.

PNG Image
Silt'e [stv] in the Silte Zone and Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw] in the Gurage Zone

Map added on 2015-11-24 (The Silte Zone split away from Gurage in 2001):
PNG 8 KiB

2015-11-21

Blin (Bilin, Bilen)

Although not a Semitic language, Blin is often written in the Ge'ez alphabet. The following letters are used [PDF]:

The letters listed under “From Tigrinya” are also used in Amharic, except * and * — in Tigrinya they are used for [xʼ ~ χʼ], the soft (possibly allophonic) version of [kʼ]. The UCLA Phonetics Lab Language Archive shows it as [qχʼ] (affricate); [ʁʼ] is used in the Memhr.org Dictionaries, which should be understood as [ʁ] or [χʼ].

2015-11-23

Bench

U+2DA0–U+2DBE are for the Bench language (Omotic, bcq, 0.35 mil), even though they are listed in the section “Syllables for Sebatbeit”: the consonants meant by Unicode names like ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SSA/CCA/ZZA/CCHA seem to be [ʂ], [ʈ͡ʂ], [ʐ], [ʈ͡ʂʼ], respectively; shown as SH, C, ZH, CH, in n1846.pdf, page 2.

ⶠ ⶨ ⶰ ⶸ are obviously from ሸ ቸ ዠ ጨ.

Starting from 2008, the Bench language is written in the Latin alphabet.

2015-11-24

Sebat Bet Gurage (Säbat Bet kä-Gurage)

Additional Letters for Chaha (Čähaña)

Some mods to ቈ ኰ ዀ ጐ ? They were called GURAGE QWE/KWE/KXWE/GWE (U+xx40–43) in n1846.pdf, but apparently they were dropped in n2747. Maybe these are for the syllables with the wide [ɛ], instead of [a]/[e]?

In the Ethiopic Supplement block [Unicode 4.1]: ᎀ ᎄ ᎈ ᎌ (ሟ ቧ ፏ ፗ are in the Ethiopic block already in Unicode 3.0, named MWA, etc. though they should have been MWAA, etc.)

In the Ethiopic Extended block [Unicode 4.1]: ⷀ ⷈ ⷐ ⷘ (QY KY XY GY: cʼ c ç ɟ (?))

Qarahbaš 3 (12) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 5: ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ

2013-11-07

001246.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܕܰܗܒܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ ܪܰܒܝ ܩܳܕܡܐ
dahḇā (soft b) mhīrā rabbī qāḏmā
gold skilled, trained my teacher goes before, does first (f)
ܫܰܦܝܪ ܫܶܡܝ̱ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
My name [See Leshono p. 43; Nöld §146] is beautiful; I am beautiful (fem.abs).
ܘܡܶܢ ܕܰܗܒܐ ܝܰܩܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
And than gold I am more valuable (fem.abs).
ܐܳܦܶܢ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܒܨܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
Even if in the classroom I am imperfect (bṣīrā)...
ܒܪܰܡ ܕܶܝܢ ܣܰܓܝ ܡܗܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
But (bram), then (dēn), I am trained a lot.

2013-11-08

ܗܐ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܩܳܕܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
Behold, to school (bēṯ sep̄rā*), I go before [anyone else? prob. = I go ahead]
*sep̄rā is pronounced like ṣep̄rā [Alan Lv2 L47]
ܠܪܰܒܝ ܘܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܝ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
My teacher and my fellows (schoolmates), I love [them].
ܚܰܒܪܐ a companion; ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ companions; -ē → -ai “my”
ܚܘܪ ܒܝ ܕܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
Give heed to the me of this kind [that] I am (lit. I stand).
ܚܘܪ ܒ give heed to...
ܠܐ ܗܐ ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
Isn’t it good? I am beautiful!
ܠܐ ܗܐ interrog.—not? is it not so? [Jess. 99]

Wheelock 30: Sententiae Antīquae

2013-11-07

1. Nunc vidētis quantum scelus contrā rem pūblicam et lēgēs nostrās vōbīs prōnūntiātum sit.
Now you guys see how great a crime — against the republic and our laws — has been reported to you.
2. Quam dulcis sit lībertās vōbīs prōtinus dīcam.
I will say to you (=I will tell you) guys right away how sweet liberty/freedom is.

2013-11-09

3. Rogābat dēnique cūr umquam ex urbe cessissent.
Finally he was asking why they had ever withdrawn from the town. (cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessum)
4. Nunc sciō quid sit amor.
Now I know what love is.
5. Videāmus uter hīc in mediō forō plūs scrībere possit.
Let’s see which of the two can write more here (hīc) in the middle of the forum.
6. Multī dubitābant quid optimum esset.
Many were unsure (dubitō 1) what was the best (thing to do).
7. Incipiam expōnere unde nātūra omnēs rēs creet alatque.
I will begin to explain whence nature creates and sustains all things.
8. Dulce est vidēre quibus malīs ipse careās.
It is sweet to see from what evils you yourself are free.
9. Auctōrem Trōiānī bellī relēgī, quī dīcit quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid ūtile, quid nōn.
I reread the author of the Troian War, who [quī: relative] says what [quis/quid: interrogative] is beautiful, what is shameful, what is useful, what is not.

2013-11-20

10. Doctōs rogābis quā ratiōne bene agere cursum vītae possīs, utrum virtūtem doctrīna paret an nātūra ingeniumque dent, quid minuat cūrās, quid tē amīcum tibi faciat.
You guys will ask learned men by what method you can pass well the course of [your] life, whether teaching provides virtue or the nature and innate talent give [it to you], what lessens [your] worries, what makes you a friend to yourself (≈how to help yourself).
11. Istī autem rogant tantum quid habeās, nōn cūr et unde.
Those guys/jerks, however, only ask what you have, not why and from where.
12. Errat, quī fīnem vēsānī quaerit amōris: vērus amor nūllum nōvit habēre modum.
He, who looks for the end of insane love, errs: true love knows (nōscō, pf) to have no limit (=knows nothing about having a limit).
13. Sed tempus est iam mē discēdere ut cicūtam bibam, et vōs discēdere ut vītam agātis. Utrum autem sit melius, dī immortālēs sciunt; hominem quidem nēminem scīre crēdō.
But it is time now for me to depart so that I may drink hemlock, and for you guys to depart so that you may lead [your] life. Which of the two, however, is better—immortal gods know; [as for] a human being, indeed, I believe no one knows.
File:Conium maculatum Lincolnshire 3.jpg cicūta: Conium maculatum, Apiaceae: (poison) hemlock, ドクニンジン; a poisonous alkaloid, Coniine, is found in it. [Gr. κώνειον = Lat. cōnīum; maculātus=“stained”]

2013-12-04

Evidence and Confession

Sit dēnique scrīptum in fronte ūnīus cuiusque quid dē rē pūblicā sentiat; nam rem pūblicam labōribus cōnsiliīsque meīs ex igne atque ferrō ēreptam esse vidētis.
Let [it] finally have been written (OR: Let it be written, therefore,) on the forehead of one (ūnus, gen. ūnīus) and each one (quisque, gen. cuiusque) [=every single one] WHAT he feels about the republic; for YOU GUYS SEE that the republic has been rescued (ēripiō), with my efforts and plans, from fire and sword.
Haec iam expōnam breviter ut scīre possītis quā ratiōne comprehēnsa sint.
Now I will explain these things briefly so that you guys may be able to know by which reasoning they (=these things) have been understood.
Semper prōvīdī quō modō in tantīs īnsidiīs salvī esse possēmus.
Always I have been cautious by which method (=how) in such a plot (īnsidia, usu. in pl) we could be safe.

2013-12-05

Evidence and Confession (cont.)

Omnēs diēs cōnsūmpsī ut vidērem quid coniūrātī āctūrī essent.
I spent all the days so that I might see what conspirators were going to do.
Dēnique litterās intercipere potuī quae ad Catilīnam ā Lentulō aliīsque coniūrātīs missae erant.
Finally I was able to intercept a letter which had been sent to Catiline from Lentulus and the other conspirators.
Tum, coniūrātīs comprehēnsīs et senātū convocātō, contendī in senātum, ostendī litterās Lentulō, quaesīvī cognōsceretne signum.
Then, conspirators having been arrested and the senate having been convened, I hastened into the sanate, exhibited the letter to Lentulus, [and] asked if he recognized the seal.
Dīxīt sē cognōscere; sed prīmō dubitāvit et negāvit sē dē hīs rēbus respōnsūrum esse.
He said that he recognized [it]; but first he hesitated and SAID that he would NOT answer (respōnsūrus, fut.part. of respondeō) about these things.
Mox autem ostendit quanta esset vīs cōnscientiae; nam repente mollītus est atque omnem rem nārrāvit.
Soon, however, he exhibit how great the force of conscience was; for suddenly he became softened, and told everything.
Tum cēterī coniūrātī sīc fūrtim inter sē aspiciēbant ut nōn ab aliīs indicārī sed indicāre sē ipsī vidērentur.
Then the other conspirators were glancing at each other (OR: one another, if # of conspirators is 3+) SO secretly THAT they seemed to be not accused by others, but accusing themselves.

2013-12-06

A Covered Dish Dinner! LIV

Mēnsās,| Ōle, bo|nās pō|nis, sed| pōnis o|pertās.
Rīdicu|lum~est: pos|sum|| sīc ego~ha|bēre bo|nās. (??)
You place fine dishes, Ōlus, but you place covered [ones].
It is ridiculous: even I am thus able to have good [ones].
¶ pōnō, pōnere, “put, place, set” ¶ opertus, “concealed, covered”

A Legacy-Hunter’s Wish

Nīl mihi dās vīvus; dīcis post fāta datūrum;
sī nōn es stultus, scīs, Maro, quid cupiam!
You give me nothing [while] alive; you say that you will give after [your] death.
If you are not foolish, you know, Maro, what I wish.

Note on a Copy of Catullus’ Carmina

Tantum magna suō dēbet Vērōna Catullō
quantum parva suō Mantua Vergiliō.
So great Vērōna owes to its so Catullus
just like small Mantua (owes) to its Vergil.

Osrhoene

2013-11-05

...Imperial Aramaic...

312 BC - Seleucid Empire: “Old Syriac ... came directly from the local dialects, since here the continuity of written Aramaic had been interrupted by Greek by the end of the 4th cent. B.C.”

Kingdom of Osroene 132 BC - 242? AD[Edessa Urhay Şanlıurfa] “Old Syriac, the official language of the kingdom of Osrhoene, founded by an Arab [Nabataean] dynasty in Edessa in 132 B.C. and surviving until 242 A.D., is known from about 80 inscriptions... of the 1st-3rd cent. A.D. (from 6 A.D.) and from a deed of sale of 243 A.D. It is characterized by an unusually firm orthography. It differs from the later Middle Syriac in certain conspicuous ways (especially: still no diacritics on d/r, the plural etc.; S for *ś; 3rd person imperfect preformative y-). Although there was a Christian church in Edessa as early as 201 A.D. - it was destroyed in the famous flood - all the Old Syriac inscriptions are pagan.” // Jewish Old Babylonian

242? 244? incorporated in the Roman Empire

In the 4th century A.D. and probably in connection with the effort to produce an authoritative Syriac text of the Bible (Pšīttā́), Syriac orthography was reformed to take account of some aspects of the changed basis of pronunciation. This so-called Middle Syriac (literary Syriac) became the ecclesiastical language of the eastern Aramaic-speaking Christians.

324 Constantinople founded

431 Council of Ephesus:
451 Council of Chalcedon
“the Nestorian East Syrians (Nisibis, under Persian rule) separated themselves in 489 ... so that Middle Syriac also split”: In 489, after the Nestorian Schism, the Byzantine emperor Zeno ordered the school summarily closed for its teachings of Nestorian doctrine, whereupon the scholars moved back to the School of Nisibis.

502 - c 628 Byzantine–Sasanian wars

c 570 - 632 Muhammad

634-638 Muslim conquest of Syria: “From the 7th cent. A.D. onwards Syriac was pushed back as a spoken language by Arabic, though it remained widespread as an ecclesiastical language until the Mongol upheaval of the 13th cent. A.D.” // The two southern Eastern Middle Aramaic dialects, Jewish Middle Babylonian and Mandaic, differ in fact only in script. Jewish Middle Babylonian, in square script, is the language of the Babylonian Talmud (finished in the 8th cent...)

c 700 - Grammar of Jacob of Edessa

Qarahbaš 3 (10) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 4 [ܐܰܪܒܥܐ]: ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܫܰܦܝܪܬܐ

2013-11-02

0010qE.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܟܳܢܫܐ ܠܳܒܫܐ
šenṯā naḥtā kānšā lāḇšā
f. sleep m. garment she sweeps she wears
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܬܐ.
Maryam is a beautiful daughter (fem.emph).
ܟܰܕ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܟܳܢܫܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
When in the morning she wakes up from sleep, she sweeps the floor of the house beautifully. (ܐܰܪܥܐ means “floor” when used with ܒܰܝܬܐ)
ܟܶܢ ܠܳܒܫܐ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ.
Then she wears clean clothes (mas.emph: notice naḥtā is m. though ending in -tā).
ܡܶܢ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܫܳܬܝܐ ܟܳܣܐ ܕܚܰܠܒܐ، ܫܳܩܠܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܐ، ܘܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܘܩܳܪܝܐ.
After (ܡܶܢ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕ) she drinks a cup (kāsā) of milk, she takes (ŠQL) a book from [her] bag, and she sits before (qəḏām) the table and she reads.
ܚܙܝ ܗܐ ܩܳܪܝܐ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇.
Look! Here! She is reading her lessons.

2013-11-03

00115f.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ؟
ܗܝ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ.

— When does Maryam wake up from sleep? — She wakes up in the morning.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܝܡܐ؟
ܟܳܢܫܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ.

— What does she do when she wakes up? — She sweeps the floor of the house beautifully.

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܟܶܢ ܠܳܒܫܐ؟
ܠܳܒܫܐ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ.

— What does she then wear? — She wears clean clothes.

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܬܝܐ؟
ܫܰܬܝܐ ܟܳܣܐ ܕܚܰܠܒܐ.

— What does she drink? — She drinks a cup of milk.

5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ؟
ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ.

— Where does she sit? — She sits in front of the table.

6 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܗܳܫܐ؟
ܩܳܪܝܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.

— What does she do now? — She reads a book.

2013-11-06

Maculine - Feminine — ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ

ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ (ʾāmrīnan) = ܐܳܡܪܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܐ (ʾāmrīn̊ nan) “we say” (m): when contracted, no double n in Alan130; but doubled n in Thackston p. 39. Alan is right. See 2013-12-02.

7 ܛܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ
ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܝܡܐ

— The boy stands. — The girl stands.

8 ܐܰܚܐ ܠܳܒܶܫ
ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܠܳܒܫܐ

— The brother wears... — The sister wears...

9 ܐܰܒܐ ܟܳܢܶܫ
ܐܶܡܐ ܟܳܢܫܐ

— The father sweeps. — The mother sweeps.

10 ܬܰܘܪܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ
ܬܘܪܬܐ (ܬܰܘܪܬ̥ܐ) ܪܳܥܝܐ

— The bull browses. — The cow (tōrtā*) browses.

*tōrtā (or tūrtā) is hard-t-fem, coming from the older soft-t-fem form tawrəṯā (Nöld. §49A).

11 ܣܳܒܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ
ܣܳܒܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ

— The old man sits. — The old woman (sāḇṯā*) sits.

*sāḇṯā is soft-t in Nöld. §135, Canada vol. 3, Alan 64; CAL, wikt, hard-t.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

12 ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܟܳܢܫܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
Little Maryam sweeps the floor of the house.

ܙܥܘܿܪܝܐ (that Y thing), but ܙܥܘܿܪܬ̊ܐ (No Y thing, hard-t).

Qarahbaš 3 (8) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 3: ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ

2013-10-30

0008Hj.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܚܘܪ ܦܰܐܝܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܚܶܙܘܐ
ḥūr pa(ʾ)yā qāʾem ḥezwā
look! beautiful QWM stands m. appearance
ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܦܰܐܝܐ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ!
Ah, how beautiful (fem abs) the garden is!
ܝܶܫܘܥ، ܚܘܪ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
YešŪʕ (CANADA: Maṯay), look at this garden.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
There are in it roses and flowers.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܳܦ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܳܡܐ.
There are in it also high (mas pl emph) trees.
ܗܐ ܫܰܒܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܓ̥ܳܘ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ.
Look, Šabbā is standing in the garden.
ܗܘ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܘܰܪܕܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.
He picks a red (summāq) rose.
ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
Ah, how beautiful the view of this garden is.

0009OE.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Answer by pointing — ܦܰܢܐ ܪܶܡܙܳܢܐܝܺܬ̥

-nāʾīṯ again: ܪܶܡܙܐ — m. a sign; ܪܶܡܙܳܢܐܝܺܬ — adv. by way of a sign

1 ܐܰܝܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
Which is the boy?
2 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ؟
Which are (ʾennōn) the trees?
3 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ؟
Which are the roses?

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ؟
ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ، ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ، ܘܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܳܡܐ.

— What are in our garden? — In our garden there are roses, flowers, and high trees.

ܘܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ or ܘܐܺܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ? Alan Lv4 L91 has: ܕܐܲܪܥܵܐ, and not ܕܲܐܪܥܵܐ !

Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Matthew 5:13' has: ܕ݁ܰܐܪܥܳܐAnalysis of Peshitta verse 'Matthew 3:10' has ܕ݁ܺܐܝܠܳܢܶܐ

But Alan Lv2 L46 explicitly states: Alâp surrenders its vowel to the prefix in pronunciation and not in writing. Nöld. §33 says: ܒܰܐܝܕ݁ܳܐ “in what (f)” [...] Although this falling away of the ܐ is very ancient, yet the East-Syrians frequently retain it as a consonant in such cases: thus e.g. they prefer to punctuate [...] ܒܐܵܬ݂ܵܐ, without pushing forward the vowel to the preceding consonant, as if it should still be read [...] be̊ʾāthā; but all this without consistency.

2013-10-31

5 ܟܡܐ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܒ̱ܬ؟
(ܟܡܐ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܚܳܙܝܐ ܐܰܒ̱ܬܝ̱؟)
ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
(ܚܳܙܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.)

— How many trees do you see? — I see three trees.

6 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܰܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ؟
ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܰܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܫܰܒܐ.

— What is the name of the boy who is in the garden (daḇ-ganṯā)? — The name of the boy who is in the garden is Šabbā.

7 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܐܺܝܕܐ (ܒܺܐܝܕܐ) ܕܫܰܒܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܺܐܝܕܐ ܕܫܰܒܐ ܘܰܪܕܐ.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܺܐܝܕܶܗ ܘܰܪܕܐ.

— What is in the hand of Šabbā? — There is a rose in the hand of Šabbā. — There is a rose in his hand.

CANADA=ܒܺܐܝܕܐ

Admittedly the way the vowel point is written over the ʾĀlap̄ is slightly confusing. — Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Colossians 4:18' ܫܠܳܡܳܐ ܗܳܢܳܐ ܒ݁ܺܐܝܕ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܺܝܠܝ ܕ݁ܦ݁ܰܘܠܳܘܣ (šəlāmā hānā bi(ᵓ)yḏā dīl(y) dəpawlāws)

8 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܓܰܢ̈ܐ؟
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܝܢ.

— Why (ləmānā) is the view of gardens (gannē, pl. of ganṯā) beautiful? — Because (meṭṭūl/meṭṭul) flowers are beautiful (šappīrīn=pl.mas.abs; no Seyame §16B).

ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܘܰܪܕܐ».

RKB: rḵeḇ “to mount; to ride”: Pa. rakkeḇ “to compose”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܘܰܪܕܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ...

  1. ܘܰܪܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
  2. ܣܰܪܐ ܩܳܛܦܐ ܘܰܪܕܐ.
  3. ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܘܰܪܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ!

ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
This garden has in it roses and flowers.

melthofonts-1.21/melthoguide.html

2013-10-27

Fix “11. Garshuni (all keys with Alt+Ctrl)” (1) ‘X’ should be: U+0652 [ ْ ] ARABIC SUKUN; (2) Add ‘`’ as: U+0651 [ ّ ] ARABIC SHADDA

Some Words

2013-10-23

  1. ܣܰܘܟܳܐ‎ — f. branch
  2. ܓܶܠܐ — m. straw, dried plant
  3. ܗܰܘ — m. that
  4. ܬܳܩܶܦ — become strong
  5. ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ — falling
  6. ܡܶܛܪܐ — rain
  7. ܬܰܠܓܐ — snow
  8. ܨܶܝܕ — toward, near
  9. ܬܰܪܥܐ — door
  10. ܩܳܐܶܡ — standing
  11. ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ — m. flowers
  12. ܪܝܚܐ — m. smell
  13. ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ — f. garden
  14. ܡܢܝ — count!
  15. ܠܰܚܡܳܐ — food, bread
  16. ܒܶܣܪܐ — meat
  17. ܩܳܠܐ — voice
  18. ܪܳܡܐ — high
  19. ܐܰܪܥܐ — the earth
  20. ܠܳܩܶܛ — gathers
  21. ܟܰܪܡܐ — vineyard
  22. ܝܵܠܹܦ ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪܵܝܵܐ — (Alan 73) “He is learning the Assyrian language”
  23. ܥܳܒܶܕ — doing
  24. ܗܳܫܐ — now
  25. ܣܳܚܶܐ — swims
  26. ܢܰܗܪܐ — river
  27. ܢܘܢܐ — fish
  28. ܣܳܐܶܡ — puts

Karsā (Belly, Womb) is feminine

2013-10-17

Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Titus 1:12', Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Luke 23:29', Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Luke 11:27'

Serto Batnan «Rish-Seyame + Vowel Point» Problem

2013-10-15

In some situations, including when the font data is loaded dynamically via @font-face on IE8 or FF24, Serto Batnan and a few other fonts can not show properly Rish-Seyame with a vowel point above (for example ܪ̈ܶ). Serto Jerusalem = ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ — Serto Batnan = ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ

Apparently, Serto Jerusalem does not have this problem; Serto Urhoy also seems okay.

Qarahbaš 3 (6) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 2: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܛܳܒܐ

2013-10-04

000629.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܢܰܩܕܐ ܟܰܕ
hergē yāḏaʿ naqdā kad
(pl) study, musing (part) know (emph) clean, pure, sincere when, although
ܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܛܳܒܐ.
Šemʿūn (Simeon/Symeon/Simon, m.) is a good student. (yālōp̄ā)
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ، ܟܶܪ̈ܟܐ ܘܩܰܢܝܐ.
He has books (kṯābē), notebooks (kerkē), and a pen.
ܗܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ.
He writes well on [his] clean notebook. (emph)

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2013-10-05

ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ ܘܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
All morning Every morning, he sits on the chair and reads or writes his lessons.
ܕܝܠـ (dīl-) + possessive siffix = “one’s (own)”
ܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
Šemʿūn knows (understands) his lessons well.
ܡܐ ܛܳܒ ܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ.
How good (abs) Šemʿūn is when he reads or writes!

Today’s Words

Today I wrote the translations in Japanese. This way, I can practice two writing systems at the same time :) They don’t look very good, partly because I’m not good at this in the first place, partly because I’m writing this with a regular mouse on MS Paint. I could probably do this better if I had a pen-like input device.

PNG Image

2013-10-29

0007MB.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

1 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܩܰܢܝܐ؟
Which is the pen?
2 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ؟
Which is the book?
3 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܟܶܪܟܐ؟
Which is the notebook?
4 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ؟
Which is the chair?
5 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܛܳܒܐ؟
ܫܶܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܫܶܡܥܘܢ.
6 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟
ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.
7 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܟܰܕ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ؟
ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
8 ܥܰܠ ܡܳܢܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ؟
ܗܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ.
9 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܢܳܛܰܪ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ ܢܰܩܕܐ؟
ܐܝܢ، ܗܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ.
ܐܝܢ، ܟܶܪܟܶܗ ܢܩܶܕ.

9=Does he keep his notebook tidy? / ʾēn = 'yes'

10 ܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܢܰܩܕܐ.

Wheelock 30: Practice and Review

2013-09-11

1. Rogāvit ubi illae duae discipulae dignae haec didicissent.
He asked where those two worthy female students had learned this.
2. Vidēbit quanta fuerit vīs illōrum verbōrum fēlīcium.
He will see how great the power of those nice/felicitous words was.
3. Hās īnsidiās repente exposuit nē rēs pūblica opprimerētur.
He exposed this ambush suddenly so that the republic might not be overpowered.
4. Hī taceant et trēs cēterī expellantur nē occāsiōnem similem habeant.
Let them be silent and let the remaining three be expelled so that they may not have a similar opportunity.
5. Ita dūrus erat ut beneficia uxōris comprehendere nōn posset.
He was so harsh/obdurate that he could not understand the benefit/kindness of [his] wife.
6. Cēterī quidem nesciēbant quam ācris esset mēns nātae eōrum.
The others, indeed, did not know how sharp the mind of his daughter was.

2013-09-30

7. Dēnique prīnceps cognōscet cūr potentior pars mīlitum nōs vītet.
At last the leader will recognize why the stronger part of the soldiers is avoiding us.
8. Iam cognōvī cūr clāra facta vērō nōn sint facillima.
I already know why famous deeds/achievements indeed are not the easiest.
9. Quīdam auctōrēs appellābant arma optimum remedium malōrum.
Certain authors used to call weapons the best remedy of bad persons/things.
optimum (neut. acc.) goes with remedium (neut. acc.), not with arma (neut. pl. acc.).

2013-10-01

10. Mortuīs haec arma mox dēdicēmus nē honōre egeant.
Let us soon dedicate these weapons to the dead so that they may not be without honor.
¶ mortuus adj. ¶ mox “soon” ¶ honor, honōris, m. ¶ egeō, egēre, “need, lack”
11. Fātō duce, Rōmulus Remusque Rōmam condidērunt; et, Remō necātō, moenia urbis novae cito surrēxērunt.
Fate being the leader, Rōmulus and Remus founded Roma; and, with Remus having been killed, the walls of the new city quickly rose.
¶ fātum, “fate” ¶ condō, condere, condidī, “put together or into” ¶ necō, “kill” ¶ moenia, n. pl. “walls of a city” Cf. mūrus, Fr. un mur ¶ surgō, surgere, surrēxī, “get up, arise”

2013-10-05

12. Tell me in what lands liberty is found.
Dīc mihi in quibus patriīs/terrīs lībertās inveniātur.
¶ inveniō, invenīre ¶ lībertās, tātis, f.
13. We did not know where the sword had finally been put.
Nescīvimus ubi ferrum dēnique positum esset.
¶ nesciō, -īre, -īvī, -ītum ¶ pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positum

2013-10-27

14. He does not understand the first words of the little book which they wrote about the constellations.
Nōn intellegit prīma verba libellī quem dē sīderibus scrīpsērunt.
libbelus, m. sīdus, sīderis, n.
15. They asked why you could not learn what the rest had done.
Rogāvērunt cūr nōn possēs discere quod cētērī didicissent/fēcissent.
discō, didicī
16. Let all men now seek better things than money or supreme power so that their souls may be happier.
Omnēs virī meliōra quam pecūniam aut imperium petant nunc ut animī suī sint fēlīciōrēs.
suus/sua/suum [adjectives] = his own/her own/its own/their own
AS OPPOSED TO
eius, eōrum, eārum [genetives] = his/her/their (someone else)

Qarahbaš 3 (4) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 1: ܐܳܪܳܡ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ

2013-09-07

0004UY.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

2013-09-08

ܝܺܠܶܦ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ ܦܨܝـܚ
yīlep̄ qaḏmāyā trayyānā pṣīḥ
he learned adj. first adj. second glad, merry, bright
ܐܳܪܳܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ.
Ārām is a diligent (m. emph.) boy.
ܝܺܠܶܦ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ، ܘܰܣܠܶܩ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.
He learned the first book well, and went up to the second class.
ܣܠܶܩ (sleq) “go up”
ܫܒܰܩ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܣܶܕܪܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ.
He left behind (≈finished/graduated from) everything of the first class.
ܡܶܕܶܡ (meddem) m/f “thing(s)” — also in one word, ܟܽܠܡܶܕܶܡ (kulmeddem) “all, all things, everything” [Jess 214]

2013-09-10

ܗܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.
See, now he is sitting in the second class.
ܐܳܪܳܡ ܦܨܝܼܚ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
Ārām is happy (m. abs.) in this class.
ܢܺܚܶܐ ܐܳܪܳܡ، ܢܺܚܶܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ.
Go Ārām (lit. Let Aram live), go the hard-working boy!

3rd-Y Revisited

2013-09-11

0005UM.jpg (JPEG Image, 619×800 pixels)

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

Kṯībṯā (?) kəṯīḇtā is “writing”; what is -nāʾīṯ? [The meaning is “in writing”; p. 79]

2013-11-03 āʾīṯ = adverbializer
2013-11-24 kəṯīḇ-ā-nā-ʾīṯ — Why is the second t soft? Is this actualaly kəṯī-ḇəā-nā-ʾīṯ? Cf. pl. kəṯī-ḇā-ṯā
2014-05-03 āʾīṯ N §155A; kṯīḇtā (p.p. f-emph) should have a hard Tā. But I’m not sure if this adv. is based on kṯīḇtā; there can be several similar forms from √KTB
2015-07-14 Maybe this is from kṯīḇtā (-Tā hard) + āʾīṯ, but if so, where does the n come from?

1 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܫܶܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܳܪܳܡ.

— What is the name of this student (yālōp̄ā)? — The name of this student is Ārām.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܺܠܶܦ ܫܰܦܝܪ؟
ܝܺܠܶܦ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ.

— What did he learn well? — He learned the first book well.

3 ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܣܠܶܩ؟
ܣܠܶܩ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.

— To which class did he go up? — He went up to the second class.

2013-09-12

4 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܟܬܳܒܐ ܫܩܰܠ؟
ܫܩܰܠ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.

— Which book did he take (receive)? — He took the second book.

5 ܒܐܰܝܢܐ [ܒܰܐܝܢܐ] ܣܶܕܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܳܫܐ؟
ܗܳܫܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.

— In which class is he sitting now? — Now he is sitting in the second class.

ܒܐܰܝܢܐ in US (SyriacStudies.com) version; ܒܰܐܝܢܐ in CANADA (SyrianOrthodoxChurch.com) version. CANADA is more correct.

2013-10-01

Look at the lesson and show — ܒܨܝ ܠܗܶܪܓܐ ܘܚܰܘܐ

6 ܟܡܐ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܥܗܝܕ (ܥܰܗܝܕ) ܫܶܡ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ؟
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ.

— How many times is the name of qaḏmāyā mentioned? — Two times (twice).

2013-10-02

7 ܟܡܐ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܥܰܗܝܕ ܫܶܡ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ؟
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ.

— How many times is the name of trayyānā mentioned? — Twice.

8 ܒܐܰܝܢܐ ܣܶܪܛܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܡܶܠܰܬ̥: ܣܠܶܩ، ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ؟
«ܝܺܠܶܦ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ، ܘܰܣܠܶܩ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.» «ܗܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.»
ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܣܶܪܛܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܶܠܰܬ̥ ܣܠܶܩ، ܘܰܚܡܝܫܳܝܐ ܣܶܪܛܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܶܠܰܬ̥ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ. (*)

— In which line is there the word (of): sleq, yāṯeḇ? — “He learned well the first book, and went up (sleq) to the second class.” “See, now he sits (yāṯeḇ) in the second class.” CANADA=ܒܰܐܝܢܐ

2013-11-25: Maybe a better answer is (*): “The third line has the word seleq in it, and the fifth line has the word yāṯeḇ in it.”

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܐܳܪܳܡ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܣܠܶܩ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ.
Excellent ʾĀrām went up to the second class.

Today’s Words

PNG Image

Memo: a few dialects of Middle Aramaic (−200–+200)

2013-09-06

Palmyrene
A West Aramaic dialect spoken in Palmyra, Syria, in the early c.
Nabat(a)ean
A West Aramaic; the language of the Nabataeans of the current-day Israel, Jordan, etc. −2c–+4c
Qumran
A site in the West Bank. The Dead Sea Scrolls (−4c–+3c) were discovered there.

Qarahbaš 2 (43) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 21

2013-08-31

Lesson 21, p. 43

ܣܶܕܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ
seḏrā dīlan malləp̄ānā hergā
m. row, study hall our (own) [m.] teacher, learned m. study, musing

Historically, tmr was “Talmudic Aramaic”. On 2007-05-16 it was changed to “Jewish Babylonian Aramaic”, while on 2007-07-18 jpa (“Jewish Palestinian Aramaic” which by definition includes Palestinan Talmud) was created.

ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ.
How beautiful our classroom is.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.
There is one chair in it.
ܟܽܘܪܣܝܳܐ (kursyā) m. “chair”
ܐܳܦ ܚܕܐ ܠܘܚܐ ܘܰܚܕܐ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ.
Also [there are] one blackboard and one table.
ܠܽܘܚܳܐ (lūḥā) f. “tablet” = blackboard
ܛܰܒܠܻܝܬܳܐ (ṭablīṯā / ṭaḇlīṯā ?) ⟦tăbŭla⟧ f. — Neo-Syr. (Literary) [ṭwilétâ] f. “a table of verbs, etc.” — (1) Exactly what does this “table” mean? It is not an item of furniture (mensa). It could be a multiplication table, etc. (2) Why does it have ĕ instead of ă? Dialectal?
Jessie
f. tabula. a) a tablet, plate. b) the flat top or surface of an altar, an altar, a wooden portable altar opp. ܡܰܕܒܚܳܐ an altar of stone. c) arith. a table or column of figures.
LS2
ܛܰܒܠܴܝܬܴ݁ܐ (ṭablāytā), ܛܰܒܠܻܝܬܴܐ (ṭablītā) 1. tabula, mensa; 2. tabula, qua luditur; 3. tabella.

https://archive.org/stream/syriacusthesaur01paynuoft#page/n726/mode/1up

2013-10-27: See Alan 113. ܛܰܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ simply means “table” (furniture)

2013-11-02: While Greek does have τάβλα, this Syriac word might be from Arabic طَاوِلَة, or at least might have been influenced by it. I’m saying this because the Greek word does not mean the furniture, while the Arabic word surely does. After all, if you mean the furniture, the right word would be τράπεζα (mensa), and not τάβλα (tabula).

2013-09-01

ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.
The teacher sits on the chair.
ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ.
He writes a lesson on the blackboard.
ܗܐ ܐܰܚܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ.
See, the brother reads the lesson.
ܩܪܳܐ (qrā) √QRY [3rd-Y] “read” — part. ܩܳܪܶܐ (qāre) ܩܳܪܝܳܐ (qāryā)

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2013-09-03

Lesson 21, p. 44

Answer by pointing — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܪܶܡܙܐ

1 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ ؟
Which is (m) the chair?
2 ܐܰܝܟܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܠܘܚܐ ؟
Where is (f) the blackboard?
3 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ؟
Which is (f) the table?

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ [ܐܝܬ̥] ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ، ܠܘܚܐ، ܘܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ.

— What is in this classroom? — There are a chair, a blackboard, and a table in it.

5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ؟
ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.

— Where does the teacher sit? — He sits on a chair.

6 ܡܳܢܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ ؟
ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ.

— What does he write on the blackboard? — He writes a lesson on the blackboard.

7 ܡܳܢܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܚܐ ؟
ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ.

— What does the brother read? — He reads the lesson.

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

8 ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܠܰܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ.
The teacher writes the lesson for us on the blackboard.

So, now, I have finished the 21 lessons of the first volume! It took me four months and one week. I still have a long way to go, but I say this is a good start :)

Pluto & Charon

2013-08-26

Hubble Portrait of the "Double Planet" Pluto & Charon

Qarahbaš 2 (41) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 20

2013-08-20

Lesson 20, p. 41

ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ
šemšā dānaḥ ʾëmrā (CAL ʾimrā) ʕānā
sun (usu. m.) he rises, shines upon (e-to-a) m. lamb f. flock
ܚܰܢܰܐ ܐܳܡܪܐ: ܚܘܪ ܪܰܒܝ، ܗܐ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܥܰܠ ܒ̈ܳܬܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
Ḥannā Ḥa(n)na says, “Look, Rabbī (OR: Gaʾyā)! See, the sun is now shining on the houses and on the trees.

2013-08-21

ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ!
How beautiful (m. abs.) this dawn is!
ܨܰܦܪܐ (ṣap̄rā) m. “early morning, day break, dawn”
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܳܡܪܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ.
A sparrow is singing (f) on a branch.
ܙܡܰܪ (zmar) “sing”
ܣܰܘܟܐ (sawkā) f. “bough, branch, twig”
ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܪܓܐ.
The flock (f) is grazing within the meadow.
ܡܰܪܓܐ (margā) m. “meadow” — CAL says Iranian [Kurdish: mêrg, مێرگ]. Cf. Armenian մարգ (marg) “meadow, field”. Arabic مرج (marj).

2016-11-19 Parthian [xpr]: 𐭌𐭓𐭂 (mrg) /marɣ/ “wood, meadow” @ Dict. of MMP&P 230b

2013-08-25 Kurdish (Kurmanji) ê = [e] (sometimes [i]-like), as opposed to e = [æ]. Example: gêzer, /ɡezæɾ/ f. “carrot”; Audio files, Reference Grammar
In Soranî: گێزەر — Some people use U+0647 [ ه ] ARABIC LETTER HEH + ZWNJ instead of U+06D5 [ ە ] ARABIC LETTER AE: گێزه‌ر (Cf. kurdish sorani, ە - ویکیپیدیا)
Unicode 6.2 TUS ch8 p. 264 says “Among the extended Arabic characters used exclusively for Soraní are U+0695 [ ڕ ] ARABIC LETTER REH WITH SMALL V BELOW (for the Kurdish flap r) and…”; this should be trilled r, not flap. See: Sorani Kurdish Reference Grammar, p. 5.

2013-08-25

Lesson 20, p. 42

Say the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ

1 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ؟
ܫܶܡ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܚܰܢܰܐ.

— What is the name of this girl? — The name of this girl is Ḥa(n)na.

2 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ؟
ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܓܰܐܝܐ.

— What is the name of this boy? — The name of this boy is Gaʾyā. (Perhaps this is a classroom question which you can not answer when teaching yourself.) (I’ll use “Gaʾyā” anyway.)

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܪܐ ܚܰܢܰܐ ؟
ܗܝ ܐܳܡܪܐ: ܚܘܪ ܪܰܒܝ، ܗܐ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܥܰܠ ܒ̈ܳܬܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.

— What does Ḥa(n)na say? — She says, “Look, teacher, see, the sun now shines on houses and on trees.”

4 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܙܳܡܪܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܳܡܪܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ.

— Where does the sparrow sing (f)? — The sparrow sings on the branch.

5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ؟
ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܪܓܐ.

— Where does the flock graze (f)? — The flock grazes within the meadow.

2013-08-30

Complete the sentence — ܫܰܠܶܡ ܠܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܚܰܢܰܐ ܐܳܡܪܐ : ܚܘܪ ܓܰܐ......
ܚܰܢܰܐ ܐܳܡܪܐ : ܚܘܪ ܓܰܐܝܐ.

̣Ḥanna says, “Look, Gaʾyā.”

7 ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦ.....
ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ!

How beautiful this dawn is!

8 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ......
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܘܙܳܡܪܐ.

The sparrow is sitting on the branch and singing. (This may be a bit strange question; depending on the way you see it, the given sentence is already complete.)

9 ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܪܓܐ......
ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ.

The flock is grazing within this meadow. (This is strange; there is nothing to add to the given sentence.) (I’ll add “this” anyway.)

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܚܘܪ ܓܰܐܝܐ ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ.
Look, Gaʾyā, how beautiful the appearance of the sun is.

ܚܶܙܘܐ (ḥezwā) m. “appearance, form, figure”

Memo: Iranian Languages

2013-08-21

PNG Image

  1. Persian (فارسی‎ — فارسی) [fa] (57 mil), Western/Southwestern
  2. Pashto (پښتو‎ — ښ = /ʂ~ç~x/) [ps] (~40 mil), Eastern/Southeastern: spoken by around 40% of Afghans (12 mil), 15% of Pakistanis (28 mil)
  3. Kurdish [ku] (30 mil), Western/Northwestern
  4. Balochi (بلوچی‎ — بلوچی: balōčī ?) [bal] (7 mil), Western/Northwestern: Urdu-like script, Nastaliq style; sometimes in Latin script; Pakistan, Iran
  5. Others include:

2014-08-20

Five additional letters in the Tajik alphabet.

12 Additional letters for Pashto

  1. U+067C ټ ] ARABIC LETTER TEH WITH RING [ʈ]
  2. U+0689 ډ ] ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH RING [ɖ]
  3. U+0693 ړ ] ARABIC LETTER REH WITH RING [ɺ̢]/[ɻ] (see below)
  4. U+06AB ګ ] ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH RING [ɡ] — OR گ like in Persian
  5. U+06BC ڼ ] ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH RING [ɳ]
  6. U+0696 ږ ] ARABIC LETTER REH WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE [ʐ][ʒ][ɡ~ʝ][ɡ]
  7. U+069A ښ ] ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE [ʂ][ʃ][ç][x]
  8. U+0681 ځ ] ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH HAMZA ABOVE [d͡z]
  9. U+0685 څ ] ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE [t͡s]
  10. U+0626 ئ ] ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE [əi], [j]
  11. U+06CD ۍ ] ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TAIL [əi]
  12. U+06D0 ې ] ARABIC LETTER E [e]

12 “new” letters = (α) 5 ring guys + (β) 2 dot-below-and-dot-above guys + (γ) 2 additional Ḥā mods (in addition to Persian Che) + (δ) 3 additional Yā mods (in addition to “dotless” Yā).

28 basic Arabic letters (often Persian-style Kāf) + 4 Persian guys minus Gāf (Pe/Che/Zhe) + 1 Dotless Yā counted as a separate letter = 32 Letters*. Add to them the above 12 letters; the total sum is 44 (not counting Hamza as a letter).

* 2014-12-10: IOW the Persian 32 Letters minus Gāf plus Dotted Y = 32 Letters.

  1. One of the 5 ring guys is just a different version of گ. The other 4 ring guys are for retroflex phonemes. 3 of them, Ṭe/Ḍāl/Ṇūn are easy to understand. The other one, Ṛe, denotes the retroflex version of alveolar lateral flap [ ɺ ], that is, retroflex lateral flap [ ɺ̢ ] (PUA: [ ]), with an approximant allophone [ ɻ ] used finally. IOW: a dark L-ish flap and a dark L-ish (but central) approximant. (The same phoneme can be lateral and centeral depending on position, possibly somewhat like Japanese R.)
  2. 2 dot-below-and-dot-above guys are originally retroflex: [ʂ] and [ʐ]. In the SW dialect (in Kandahar), they are indeed pronounced that way. In different dialects, they may be pronounced as [ʃ] and [ʒ], [ç] and [ɡ~ʝ], or [x] and [ɡ].
  3. 2 Ḥā mods are for [t͡s] and [d͡z] (in some dialects, [s] and [z]). The one with three dots is voiceless, like Persian چ (yet another Ḥā mod used in Pashto). The other one has a small Hamza, implying it is “vowel-like” i.e. voiced.
  4. 3 Yā mods are vowels. Including the normal Yā and the dotless Yā (FARSI YEH), there are 5 Yā-like letters (“Yē” in Pashto) in total.

2014-08-21 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0IxkHRyiv1c

2015-01-05 (1) U+0626 [ ئ ] ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE is used in Arabic and Persian too, though it is not counted as an independent letter there. In Peshto, U+0678 [ ٸ ] ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA YEH could be used instead. (2) U+06C0 [ ۀ ] ARABIC LETTER HEH WITH YEH ABOVE is used in the “Peshawar orthography”, where it stands for a short vowel (/a/ or /ə/), as opposed to /h/. (3) 5 Ye letters are not necessarily for different sounds; some of them are used as “grammatical diacritics” like Seyame.

2014-08-29

Peshto ṛ (retroflex lateral flap)

ړ is transliterated as rr or ṛ, but it’s basically ḷ — a retroflex L, unless final. This phoneme (when not final) is a flap; compared with the normal [ɭ], it is smooth, expressionless, and less noisy. The following audio samples are taken from Pashto: First Grade Lesson 17 (Uploaded on Jan 6, 2009) by Alliance Bay Realty.

2014-12-29

Arabic Names and Persian Names of Letters

(1) Remember 3 names: ALEF, ʾEYN, ḠEYN. (2) If an Arbic name ends in ā, the Persian name for it is -e, except for Ṭā/Ẓā. (3) The other Persian names are more or less like Arabic ones.

ʾÈlif = alef /ælef/; = be; pe+1; = te*1; Ṯā = se*2; Ǵīm = jīm /dʒiːm/; če+2 /tʃ/; Ḥā = he*5; Ḵā /χ/ = ḵe /x/; Dāl = dāl /dɒːl/; Ḏāl = zāl*3

= re; Zāy (Zā) = ze*3; že+3 /ʒe/; Sīn = sīn*2; Šīn = šīn; Ṣād = sād*2; Ḍād = zād*3; Ṭā = *1; Ẓā = *3; ʕayn = ʾeyn; Ḡayn /ʁ/ = ḡeyn /ɣ,ɢ/*4

= fe; Qāf = qāf /ɣ,ɢ,q/*4; Kāf = kāf; gāf+4; Lām = lām; Mīm = mīm; Nūn = nūn; = #he*5; Wāw = #vāv /v,w/; = ye

2015-01-03

Persian Vowels

Persian phonology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2015-01-04

More Examples

ایران (ʾīrān {often -un in Iran}, Classic/Dari ʾērān) is a good example, where Iranian Persian is exactly like West Syriac while Dari is like East Syriac, except that ā is [ɒ(ː)] in both. We may write this one as ʾḗrān, where ḗ means exactly what it means in Syriac (originally ē, and still ē in East, but ī in West).

خانه (xānä) “house” /χɒːne/ ه at the end is originally “a”, but -e in Iranian Persian. Still хона in Tajiki. Similarly, ویژه (vīže) “special”.

چوب (čṓb) “wood”.

2016-11-25

More about Persian Vowels

D. C. [Douglas Craven] Phillott (1918), Higher Persian Grammar says: The original Persian vowel system was that of the Sanskrit, with the semi-vowel ṛi peculiar to the latter excluded. (p. 22) Indeed, Early New Persian has a/ā, i/ī, u/ū, plus always long e and o. He goes on:

When و and ی follow a consonant unmarked by a short vowel or by jazm [=sukūn], they were said to have an open sound called مجهول majhūl [in Arabic], or “unknown” (i.e. unknown to the Arab invaders); Ex. مور mor [mōr] an ant, شیر sher [šēr] “a lion”1; but when a و was preceded by a consonant pointed with ‏ ُ  or a ی with ‏ ِ , then the sound was called معروف maʻrūf or “known”; Ex. مُوش mūsh “a mouse”: شِیر shīr “milk.”

The majhūl sounds o [ō] and e [ē] are still preserved in the Persian spoken by Afghans and Indians {#1}, but they are now unknown in Persia: in modern Persian2 “an ant” is called mūr, and there is nothing in pronunciation to distinguish the word for “lion” from shīr “milk.”

1 In Persia lion is شیرshīr” […]

2 i.e. in Persia. […]

Thus, Early New Persian mōrča (from Middle Persian mōr and the diminutive suffix -ča) is mōrča [-æ] in Dari, but mūrče in Iranian. It is mürča in Tajik, where ü is [ɵ(ː)] or simply [u].

(شیر - Wiktionary) “A lion” is /šagr/ [*ʃaɣr] in Middle Persian (Pahlavi), šēr in Early New Persian: still [ʃeːɾ] in Dari, [ʃe(ː)ɾ] in Tajik, but [ʃi(ː)ɾ] in Iranian. Cf. Mandarin 獅 (shī).

2016-11-26 {#1} Before the arrival of the British, Muslims and educated Hindus in India learned Persian, the official language of administration, rather than Urdu. Around 1850s, the British changed the official languages from Persian to Urdu and English, but in 1850s, Persian was still commonly taught at school, and was much more popular than Urdu. [Rahman, Tariq (2000). The Teaching of Urdu in British India] In 1910s, when Phillott wrote this book, probably there were many people, especially elder persons, in India who spoke Persian as a second language.

2016-01-26

Ossetic (Ossetian)

450K in Russia [mostly in North Ossetia], roughly 100K in Georgia [45K ? in South Ossetia, 40K ? in Georgia proper]; the real number of speakers is much lower than officially stated and is steadily decreasing due to growing urbanization and the influence of Russian (Ossetic Grammatical Studies)

JPG 25 KiB Vladikavkaz / Владикавказ, the capital of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia.

2016-01-27

Caucasus Region

Caucasus Region: Ethnolinguistic Groups 1995, Caucasus Region 1994, Russia: Administrative Divisions 1994, Russia - Autonomous Areas in Russia 1996

Qarahbaš 2 (39) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 19

2013-08-16

Lesson 19, p. 39

ܥܳܒܐ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܢܶܡܪܐ ܬܰܥܠܐ ܐܰܪܝܐ
ʕābā ḥaywāṯā nemrā taʕlā ʾaryā
m. thicket, forest m/f animals, beasts m. leopard, panther m. fox m. lion
ܗܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
There are animals in this forest.
ܕܶܒܐ، ܬܰܥܠܐ، ܢܶܡܪܐ ܘܐܰܪܝܐ [ܘܰܐܪܝܐ].
A bear, a fox, a leopard, and a lion.
ܕܶܒܐ (debbā) m/f “bear”
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܐܳܟ̥̈ܠܳܢ ܒܶܣܪܐ.
These (m/f) eat (pl. f.) flesh.
ܐܶܟܰܠ (ʾeḵal) “eat”, act. part. ܐܳܟܶܠ (ʾāḵel), ܐܳܟܠܐ (ʾāḵlā) — pl. ܐܳܟܠܝܢ (ʾāḵlīn), ܐܳܟ̈ܠܳܢ (ʾāḵlān)
ܒܶܣܪܐ (besrā) m. “flesh”
ܒܰܝܬܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ:
There are animals in a house (m).
ܓܰܡܠܐ، ܥܶܙܐ، ܐܶܡܪܳܐ ܘܬܰܘܪܐ.
A camel, a goat, a lamb (ʾëmrā), and a bull.
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܪܳܥܶܝܢ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
These graze (m. pl. rāʕeyn=rāʕēn) grass.

Today’s Words

PNG Image

2013-08-17

Lesson 19, p. 40

Where is it? — ܚܘܪ ܒܨܘܪܬܐ ܘܚܰܘܐ

1 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܕܶܒܐ ؟
Which is (aydā-y/ēḏā-y, f.) the bear?
2 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܓܰܡܠܐ ؟
Which is (m.) the camel?
3 ܐܰܝܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܐܰܪܝܐ ؟
Which is (m.) the lion?
4 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܥܶܙܐ ؟
Which is (f.) the goat?

Today’s Words

PNG Image

ḥay-yuw-ṯā — ḥay-wā-ṯā

Memo

Installed: NTP daemon program 4.2.6p5 and NTP Time Server Monitor 1.04 (Meinberg NTP Software Downloads).

2015-01-12: Updated to 4.2.8.

2013-08-18

What do animals eat? — ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܳـ̈ܢ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ.

5 ܢܶܡܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ......
ܢܶܡܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ.
6 ܕܺܐܒܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ......
ܕܺܐܒܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ.

ܕܺܐܒܐ (dēḇā) m/f “wolf”

7 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ......
ܓܰܡܠܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
8 ܐܶܡܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ......
ܐܶܡܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
9 ܬܰܥܠܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ......
ܬܰܥܠܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ.

Write this line once — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܥܳܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܓܝ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ. ܐܰܝܟ: ܕܺܐܒܐ ܘܰܐܪܝܐ.
There are many animals in the forest, like a wolf and a lion.

When a word beginning with an ʾĀlap̄ takes a prefix (bḏol), that ʾĀlap̄ becomes silent and vowelless, while the prefix gets the vowel that was originally attached to the ʾĀlap̄ (Alan 45, 46):
w + ʔaryā = waʔ̊ryā
In other words, the “Hamza” falls off when preceded by a prefix.

Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica)

JPEG Image Asiatic lions in the Gir Forest (2011) 🔊 ܐܲܪ̈ܝܲܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ (*Alan 63 has yā instead of yă)

Today’s Words

PNG Image

Wheelock 29

2013-08-16

Practice and Review

1. Prīnceps arma meliōra in manibus mīlitum posuit, ut hostēs terrērent.
The leader placed better weapons in the hands of [his] soldiers, so that they might terrify the enemy.
¶ pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positum, “put” ¶ mīles, mīlitis, m.
2. Hostēs quidem negāvērunt sē arma dissimilia habēre.
The enemy, indeed, denied that they had different weapons.
3. Pars mīlitum lūcem diēī vītāvit nē hīc vidērentur.
A part of the soldiers avoided the light of day so that they might not be seen here.
¶ hīc, “here” ≠ hĭc, “this”

2013-08-17

4. Sōlem prīmam lūcem caelī superī, lūnam prīmam lūcem vesperī, et stēllās oculōs noctis appellābant.
They used to call the sun “the first light of heaven above”, the Moon “the first light of evening”, and the stars “the eyes of night”.
5. Illī adulēscentēs sapientiae dēnique cēdant ut fēlīciōrēs hīs sint.
Those young persons should finally yield to wisdom so that they may be happier than these persons.
¶ dēnique, adv. “last, finally” ¶ cēdō, cēdere, “go, yield to, submit”
6. Sapientēs putant beneficia esse potentiōra quam verba acerba et turpia.
Wise persons think that favors are more powerful than harsh and filthy words.
7. Quīdam magister verba tam dūra discipulīs dīxit ut discēderent.
A certain teacher said such harsh words to his students that they left (him).
¶ discēdō, discēdere, “go away, depart” [dis- “appart” + cēdō “go”]

2013-08-18

8. Respondērunt auctōrem hōrum novem remediōrum esse medicam potentissimam.
They answered that the inventor of these nine remedies was a very able doctor (f).
¶ respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsum, “answer” ¶ medicus, m. and medica, f. “doctor”
9. Nihil vērō tam facile est ut sine labōre id facere possīmus.
Nothing, in fact, is so easy that we can do it without work/effort.
10. Prō labōre studiōque patria nostra nōbīs plūrimās occāsiōnēs bonās praestat.
In return for [our] effort and eagerness, our country offers us (lit. to us) very many good opportunities.
¶ praestō, praestāre, “exhibit, show, offer” — praestat is indic., not praestet subj.
11. Parentēs plūrima ōscula dedērunt nātae gracilī, in quā maximam dēlectātiōnem semper inveniēbant.
The parents [then*] gave very many kisses to their thin daughter, in whom they always found the greatest pleasure.
* dedērunt as opposed to dabant. The daughter was always (impf.) their greatest pleasure; then at one point of time, they kissed (pf.) her.
¶ parēns, parēntis, m/f. ¶ ōsculum, n. “kiss” ¶ nāta, f. “daughter” ¶ gracilis, gracile, “slender, thin” ¶ dēlectātiō, dēlectātiōnis, f. “delight, pleasure” [from dēlectō “delight”; also cognate with “delicious”] ¶ inveniō, invenīre, “come upon, find”

2013-08-19

12. The words of the philosopher were very difficult, so that those listening were unable to learn them.
Verba philosophī difficillima fuērunt ut illī audientēs ea discere nōn possent.
13. The two women wished to understand these things so that they might not live base lives.
Duae feminae haec comprehendere cupīvērunt nē vītās turpēs vīverent.
14. Those four wives were so pleasant that they received very many kindnesses.
Illae quattuor uxōrēs tam iūcundae fuērunt/erant ut plūrima beneficia accipiēbant.
¶ accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptum
15. He said that the writer’s third poem was so beautiful that it delighted the minds of thousands of citizens.
Dīxit tertium poēma/carmen scrīptōris/auctōris esse tam bellum/pulchrum ut mentēs/animōs mīlium cīvium dēlectāret.
¶ poēma, poēmatis, n. ¶ dēlectō, dēlectāre. ¶ mēns, mentis, f. ¶ mīlle is indeclinable in the singular, but the plural form mīl-ia functions as a neuter i-stem noun (e.g. mīl-ium, mīl-ibus; mīlia virōrum “thousands of men”).

2013-08-20

Sententiae Antquae

1. Omnia vincit Amor; et nōs cēdāmus Amōrī.
Love conquers everything; and we—let us yield to Love.
¶ amor, amōris, m. ¶ cēdō, cēdere, “go, withdraw, yield to, submit, grant”
2. Urbem clārissimam condidī; mea moenia vīdī; explēvī cursum quem Fāta dederant.
I have built a most famous city; I have seen the walls of my city; I have completed the course which Fate had made.
¶ condō, condere, condidī, conditum, “put together, put into, store, build, found, establish” ¶ moenia, moenium, n. pl. “walls of a city” ¶ expleō, explēre, explēvī, explētum, “fill (up), complete”
3. Ita dūrus erās ut neque amōre neque precibus mollīrī possēs.
You were so harsh (m) that you could be tamed neither by love nor by prayers.
¶ prex, precis, f. “prayer” ¶ molliō, mollīre, “soften, make calm” — mollīrī, pass. inf.
4. Nēmō quidem tam ferōx est ut nōn mollīrī possit, cultūrā datā.
Nobody at all is so savage that he can not be tamed, if cultivation has been given.

2013-08-21

5. Difficile est saturam nōn scrībere; nam quis est tam patiēns malae urbis ut sē teneat?
Not writing a satire is difficult; for who is so tolerant of the evil city that he restrains (=can restrain) himself?
¶ teneō, tenēre.
6. Fuit quondam in hāc rē pūbulicā tanta virtūs ut virī fortēs cīvem perniciōsum ācriōribus poenīs quam acerbissimum hostem reprimerent.
Formerly such virtue was in this republic that strong men repressed a pernicious citizen with punishments harsher than the harshest enemy.
¶ reprimō, reprimere, “repress”
7. Ita praeclāra est recuperātiō lībertātis ut nē mors quidem in hāc rē sit fugienda.
The recovery of freedom is so honorable that even death is not to be avoided in this matter.

2013-08-25

8. Nē ratiōnēs meōrum perīculōrum ūtilitātem reī pūbulicae vincant.
Do not let the considerations of my risks overcome the advantage of the republic. (=The advantage of the republic is more important than my safety.)
¶ ratiō, ratiōnis, f.
9. Eō tempore Athēniēnsēs tantam virtūtem praestitērunt ut decemplicem numerum hostium superārent, et hōs sīc perterruērunt ut in Asiam refugerent.
At that time the Athenians exhibited such bravery that they surpassed a tenfold number of the enemy, and so completely frightened them that they fled into Asia.
¶ praestō, praestāre, praestitī, traestitum ¶ terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum
10. Ōrātor exemplum dignum petat ab Dēmosthene illō, in quō tantum studium tantusque labor fuisse dīcuntur ut impedīmenta nātūrae dīligentiā industriāque superāret.
Let an orator seek a worthy example from that Dēmosthenēs, in whom there are said to have been such eagerness and such labor that he overcame his impediments of nature, through diligence and industry.
¶ dignus, “worthy (of)”, +abl. ¶ impedīmentum, n. “hindrance, impediment” ¶ Δημοσθένης (384–322 BC), Athens

2013-08-30

11. Praecepta tua sint brevia ut cito mentēs discipulōrum ea discant teneantque memoriā fidēlī.
Let your precepts be short so that quickly the minds of your disciples may learn them and hold them with faithful memory.
¶ praeceptum, n.
12. Nihil tam difficile est ut nōn possit studiō invēstīgārī.
Nothing is so difficult that being tracked down is not possible with eagerness (OR by study).
¶ investīgō, investīgāre, investīgāvī, investīgātum, “track down, investigate” — investīgārī, pass. inf.
13. Bellum autem ita suscipiātur ut nihil nisi pāx quaesīta esse videātur.
Let war, however, be undertaken in such a way that it is seen that nothing but peace has been sought.
14. Tanta est vīs probitātis ut eam etiam in hoste dīligāmus.
The power of honesty is so great that even in an emeny we love it.
¶ dīligō, dīligere, “esteem, love”

2013-09-01

How Many Kisses Are Enough?

Gaius Valerius Catullus: adaptation. A Latin poet of the late Roman Republic (87?–54 BC).

Quaeris, Lesbia, quot bāsia tua sint mihi satis?
You ask, O Lesbia, how many kisses of yours are enough for me?
Tam multa bāsia quam magnus numerus Libyssae harēnae aut quam sīdera multa quae, ubi tacet nox, furtīvōs amōrēs hominum vident—
So many kisses as the great number of Libyan (=African) grains of sand, or as the many stars which, when the night is silent, witness the secret loves of men—
¶ sīdus, sīderis, n. “constellation, star” ¶ taceō, tacēre, “be silent, leave unmentioned”
tam bāsia multa (nēmō numerum scīre potest) sunt satis Catullō īnsānō!
So many kisses (no one can know the number) are enough for insane Catullus!

2013-09-02

The Nervousness of Even a Great Orator

Cicerō: Prō Cluentiō 51 (See also Translation by Albert Clark)

Ego dehinc ut respondērem surrēxī. Quā sollicitūdine animī surgēbam—dī immortālēs—et quō timōre!
I, then, got up to answer. With what anxiety of mind was I getting up—O immortal gods—and with what fear!
¶ surgō, surgere, surrēxī, surrēctum, “get up, arise” ¶ sollicitūdō, sollicitūdinis, f. “anxiety, concern, solicitude”
Semper quidem magnō cum metū incipiō dīcere. Quotiēnscumque dīcō, mihi videor in iūdicium venīre nōn sōlum ingeniī sed etiam virtūtis atque officiī.
Always, indeed, with great fear do I begin speaking. Whenever I speak, I am seen by me (=I feel about myself) that I [myself] come to a trial not only of talent but also of courage and of duty (dutifulness).
Tum vērō ita sum perturbātus ut omnia timērem. Dēnique mē collēgī et sīc pugnāvī, sīc omnī ratiōne contendī ut nēmō mē neglēxisse illam causam putāret.
At that time, indeed I was so confused that I feared everything. At last, I collected myself and in such a way I fought, in such a way I struggled with all my reasoning, that no one thought that I had slighted that case.
¶ pugnō, “fight” ¶ contendō, “strive, struggle, contend”

2013-09-07

You’re All Just Wonderful!

*Marcus Valerius Martialis: Epigrammaton liber XII - LXXX

Nē laudet dignōs, laudat Callistratus omnēs:
cui malus est nēmō, quis bonus esse potest?
Callistratus praises all persons, so that he may not praise [only] the worthy men:
Who can be good [to a man], for whom no one is bad?

Archive

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture