Syriac 7 (G) (+Latin)

未分類のメモ。主にシリア語とラテン語の学習ノート。このファイルは、ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第2巻{2013年9月7日開始}12~26課と、Wheelock’s Latin の31~32章に当たる。それ以前の部分は過去ログ参照。

[ Archive ]

CAL ?; Dic, 2, 3 Jess., Ana; TS1 2 | TUS; Wiki; Map, 2, 3, ME | Alan o; Qara., 1, 2, 3; Nöld., fem, de | Per L-Sh; Gaf


Qarahbaš 3 (50/51) [vol. 2, L. 26] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 26: ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ

2014-02-26

26) 0050e7-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0051Gf-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܩܰܕܝܫܐ ܐܰܠܶܦ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ
qaddīšā ʾallep̄ #1 qeryānā ʕḗ(t)tā
pure, holy (one); a saint Pa. to teach reading f. church

#1 ≠ ʾālèp̄, ʾalpā, ʾalp̄īn, ʾalp̄ē “thousand”; ≠ ʾālap̄ (the 1st letter of the Alphabet) ¶ Also note that Qarah. uses an unusual
non-liga form — ܐܰ‍ܠܶܦ (sic) OR ܐܰ‌ܠܶܦ (sic) — here.⁂

2014-03-03 Some tricky liga. patterns: ܐܠܐ (ʾLʾ), not ܐܠـܐ; in which the normal ʾL liga. is not used, because the Lʾ liga takes precedence. Similarly, ܐܠ ܐ (ʾL ʾ). Also notice that ܠܠـ (LL-) is different from ܐܠـ (ʾL-). Cf. ܠܠ (LL).

2014-02-27

ܩܰܕܝܫܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ، ܗܰܘ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܪܰܒܐ، ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܰܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ.
Saint Mar ʾAp̄rēm, that great teacher of ours, used to love {rāḥem-wā} the boys (children) very much.
ṭalyā (pl. ṭlāyē), “pre-teen (7–12yr old) boy”. The plural of CaCyā is usually CCayyā, keeping the final -ā (Alan 63 “shifting Pthakha to the second letter that is initially vowelless”), e.g. qanyā, qnayyā. However, ṭalyā is irregular when it means “boy” (N §146, B §113), its plural form being ܛܠܴܝ̈ܶܐ with a long ā, and the -ē at the end. If it means “young”, the plural is ܛܠܱܝ̈ܳܐ [Burschen, young men OR Diener, servants OR as Adj.]. Also: ܚܰܕܝܐ “breast”, pl. ܚܕܳܝ̈ܐ.
⁂ Firefox is bad with ܛܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ and ܛܠܳܝ̈ܶܐ.
ܐܰܠܶܦ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ.
He made sons and daughters learn reading.
ܐܰܠܒܶܫ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܢܰܚ̈ܬܶܐ ܚܶܘܳܪ̈ܶܐ.
He made daughters wear white {ḥëwwārā CAL ḥi-} dresses {naḥtā}.
ܠܒܶܫ “to wear, to clothe oneself with something”; Aph. ܐܰܠܒܶܫ “to clothes someone”
ܘܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܙܳܡܪ̈ܳܢ ܗ̱ܘ̈ܰܝ ܒܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ.
And every day they (f) were singing {zmar; zāmrān-way} in the church.
ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܠܗܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
Every one of us loves this great teacher.

2014-03-01

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ؟
What is the name of this great teacher?
ܫܡܶܗ (ܗ̱ܘ) ܩܰܕܝܫܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ.
His name is Qaddīšā (Saint) Mār ʾAp̄rēm.
It seems that ܗ̱ܘ is not necessary, as in ܫܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܰܕܰܝ (vol. 1 Lesson 7).
2 ܠܡܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܣܰܓܺܝ؟
Who did he use(d) to love a lot?
ܣܰܓܝ ܖܳܚܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܰܛܠܳܝܷ̈ܐ.
He used to love the boys a lot.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܰܠܶܦ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
What did he teach sons and daughters?
ܐܰܠܶܦ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ.
He taught sons and daughters reading.
4 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܙܳܡܪ̈ܳܢ ܗ̱ܘ̈ܰܝ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
Where did daughters use(d) to sing?
ܙܳܡܪ̈ܳܢ ܗ̱ܘ̈ܰܝ ܒܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ.
They used to sing in the church.

2014-03-02

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ̥

5 ܗܳܢܘܢ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
ܗܳܢܘܢ ܝܳܠܘ̈ܦܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
Those male students are eating.
6 ܗܳܝ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ.
ܗܳܝ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ.
That daughter is eating.
7 ܗܰܘ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ.
ܗܰܘ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ.
That lion is eating.
8 ܗܳܢܶܝܢ ... ܐܳܟ̥̈ܠܳܢ.
ܗܳܢܶܝܢ ܝܳܠܘ̈ܦܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܳܟ̥̈ܠܳܢ.
Those female students are eating.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܩܰܕܝܫܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܐܰܠܶܦ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܙܘܡܳܪ̈ܐ ܕܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ ܀
Saint Mar Ephrem taught the psalms/songs of church to (the) daughters.

Month, Year, etc.

2014-02-23

ܬܶܫܪܝ ܩܕܶܡ
ܬܶܫܪܝ ܩܕܝܡ
Tešrī First = October (N §202B)#1. By convention, the year 1 (Anno Graecorum: Seleucid era) starts on October 1, 312 BCE.
ܬܶܫܪܝ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝ
Tešrī Second (Later) = November.
ܬܶܫܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܐ
pl. of Tešrī: the autumn months, autumn
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕ܏ܟܓ ܕܰܫܒ̥ܳܛ ܒܰܫܢܰܬ̥ ܏ܒ݈ܝܕ
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ (ܒܝܵܘܡܵܐ) ܕܥܶܣܪ̈ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܫܒ̥ܳܛ ܒܰܫܢܰܬ̥ ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܠܦܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ
On the 23rd day of Šḇāṭ (February), in the year 2014
ܒܰܫܢܰܬ̥ ܏ܒ݈ܫܟܗ (ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܠܦܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܡܐܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ) ܕܝܰܘܢܳܝ̈ܐ
In the year 2325 according to the year of the Greeks
  1. By definition, 1 AG (Anno Graecorum) ends on September 30, 311 BCE.
  2. 2 AG ends on Sept 30, 310 BCE.
  3. 311 AG ends on Sept 30, 1 BCE.
  4. 312 AG is from Oct 1, 1 BCE, to Sept 30, 1 CE. Notice the end-point year offset, 311 (the start-point offset 312).
  5. 313 AG ends on Sept 30, 2 CE.
  6. So, 2325 AG is from (Gregorian) October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014, if we assume that switching from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar is “automatic”. If based on the Julian calendar, 2325 AG is:

2015-05-12

YearMonthܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܠܦ̥ܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܡܐܐAbbr.
2012Oct–Decܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܰܥܒ݈ܫܟܕ
2013Jan–Sep
Oct–Decܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܶܫܒ݈ܫܟܗ
2014Jan–Sep
Oct–Decܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܫܶܬ̥ܒ݈ܫܟܘ
2015Jan–Sep
Oct–Decܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܫܒ̥ܰܥܒ݈ܫܟܙ
2016Jan–Sep
Oct–Decܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܶܐܒ݈ܫܟܚ
2017Jan–Sep

2014-02-24

#1 ¶ N §153 says: qḏem is abs. st. of qaḏmā, another form of qaḏmāyā. ¶ TS2:3491 says: qḏēm s. qḏem sic Ass. vulgo probante Bernst. [=while Bernst. is demonstrating that the Ass. form is generally thus (?)], sed etiam qaḏīm [qaddīm?], prior

ܟܳܢܘܢ ܩܕܶܡ، ܟܳܢܘܢ ܩܕܝܡ
Kānṓn First = December
ܟܳܢܘܢ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝ
Kānṓn Second = January
ܫܒܳܛ
Šḇāṭ = February: from a Babylonian [akk] month name. Probably it is wrong to say that the name is from Aramaic šbṭ “beating, pressing” > “vividly shooting new sprouts”
ܒܝܘܿܡ ܐܲܪܒ݁ܥܵܐ ܘܥܸܣܪܝܼܢ ܒܝܲܪܚܵܐ ܕܲܚܕܲܥܣܲܪ ܕܗ̤ܘ ܫܒܲܛ ܆ ܒܲܫܢܲܬ݂ ܬܲܪܬܹ݁ܝܢ ܕܕܲܪܝܵܘܵܫ ܆
On the day four and twenty**, in the eleventh#1 month {yarḥā}, which is Šḇaṭ; in the second year of Daryāwāš#2. (Peshitta Zechariah 1:7)
#1 the eleventh month of the Jewish year, where Nisan is the 1st.
#2 Darius I (Dārayava(h)uš), דָרְיָושׁ, the third [fourth, if including Bardiya] king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Reign: September 522 to 486 BCE; Feb of the 2nd year = most probably Feb, 520 BCE.
2014-02-26 **Robinson p. 128 also has an example of a small-number-first date: l-yṓm ḥamšā w-ʕesrīn

2014-02-25

ܬܘܠܬ̥ܐ (tulṯā: U is short in CAL/Alan) “one third” has a soft T, to differentiate itself from ܬܘܠܬ̊ܐ “three-year-old goat, ram, etc.” (Duval p. 210; Mingana p. XIV). It is masculine, but the plural form is irregular: ܬܘ̈ܠܳܬ̥ܳܐ or ܬܘ̈ܠܳܬ̥ܶܐ (TS2:4452 “deductus per falsam analogiam”). Maybe an easier way to say two thirds is, like: ܬܘܠܬ̥ܐ ܘܬ̥ܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܡ̈ܢܰܘܳܢ “one third and two parts (two thirds)”. Nöld. 318 has ܚܕܐ ܡܶܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܡ̈ܢܰܘܳܬ̥ܐ (one from three parts, fem.).

ܪܘܒܥܐ (ruḇʕā: U is short in CAL/Alan) “one fourth, quarter” is regular, with pl. ܪܘܒܥ̈ܐ as in ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܪܘܒ̥ܥ̈ܐ “three quarters” (Alan 114). Duval p. 209 has an alt. form (également reçue): ܪܘܒܳܥܐ.

Also for ܚܘܡܫܐ (ḥumšā) “one fifth”, ܚܘܡܳܫܐ. Jess. 132 has ܬܪ̈ܶܝܢ ܚܘܡܫ̈ܐ “two fifths”.

Alan 112 has ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ ܚܕܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܡ̈ܢܵܘܵܢ (ܡ̈ܢܰܘܳܢ) (one part from four parts = one fourth).

ܫܘܬܬ̥ܐ (šuttəṯā — CAL LS2 Alan) or ܫܘܬܳܬ̥ܐ (šûTāṯā ? — Duval [p. 275] TS Jess.) “one sixth” is not attested in Classic (N §154 fn). [But in the 13th cent. See below.] TS, Jess. say it is fem.
Mingana has it as ܫܘܕܫܐ (šuḏšā — Nöld. says “after the Arabic sudsسُدُس sudus [2015-05-19: sudsun, sudusun, or sadīsun W §336]).

Alan and Mingana even have ܫܘܒ̥ܥܐ “one seventh”.

ܬܘܡܢܐ (tumnā) m. “one eighth” (CAL TS2:4460 LS2).

Nöld (E), with Jess. Alan Min, has ܬܘܫܥܐ “one ninth” while Nöld (G) says “Für 1/9 habe ich keinen Beleg”.

ܥܘܣܪܐ (ʕusrā) m. “one tenth”.

Misc. (2014-02-24) — One tenth (ʕusrā) can be also said as ḥaḏ men ʕesrā (Jess. 421); Jess. 623 has a strange word, taš.ʕes.rā.yŪ.ṯā f. “a nineteenth part”.

2015-05-26

ܫܘܬܬܐ : LS2 = Bh adsc. m.1 1514 [m.2 141, 2 from below and 1426], Eth 4116.
ܫܘܬܳܬܐ : TS = BH Asc. 85 r, Hunt. dxl. 65 v.

gr 7116 says: ܒܪܘܒܵܥܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܚܘܡܵܫܐ ܘܫܘܬܳܬܬܐ (šûttāṯā ?) gr2 says: ܒܪܘܒܳܥܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܚܘܡܳܫܐ ܘܫܘܬܴܬܐ܂

Duval: Traité de grammaire syriaque is not searchable; this scan is searchable.

2015-05-28

Ethicon; seu, Moralia; ܫܘܼܬܵܬ݂ܵܐ

2015-05-29

ܐܳܕܳܪ (ʾāḏār: Jess. ʾa-) — ܢܝܣܳܢ (nīsān) — ܐܺܝܳܪ (ʾīyār)
ܚܙܝܪܳܢ (ḥzīrān)
ܬܳܡܘܙ (tāmūz: Alan tamm-) — ܐܳܒ (ʾāḇ)* — ܐܝܠܘܠ (ʾīlūl: Alan -ṓl)
*BUT ܐܳܒܝ̱ “my father”

NASA - Delta T | NASA - Uncertainty in Delta T | Delta T

YearΔT±3σ
−200013 ±3 hr
−150010 ±1.5 hr
−10007 ±0.5 hr
−500287 ±22 min
−311237 ±18 min
0176 ±14 min
+50095 ±7 min
+62275 ±6 min
+100026 ±3 min
+1500200 ±60 sec

On October 1, 312 BC, Delta T was 4 hours ±0.5. This means that when it was noon at Greenwich (12:00 UT), our atomic clock would have said it was 16:00. In other words, if we “rewind” the Earth rotation using a time machine with an ideal atomic clock, our time mechine says “it’s now 12:00, October 1, 312 BC” when the sun in the sky looks like it is 8:00, because the actual Earth rewinds faster than the atomic clock. On July 15, 622, Delta T was 1.25 hours ±0.1.

2015-05-31

Solar Eclipses in the First Half of the Chunqiu Period

Ordinal Numbers

2014-02-21

“Second” has two forms:

“Fourth” is rBīʕāyā, where B is unmarked by Nöld; while marked soft by CAL, Mingana, Alan, Brockelmann, Robinson, Mura., Duval (indirectly via Hebrew), Psh-Tool, and NY Psh.

“Sixth” is štīṯāyā, W-Syr šṯīṯāyā.

“Eleventh” is ḥḏaʕsīrāyā from ḥḏaʕsar (Mingana, Alan, Jess.625); but there is another form, ḥḏaʕesrāyā (Duval p. 74; Nöld. Mand. Gr. p. 192 fn1). The situation is like (ḥḏa + 10th) VS. (ḥḏa + 10)th. // Fem. ḥḏaʕsīrāytā

“Twelfth” is treʕsīrāyā (and treʕesrāyā); Alan writes the former trAʕsīrāyā. Fem. treʕsīrāytā (Alan: traʕsī-) OR possibly tartaʕsīrāytā (Phillips 1866, p. 58; Uhlemann 1855, p. 152).

13th is tlāṯaʕsīrāyā (and prob. tlāṯaʕesrāyā), f. tlāṯaʕsīrāytā (tlāṯasī- (?) Phillips); and so on.

Additionally, 14th, 15th, ..., 19th have forms with T (which may be relatively more common): e.g. ḥammeštaʕsīrāyā from the Common Form ḥammeštaʕsar, as opposed to ḥamšaʕsīrāyā from the Textbook Form ḥamšaʕsar. 14th with T is in theory ʾarbəṯaʕsīrāyā, which Mingana writes ʾarbaṯaʕ-. Similarly, 17th is šḇāTaʕ-sīrāyā OR šḇaṯaʕ- (Mingana), 19th is tšāTaʕ-sīrāyā OR tšaṯaʕ- (Mingana), and so on.

20th, 30th, ... are simply ʕesrīn-āyā, tlāṯīn-āyā (Nöld, Mingana, Duval). 80th may have two spellings, with or without the middle ʾĀlap̄.

No words for 100th or 1000th. 10000th is rebbṓṯāyānā (Nöld, Duval).

Memo

Le Nouveau testament d'après La Pschitta. Mossoul : Impr. des Pères Dominicains, 1898

Biblia sacra iuxta versionem simplicem quae dicitur Pschitta. Mausili : Typis Fratrum Praedicatorum, 1887 -

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft : ZDMG

Qarahbaš 3 (48/49) [vol. 2, L. 25] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 25: ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܪܶܡܙܐ

2014-02-19

25) 0048JQ-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0049eI-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܗܳܪܟܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܗܳܢܘܢ ܗܳܢܶܝܢ
hārkā hālēn tammān hānṓn hānēn
here these (c.) there those (m.) those (f.)#1
ܚܘܪ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ: ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܪ̈ܳܗܛܳܢ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܪܓܐ.
Look here and you see: these daughters {barṯā, bnāṯā} are running {rheṭ ptc.pl.f.} in the meadow {margā}.
ܚܘܪ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ: ܗܳܢܘܢ ܓܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܙܳܪܥܝܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ.
Look there and you see: those men are scattering {zraʕ, ptc.pl.m.} grains (seeds) of wheat {ḥëṭ(ṭə)ṯā, CAL ḥi/eṭṭəṯā, Soft T; pl. hëṭṭē} in the field {ḥaqlā}.
ܗܳܢܶܝܢ ܢܶܫ̈ܐ ܠܳܩ̈ܛܳܢ ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
Those women {a(n)ttā neššē} are picking olives from the trees.
ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܡ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ. ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
Every boy student {yālṓp̄ā} sits with boy students. Every girl student {yālôp̄tā#: ô long? short?} sits with girl students.
# but Nöld. §107 has qāṭôlṯā with a soft T

Random memo

NIST Randomness Beacon (Prototype Implementation) - NIST

2014-02-22

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ؟
Where does a boy student sit?
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܡ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ.
A boy students sit with boy students.
2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ؟
Where does a girl student sit?
ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
A girl student sits with girl students.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܪܥܝܢ ܓܰܒܪ̈ܐ؟
What does the men scatter?
ܓܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܙܳܪܥܝܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ.
The men scatter grains of wheat in the field.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܠܳܦ̈ܛܳܢ ܢܶܫ̈ܐ؟
What are the women gather?
ܢܶܫ̈ܐ ܠܳܦ̈ܛܳܢ ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
The women gather olives from the trees.

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ̥

5 ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
These boy students are eating.
6 ܗܳܕܶܐ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ.
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ.
This girl student is eating.
7 ܗܳܢܐ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ.
ܗܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ.
This boy student is eating.
8 ܗܳܢܶܝܢ ... ܐܳܟ̈ܠܳܢ⁂ [ܐܳܟ̥̈ܠܳܢ].
ܗܳܢܶܝܢ ܝܳܠܘ̈ܦܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܳܟ̥̈ܠܳܢ.
Those girl students are eating. {#The ring below the Kāp̄ is missing in the US ver.}
9 ܗܳܢܘܢ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
ܗܳܢܘܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܝܢ.
Those boy students are eating.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܗܳܢܘܢ ܓܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܙܳܪܥܝܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ.
Those men are scattering grains of wheats in the field.

Numbers with Suffixes

2014-02-15

TWO (cstr. trayay, emph. trayā):

1pl ܬܪ̈ܰܝܢ (trayn) & ܬܰܪ̈ܬܰܝܢ (tartayn) — 2pl ܬܪ̈ܰܝܟ̊ܘܢ (traykṓn) & ܬܰܪ̈ܬܰܝܟ̊ܶܝܢ (tartaykēn (-keyn)) — 3pl ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܢ (trayhṓn) & ܬܰܪ̈ܬܰܝܗܶܝܢ (tartayhēn (-heyn))

THREE (cstr. tlāṯaṯ, emph. *tlāṯtā):

1pl ܬܠܳܬ̊ܰܝܢ (tlā(t)tayn) — 2pl ܬܠܳܬ̊ܰܝܟ̊ܘܢ (tlā(t)taykṓn) & ܬܠܳܬ̊ܰܝܟ̊ܶܝܢ (tlā(t)taykēn (-keyn)) — 3pl ܬܠܳܬ̊ܰܝܗܘܢ (tlā(t)tayhṓn) & ܬܠܳܬ̊ܰܝܗܶܝܢ (tlā(t)tayhēn (-heyn))

Brockelmann (1912) §170: ܬܠܴܬܱ݁ܝܗܘܿܢ steht für *təlāṯəṯayhōn für *təlāṯaṯhōn „ihre Dreiheit“ mit der Dual-endung nach ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܿܢ. Diese und zugleich die Endung ܬ݁ sind durch Analogie auf alle andern Formen übertragen. *təlāṯaṯ- seems to be the cstr. st. (emph. st. = *təlāṯtā) Alan has a soft T for this one, and also seyame for 3+. Robinson (1962) also makes the T soft.

FOUR (cstr. ʾarbʕaṯ, emph. ʾarbaʕṯā):

1pl ܐܰܪܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܢ (ʾarbʕā(t)tayn) —‎ 2pl ܐܰܪܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܟ̊ܘܢ (ʾarbʕā(t)taykṓn) & ܐܰܪܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܟ̊ܶܝܢ —‎ 3pl ܐܰܪܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܗܘܢ (ʾarbʕā(t)tayhṓn) & ܐܰܪܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܗܶܝܢ [N §149]

Forms for 5 through 10 are like the forms for 4, i.e. simply mas. base+ T-: ḥamšāT-, štāT-, šaḇʕāT-, tmānyāT- (??), tešʕāT- (?), and ʕesrāT-. Nöld. puts question marks for 8 and 9; Brockelmann puts a ? only for 8. While the forms for 9 seem obvous, if not attested, the forms for 8 are indeed ambiguous. Given tmān-(t)aʕsar, tmān-īn, tmānè-mā, one can’t rule out the possibility of dropping the y, e.g. tmān-tayhṓn. Muraoka has štātay- instead of štāttay- for 6, while he doubles the T otherwise. Maybe just a typo? Note that ܬܪܶܥܣܰܪܬ̊ܐ “the Twelve [Apostles]” (from which ܬܪܶܥܣܰܪܬ̊ܶܗ “his Twelve”) is something different than the above-mentioned -Tay- forms.

2014-02-21 Costaz (1992) has 11–19 with suffixes: ܚܕܰܥܣܰܪ̈ܬܗܽܘܢ (ḥəḏaʕ.sartə.hṓn), ܬܪܰܥܣܰܪ̈ܬܗܽܘܢ (təraʕ.sartə.hṓn), etc.

Examples

ܡܰܢܘ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܢ ܥܒܰܕ ܨܶܒܝܳܢܐ ܕܰܐܒ̥ܘܗ̱ܝ؟
Which of these two (guys) did the desire {ṣeḇyānā} of his father {ʾaḇûy: Alan/Mura read the y [2014-10-02: and Duval]; Thack/P-Tool don’t}? (Matthew 21:31)
ܡܶܐܟ̥ܘܠܬ̊ܐ ܕܟ̥ܰܪܣܐ ܘܟ̥ܰܪܣܐ ܕܡܶܐܟ̥ܘܠܬ̊ܐ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܠܬ̥ܰܪܬܰܝܗܶܝܢ ܡܒ̥ܰܛܶܠ
Food {mēḵultā, f. Short U, Hard T(§23E)} is for belly {f} and belly is for food; ʾĂlāhā however makes to cease {BṬL Pa} both {f}. (1Corinthians 6:13)
ܘܫܰܒܥܳܬ̊ܰܝܗܘܢ ܢܰܣܒܘܗ̇
And [all] seven of them (=those seven guys) {šaḇʕā(t)tayhṓn; T soft in PTool} took (married) her {nasbūh (nasbuh?)} (Mark 12:22)

2014-02-17

More Examples

ܘܐܝܼܬܲܝܗܘܿܢ ܬܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܣܵܗ̈ܕ̇ܝܼܢ܄ ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܘܡܲܝ̈ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܡܵܐ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬܲܝܗܘܿܢ ܒܚܲܕ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ܂܀
ܘܺܐܝܬ݂ܰܝܗܽܘܢ ܬ݁ܠܳܬ݂ܳܐ ܣܳܗܕ݁ܺܝܢ ܪܽܘܚܳܐ ܘܡܰܝܳܐ ܘܰܕ݂ܡܳܐ ܘܰܬ݂ܠܳܬ݁ܰܝܗܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܐܶܢܽܘܢ ܀
ܘܐܝܼܬܲܝܗܘܢ̣ ܬܠܬܵܐ ܣܵܗ̈ܕ̇ܝܼܢ܂ ܪܘܼܚܵܐ̥܁ ܘܡ̈ܝܐ ܘܲܕܡܵܐ܂ ܘܲܬܠܵܬܲܝܗܘܿܢ̣ ܒܚܲ̊ܕ ܐܢܘܿܢ܂
And there are {m.} three witnessing guys {SHD, ptc. pl-m#1}: the spirit and the water and the blood, and those three guys {#2} are in one.
#1 E-Syr has a seyame, maybe treating this as a noun; but then why do they have a dot above here? Maybe a Quššāyā?
ܣܵܗ̈ܕ̇ܝܼܢ (Dot Above) vs. ܣܵܗ̈ܕ݁ܝܼܢ (Quššāyā)
ܣܵܗ̈ܕ̇ܝܼܢ (Dot Above) vs. ܣܵܗ̈ܕ݁ܝܼܢ (Quššāyā)
#2 Apparently, tlāṯayhōn with a soft -ṯ- in E-Syr. Alan has it soft. Mingana §528: le pronom s’ajoute à la manière du pluriel, au masculin du nom de nombre, suivi d’un taw à prononciation douce… P-Tool, on the other hand, marks it hard.
2016-01-01 The -(t)tay- is hard in P-UK: Jpeg 5 KiB

Qarahbaš 3 (46/47) [vol. 2, L. 24] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 24: ܡܐ ܩܰܪܝܪ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ

2014-02-11

24) 0046Sf-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0047Ll-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܡܶܛܪܐ ܪܳܥܶܠ ܡܰܛܝ ܢܳܫܒܐ ܩܘܪܐ
mëṭrā (CAL mi-) rāʕèl maṭṭī nāšbā qurrā
rain trembles Pa. he arrived blows (f) coldness

2014-02-12

ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܡܶܛܪܐ، ܗܦܰܟ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ ܡܶܢ ܫܘܩܐ ܟܰܕ ܪܳܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܘܪܐ ܘܥܰܡܶܗ ܟܰܠܒܶܗ.
In the day (=That day) [there was] much rain, Yṓḥannān returned {hp̄aḵ} from the market {šūqā#1} while trembling#2 with cold, together with his dog#3.
#1 CAL: It is not correct to say that šwq can be "street" or "market." In the Near East these have always been the same thing. Indeed all of the above glosses are essentially one thing. From Assyrian [akk] sūqu; see AIOA 93f.
#2 kaḏ + ptc. = while doing [§275 “a contemporary condition in the past”]
#3 lit. “and with him [was] his dog” — Cf. ܥܰܡܰܢ ܐܰܠܳܗܰܢ “with us our God” (Matthew 1:23)
ܘܟܰܕ ܡܰܛܝ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܩܕܳܡ ܢܘܪܐ، ܘܚܳܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ* [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ] ܘܰܚܙܐ ܕܡܶܛܪܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥، ܘܰܫܡܰܥ ܩܳܠ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܢܳܫܒܐ.
And when he arrived at [his] house, he sat before the fire {nūrā f.#4}, and looked {ḤWR} from the window {CAL kawwəṯā, Wikt kaw(wə)ṯā, f.} and saw that rain [was] going down {NḤT}, and he heard the noise {qāl, m. constr st} of wind {rūḥā f.} that [was] blowing.
#4 Feminine, Type wāṯā [§79 B(2)]: ܢܘܪܐ — abs. ܢܘܪ — pl. ܢܘܪ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܐ — CAL: In older texts nwr is the generic/collective "fire", used for cooking at burning, whereas ˀšh is a large, specific instance, i.e. a fiery flame. In Peshitta, ܐܶܫܳܬ̥ܐ (ʾeššāṯā) means “fever” as in someone is sick. Both have no pl. in Peshitta.

2014-02-13

In the sentence above, “He saw rain falling” and “He heard wind blowing” are expressed differently. That is: (1) “He saw” etc. + noun (A) + d- + verb-pt (B) = “He saw” A that was B-ing; and (2) “He saw” etc. + d- + noun (A) + verb-pt (B) = “He saw” that A was B-ing. Probably both expressions are possible in general: e.g. ܘܰܚܙܐ ܕܡܶܛܪܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ and ܘܰܚܙܐ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܕܢܳܚܶܬ̥.

Examples of (1) follow:

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܢ̈ܐ ܕܩܳܝܡܝܢ
And he saw others that were standing (Matthew 20:3)
ܘܰܚܙܐ ܪܘܚܐ ... ܕܢܳܚܬܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܝܰܘܢܐ
And he saw the spirit {rūḥā, f.} that was coming down like a dove. (Matthew 3:16)

Examples of (2) follow:

ܫܡܰܥܘ ܕܝܶܫܘܥ ܥܳܒܰܪ
They heard that Jesus [was] passing by (Matthew 20:30)
ܫܡܰܥ ܕܩܳܪܶܐ
He (Philip) heard that he (the eunuch) [was] reading (Acts 8:30)

2014-02-14: Strictly speaking, (1) and (2) are not quite the same. For example, “I saw people that were standing.” would mean that you saw some standing people, not ruling out the possibility that some other people there were not standing (e.g. sitting). On the other hand, when you say “I saw rain falling,” it means basically all raindrops were going down one after another. That said, depending on context, (1) and (2) can be practically the same thing.

2014-05-24: Additional example of (2), from Volume 3, Lesson 9: ܫܡܰܥ ܕܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ “he heard the teacher saying”

2014-09-25: Vol. 3, Lesson 16 has (2): ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܕܩܰܛܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܪܰܡܝܐ ܘܢܳܘܝܐ “she saw (that) a little-fem cat (was) lying and meowing” // Notice that in the d- clause, (h)wāṯ is not needed. // Apparently, the differences between (1) and (2) are that in (1) you recognize the object which by the way is doing something, while in (2) you recognize the situation where the object is doing something. In (1) “doing something” is additional information about the object recognized by you, whereas in (2) it is an integral part of the situation recognized by you. If the object (e.g. the cat) itself is more important than the situation in which she was meowing, you report, “I saw a cat — a very interesting animal (which by the way was meowing)”; if the situation where she was meowing from hunger is as important as the cat itself, you report, “I saw a cat meowing from hunger”.

ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܘ ܡܐ ܩܰܪܝܪ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ، ܘܰܟܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܢܘܪܐ ܒܗܳܢܐ ܝܰܘܡܐ.
He says said {ʾMR}: Oh, how cold {qarrīr/qərīr} winter is, and how much pleasant {bassīmā, f-abs} fire is ⁂in this day (=in a day like this? today?).

2014-02-14

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܗܦܰܟ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ؟
From where did Yṓḥannān return?
ܗܦܰܟ ܡܶܢ ܫܘܩܐ.
He returned from the market.
2 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܪܳܥܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ؟
Why was he trembling {rāʕèl wā}?
ܪܳܥܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܘܪܐ.
He was trembling with cold.
3 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܒܒܰܝܬܐ؟
Where did he sit in the house?
ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܩܕܳܡ ܢܘܪܐ.
He sat in front of the fire.
4 ܡܰܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ⁂ [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ]؟
What did he see from the window?
ܚܙܐ ܕܡܶܛܪܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥.
He saw that rain [was] falling.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ؟
What did he say about winter?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: «ܐܳܘ ܡܐ ܩܰܪܝܪ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.»
He said, “Oh, how cold winter is.”

2014-02-15

Answer “Yes” or “No” — ܦܰܢܐ «ܐܝܢ» ܐܰܘ «ܠܐ»

ʾḗn (ʾéyn) = “yes”

6 ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܟܳܝ ܠܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ؟
(ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܟܳܝ ܠܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ؟)
Do you actually {kay: following and emphasizing expressions or interrogation} like roses?
ܐܝܢ، ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ.
Yes, I like roses.
7 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܶܡܳܟ⁂ [ܕܶܐܡܳܟ]؟
(ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܳܡܪܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܶܐܡܶܟܝ̱؟)
Do you listen to the word of your mother {ʾemmāḵ/ʾemmèḵ}?
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܫܳܡܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܶܡܝ̱.
No, I do not listen to the word of my mother.

2014-02-16

Answer “Yes” or “No” (cont.)

8 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܩܳܠܐ؟
(ܐܰܪܰܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܩܳܠܐ؟)
Do you “do voice”⁂? {“make a noise”??? MAYBE “sing”? WHAT IS “do voice”???}
ܐܝܢ، ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܳܠܐ.
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܳܠܐ.
Yes, I “do voice”. / No, I do not “do voice”. {WHATEVER!!!}
9 ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܰܝ ܒܒܰܝܬ̥ܳܟ⁂ [ܒܒܰܝܬ̊ܳܟ] ܣܰܬܐ؟
(ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܰܝ ܒܒܰܝܬܶܟܝ̱ ܣܰܬܐ؟)
Is there a vine {sattā} in your house {should be b-ḇayTāḵ with a hard T}?
ܐܝܢ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܒܰܝܬܝ̱ ܣܰܬܐ.
Yes, there is a vine in my house.
10 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܳܚܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܚܳܬ̥ܳܟ؟
(ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܳܚܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܟܝ̱؟)
Do you beat your sister?
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܡܳܚܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܚܳܬ̥ܝ̱.
No, I do not beat my sister.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

11 ܡܐ ܩܰܪܝܪ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܘܰܟܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܢܘܪܐ ܀
How cold winter is, and how much comfortable the fire is.

ʾalp̄īn, ʾalp̄ē — A plural of “thousand” has a soft P

2014-02-10

Brockelmann’s Syrische Grammatik (1912), §168 [Brockelmann (1980 1960) §158 Cf. §114; Robinson §32], has:

Nöld. §93 (p. 63) has an explanation. That is, in older forms, a (very) short ă (å) was inserted after the 2nd radical in the plural. This is like ā in He. מְלָכִים (məlāḵīm), as opposed to Syc. ܡ̈ܰܠܟ̊ܐ (mal#kē) and ܡܰܠܟ̊ܝ̈ܢ (mal#kīn), where # means zero-vowel. In Classical Syriac, we can see a few traces:

This ă softens the following consonant. For example:

Remarks

2015-05-19

1. ʾālèp̄ has è in ES (P-NY, Ezra, Alan 112–14, but not in Mingana), as in 2Peter 3:8⁎.

ܗܵܕܹܐ ܕܹܝܢ ܚܕ݂ܵܐ܇ ܠܵܐ ܬܸܛܥܹܝܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܚܲܒ݁ܝܼ̈ܒܲܝ܇ ܕܚܲܕ ܝܵܘܡܵܐ ܠܡܵܪܝܵܐ܇ ܐܲܝܟ ܐܵܠܹܦ ܫܢ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܝܼܬ݂ܵܘܗܝ܇ ܘܐܵܠܹܦ ܫܢ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܲܝܟ ܝܲܘܡܵܐ ܚܲܕ.܀
ṭʕē + suf. = “to escape notice of (someone)”; ḥabbīḇā = “beloved”; māryā = (of God) mārā N §146;

2. The pronunciation of the secondary form ܐܠܦܝ̈ܐ is uncertain: prob. ʾalPāyē (N §148 fn1), while Jess. and Alan read it ʾalPayyā.

2015-07-22

ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܚܕܐ܁ ܠܐ ܬܶܛܥܶܝܟ̥ܘܿܢ ܚܰܒ̊ܝ̈ܒ̥ܰܝ܉ “But this one [thing, f.] — do not let it err you guys (OR escape notice of you guys), my beloved!”

Mingana §525 fn

ܐܵܠܸܦ contracté [st. abs.] de ܐܲܠܦܵܐ s’emploie pour la masculin et le féminin ex. ܐܵܠܸܦ ܡܕܝܼ̈ܢܵܢ mille villes, ܐܵܠܸܦ ܕܝܼܢܵܪ̈ܝܼܢ mille dinaris; mais ܐܲܠܦܵܐ à l’état emphatique ne s’emploie que pour le masculin.

Examples

ܐܰܪܒ̊ܥܐ ܐܰܠܦ̥ܝ̈ܢ
4000 (Nöld. §148)
ܐܰܠܦ̥̈ܐ ܚܰܡ̈ܫܳܐ
5000 (Nöld. §148): seyame sic
2015-01-14: ܗܳܢܘܢ ܕܶܝܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ ܕܶܐܟ̥ܰܠܘ̱܉ ܗܳܘܶܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܐܰܠܦ̥̈ܐ ܚܰܡܫܐ܇ ܣܛܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܢܶܫ̈ܐ ܘܰܛܠܳـܝ̈ܐ܀ “Then those men {nāšā sg=pl} who ate were (being) five thousand, aside from women {neššē sg. ʾattā} and children.” (Mt14:21⁎) ܗܵܢ̇ܘܿܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܐ݇ܢܵܫܵܐ ܕܐܸܟܲܠ̣ܘ: ܗܵܘܹ̇ܝܢ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܘ ܐܲܠܦܹ̈ܐ ܚܲܡܫܵܐ: ܣܛܲܪ ܡ̣ܢ ܢܸܫܹ̈ܐ ܘܲܛ̈ܠܵܝܹܐ.
ܫܰܒܥܐ ܐܰܠܦ̥ܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܡܳܐܐ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܫܰܒܥܐ
7337 (Ezra 2:65, Nöld. §148E)
Peshitta* OT (London, 1913; “Reprinted from the Urmiah edition of 1852” ?) — ܫܲܒ݂ܥܵܐ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܼܢ܆ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܡܵܐܐ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܝܼܢ ܘܫܲܒ݂ܥܵܐ
* ܦܫܝܛ̱ܬ̊ܐ ‎(§26B)
ܐܳܠܶܦ̥ ܘܰܫܒ̥ܳܬܰܥܣܰܪ
1017 (Ezra 2:39, Nöld. §148E)
London (1913): ܐܵܠܹܦ ܘܲܫܒܲܬܲܥܣܲܪ (sic! šḇaTaʕsar, not šḇā-: possibly šḇattaʕsar)
Mosul = same // London (1893) = same // Possibly šḇattaʕsar, but maybe šḇaṯaʕsar [2014-08-25/26]
Additional memos about 11–19, especially the “Mystery Teens” (14, 17, 19)

2014-02-11

More Examples

ܐܰܠ̈ܦ݂ܶܐ ܬ݂ܪ̈ܶܝܢ ܘܰܫܒ݂ܰܥܡܳܐܐ ܘܚܰܡܫܺܝܢ ܘܰܬ݂ܠܳܬ݂ܳܐ
2753 (Robinson 1962, §32): notice the soft T of ʾalp̄ē ¦ṯrēn
ܥܶܣܪܺܝܢ ܘܰܬ݂ܠܳܬ݂ܳܐ ܐܰܠܦ݂ܺܝܢ
23000 (1Corinthians 10:8)
ܥܸܣܪܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ ܘܲܡܵܐܐ ܘܥܸܣܪܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ
22123 (Alan Lv4 L112): notice wa(m)-mā < wam(ə)ʾā (Nöld. §48E)
ܫܸܬ݂ܡܵܐܐ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܐܲܠܦܝܼܢ ܘܚܲܡܸܫܡܵܐܐ ܘܚܲܡܫܝܼܢ
603,550 (Numbers 1:46) [added 2014-02-12]
ܡܳܐܐ ܘܲܬ݂ܡܵܢܝܳܐ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܼܢ ܘܲܡܳܐܐ
108,100 (Numbers 2:24): another example of wa(m)-mā (London 1913) [added 2014-02-14]
ܡܵܐ̇ܐ ܘܲܬ݂ܡܵܢܝܵܐ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܼܢ ܘܲܡܵܐܐ
Same: Mosul Bible [added 2014-02-22]

2014-02-20

Two Hundred (Pesh. OT London 1913: Numbers)

ܫܬܵܐ ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ ܘܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ
6,200 = štā ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn wmaʾtēn OR wmattēn: the standard E-Syr form is mattēn, as opposed to W-Syr maṯēn (3:34)
ܬܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܐܲܠܦܝ݂̈ܢ ܘܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ
3,200 = tlāṯā ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn wmaʾtēn (4:44)
ܥܸܣܪܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܼܢ ܘܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ
22,200 = ʕisrīn waṯrēn ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn wmaʾtēn (26:14)
ܥܸܣܪܝܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ ܘܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ ܘܫܲܒ݂ܥܝܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ
22,273 = ʕisrī#n waṯrēn ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn wmaʾtēn wšaḇʕī#n waṯlāṯā {#=no dot below Y} (3:43)
ܡ̇ܐܬܹܝܢ ܘܫ̇ܒ݂ܥܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܠܵܬܵܐ
273 = ma#ʾTēn wša#ḇʕīn waṯlāṯā {#=only dot above} (3:46)
ܠܬ݂ܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܐܲܠܦܝܼܢ ܘܡܲܐܬ݂ܝܼܢ̣
32,200 = lṯīn (tlāṯīn?) waṯrēn ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn {no seyame} wma(ʾ)ṯīn {mystery dot below N}: here apparently maṯīn with a soft T, and -īn instead of -ēn (2:21)
ܬܠܵܬ݂ܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ ܘܡܲܐܬܲܝܢ [ܘܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ؟ ܘܡܲܐܬ݁ܝܼܢ؟]
32,200 = tlāṯīn waṯrēn ʾalpīn ʾalp̄īn wmaʾTayn [wmaʾtēn? wmaʾtīn?] (1:35)
ܡ̇ܐܬܲܝܢ (ܡܲܐܬܹ݁ܝܢ) ܘܚܲܡܫܝܢ (ܘܚܲܡܫܝܼܢ)
250 = maʾTayn (maʾtēn) wḥamšīn: another example of “maʾTayn” (16:2; Cf. 16:17, 16:35, 26:10)

Elias of Nisibis (Eliâ of Ṣôbʰâ)

Eliya or Elijah Bar Shinaya [Elias Bar Šināyā] became East Syriac Metropolitan of Nisibis in AD 1008. Elias wrote that within 40 years of `Abhd-Isho`'s episcopate , that is by AD 1008, Eastern Syriac monasticism had collapsed to a very small contingent of monks and monasteries, [38]. According to Wright, [24] Elias Bar Shinaya was born in AD 975. He became a monk near Mosul and was later appointed Bishop of Beth Nuhadhre in AD 1002 and then Metropolitan of Nisibis on AD 1008. He was a prolific author who wrote many works both in Arabic and in Syriac. His greatest work was a history called, 'Annals' or Chronicle', (according to Wright, the only copy is found in BL Add. 7197). Eliya also wrote a lexical work which survives in Mingana Syr 420 E.

Chart of the Syro-Phoenician Church from 525 A.D. till 1724

ܨܘܒܐ (Ṣṓḇā) = ܢܨܝܒܝܢ (Nəṣībīn) = Nusaybin: on the Turkish side of the border, near Qamishli.

2015-07-27

One Hundred Thousand (1 King 20:29)

Pesh. OT London (1913) and Mausili (1887):

ܘܲܫܪܵܘ ܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܫܒ݂ܥܵܐ [ܫܲܒ݂ܥܵܐ] ܝܵܘ̈ܡܝܢ [ܝܵܘ̈ܡܝܼܢ]:
ܘܲܫ̣ܪܵܘ ܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܫܲܒ݂ܥܵܐ ܝܵܘ̈ܡܝܼܢ.
And they encamped, these against these (≈vis a vis), for seven days. [ܫܪܐ = “to dwell; to pitch a camp, encamp” // luqḇal = “opposite”]
ܘܲܗܘܵܐ ܒܝܵܘܡܵܐ ܫܒ݂ܝܼܥܵܝܵܐ: ܘـ̣ܐܲܩܪܸܒ݂ܘ ܩܪܵܒ݂ܵܐ:
ܘܲܗܘ̤ܵܐ ܒܝܵܘܡܵܐ ܫܒܝܼܥܵܝܵܐ: ܘܐܲܩ̣ܪܸܒ݂ܘ ܩܪܵܒ݂ܵܐ.
And it was on the seventh day. They fought a battle. [ܩܪܸܒ݂ = “to come near, touch” Aph. ܐܲܩܪܸܒ݂ = “to join battle, to make war, fight” // qrāḇā = “war, battle”]
ܘܩܲܛܸܠܘ ܒܢܲܝ̈ ܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܲܕܘܿܡ: ܡܵܐܐ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܼܢ ܓܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܵܝܹܐ ܒܝܵܘܡܵܐ ܚܲܕ݂.܀
ܘܩܲܛܸܠܘ ܒ݁ܢܲܝ̈ ܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܲܕ݂ܘܲܡ [ܐܲܕ݂ܘܿܡ]: ܡܵܐܐ ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ ܓܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܝܼܢ ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܵܝܹܐ ܒܝܵܘܡܵܐ ܚܲܕ݂.
And the Sons of Israel massacred/slaughtered {Pael!} [men] from ʾAḏṓm (Edom) — 100,000 foot-soldier men — in one day. [ʾīsrāyèl, WS ܐܺܝܣܪܳܐܝܶܠ (ʾīsrāyel) or ܐܺܝܣܪܳܐܶܝܠ (ʾīsrāʾēl), also ܐܺܣܪܰܝܶܠ (ʾīsra(y)yel), ܐܺܝܣܪܰܐܝܶܠ (ʾīsra(ʾ)yel), or ܝܺܣܪܳܝܶܠ ((y)īsrāyel). ʾaḏṓm (ʾeḏṓm) = In Syriac biblically-based sources, Edom and Edomite are normally substituted for Aram and Aramaean. (CAL) // reḡlāyā = “foot soldier”]

Luke 16:9⁎

2014-02-07

Religious things aside, μαμωνᾶς is Aramaic. This is one of those passages which make you vividly feel that NT is not purely Greek, but is based on Aramaic, which is the original language. This one is subtler than e.g. Ταλιθὰ κούμ, as the word μαμωνᾶ is not so obviously Aramaic.

ܘܳܐܦ ܐܶܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ ܕܰܥܒ̥ܶܕܘ̱ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ ܪܳܚܡܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܳܡܘܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܕܥܰܘܠܐ ܕܡܐ ܕܰܓ̥ܡܰܪ ܢܩܰܒ̊ܠܘܢܳܟ̥ܘܢ ܒܰܡܛܰܠܰܝܗܘܢ ܕܰܠܥܳܠܰܡ ܀
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀
Καὶ ἐγὼ ὑμῖν λέγω, ἑαυτοῖς ποιήσατε φίλους ἐκ τοῦ μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας, ἵνα ὅταν ἐκλίπῃ δέξωνται ὑμᾶς εἰς τὰς αἰωνίους σκηνάς.
ܥܒ̥ܶܕܘ imperat. 2 pl. of ܥܒܰܕ‎ ¶ ܡܳܡܘܿܢܐ “money” = μαμωνᾶςܥܰܘܠܐ “iniquity, injustice, wrong against man” = ἀδικίᾱܡܐ ܕ “after ...” ¶ ܓܡܰܪ “to perfect, finish, to be perfected, finished” = ἐκλείπω “to leave out” — ἐκλίπῃ Aor. subj. 3sg ¶ ܩܰܒܶܠ (qabbel) Pa. √QBE “to receive, accept” — ܢܩܰܒܠܘܢ (n(ə)qabb(ə)lūn) impf.3pl = δέχομαιδέξωνται⁂ aor. subj.? ¶ ܡܛܰܠܬ̥ܐ “a booth, hut, shed, shelter, roof, tabernacle, tent” — pl. ܡ̈ܛܰܠ̱ܠܷܐ (mṭallē) = σκηνή “tent” ¶ ܥܳܠܰܡ “eternity” (abs/cons)

AA- East Syriac Marcus (2011)

Found @ Free Fonts - AssyrianSchool ܡܲܕܪܵܤܵܐ ܐܵܬܘܿܪܵܝܬܵܐ: AA- East Syriac Marcus font: Version 1.00 May 16, 2011 (by Dr. Esho Marcus). Rendering is fine for E-Syr, while it uses “empty” code points arbitrarily; e.g. U+0727 [ ܧ ] SYRIAC LETTER REVERSED PE is used to store a TA ligature. Glyphs of this font are generally more similar to East Syriac Adiabene than to ES Nohadra, though the LA liga. is like ES Nohadra.

One thing I don’t like about East Syriac Adiabene is, two dots below ܕ݂ are not shown as two dots. One thing I don’t like about ES Nohadra is, depending on font size, the dot above ܪ touches the main part of the glyph, and this dot is not large enough to do that. AA- East Syriac Marcus has none of those problems.

AA- East Syriac Marcus
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀
East Syriac Adiabene
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀
East Syriac Ctesiphon
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀
ES Nohadra
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀
AA- Nohadra Marcus
ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ܇ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܪܵܚܡܹ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܵܡܘܿܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܥܵܘܼܠܵܐ. ܕܡܵܐ ܕܲܓ݂ܡܲܪ ܢܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܵܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܲܡܛܲܠܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܿܢ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ.܀

2014-02-11 A problem of AA- East Syriac Marcus: A seyame becomes a horizontal line if bold. ܐܲܠܦܝܼ̈ܢ

2014-04-14 A problem of AA- East Syriac Marcus: A Quššāyā dot and another general dot above are not shown as two seperate dots (ES Nohadra has the same problem):
East Syriac Adiabene ܢܸܫܟ݁̇ܚܝܼܗ̇ ES Nohadra ܢܸܫܟ݁̇ܚܝܼܗ̇ AA- East Syriac Marcus ܢܸܫܟ݁̇ܚܝܼܗ̇
On the other hand, AA- East Syriac Marcus has special glyphs for: ܕ݂ and ܦ̮. ES Nohadra also has ܕ݂ and ܦ̮, though.
It seems that ES Nohadra is a modified version of font(s) by Marcus {Dr. Esho Sanko Marcus, DDS, in Chicago, IL}. But in the end, AA- East Syriac Marcus is newer and better.
AA-: Version 1.00 May 16, 2011, initial release © 1997-20002 [sic] Syriac Advanced Software. For free distribution. Created by Esho Marcus and Sargon Hasso with support provided by Paul Nelson and George Kiraz of Syriac Computing Institute.
ES Nohadra: Macromedia Fontographer 4.1 2/5/2005 © 1997-20002 Syriac Advanced Software. For free distribution. Created by Esho Marcus and Sargon Hasso with support provided by Paul Nelson and George Kiraz of Syriac Computing Institute. Modified with permission from the developers by the Esho Barutha Assyrian Language Centre for use in the Barutha English-Assyrian Dictionary.

Qarahbaš 3 (44/45) [vol. 2, L. 23] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 23: ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܪܶܡܙܐ

2014-02-04

23) 00444E-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 00452n-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܗܳܢܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܗܰܘ ܗܳܝ ܬܰܡܳܢ
hānā hāḏē hārkā haw hāy tammān
this m. this f. here that m. that f., she there
ܚܘܪ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܘܚܰܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ: ܗܐ ܩܰܨܪܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ.
Look here, and you see: behold, a beautiful fortress/castle/mansion.
Fem. ܚܘܪܝ̱ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܘܚܳܙܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ — Jess. says ܩܰܨܪܐ m. is Arabic. This guy may be a cousin of “castle/château”, that is, if both “castle” and قصر are from La. castrum. Sp. Alcázar is indeed from قصر.
ܗܳܢܐ ܩܰܨܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
This mansion has a large garden.
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
This garden has a high {rām-ā} wall {šūrā m}.

2014-02-05

ܚܘܪ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ: ܗܐ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܨܶܝܕ ܚܰܩܠܐ.
Look there, and you see: behold, a river {nahrā} to/towards {ṣēḏ} the field/farm {ḥaqlā (pl. ḥaqlāṯā) f.#Nöld.§84/Jess/Jastrow CAL=m}.
ܗܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܓܝ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ.
That river has a lot of fish in it.
ܗܳܝ ܚܰܩܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܛܳܒܐ.
That field/farm has good grain {zarʕā} (≈plants) in it.

2014-02-06

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܩܰܨܪܐ ܗܰܘ؟
What is there in that castle?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
There is a large garden in it.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܓܰܒܬ̥ܐ؟
What does the garden have?
ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
The garden has a high wall.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ؟
What is in the river?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܓܝ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ.
There are a lot of fish in it.
4 ܩܰܨܪܐ ܪܰܒ ܐܰܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ؟
Which is bigger, a castle or a house? [The ؟⁂ is missing in US version. CA. has it.]
ܩܰܨܪܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ.
A castle is bigger than a house.

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

5 ܗܐ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ... ܗܐ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ...
ܗܐ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ. ܗܐ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
Look here [at] this boy. Look here [at] this girl.
6 ܗܐ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܬܰܘܪܐ ... ܗܐ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܬܘܪܬܐ ...
ܗܐ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܬܰܘܪܐ ܗܰܘ. ܗܐ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܗܳܝ.
Look there [at] that bull {tawrā; ES tāwrā ?}. Look there [at] that cow {tṓrtā (tôrtā) Hard T < taurəṯā §49/98}.

2014-02-08

Make 3 sentences — ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ»

7 ܐܰܝܟ: ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ.

ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܟܰܠܒܐ.
There is a dog in the garden.
ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
This garden is big.
ܗܐ ܓܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܘܫܰܦܝܪܬ̊ܐ.
Look, a big and beautiful garden.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

8 ܗܳܕܶܐ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ ܀
This garden has a high wall.

Syriac Numbers 21–29 (and 30+)

2014-02-03

  1. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ (ʕesrīn w-ḥaḏ), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܚܕܐ (ʕesrīn wa-ḥḏā)
  2. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪ̈ܶܝܢ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯrēn), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܬ̥ܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ (ʕesrīn w-ṯartēn)
  3. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯlāṯā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯlāṯ)
  4. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ (ʕesrīn w-arbʕā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܰܥ (ʕesrīn w-arbaʕ)
  5. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܫܐ (ʕesrīn w-ḥamšā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ (ʕesrīn w-ḥammeš)
  6. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܶܫܬܐ (ʕesrīn we-štā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܫܶܬ̥ (ʕesrīn w-šeṯ)
  7. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܫܰܒܥܐ (ʕesrīn w-šaḇʕā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܫܒܰܥ (ʕesrīn wa-šḇaʕ)
  8. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܐ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯmānyā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܶܐ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯmānē)
  9. ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܬ̥ܶܫܥܐ (ʕesrīn w-ṯešʕā), ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܫܰܥ (ʕesrīn wa-ṯšaʕ)

Everything is regular except that we-, not wa-, is used before the masculine 6 (štā), before the common 60 (štīn), and before a št- form of 16 [any (m/f) of 2nd forms incl. textbook forms, and possibly 3rd and 4th forms]. Example: §148 “360”
ܬܠܴܬܡܳܐܐ ܘܷܫܬܻܝܢ — Nöld. uses the Xn form instead of Afn:
ܬܠܴܬܡܳܐܐ‍ ܘܷܫܬܻܝܢ
Alan 4:110 “56 men” ܚܲܡܫܝܼܢ ܘܸܫܬܵ‍ܐ ܓܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܝܼܢ khâmsheen wishta gâwreen

§43E

With the words mentioned in §51 [ܫܬܴ̊ܐ etc.], which may assume an ܐܷ as their commencement, the prefix ܒ is given as ܒܷ, and so with the other prefixes, thus [...] ܠܷܫܬܴ̊ܐ “to the six”, &c.

2014-02-25 See also: Duval p. 91, p. 276.

2014-03-01 The word “sixty” itself can be ܐܶܫܬܝܢ, instead of ܫܬ̊ܝܢ.

2014-11-24

Textbook Forms (& Actual Forms) of Syriac “Teen” Numbers

2014-01-27/28

(1) A masculine teen is a “Textbook Stem” + aʕsar, except that 12 is tr-eʕsar.

  1. ḥaḏ → *ḥaḏ-aʕsar → ḥ(ə)ḏaʕsar — Cf. ḥ(ə)ḏā
  2. trēn → tr-eʕsar
  3. tlāṯā → tlāṯ-aʕsar
  4. ʾarb(ə)ʕā → ʾarb-aʕsar
  5. ḥamšā → ḥamš-aʕsar
  6. štā → št-aʕsar
  7. šaḇʕā → *šaḇ-aʕsar → š(ə)ḇaʕsar — Cf. š(ə)ḇaʕ
  8. tmān → tmān-aʕsar
  9. tešʕā → *teš-aʕsar → t(ə)šaʕsar — Cf. t(ə)šaʕ

(2) A feminine teen is the same Textbook Stem + aʕesrē, except that 12 is tart-aʕesrē. In general, -aʕesrē can be shortened as -aʕs(ə)rē. (PESHITTA TOOL has it as -aʕʕesrē, like Luke 3:1 - ḥamšaᶜᶜesrē)

(3) Numbers actually used in Classical Syriac are more or less different from those textbook forms, but differences exist only in 14+ and important differences exist only in masculines (except for 16, štaʕesrē f. becomes šetta-):

I’d call them 中二病の数詞, since they are strange starting from 14.

2014-02-02

Feminine-based explanation of teen forms

Textbook Forms
  1. For 12, they are trĕʕ.sar & tar.ta.ʕes.rē — these should be remembered.
  2. Otherwise, use a feminine base form, and add to it -aʕ.sar/-a.ʕes.rē, with the following adjustments:
Common Forms

The femining ending -a.ʕes.rē can be always become -aʕ.s(ə)rē for any numeral (e.g. ḥ(ə)ḏaʕ.s(ə)rē). But this is a minor difference.

Common forms really differ from textbook forms only for masculine 14–19 and feminine 16. We will keep using the feminine base forms (4–9) to explain them. Firstly, masculine teens (14 and above) are:

Secondly, numerals for sixteen are:

Thus the stem difference for 16 (št ~ šet) is neutralized, and 15 is the only teen besides 12 where commonly-used stems have gender differences: ḥammeš-taʕsar m. VS ḥamš-aʕ(e)srē f. If you think about ḥamšā m. VS ḥammeš f., the two stems are now swapped. (This has nothing to do with the fact that for 3–10, m. like forms are used for f. and vice versa.)

A 16-like feminine form, -Taʕ(e)srē, is sometimes, though rarely, used for 14 and 17 too. E.g. Amir. 226 has ʾariḇaṯʕesriʾ for 14.

2014-02-17 In the footnote of §148, where “sixteen” is discussed, Nöld. indirectly suggests how to vocalize the rare (selten) feminine form of “seventeen”. He says: ܫܬܴܬܱܥܣܱܪܫܬܴܬܱܥܷܣܪܷ̈ܐ (nach Analogie von ܫܒܳܬܱܥܣܱܪ u. s. w.) According to this, ܫܒܬܥܣܪ̈ܐ should be read šḇā-: ܫܒܳܬܱܥܷܣܪܷ̈ܐ (šḇāTaʕesrē) OR šḇāTaʕsrē; and NOT šḇa-: šḇaTaʕ(e)srē. If we follow the same logic, the selten fem. form of 14 is to be pronounced ʾarbṯaʕ(e)srē. Mingana (1905) has: ʾarbAṯaʕisrē, šBAṯaʕisrē (short A, soft T).

TS2:4347 (1254.jp2)

ܫܬ݂ܳܬܱܥܣܰܪ [š(ə)ṯāTaʕsar#4] vel ܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ [šTaʕsar#2#3] m. ܫܬܰܥܣܪ̈ܶܐ [šTaʕs(ə)rē(%2)%3] f. sexdecim, ܫܸܬ݁ܬܱܥܸܣܪ̈ܶܐ [šittaʕisrē%1], [...] 2 Par. xiii. 21, Aphr. ܠܒ‎. 14 [ܫܬܬܥܣܪܐ Probably %1], Ephr. ed. Lamy ii. 509 [ܫܬܬ ܥܣܪ], B.O. [Bibliotheca Orientalis, by Assemani] iii. i. 117 [ܫܳܬܰܬܥܣܰܪ šāTaʕsar: maybe a variant of #1]; cum prefixo ܒܶܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ [beštaʕsar#2: Actually ܒܐܫܬܥܣܪ Line 4], BHChr. 210.   Ap. lexx. [...] ܫܬܳܬܱܥܣܰܪ [šTāTaʕsar#4], BB; it. [...] ܫܬܵܬܹܥܣܲܪ [šTāTeʕsar: a variant of #4], Hunt. clxx.

Also, Peshitta Act 12:4 has ܫܬ݂ܬ݂ܰܥܣܰܪ; Peshitta Tool reads it šəṯəṯaᶜsar but probably a better reading is šəṯaʕsar#3. Both Mingana Collections and New York 1886 read it ܫܸܬ݁ܬܲܥܣܲܪ (šit(t)aʕsar#1#2), as in ܫܸܬ݁ܬܲܥܣܲܪ ܐܸܣܛ̄ܪ̈ܵܛܝܼ̱ܘܿܛ݇ܝܼܢ (šit(t)aʕsar ʾisṭrāṭīyōṭīn) “sixteen soldiers” — I’m not sure what those additional lines are for. My guess is: the line over the ṭ in ʾisṭrā- means = “to be pronounced lightly without a vowel, or pronounced a la Greek tau”; the line below the Yōḏ = “read this as a consonant too”; the oblique line above the last Ṭēṯ = “read this as written. you see three Ṭēṯ letters but that’s not a typo”.

2014-08-29: The first line is probably a Marhṭānā (ʾis(ɩ)ṭ(ə)-rā-). The second line may be a kind of Mhagyānā, showing that a new syllable is to be created here (ṭīyō, not ṭīw). Still not sure about the third line.

2014-02-03

CAL has $t@(sr in 6, )$tsr in 0, and $tt(sr in 36: like 85% has two Ts, 15% has a single T.

NOTE: A vowel-loving stem has less vowels, and it usually needs a vowel that follows it to complete the stem-ending syllable. Typically, it is a masculine form minus the last vowel. A consonant-loving stem usually ends in a closed syllable, ready to have a new syllable after it. Typically, it is identical to a feminine form. For example, 50 gets the (“incomplete”) suffix -īn, hence a vowel-loving (“incomplete”) stem ḥamš- precedes it; 500 gets the (“complete”) suffix -mā, hence a consonant-loving (“complete”) stem ḥammeš- precedes it.

Qarahbaš 3 (42/43) [vol. 2, L. 22] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 22: ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ

2014-01-23

22) 0042g3-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0043r2-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܨܒܐ ܣܶܕܠܐ ܫܘܥ̈ܐ ܙܰܒܢܐ
ʾarn(ə)ḇā ṣḇā sedlā #2 šṓʕē (šūʕē) #3 zaḇnā
f. hare#1 to be willing, to wish √ṢBY m. sandal σανδάλιον m. rocks m/f time #4

#1 hare or hyrax... A hare (not rabbit!) is a larger animal with longish ears; a Syrian hyrax is similar but smaller and with small ears. (CAL); Leporidae = hare (mainly: Genus Lepus) + rabbits (others)
European hare (Lepus europaeus): European_hare.jpg Rabbit: rabbit.jpg
Rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) rock_hyrax.jpg

#2 D is HARD according to CAL. Maybe because it was *se(n)dlā? — Yeah, Jess. actually says: “contracted from ܣܰܢܕܠܴܐ”; CAL, LS2, Costaz have this as sAdlā, while sEdlā in TS2529 and Jess.

#3 Nöld. has both ṓ (p. 34) and ụ̄ (p. 271). Mura has ṓ (p. 83). wikt has ṓ. Primarily this refers to smooth, water-formed stones or large rocks still anchored to the ground. (CAL)

#4 Nöld §87 says: “time” (Zeit) m.; “time” (Mal) generally f. Costaz says: m. “temps” and usually f. “fois” — This word is not used in this lesson.⁂ (See 2014-08-01)

ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ.
Joseph {Zahyā⁂ in Canada; also in the rest of this lesson} is a skilled hunter.
ܨܒܐ ܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܨܰܝܕܐ.
One day he wanted to go hunting {ṣaydā}.

2014-01-24

ܠܒܶܫ ܣܶܕܠܐ ܕܨܰܝܕܐ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ، ܘܣܳܡ ܩܘܒܥܐ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܐܶܙܰܠ⁂ [ܘܶܐܙܰܠ] ܠܥܳܒܐ ܕܣܰܓܝ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܘܫܘܥ̈ܐ.
He wore/put {lḇeš} sandal[s] {sg. in Syc} (=shoes) of hunting on his feet#1, and put a cap {qub(b)ʕā, m} on his head, and went to the forest#2 of many trees and rocks.
#1 reḡlaw (E-Syr. reḡlāw): ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ + awhy (E-Syr. āwhy): this suffix is ai + hy, where -hy is the after-vowel form of -eh. According to Alan 4-102-fn3, both h and y are silent in both E- and W-Syr. Indeed, M p. 33 says -āw; T p. 45 says -aw. Also the Peshitta Tool has “ləreǥlaw(hy)” meaning (h) and (y) are silent (Acts 10:25). NOTE: The word reḡlē is feminine; ai-type suffixes are used with a plural noun ending in ē, even when it’s feminine. 2014-02-15 Nöld. §50A (3): ܡܱܠ̈ܟܱܘܗ̄ܝ malkau from malkauhī “his kings”
#2 ʕāḇā m. CAL=hard B; Pes/wikt=soft B
ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܨܳܕ ܚܕܐ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ.
And after {bāṯar} an hour {šaʕṯā, f} he hunted {ṣāḏ √ṢWD} one hare, three doves, and five sparrows.
*The dot below Dālaṯ can be eclipsed by Ṣemkaṯ (ܨܕ). I really love Serto Batnan (ܨܕ) except it’s broken for ܪ̈ + vowel sign.
ܢܺܚܶܐ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ. ܢܺܚܶܐ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ ܀
Yay for Joseph. Yay for the skilled hunter.

2014-01-25

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܨܒܐ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ؟
To where did Joseph want to go?
ܗܘ ܨܒܐ ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܨܰܝܕܐ (ܠܥܳܒܐ).
He wanted to go hunting (to the forest).
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܠܒܶܫ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ؟
What did he wear/put on his feet?
ܠܒܶܫ ܣܶܕܠܐ ܕܨܰܝܕܐ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ.
He wore/put hunting sandals on his feet.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܣܳܡ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ؟
What did he put on his head?
ܣܳܡ ܩܘܒܥܐ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ.
He put a cap on his head.
4 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ؟
Where did he go?
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܥܳܒܐ.
He went to the forest.
5 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܨܳܕ؟
What did he hunt?
ܨܳܕ ܚܕܐ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ.
He hunted one hare, three doves, and five sparrows.

2014-01-26

Which animal has — ܐܰܝܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ

6 ܓܰܡܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A camel has four feet.
ܝܰܘܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
A dove {f} has two wings.
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A lion has four feet.
ܟܰܠܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A dog has four feet.
ܘܰܙܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
A goose has two wings.
7 ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
A rooster has two wings.
ܐܰܝܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A stag {ʾaylā “male deer”} has four feet.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
A sparrow {f} has two wings.
ܥܶܙܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܰܪܒܳܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A goat (doe) has four feet.
ܩܰܛܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A cat has four feet.

Make 3 sentences — ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܨܶܦܪܐ»

8 ܐܰܝܟ: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܦܳܪܚܐ ܒܐܳܐܰܪ⁂ [ܒܳܐܐܰܪ].

(The sparrow flies {PRḤ} in the air.)

  1. ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
  2. ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܘܢܐ.
  3. ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ (ܣܰܘܟܬ̥ܐ).

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

9 ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܨܳܕ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ ܀
Joseph hunted three doves and five sparrows.

Qarahbaš 3 (41) [vol. 2, L. 21] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18: ܟܰܕ ܙܰܓܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ

2014-01-18

21) 0041EH-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܫܳܪܶܐ ܙܳܐܶܡ ܫܠܶܡ ܙܰܘܓܐ
šārē zāʾèm šlem zawgā
releases √ŠRY sounds, rings √ZMM intr. to come to an end m. a yoke, a pair#
ܟܰܕ ܙܰܓܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ
ܕܢܶܥܘܠ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܠܰܢ
When the bell rings in the morning, it tells us to enter (lit. “calls us so that we will enter”: §267; T §15.1; M §98) the classroom.
Geminate pf. ܥܠ (ʕal), ܥܶܠܬ̥ (ʕellaṯ); fut. 3m-sg/1c-pl ܢܶܥܘܠ (neʕʕól***)
ܘܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ
ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܫܳܪܶܐ ܠܰܢ
And when it returns {HPK} and rings (=rings again #) in the evening, it releases us so that we may go home.
#Jess. “ܗܦܰܟ preceding another verb agreeing with it [...] has adverbial force, again
ܐܶܙܰܠ (ʾeZal: single Z) ܐܶܙܰܠ̱ܬ̥ (ʾezzaṯ) — fut. ܢܺܐܙܰܠ (nḗzal) 3m-sg/1c-pl

2014-01-19

ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܠܶܗ ܙܳܐܶܡ
ܕܰܫܠܶܡ ܫܶܥܝܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܰܢ
In the morning when its sound {qālā} rings, it says to us that the game (=playtime) has ended.
Geminate pf. ܙܰܡ (zam), ܙܶܡܰܬ̥ (zemmaṯ); part. ܙܳܐܶܡ (zāʾem), ܙܳܡܐ (zāmmā) possibly ܙܐܡܐ; fut. ܢܶܙܰܡ (nezzam: often a-a if intr.)
ܘܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܘܩܳܐܶܡ
ܘܙܰܘܓܐ ܙܰܘܓܐ ܣܳܕܰܪ ܠܰܢ
And the teacher comes# and stands/stays, and he arranges {sāḏar √SDR} us into twos (into two rows) (lit. “a pair a pair”)##.
# TS415 says: Part. act. m. absol. ܐܳܬܷ̇ܐ, but maybe it's just a dot above and not ܐܳܬܷ̊ܐ⁂ (?) — Jess. also has this dot.
## ܙܰܘܓܐ ܙܰܘܓܐ — sounds like an idiom, but I can’t find it in dictionaries. Only found: ܙܰܘ̈ܓܺܝܢ ܙܰܘ̈ܓܺܝܢ
2014-02-04 Alan Lv4 L115 Distributives are expressed by repeating or doubling the numeral. Also §240A Doubling the word to convey the idea of distribution (or Distributive Repetition) is a favourite practice in the case of numerals
2014-02-19 Lesson 25 has this picture. Seeing it, I’m now 90% sure what is meant by “zawgā zawgā” here.

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Qarahbaš 3 (40) [vol. 2, L. 20] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 20: ܐܶܢܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥

2014-01-17

20) 0040a8-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܒܘܪܐ ܝܶܪܒܶܬ̥ ܩܰܘܡܬ̥ܐ ܫܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ
būrā yerbeṯ qawm(ə)ṯā šnayyā
simple, unlearned, foolish, rude (Jess.); uncultivated, simple, stupid (Costaz 26b) I grew f. height f. years
ܐܶܢܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܙܥܘܪܐ
I was a small kid.
ܠܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܘܠܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥
I was not reading and not writing.
ܐܶܠܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܒܘܪܐ
ܒܓܰܢܰܬ̥ܫܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥
But as an ignorant boy, I was staying in the kindergarten.
ܓܰܢܰܬ̥ = probably Constr. St. of ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ f.
ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܗܐ ܝܶܪܒܶܬ̥
ܐܳܦ ܒܩܰܘܡܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܦ ܒܰܫܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ
But now, see, I have grown, both in height and in age.
ܘܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܽܠ «ܐܳܠܰܦܒܶܝܬ̥»
ܘܐܺܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܟܬܳܒ̈ܐ⁂ [ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ] ܘܰܩܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ
And I know all the Alphabet, and I have books and pens.
ܩ̈ܢܰܝܳܐ (qnayyā aka qnaiyā) = pl. of ܩܰܢܝܐ (qanyā) — This is of the type “-yā pl. -aiyā” (§72).

Numbers in Syriac, 1 to 10

2014-01-14

  1. The short (feminine) forms of 4 to 10 follow the e-a rule:
  2. The long (masculine) forms are mostly trivial: just remove the last vowel, and add .
    ܐܰܪܒܥܐ (four), ܚܰܡܫܐ (five), ܣܬ̊ܐ or ܐܶܣܬ̊ܐ (six), ܬܡܳܢܝܐ (eight: like √TMNY)
  3. If the short form is 3-letters-1-vowel, then the long form gets a vowel after the 1st rad. This vowel is e, except for “seven” where it is a.
    ܫܰܒܥܐ (seven), ܬܶܫܥܐ (nine), ܥܶܣܪܐ (ten): Fem = CCaC
  4. ܬܪܶܝܢ and ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ (two) are special.

11, 12, and 13

The short (feminine) form of “ten” is used for the masculine form of 11+, while the long (masculine) form of “ten”, with a seyame, is used for the feminine form of 11+.

2014-01-15/16

Fourteen ⟦Quattuordecim (Quātuordecim)⟧

2014-02-17 # Other possible readings of ܐܪܒܬܥܣܪ̈ܐ include ʾarbṯaʕ(e)srē## (from the 2nd mas. form) and ʾareBṯaʕ(e)srē (from the 3rd mas. form); ## ʾarbṯaʕisrē (Mingana).

2014-12-02: *1 NY Peshitta also has ʾarbaʕtaʕsar in Acts 27:27, 27:33. *2 UK Peshitta has ʾarb(ə)ṯaʕsar, not ʾareb(ə)ṯaʕsar.

ܝܳܕܰܥܢܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܒܰܡܫܝ̣ܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܕܳܡ ܐܰܪܒܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ ܫܢܝܢ.
οἶδα ἄνθρωπον ἐν Χριστῷ πρὸ ἐτῶν δεκατεσσάρων
¶ qḏām = “before” ¶ šnīn f. (like m. in pl.) = “years” (abs.)

Wheelock 32

2014-01-12

1. Prīmō illī trēs rīdiculī nē mediocria quidem perīcula fortier ferre poterant et ūllum auxilium offerre nōlēbant.
First, those three laughable men were not able to endure bravely even really mild {mediocris -e} dangers and did not want to offer any {ūllus} help.
2. Maximē rogāvimus quantum auxilium septem fēminae adferrent et utrum dubitārent an nōs mox adiūtūrae essent.
Most/Especially we asked how much help the seven women brought and whether they were doubting {dubitō āre} or they were about to help {adiuvō āre; adiūtum} us soon.
3. Dēnique armīs collātīs, imperātor prōmīsit decem mīlia mīlitum celerrimē discessūra esse, dummodo satis cōpiārum reciperent.
Finally the weapons having been brought together {cōnferō, collātum}, the general promissed that ten thousand of soldiers would depart {discēdō, -cessum, -cessūrus fut-act-part} very quickly, provided that they received {recipiō iere} enough of supplies.

2014-01-14

4. Paria beneficia, igitur, in omnēs dignōs cōnferre māvultis.
Therefore, you guys prefer to confer equal {pār paris} benefits on all worthy men.
5. Haec mala melius expōnant nē dīvitiās minuant aut honōrēs suōs āmittant.
Let them better explain/expose {expōnō ere} these bad things so that they may not diminish {minuō ere} riches (=their wealth) {dīvitiae} or lose {āmittō ere} their own honors.
6. At volumus cognōscere cūr sīc invīderit et cūr verba eius tam dūra fuerint.
But you see we want to understand why he envied {invideō -vīdī} like that and why his words were so harsh.

2014-01-15

7. Cum cēterī hās īnsidiās cognōverint, vult in exsilium fūrtim ac quam celerrimē sē cōnferre ut rūmōrēs et invidiam vītet.
Since the others have recognized this plot, he wants to go into exile secretly {fūrtim} and as quickly as possible so that he may avoid rumors and hatred.
8. Multīne discipulī tantum studium ūsque praestant ut hās sententiās facillimē ūnō annō legere possint?
Do many students always {ūsque} show {praestāre} so much eagerness that they are able to read these sentences very easily in one year.
9. Cum dīvitiās āmīsisset et ūnum assem nōn habēret, tamen omnēs cīvēs ingenium mōrēsque eius maximē laudābant.
Although he had lost {āmittō, āmīsī} wealth and did not [even] have one as, nevertheless all the citizens was very much praising his nature/talent {ingenium} and morals/character {mōs mōris m}.

2014-01-17

10. Plūra meliōraque lēgibus aequīs quam ferrō certē faciēmus.
Surely we will achieve {faciō facere} more and better things with fair laws than with the sword {ferrum}.
The plural forms of plūs is plūrēs and plūra. For the class. neuter of the plur., plura, the form pluria was used in ante-class. Latinity [before c. 80 BC]. Gellius cites M. Cato [234–149 BC], Q. Claudius [2–1c BC], Valerius Antias [2–1c BC], L. Ælius [154–74 BC], P. Nigidius [c. 98–54 BC], and M. Varro [116–27 BC] as authorities for this form, Gell. 5, 21, 6; yet Plautus [c. 254–184 BC] and Terence [c. 190–159 BC] have only plura; (Lewis-Short) — pl. gen. is plūr-ium, so it is half i-stem.
11. Oculī tuī sunt pulchriōrēs sīderibus caelī, mea puella; es gracilis et bella, ac ōscula sunt dulciōra vīnō: amēmus sub lūce lūnae!
Your eyes are prettier than the stars of the sky, my girl; you are slender# and beautiful, and also [your] kisses {ōsculum n. =bāsium} are sweeter than wine: let us love under the light of the moon!
#gracilis -e = en. gracile ≠ graceful

2014-01-25

12. Iste hostis, in Italiam cum multīs elephantīs veniēns, prīmō pugnāre nōluit et plūrimōs diēs in montibus cōnsūmpsit.
That enemy, coming into Italy with many elephants, at first was unwilling to fight, and consumed (=spent) very many {plūrimus} days in the mountains.
13. Sī nepōs tē ad cēnam invītābit, mēnsam explēbit et tibi tantum vīnī offeret quantum vīs; nōlī, autem, nimium bibere.
If [your] grandson will invite {invitō} (=invites) you to dinner, he will fill up {expleō} his table and will offer you as much wine as you wish; do not want, however, drink too much.

2014-02-03

14. Do you wish to live longer and better?
vīs/vultis
Vīsne (Vultisne) vīvere diūtius et melius?
15. He wishes to speak as wisely as possible so that they may yield to him very quickly.
vult. sapienter. cēdō, cēdere (with dative): cēdant. celeriter; adj=celer, celeris, celere; CELERIOR CELERIUS; celERrimus celERrimē
Quam sapientissimē dīcere vult ut eī celerrimē cēdant.

2014-02-05

16. When these plans had been learned, we asked why he had been unwilling to prepare the army with the greatest possible care.
cognōscō -ere -nōvī -nitum ¶ rōgō ¶ nōlō nōlle nōluī ¶ parō ¶ exercitus ūs
Cum haec cōnsīlia cognita essent, rōgāvimus cūr exercitum (cum) curā quam maximā parāre nōluisset.
17. That man, who used to be very humble, now so keenly wishes to have wealth that he is willing to lose his two best friends.
humilis humillimus
Ille (vir), quī humillimus erat, nunc dīvitiās habēre tam ācriter vult ut duōs amīcōs optimōs (suōs) āmittere velit.

2014-02-08

SE 1. Occāsiō nōn facile praebētur sed facile ac repente āmittitur.
An opportunity is not offered {praebeō ēre} easily, but is lost {āmittō} easily and suddenly {repente}.
2. Nōbīscum vīvere iam diūtius nōn potes; nōlī remanēre; id nōn ferēmus.
Now you can not live too long with us. Do not want to remain. We will not endure it.
3. Vīs rēctē vīvere? Quis nōn?
Do you want to live right? Who doesn’t?

2014-02-14

4. Plūs nōvistī quid faciendum sit.
You have learned {nōscō, nōvī} more what is to be done.
5. Mihi vērē dīxit quid vellet.
To me verily he said what he wanted {impf-sub}.
6. Parēs cum paribus facillimē congregantur.
Similar people {pār, paris, adj.} with similar people are very easily gathered.

2014-02-19

7. Tē magis quam oculōs amō.
I love you more than my eyes.
8. Hominēs libenter id crēdunt quod volunt.
Humans believe what they want [to believe] willingly.
9. Multa ēveniunt hominibus quae volunt et quae nōlunt.
Many things happen to humans, [both] what they want and they do not want.
10. Cōnsiliō melius contendere atque vincere possumus quam īrā.
With plan/wisdom we can strive and conquer [problems] better, than with anger. (Publilius Syrus)
11. Optimus quisque facere māvult quam dīcere.
Each {quisque m/f, quidque n} best man wishes more to do [things], than to speak [about it].

2014-02-22

12. Omnēs sapientēs fēlīciter, perfectē, fortūnātē vīvunt.
All wise persons live happily, completely, and fortunately.
13. Maximē eum laudant quī pecūniā nōn movētur.
They most/especially praise him (a man) who is not moved by money.
14. Sī vīs scīre quam nihil malī in paupertāte sit, cōnfer pauperem et dīvitem: pauper saepius et fidēlius rīdet.
If you want to know how no evil things there are in poverty {paupertās tātis}, compare a poor man {pauper pauperis} and a rich man {dīves dīvitis}: a poor man more often and more faithfully (trustworthily, truly) laughs.

2014-02-26

15. Magistrī puerīs crūstula dant ut prīma elementa discere velint.
Teachers give cookies to boys so that they may want to know (the) primary elements.
Note: Lesson 24 also has “ut puerīs ēducandīs saepe dant crūstula magistrī”, maybe based on the same line by Horace, Sermōnēs.
16. Sī vīs mē flēre, dolendum est prīmum ipsī tibi.
If you want me to weep [over something], it has to be lamented {dolendum est = Pass. periphrastic neut., of doleō, dolēre} by you yourself first.
Horace, Ars Poētica, Line 102. Context: It’s not enough for poems to have beauty... / As the human face smiles at a smile, so it echoes / Those who weep: if you want to move me to tears / You must first grieve yourself

2014-02-27

Cimōn celeriter ad summōs honōrēs pervēnit.
Cimon swiftly reached {perveniō vēnī +ad} at the highest honors (offices).
Habēbat enim satis ēloquentiae, summam līberālitātem, magnam scientiam lēgum et reī mīlitāris, quod cum patre ā puerō in exercitibus fuerat.
He, indeed, had sufficient eloquence, highest liberality, great knowledge of laws and of military affair, because he had been in the armies {exercitus ūs} with his father from his boyhood.
Itaque hic populum urbānum in suā potestāte facillimē tenuit et apud exercitum valuit plūrimum auctōritāte.
And so this [guy] very easily kept {teneō uī} the urban people in his power, and among the army {exercitus ūs} he had power {valeō uī} very much {multum, super.} in respect of authority.

2014-03-01

Cum ille occidisset, Athēniēnsēs dē eō diū doluērunt; nōn sōlum in bellō, autem, sed etiam in pāce eum graviter dēsīderāvērunt.
After that man (he) had died, the Athenians long grieved {doleō uī} for him; not only in war, however/moreover, but also in peace they gravely missed him.
¶ occideō cidī “fall down, die” ≠ occīdō cīdī “cut down, kill” ¶ dēsīderō “desire, miss”
Fuit enim vir tantae līberālitātis ut, cum multōs hortōs habēret, numquam in hīs custōdiās pōneret; nam hortōs līberrimē patēre voluit nē populus ab hīs frūctibus prohibērētur.
Indeed, he was a man of such great generosity that, though he used to have many gardens, he never put {pōnō ere} guards in these; for he wanted the gardens to be accessible {pateō ēre} very freely so that people might not be prevented from [taking] these fruits.
Saepe autem, cum aliquem minus bene vestītum vidēret, eī suum amiculum dedit.
Often, moreover, when he was seeing someone (m) less {minus, neut. of minor as adv} well clothed {vestiō ītum}, he gave to him his own cloak {amiculum}.

2014-03-03

Multōs locuplētāvit; multōs pauperēs vīvōs iūvit atque mortuōs suō sūmptū extulit.
He enriched many men; he helped many living {vīvus} poor men and buried dead men at his own expense.
Sīc minimē mīrum est sī, propter mōrēs Cimōnis, vīta eius fuit sēcūra et mors eius fuit omnibus tam acerba quam mors cuiusdam ex familiā.
Thus it is least surprising if, because of Cimon’s habits {mōs mōris}, his life was safe (peaceful) and his death was for all as bitter as the death of someone from their own family.

A Vacation... From You!

Quid mihi reddat ager quaeris, Line, Nōmentānus?
Hoc mihi reddit ager: tē, Line, nōn videō!
Do you ask {quaerō ere}, Linus, what the field {ager} gives back {reddō ere} to me in Nomentum?
The field gives back this to me: I do not see you, Linus!

Please... Don’t!

Nīl recitās et vīs, Māmerce, poēta vidērī.
Quidquid vīs estō, dummodo nīl recitēs!
You recite {recitō} nothing and wish, Mamercus, to be seen as a poet.
Be {lit. “Be going to be”*} whatever you wish, provided that you recite nothing!

*estō = second-person singular future active imperative of sum, aka the -tō form.

A good translation by Robert R. Schnorr: Though you never recite, you would like to pass for a poet. / Pass for whatever you like; never, though,—never!—recite.

Qarahbaš 3 (38/39) [vol. 2, L. 19] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 19: ܙܰܓܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ

2014-01-11

19) 00389s-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0039G6-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܙܰܓܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܫܶܥܝܐ
zaggā shāmaʕ mawdaʕ šeʕyā
m. bell hears tells m. game, play
ܗܐ ܙܰܓܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ.
See, the bell is struck (OR is ringing)#.
# ܢܩܰܫ (nqaš) is often transitive—to strike (something), to knock at (the door), to play (the musical instrument), etc. But it can be used intransitively—Costaz 214a: to be struck (tambourine, etc.). The Glossary (vocabulary) section at the end of the book has it as “He - she knocks” in Canada version, but in US version it says “It rings; it ticks (a clock)”; this verb was indeed used in that sense in Lesson 8.
# This is a typical 1st-n verb, with the commonest vowels (a-o): impf. ܢܶܩܘܿܫ (neqqóš***), impt. ܩܘܿܫ (qṓš)
ܫܡܰܥ ܡܐ ܪܳܡ ܩܳܠܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ!
Hear how loud the sound of it [is]!
ܙܰܓܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
The bell informs [us] about the time {ʕeddānā} of lessons.
ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܐܳܦ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܥܝܐ.
It also informs us about playtime.

2014-01-12

ܟܰܕ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ ܙܰܓܐ: ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ، ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ.
When in the morning the bell is struck, every student {yālṓp̄ā} enters the classroom, [and] reads or writes.
ʕLL — the most common geminate verb: ܥܰܠ (ʕal) “to enter” — part. ܥܳܐܶܠ and ܥܳܐܠܐ (ʕāllā, with an extra ʾĀlap̄) — fut. ܢܶܥܘܿܠ (neʕʕól***) [A geminate verb is sometimes a-o, sometimes a-a.]
ܘܟܰܕ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ: ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܛܳܥܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܶܗ ܘܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
And when in the evening it is struck, each one carries his bag and returns home.

2014-01-13

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܰܢ ܢܳܩܶܫ ܙܰܓܐ؟
Who rings the bell?
ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܐܰܘ ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܐ.
A teacher or the principal#. {Not written anywhere in the lesson, but the answer should be something like this.}
# m(ə)ḏab(b)rānā √DBR “to lead” — Pa. part. ܡܕܰܒܰܪ (mḏabbar) + ān = nomen agentis [§130, §166]
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܟܰܕ ܢܳܩܶܫ؟
ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܟܰܕ ܢܳܩܶܫ؟
What do you do when it rings?
ܟܰܕ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ (ܥܳܐܠܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ) ܠܣܶܕܪܐ.
When in the morning it rings, I enter the classroom.
3 ܥܰܠ ܡܘܢ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܙܰܓܐ؟
About what does the bell inform?
ܙܰܓܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
The bell informs us about the time of lessons.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ؟
What does it inform in the morning?
ܟܰܕ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ، ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ.
When in the morning it rings, every student enters the classroom.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ؟
What does it inform in the evening?
ܟܰܕ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܢܳܩܶܫ، ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
When in the evening it rings, every student returns home.

2014-01-14

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܟܰܕ ܢܳܩܶܫ ܙܰܒܐ، ܟܽܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ:

When the bell rings, every student...

6 ܥܳܐܶܠ ܠܓܰܘ⁂ [ܠܓ̥ܰܘ] ...
ܥܳܐܶܠ ܠܓܰܘ ܣܶܕܪܐ.
Comes to the inside of {lḡaw} (=Enters) the classroom.
# US: a ring below bḡaw but not below lḡaw. CA (Canada version) has a ring below lḡaw too.
7 ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ...
ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.
Sits on a chair.
8 ܩܳܪܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ...
ܩܳܪܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ.
Reads the inside of the book.
9 ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ...
ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܪܟܐ.
Writes on a notebook.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܙܰܓܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܀
The bell informs us about the time {ʕeddānā} of lessons.

syc/aii Pf. Paradigm

2014-01-10

syc-Syrj
sg pl
3m ܟܬ̥ܰܒ ܟܬ̥ܰܒܘ̱
3f ܟܶܬ̥ܒܰܬ̥݀ ܟܬ̥ܰܒ
ܟ̈ܬ̥ܰܒܝ̱
2m ܟܬ̥ܰܒܬ ܟܬ̥ܰܒܬܘܿܢ
2f ܟܬ̥ܰܒܬܝ̱ ܟܬ̥ܰܒܬܶܝܢ
1c ܟܶܬ̥ܒܶܬ̥ ܟܬ̥ܰܒܢ
  1. 1c and 3f have e after the 1st rad. (the 2nd rad. is vowelless; hence the 3rd rad. is hard): keṯb-èṯ and keṯb-aṯ.
  2. Other forms are trivial: kṯaḇ + ∅/t/tṓn/tēn/n
  3. Generally, 3f-pl has a seyame; but the suffix-less form is usually seyame-less, if it is identical to 3m-sg. Said differently, the suffix-less 3f-pl does have a seyame if it is not identical to 3m-sg: RMY “to thorw” — 3m-sg ܪܡܐ but 3f-pl ܪ̈ܡܰܝ
syc-Syrn
sg pl
3m ܟܬܲܒ ܟܬܲܒܘ
3f ܟܸܬܒܲܬ݀ ܟܬܲܒ (ܟ̈ܬܲܒ)
2m ܟܬܲܒܬ ܟܬܲܒܬܘܿܢ
2f ܟܬܲܒܬܝ ܟܬܲܒܬܹܝܢ (ܟܬܲܒܬܹܝ̈ܢ)
1c ܟܸܬܒܹܬ ܟܬܲܒܢ
aii-Syrn [cf. Oro 36]
sg pl
3m ܟܬܸܒܠܹܐ ܟܬܸܒܠܘܿܢ
3f ܟܬܸܒܠܵܐ
2m ܟܬܸܒܠܘܼܟ ܟܬܸܒܠܵܘܟ݂ܘܿܢ
2f ܟܬܸܒܠܵܟ݂ܝ
1c ܟܬܸܒܠܝܼ ܟܬܸܒܠܲܢ

Qarahbaš 3 (36/37) [vol. 2, L. 18] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18: ܩܪܝ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ

2014-01-07

18) 00364N-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 00374U-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

The above example clearly shows that this dot below Yṓḏ is not U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED. See 2013-09-08.

ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܩܰܝܛܐ ܩܳܐܰܪ ܥܳܐܶܙ
saṯwā qayṭā qāʾar ʕāʾez
m. winter m. summer (reckoned to begin with May) becomes cold is powerful
ܩܳܐܶܡ : ܛܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
Qāʾem: The boy is standing/staying in front of {qḏām} the door/gate.

2014-01-08

ܨܳܐܶܕ : ܣܳܒܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܡܐ.
The old man catches fish (pl) from the sea/lake {yammā m}.
ܣܳܐܶܡ : ܐܰܚܐ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܠܐ ܣܰܠܐ.
The brother puts {SWM} apples in the basket.
ܦܳܐܰܚ : ܪܝ̣ܚܐ ܦܳܐܰܚ ܡܶܢ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
Smell is coming from flowers.
ܥܳܐܶܙ : ܚܘܡܐ ܥܳܐܶܙ ܒܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܩܰܝܛܐ.
Heat is strong in the days {yṓm-yawmā: yawmē OR yawmāṯā} of summer.
ܚܳܐܰܪ : ܕܺܐܒܐ ܚܳܐܰܪ ܥܠ ܓܰܕܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
The wolf is looking {ḤWR} by a small kid (of a goat) {gaḏyā}.
ܩܳܐܰܪ : ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܐܳܐܰܪ ܣܳܓܝ ܩܳܐܰܪ.
In winter, the air {here m.} much becomes cold.

2014-01-09

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
Where is the boy standing?
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܰܪܟܐ.
The boy is standing in front of the door.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܣܳܒܐ؟
What does the old man catch?
ܣܳܒܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܡܐ.
The old man catches fish from the sea/lake.
3 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܥܳܐܶܙ ܚܘܡܐ؟
When is heat strong?
ܚܘܡܐ ܥܳܐܶܙ ܒܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܩܰܝܛܐ.
Heat is strong in the days of summer.
4 ܡܘܢ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܚܐ ܒܣܳܠܐ ܒܣܰܠܐ؟
What does the brother put in the basket?
ܗܘ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ ܒܶܗ.
He puts apples in it.
5 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܐܳܐܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܩܰܪܝܪܐ؟
When is the air cold {qarrīrā, part. adj. of qar}?
ܐܳܐܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܩܰܪܝܪܐ ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.
The air is cold in winter.

2014-01-10

Match the opposite words — ܠܰܚܶܡ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܰܝܛܐ + ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.

6 ܪܰܡܫܐ + ܨܰܦܪܐ
evening + morning
ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ + ܟܰܪܝܐ
long + short
ܙܥܘܪܐ + ܪܰܒܐ
small + big
ܠܺܠܝܐ + ܐܝܡܡܐ
night {le̦lyā m} + daytime
ܐܘܟܳܡܐ + ܚܶܘܳܪܐ
black + white

Make 3 sentences — ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ»

7 ܐܰܝܟ: ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܩܘܪܐ.

  1. ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.
  2. ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܩܘܪܐ.
  3. ܠܐ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܣܬ̥ܘܐ.

(Winter has come. In winter, coldness strengthens. I do not like winter.)

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

8 ܣܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܡܐ ܀
This old man catches fish (pl) from the sea/lake.

Two Major Ligatures Supported by Serto Jerusalem but not by S. Urhoy

2014-01-08

ܣܛ
Serto Jerusalem; Serto Kharput; Serto Malankara;
ܠ ܐ
Serto Jerusalem; Serto Kharput; Serto Malankara;

Unrelated Bookmark

Coakley, J. F. Edward Breath and the Typography of Syriac

Qarahbaš 3 (34/35) [vol. 2, L. 17] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 17: ܩܰܛܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ

2014-01-05

17) 0034ig-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0035yV-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܐܘܪܚܐ ܟܡܐ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܥܘܩܰܒܪܐ*
ʾurḥā kmā dāmē ʕuqab̭rē**
f. way how much to be like, resemble √DMY; with ܠـ m(f) mice
ܬܐ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܚܙܝ ܩܰܛܐ.
Come, Yawsep̄, look at the cat.
ܗܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ.
He is sitting by the road.
ܚܘܪ ܟܡܐ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ.
Observe how much he is like a lion.
# qaṭṭā is m. here, while Nöld. §84 has it in the “fem. list”
# Also notice that US version places the vowel point at the proper position in this line for l-aryā, probably because they could not use the fancy coloring for l- because of the ligature la. Usually the US version leaves the vowel point above a word-initial Ālap̄ after b- etc. (as can be seen in the word b-eḏnē in the following line).
ܩܰܛܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ: ܒܪܝܫܐ، ܒܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ، ܒܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ⁂ [ܒܶܐܕܢ̈ܐ] ܘܰܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
The cat very much looks like a lion: in (=with respect to) head, eyes, ears, and feet.
ܩܰܛܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ.
The cat hunts {ṣāʾeḏ √ṢWD} mice from (OR: in) the house.
ܟܰܕ ܟܳܦܶܢ ܢܳܘܶܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
When he is hungry {KPN}, he mews {NWY#1} with a loud {m-emph} voice.
#1 At least Alqosh [N of Mosul, S of Dohuk, i.e. cld] has nāwē “to mew” (Maclean:210). TS does not have it! // 2014-09-22: Vol.3 Lesson 16 has the fem. form nāwyā.

2014-01-06

Answer by pointing — ܦܰܢܐ ܪܶܡܙܳܢܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܐܶܕܢܐ؟ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ؟ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ؟ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ؟ ܦܘܡܐ؟
Which is an ear? The eyes? The nose {n(ə)ḥīrā, m}? The feet? The mouth?

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܩܰܛܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
Where is this-m cat sitting?
ܗܘ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ.
He is sitting by the road.
3 ܠܡܰܢ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܩܰܛܐ؟
Whom does the cat resemble?
ܗܘ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ.
He resembles a lion.
4 ܒܡܳܢܐ ܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ؟
In what [part] does he resembles a lion?
ܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ ܒܪܝܫܐ، ܒܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ، ܒܶܐܕܢ̈ܐ ܘܰܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
He resembles a lion in head, in eyes, in ears, and in feet.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ؟
What does he hunt from a house?
ܨܳܐܶܕ ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
He hunts mice.

Match each word to its kind — ܠܰܚܶܡ ܟܽܠ ܫܡܐ ܥܰܡ ܒܰܪ ܓܶܢܣܶܗ

6 ܦܘܡܐ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ ܐܶܕܢܐ ... ܥܰܝܢܐ
mouth, nose, ear... eye
7 ܬܪܶܝܢ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܫܰܒܥܐ ... ܚܰܡܫܐ
two, four, seven... five
8 ܫܰܒܪܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ... ܣܳܒܐ
little boy (under 5 years old), boy, man... old man
9 ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܝܰܪܘܩܐ (ܝܳܪܘܿܩܐ) ... ܣܘܡܳܩܐ
white, black, green... red

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܩܰܛܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܀
This-m cat hunts mice from the house.

Firefox: Disable marquee

2014-01-05

Taken from Customizing Mozilla [2002-08-05]; tested still ok on Firefox 24.2.0 ESR.

/* Disable marquee display */
marquee {
  -moz-binding: none; display: block; height: auto !important;
  /* This is better than just display:none !important;
   * because you can still see the text in the marquee,
   * but without scrolling.
   */
}

Qarahbaš 3 (32/33) [vol. 2, L. 16] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 16: ܚܢܰܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ

2014-01-03

16) 0032S6-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0033Gd-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܩܘܒܥ̈ܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܡܣܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ
qub(b)ʕē ḥaḇrē m(ə)sānē b(ə)nayyā
pl. of headcovering, cap (m) m. companions, (intimate) friends m. shoes m. sons, children
ܚܢܰܢ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܰܢ ܡܣܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܘܟܳܡ̈ܐ.
We: We have black {ʾukkāmē, pl m emph} shoes.
ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ ܩܘܒܥ̈ܐ ܚܶܘܳܪ̈ܐ.
You guys {ʾattṓn}: You guys have {lḵṓn} white caps.
ܐܰܢ̱ܬ̥ܝܢ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܶܝܢ ܩܘܒܥ̈ܐ ܚܶܘܳܪ̈ܐ.
You girls {ʾattēn}: You girls have {lḵēn} white caps.
ܗܶܢܘܢ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܗܘܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ̈ܐ.
They m {hennṓn}: They have {lhṓn} diligent {kaššīrē} friends.
ܗܶܢܶܝܢ : ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܗܶܝܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ̈ܐ.
They f {hennēn}: They have {lhēn} diligent friends.
ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ : ܪܳܚܡܝܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
The sons: love sweet fruits.
ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ : ܪ̈ܳܚܡܳܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
The daughters {bnāṯā, sg. barṯā}: love sweet fruits.

2014-01-04

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
You guys have friends.
2 ܗܶܢܶܝܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܗܶܝܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
They (f) have friends.
3 ܚܢܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
We have friends.
4 ܗܶܢܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܗܘܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
They-m have friends.
5 ܐܰܢ̱ܬ̥ܝܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܶܝܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
You girls have friends.

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

6 ܩܘܒܥܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܐܰܝܟ ...
ܩܘܒܥܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܬܰܠܓܐ
a cap white like snow
7 ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܐܰܝܟ ...
ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܠܘܚܐ
the hair {saʕrā} black like a blackboard
8 ܢܰܚܬܐ ܝܰܪܘܩܐ⁂ (ܝܳܪܘܩܐ) ܐܰܝܟ ...
ܢܰܚܬܐ ܝܳܪܘܩܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܣܒܐ
a dress {naḥtā, m. long outer garment} greenish like grass
Qarah. yar(r)Uqā with a short a (U=ū/ō/u(q)), while everyone else says ā: CAL yārōqā, yellow-green, green-blue — Jess. yārUqā, pale, ashy, livid — LS2 yārṓqā, neos. lividus [blue or leaden] — TS yārUqā, cinereus colore [ashen]
CAL: It is unclear if there is a difference in shade among dialects. If so, it is that in Jewish dialects it is more yellowish than not. [2017-05-30 Read it yārṓqā.]
9 ܘܰܪܕܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܐܰܝܟ ...
ܘܰܪܕܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܡܐ
a rose red {summāqā m-emph} like blood {dmā}

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܗܶܝܢ ܩܽܘܒܥ̈ܐ ܣܘܡܳܩ̈ܐ ܀
These daughters have red caps.

Errata

2014-01-03

H (John Healey) p. 21: For ܐܰܢ̱ܬ݁ܽܘܼܢ, read ܐܰܢ̱ܬ݁ܽܘܿܢ.

H p. 22: For ܐܳܝܕܳܐ, read ܐܰܝܕܳܐ.

2014-01-07

M (Muraoka 2005), p. 111, Ptc. act. pl. f.: For tākān, read tākkān.

2014-01-08

M, p. 37: For ʾarbṯaʾsar, read ʾarbṯaʿsar.

M, p. 37: For ḥameštaʿsar, read ḥammeštaʿsar.

2014-02-17 M. p.37 (19 m.): For ܬܣܲܥܬ݂ܲܥܣܲܪ, read ܬܣܲܥܬ݁ܲܥܣܲܪ.

Jess. p. 27: For ܐܰܪܶܒܥܬܰܥܣܰܪ, read ܐܰܪܒܰܥܬܰܥܣܰܪ (OR ܐܰܪܶܒܬܰܥܣܰܪ).

2014-01-10

Terrible errors in M 104!

For keṯvaṯ, read keṯbaṯ.

For keṯveṯ, read keṯbeṯ.

2014-01-14

Nöld. Eng. p. 95 “thirteen (fem)”: For ܬܠܴܬ̥ܰܥܣܪܴ̈ܐ, read ܬܠܴܬ̥ܰܥܣܪܷ̈ܐ. The original German version does not have this error.

PNG Image
Pic: The original version has the right vowel sign (above); the English version has it wrong (below).

2014-01-28 Similarly, “sixteen” fem. East: For ܫܶܬ̊ܬܱ̊ܥܣܪ̈ܐ, read ܫܷܬ̊ܬܱ̊ܥܣܪܷ̈ܐ (correct in the German ver.).

T 70 “thirteen (mas)”: For tlāttaʿsar, read tlātaʿsar.

2014-01-27

T p. 70 feminine alternative forms: For arbʕesrē, read arbaʕesrē.

Jess. 148a (“fifteen”): For ܚܰܡܶܫܥܶܣܪ̈ܶܐ, read ܚܰܡܫܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܶܐ.

2014-02-02

TS2 ix: BHChr. — For Chrouicou ediderunt P. J. Bruns et G. G. Kirsch, Lipsiae, 1879. read Chronicon ediderunt P. J. Bruns et G. G. Kirsch, Lipsiae, 1789.

2014-02-10

Nöld. §163: For §23 F, read §23 I (for both in the original ver. and Eng. ver.).

Nöld. Eng. §148: For pl. ܐܱܠܦܺܝ̈ܢ, read pl. ܐܱܠܦ̥ܺܝ̈ܢ. The original German version has that dot below.

Nöld. Eng. §213: For ܐܱܠܦܻ݁ܝܢ, read ܐܱܠܦܻ̈ܝܢ. The original German version shows the seyame right, instead of a single dot.

2014-02-15

Nöld. Ger/Eng §150: For The abs. st. of the masc. numbers from 2 to 19, read The emph. st. of the masc. numbers from 2 to 19. Cf. B(1912) §171 Anm.2; M §44b [e.g. ʾarbaʕṯā is in the (fem-like) emph. st.]

M p. 38: For 'on the 4th' ܒܲܐܪܒ݁ܲܥܬ݁ܵܐ /barbaʿtā/, read 'on the 4th' ܒܲܐܪܒ݁ܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ /barbaʿṯā/. Cf. B(1912) §171 Anm.2; Nöld. §150; Alan Lv4 L115

2014-02-22

Nöld. Ger/Eng §153:
For ܩܱܕܡܳܝܐ, read ܩܱܕܡܳܝܳܐ.
For ܬܪܱܝܳܢܐ, read ܬܪܱܝܳܢܳܐ.

Qarahbaš 3 (30/31) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 15: ܐܝܕܐ ܘܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ

2014-01-01

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ܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܣܶܡܳܠܐ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ ܛܶܦܪܐ ܐܳܚܶܕ
yammīnā semmālā ṣeḇʕē ṭep̄rā ʾāḥeḏ
f. the right (hand) f. the left (hand) f. fingers f. (finger-)nail to hold, take
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܝܕܐ.
This is a hand.
ܐܶܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܝ̈ܕܐ: ܐܝܕܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ، ܐܝܕܐ ܕܣܶܡܳܠܐ.
I have two hands: the right hand, the left hand.
ܟܽܠ ܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ.
Each hand has five fingers (in it).
ܟܽܠ ܨܶܒܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܕܐ ܛܶܦܪܐ.
Each finger has one nail (in it).
ܒܝܰܕ ܐܝܕܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐ̱ܒܐ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ.
With [my] hand, I make everything {kol meddem}.
ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܳܚܶܕ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܩܰܢܝܐ ܟܰܕ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ، ܐܰܘ ܠܰܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܀
In it I hold a pen when I write, or [I hold] a book when I read.

2014-01-02

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܟܡܐ ܐܝ̈ܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ؟
1 ܟܡܐ ܐܝ̈ܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܟܝ̱؟
How many hands do you have?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܝ̈ܕܐ.
I have two hands.
2 ܟܡܐ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܟ̥ܽܠ ܐܝܕܐ؟
How many fingers does each hand have?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ.
It has five fingers.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܪܝܫ ܨܶܒܥܐ؟
What is at the tip of a finger? {rḗš, m. constr.}
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܛܶܦܪܐ.
There is a nail (in it).
4 ܒܐܰܝܕܐ⁂ [ܒܰܐܝܕܐ] ܐܝܕܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܒܰܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܕܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱؟
With which {f} hand do you write?
ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ (ܟܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ) ܒܺܐܝܕܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ.
I write with [my] right hand.
5 ܒܐܰܝܕܐ⁂ [ܒܰܐܝܕܐ] ܐܝܕܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܒܰܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܕܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱؟
With which hand do you eat?
ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ (ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ) ܒܺܐܝܕܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ.
I eat with [my] right hand.

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

6 ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ... ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
A bull has four feet.
7 ܝܰܘܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ... ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
ܝܰܘܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
A dove {f} has two wings {geppē, m}.
8 ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ... ܪܝܫܐ.
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܪܝܫܐ.
A lion has one head.
9 ܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ... ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ.
ܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ.
A hand has five fingers.
10 ܫܰܒܘܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ... ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ.
ܫܰܒܘܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ.
A week {šabbṓʕā, m; E-Syr. šāḇōʕā ⟦hebdomas⟧} has seven days. {Cf. Alan Lv4 L108}

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

11 ܟܽܠ ܐܝܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܨܶܒܥ̈ܐ.
Every hand has five fingers (in it).

Qarahbaš 3 (28/29) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 14: ܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ

2013-12-27

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ܥܰܫܝܢܐ ܐܪܝܐ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ
ʾaššīnā ʾaryā ḥaywāṯā malkā
strong, hard lion animals king
ܡܘܫܶܐ ܚܙܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ!
Mūšē {ū also in ES}, look at the lion!
ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܪܳܡ ܪܝܫܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
Oh, how high his head [is]!
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ، ܘܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܰܘ ܥܰܠ ܛܘܪ̈ܐ.
This lion eats flesh, and he lives in the forests {ʕāḇā/ʕāḇē, though hard b in CAL} or on the mountains.

2013-12-28

ܐܰܪܝܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܘܪܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܥܰܫܝܢ ܐܳܦ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܡܠܐ.
The lion is smaller than the bull, but it is stronger even {ʾāp̄} than the camel.
ܟܽܠ ܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܳܚܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܝܐ.
Every life/animal {f} is afraid of {DḤL ptc. f. with ‘men’} the lion.
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܡܳܪܐ ܕܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܘܡܰܠܟܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
The lion is the lord {mārā} of forests and the king of animals.

*Started reading John Healey.

2013-12-29

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
Where does the lion live?
ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܰܘ ܥܰܠ ܛܘܪ̈ܐ.
He lives in forests or on mountains.
2 ܡܘܢ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What does the lion eat?
ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ.
He eats flesh.
3 ܡܰܢ ܕܳܚܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
Who is afraid of the lion?
ܟܽܠ ܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܳܚܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܝܐ (ܡܶܢܶܗ).
Every animal is afraid of the lion (of him).
4 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܥܰܫܝܢ: ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܰܘ ܓܰܡܠܐ؟
Which is more strong, a lion or a camel?
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܰܫܝܢ ܐܳܦ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܡܠܐ.
A lion is stronger even than a camel.
5 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܡܶܫܬܰܡܰܗ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What a lion is called (renowned for)?
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܡܶܫܬܰܡܰܗ «ܡܰܠܟܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ».
A lion is called “King of Animals.”

2013-12-30

Choose one of two answers — ܚܰܘܐ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܠܳܚܡܐ

6 ܓܰܡܠܐ ... ܟܰܠܒܐ. ܩܰܛܐ ... ܥܶܙܐ.
ܓܰܡܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܠܒܐ. ܩܰܛܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܥܶܙܐ.
A camel is bigger than a dog. A cat is smaller than a she-goat.
7 ܓܰܕܝܐ ... ܬܰܘܪܐ. ܦܝܠܐ ... ܐܰܪܝܐ.
ܓܰܕܝܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܘܪܐ. ܦܝܠܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܝܐ.
A kid {gaḏyā, m.} is smaller than a bull. An elephant is bigger than a lion.
8 ܘܰܙܐ ... ܨܶܦܪܐ. ܒܳܒܐ ... ܣܳܒܐ.
ܘܰܙܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܦܪܐ. ܒܳܒܐ ܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢ ܣܳܒܐ.
A goose {m. in Qarah.} is bigger than a sparrow. A little boy is smaller than an old man {sāḇā}.

2013-12-31

Make 3 sentences — ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܐܰܪܝܐ»

9 ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܰܪܝܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܕܥܳܒ̈ܐ.

  1. ܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܪܒ.
  2. ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ.
  3. ܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܐܰܪܝܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܕܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܘܡܳܪܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܀
A lion is the king of forests and the lord of animals.

Qarahbaš 3 (26/27) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 13: ܒܰܝܬܐ ܪܰܒܐ

2013-12-19

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ܐܶܣ̈ܐ ܟܰܘ̈ܐ ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ ܩܠܝܕܐ
ʾessē kawwē darḡē {#dargē? see below} qlīḏā
f. pl. walls f. pl. windows m. pl. steps, stairs m. key
ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
How big this house is! {rab=hard b}
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܐܶܣ̈ܐ.
It has (the) four walls.
ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܚܰܕ ܬܰܪܥܐ، ܫܶܬ̥ (ܬܠܳܬ̥) ܟܰܘ̈ܐ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ (ܘܚܰܡܫܐ) ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
And it has: one door {tarʕā}, six {“three” in Canada ver.} windows, and four {Ca. “five”} step stairs {of course NOT 4 sets of stairs} before {qḏām, soft d; =in front of} its door.

2013-12-20

ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
How big the door of this house is!
ܬܰܪܥܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ.
The door is bigger than the window.
ܐܶܠܐ ܟܰܘܬܐ ܪܳܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
But the window is higher {fem.abs.} than the door.
ܩܠܝܕܐ ܦܳܬܰܚ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
The key opens {pāṯaḥ, but hard t in Qarah.} the door of the house.

2013-12-22

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܟܡܐ ܐܶܣ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܐܶܣ̈ܐ.

— How many walls does this house have? — It has four walls.

2013-12-24

Write the answer (cont.)

2 ܟܡܐ ܬܰܪ̈ܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܬܰܪܥܐ.

— How many doors does it have? — It has one door.

3 ܟܡܐ ܟܰܘ̈ܐ؟ ܡܢܝ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ.
ܚܕܐ، ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ، ܬܠܳܬ̥، ܐܰܪܒܰܥ، ܚܰܡܶܫ، ܫܶܬ̥.

ܡܢܐ √MNY “to count”: Impt. ܡܢܝ and ܡܢܳܝ (mnāy)

— How many windows? Count them (f). — One, two, three, four, five, six.

4 ܟܡܐ ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ؟ ܡܢܝ ܐܶܢܘܿܢ.
ܚܰܕ، ܬܪܶܝܢ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ، ܐܰܪܒܥܐ.

— How many steps? Count them (m). — One, two, three, four.

5 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܪܰܒ: ܬܰܪܥܐ ܐܰܘ ܟܰܘܬܐ؟
ܬܰܪܥܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ].

— Which is bigger, the door or the window? — The door is bigger than the window. {Notice ʾaynā (m) and rabb (m) are used here while comparing the door (m) and the window (f)}

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

6 ܩܠܝܕܐ ... ܬܰܪܥܐ.
ܩܠܝܕܐ ܦܳܬܰܚ [ܦܳܬ̥ܰܚ] ܬܰܪܥܐ.
The key opens the door.
7 ܬܰܪܥܐ ... ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ].
ܬܰܪܥܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܬܐ [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ].
The door is bigger than the window.
8 ܟܰܘܬܐ ... ܡܶܢ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
ܟܰܘܬܐ ܪܳܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
The window is higher {fem.abs} than the door.
9 ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ ... ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
The stairs (steps) are in front of the door.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܩܠܝܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܦܳܬܰܚ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܀
This key opens the door of our house.

Today was my lucky day!

2013-12-18

1. Finally, I got Cain’s Dhivehi (Maldivian): A Synchronic and Diachronic study. And it was just five days ago that I got Gippert-Fritz’s The Dhivehi Language. A Descriptive and Historical Grammar of Maldivian and Its Dialects (2 vols).

2. Then, like 2 hours later, I accidentally noticed that Abyssinica SIL was silently updated on December 13, from ver. 1.200 to 1.500. Cool.

style='-moz-font-feature-settings: "romn" 1', etc.

şŞţŢ

şŞţŢ

ħĦ

ħĦ

2014-01-07

Got: Cristoph Luxenberg: The Syro-Aramaic reading of the Koran

2014-01-09 to p. 60. 2014-01-13 to p. 70. 2014-01-26 to p. 74.

(X)HTML-Related

2013-12-17

Wheelock 31

2013-12-09

1. Iam vērō cognōvimus istās mentēs dūrās ferrum prō pāce offerre.
Now truly we have recognized that such harsh minds offer the sword instead of peace.
2. Nē nātae geminae discant verba tam acerba et tam dūra.
Do not let the/your twin {geminus} daughters {nāta} learn words (that are) so bitter and so harsh.
3. Cum hī decem virī ex moenibus semel discessissent, alia occāsiō pācis numquam oblāta est.
When these ten men had gone away {discēdō, discessī} from the city-walls {moenia, n pl} once and for all, another chance for peace was never offered.
4. Tantum auxilium nōbīs referet ut nē ācerrimī quidem mīlitēs aut pugnāre aut hīc remanēre possint.
He will bring back {referet fut. ≠referret subj.impf} such great help to us that/so that⁂# not even {quidem} the harshest soldiers will be/may be⁂# capable to fight {pugnō} nor remain here.
# (1) Usually it is a result clause if the main clause has “tantus”. (2) On the other hand, if it is indeed a result clause, the negative should be “nōn” and not “nē”. (3) Then again, it may be that this is just an idiomatic “nē...quidem”. While it is possible to say “he will do this, and the result will be certainly this,” it is also possible to say “he will do this, and the purpose is this.” Practically, the difference is not really important. It’s just that “that...will” feels more compact, powerful, laconic; whereas “so that...may” is more logical (things may not work as expected) but kind of weak.

2013-12-19

5. Rogābat cūr cēterae tantam fidem apud nōs praestārent et nōbīs tantam spem adferrent.
He kept asking why the other girls showed so much faith among (toward) us and brought to us so much hope.
6. Cum patria nostra tanta beneficia offerat, tamen quīdam sē in īnsidiās fūrtim cōnferunt et contrā bonōs mox pugnābunt.
Altough our country offers so great benefits, nevertheless certain men {quīdam sg=pl} secretly betake themselves to treachery and will soon fight against good men.

2013-12-27

7. Dēnique audiāmus quantae sint hae īnsidiae ac quot coniūrātī contrā cīvitātem surgant.
Finally let us hear how big this treachery is and how many conspirators {coniūrātī, m.pl} are arising {surgō, surgere} against the state.
8. Haec scelera repente exposuī nē alia et similia ferrētis.
I suddenly exposed these crimes {scelus, sceleris, n} so that you guys might not endure {ferrētis subj.impf.2pl ≠ ferētis fut.} other and similar ones.
9. Respondērunt plūrima arma ā mīlitibus ad lītus allāta esse et in nāvibus condita esse.
They answered that very many weapons {n.pl} had been brought {adferō, allātum} to the shore by the soldiers {mīles, mīlitis} and had been put {condō, conditum} into the ships.
Main verb = Pf. and Obj = Pf. inf. (pass.) i.e. those things had been already done when they answered: pf=tulī A, lātus sum P; pf.inf=tulisse A, lātus esse P

2013-12-28

10. Cum parentēs essent vīvī, fēlīcēs erant; mortuī quoque sunt beātī.
When the parents were alive, they were happy; even dead, they are blessed too.
11. Nesciō utrum trēs coniūrātī maneant an in exsilium contenderint.
I don’t know whether the three conspirators remain {maneō, manēre} (=are still here) or have gone/hastened {contendō, ere, contendī} into exile.

2013-12-29

12. Nōs cōnferāmus ad cēnam, meī amīcī, bibāmus multum vīnī, cōnsūmāmus noctem, atque omnēs cūrās nostrās minuāmus!
Let’s betake {cōnferō, -ferre} ourselves to dinner, my friends; let’s drink a lot of wine, consume the night, and also let’s lessen {minuō, -ere} all our worries!
13. When the soldiers had been arrested, they soon offered us money.
¶ mīles, mīlitis ¶ comprehendō, -ere, -ī, -hēnsum ¶ offerō, offerre, obtulī, oblātum
Cum mīlitēs comprehēnsī essent, mox nōbīs pecūniam obtulērunt.
Mīlitibus comprehēnsīs, nōbīs pecūniam mox obtulērunt.
14. Although life brings very difficult things, let us endure them all and dedicate ourselves to philosophy.
¶ difficilis, e; difficillimus ¶ dēdicō -āre
Cum vīta ferat difficillima, (ea) omnia ferāmus et nōs dēdicēmus philosophiae.
Vītā {ferēns, ferentis} ferente difficillima, ...

2013-12-31

15. Since you know what help is being brought by our six friends, these evils can be endured with courage.
virtūs, virtūtis, f.
Cum sciās quod auxilium ā sex amīcīs nostrīs ferātur, haec mala cum virtūte ferrī possunt.
16. Although his eyes could not see the light of the sun, nevertheless that humble man used to do very many and very difficult things.
lūx, lūcis, f.
Cum oculī eius lūcem sōlis vidēre nōn possent, ille vir humilis tamen plūrima et difficillima faciēbat.

2014-01-01

(SA)1. Potestne haec lūx esse tibi iūcunda, cum sciās hōs omnēs cōnsilia tua cognōvisse?
Can this light be agreeable for you, since you know that all of them have learned (of) your plans?
2. Themistoclēs, cum Graeciam servitūte Persicā lībertāvisset et propter invidiam in exsilium expulsus esset, ingrātae patriae iniūriam nōn tulit quam ferre dēbuit.
Themistocles, although# he had liberated Greece from Persian servitude and because of jealousy had been forced into exile, did not endure his ungrateful nation’s injury which he had to endure (=when he had to endure it). OR: Themistocles, after he..., did not endure the injustice...
# The logic could be explained like this. In his later life, after ostracized, Themistocles was in Persia, serving the Persian king. However, according to some, Themistocles refused to fight against Greeks for Persian, when he was ordered to do so, and for this reason he committed suicide.

2014-01-02

3. Quae cum ita sint, Catilīna, cōnfer tē in exsilium.
And since these [things] are thus, Catilina, bring yourself into exile.
4. Ō nāvis, novī flūctūs bellī tē in mare referent! Ō quid agis? Unde erit ūllum perfugium?
O ship, the new waves of (a) war will cary you back into the sea. O what do you lead? From what will [there] be any shelter?
5. Cum rēs pūblica immortālis esse dēbeat, doleō eam salūtis egēre ac in vītā ūnīus mortālis cōnsistere.
Since the republic has to be immortal, I grieve that she lacks {egeō+abl/gen} security and that she depends on the life of one mortal.
6. Cum illum hominem esse servum nōvisset, eum comprehendere nōn dubitāvit.
Since he had known that that man was a slave, he did not hesitate {dubitō} to arrest him.

2014-01-04

7. Ille comprehēnsus, cum prīmō impudenter respondēre coepisset, dēnique tamen nihil negāvit.
That arrested man, although at first he had started {coepī} answering impudently, nevertheless at last denied nothing.
8. Milō dīcitur per stadium vēnisse cum bovem umerīs ferret.
Milo [of Croton] is said to have come through the stadium while he was carrying a bull {bōs, bovis, m/f} with (=on) [his] shoulders {umerus, m. Cf. humerus}.
9. Quid vesper et somnus ferant, incertum est.
It is uncertain what {quid interrogative, ≠quod relative} the evening star and sleep carry.

2014-01-05

10. Ferte miserō tantum auxilium quantum potesis.
Bring, to the miserable man, as much help as you guys can.
miser -era
11. Hoc ūnum sciō: quod fāta ferunt, id ferēmus aequō animō.
I know this one thing: what[ever] the Fates bring, we will bear it with a calm mind.
fātum n; aequus
12. Lēgum dēnique idcireō omnēs servī sumus, ut līberī esse possīmus.
Finally (≈after all) we are all servants of the laws for this reason, (so) that we may be able to free.
lēx lēgis lēgum f. — [um or ium] Obviously this one is not parisyllabic (-is -is OR -ēs -is), but the tricky part is, something like nox noctis noctium can happen to a noun ending in /s/ (including -x). The way I see it, Cium (C: cons.) occurs when the syllable before it is CLOSED, in order to avoid (almost) THREE CONSECUTIVE consonants (BAD: CC(u)m, GOOD: CCi(u)m). In other words: drop -u- like when you say it fast, to see if it is acceptable. While “lēgm” is plausible, “noctm” is harder to say, if not impossible, hence the euphonic -i-. Simply put, the stem lēg- ends in ONE consonant while the stem noct- ends in TWO, which makes the difference.
dēnique or dēniquē?Dictionnaire Gaffiot has dēnique with the short -e, while Charlton T. Lewis has dēniquē with the long -ē.

2014-01-06

Give me a Thousand Kisses!

Vīvāmus, mea Lesbia, atque amēmus,
rūmōrēsque senum sevēriōrum
omnēs ūnius aestimēmus assis!
Let us live {vīvere}, my Lesbia, and let us love, and let us value {aestimāre} all the rumors {rūmor -ōris m} of rather serious {severus-severior ōris ōrum#NOT i-stem} old men {senex senis} as [having the value] of one bronze coin {as assis m} (=let us not give a damn to the gossip)!

2014-01-08

Sōlēs occidere et redīre possunt;
nōbīs cum semel occidit brevis lūx,
nox est perpetua ūna dormienda.
Suns can set and return {redīre, to go back}; for us, once the short light sets {cum temporal}, one eternal night is to be slept {dormiō, īre}.
Dā mī bāsia mīlle, deinde centum;
dein mīlle altera, dein secunda centum;
deinde ūsque altera mīlle, deinde centum.
Give me a thousand kisses, then one hundred; then another thousand, then a second hundred; then yet another thousand, then hundred.
Dein, cum mīlia multa fēcerīmus—
conturbābimus illa, nē sciāmus,
aut nē quis malus invidēre possit,
cum tantum sciat esse bāsiōrum.
Then, when we have done# many thousands [kisses]— we will mix up them (kisses) so that we may not know [the number], or so that someone {nē quis} bad may not be possible to be envious, when he knows (=knowing) that there are so many of kisses.
# fēcerī́mus, subj-pf of faciō fēcī; ≠ fēcérĭmus fut.pf. The long ī is consistent with the ending of a hendecasyllabic line, i.e. (v)-v--.

Catullus (ca. 84–54 BC). Carmen 5

Vīvāmus, mea Lesbia, atque amēmus,
- -|-    v v - |v -****v****- +
rūmōrēsque senum sevēriōrum
- -|-  v   v -  |v - v -V
omnēs ūnius aestimēmus assis!
- -  |-v v  - |v - v -   +
Sōlēs occidere et redīre possunt;
- -  |- v v -****|v - v  -  +
nōbīs cum semel occidit brevis lūx,
- -  |-   v v -  |v -   v  -   =
nox est perpetua ūna dormienda.
-  -   |-  v v***-|v -  v - V
Dā mī bāsia mīlle, deinde centum;
-  - |- v v - |v   -   v  -  +
dein mīlle altera, dein secunda centum;
-    - |-****v v   -   |v -  v  -  +
deinde ūsque altera mīlle, deinde centum.
-   -***|-*****v v  - |v   -   v  -  +
Dein, cum mīlia multa fēcerīmus—
-     -  |- v v - |v  - v - +
conturbābimus illa, nē sciāmus,
-  - |- v v -  |v   -   v -V
aut nē quis malus invidēre possit,
-   - |-    v v -  |v - v  -  +
cum tantum sciat esse bāsiōrum.
-   - |-    v v-  |v  - v -+

2014-01-10

RINGO

Sēnōs Charīnus omnibus digitīs gerit
nec nocte pōnit ānulōs
nec cum lavātur. Causa quae sit quaeritis?
Dactyliothēcam nōn habet!
Charīnus carries (wears) six rings {ānulus} on each of [his] fingers, and does not put them away at night, nor when he is bathed {cum temporal}. You guys ask what the reason is? He does not have a ring box!
-- v-|v -v-| (vv)- v+
- -v -|v -v-|
- - v-|- -v -| - -v+
-vvv?-|- - v+

Martial(is) (40 AD–ca 103, Roman Empire) Epigrams Epigrammaton Liber XI: LIX

2014-01-11

FACĒTIAE (WITTICISMS)

Cum Cicerō apud Damasippum cēnāret et ille, mediocrī vīnō in mēnsā positō, dīceret, “Bibe hoc Falernum; hoc est vīnum quadrāgintā annōrum,” Cicerō respondit, “Bene aetātem fert!”
When Cicero, at the house of Damasippus, dined and he—with mediocre wine having been put {pōnō positum} on table—said, “Drink this Falernian wine; this is a wine of 40 years,” Cicero answered, “It well carries its age {aetās aetātis f}!”
decem, vīgintī, trīgintā, quadrāgintā

Macrobius (5c), Sāturnālia

Augustus, cum quīdam rīdiculus eī libellum trepidē adferret, et modo prōferret manum et modo retrahret, “Putās,” inquit, “tē assem elephantō dare?”
Augustus—when someone laughable brought a little book to him in confusion and now brought forward his hand and now drew back—asked, “Do you think that you are giving an as to an elephant?”

Qarahbaš 3 (24/25) — ܗܶܪܓܐ 12: ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܪܳܡܬ̥ܐ

2013-12-06

0024NF-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0025WK-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܡܰܪܟܶܢ ܚܳܕܶܐ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ
ʾaṯā marken ḥāḏē māṯā
f. flag Aph. He lowers (bows) He is glad, rejoices √ḤDY f. country (Jess. f. / CAL m.⁂)
ܗܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܬܐ.
See, a beautiful flag. (-īCtā is nearly always hard: §23E)
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗܝ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܳܢ ܪܳܡܬ̥ܐ.
This is1 the high flag of ours.
1 While ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗ̱ܝ — E-Syr. ܗܵܕܲܐ ܗ݇‌̣ܝ — is more common, the non-enclitic form is also used sometimes. Cf. John 2:11 ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܬ̊ܐ “This is the first sign”; John 1:19 ܘܗܳܕܶܐ ܗܝ ܣܳܗܕܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܕܝܘܿܚܰܢܳܢ “And this is the testimony of Jōḥannān”
ܣܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
It is placed (SWM pass part f) on the entrance (tarʕā) of the school.
ܟܽܠ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
Every boy loves this flag.

2013-12-09

ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܡܰܪܟܶܢ ܠܳܗ̇ ܪܝܫܐ.
Everyone lowers [their] head (rḗšā) toward it.
ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܚܳܕܶܐ ܒܳܗ̇، ܘܐܳܡܰܪ⁂ [ܘܳܐܡܰܪ]:
Everyone looks into (OR: consider about?)# it, and says:
# ܚܳܕܶܐ ܒ⁂ what is this b- doing here? apparently this is not something idiomatic (like “to look into” in English)
ܬܺܚܶܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܪܳܡܬ̥ܐ !
Long live# our proud flag!
# téḥḥē = tḗḥē, f. just like nḗḥē, m. √ḤYY
ܬܺܚܶܐ ܐܳܦ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
Also, long live our great native-land.

2013-12-11

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܟܡܐ ܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܐܳܬ̥ܐ [ܒܳܐܬ̥ܐ] ܕܝܠܰܢ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ.

— How many colors are there in our flag? — There are in it three colors.

2 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܣܝܡ ܠܥܶܠ؟
ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.

— What color is put {sīm=pass.part} above? — Red {summāqā}.

3 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܠܬܰܚܬ؟
ܚܶܘܳܪܐ.

— What color is below? — White {ḥewwārā CAL ḥiw-}.

4 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܒܣܶܡܳܠܐ؟
ܙܳܪܩܐ.

— Which color is on the left {semmālā}? — Blue.

⟦caeruleus⟧ ܙܳܪܩܐ (zārqā) in TS/Jess/Costaz, but in Qarah. ܙܰܪܩܐ⁂ (Neo-Syr?). Ar. أزرق (ʾazraq), fem. زرقاء (zarqāʾ)

5 ܟܡܐ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܰܡܫܝܢ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ.

— How many stars {kawkḇā, kawkḇē; soft b} are there in it? — There are 50 {ḥamšīn} stars in it.

2015-12-11

Middle Persian gōn

MacKenzie, A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary (1971, 1986), pages 37, 200.

Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst, Dictionary Of Manichean Middle Persian and Parthian, page 167b

[See 20161109]

2013-12-12

Do the thing you read — ܥܒܶܕ ܐܰܟ̥ܡܐ ܕܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ

2013-12-13

Do the thing (cont.)

6 ܩܘܡ ܐܰܠ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
Stand up on your feet. — ܩܘܡܝ̱ ܐܰܠ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
7 ܬܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܠܘܚܐ.
Come near the blackboard. — ܬܳܝ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܠܘܚܐ.
8 ܙܶܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
Go near the door. — ܙܶܠܝ̱ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
9 ܚܰܘܐ ܠܰܢ ܩܰܢܝܐ.
Show us the pen. — ܚܰܘܳܝ ܠܰܢ ܩܰܢܝܐ. (ḥawwāy)
10 ܐܰܪܝܡ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܠܥܶܠ.
Rise the book. — ܐܰܪܝܡܝ̱ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܠܥܶܠ.
11 ܚܘܪ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܟܰܘܬܐ [ܟܰܘܬ̥ܐ].
Loot at the window.

2013-12-17

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

12 ܬܺܚܶܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ. ܬܺܚܶܐ ܐܳܦ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ.
Long live our flag. Also long live our native-land.

impf. 2m pl (2Corinthians 3:1)

This phrase is not really interesting religion-wise (I’m not very religious anyway), but it IS very interesting in the sense that it has two impf-2m-pl forms, in Peal and in Pael, next to each other.

ܐܰܘ ܕܰܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܬܶܟ̥ܬܒܘܢ ܬܦܰܩܕܘܢ ܥܠܰܝܢ (ܥܠܰܝ̈ܢ؟)
aw d-attṓn teḵt(ə)ḇūn t(ə)p̄aq(qə)ūn ʕ(ə)layn
or [do we need/is it needed] that you guys will write [and] will give a commission upon (=to) us

√PQD “to inspect, to command” Pa. “to give a commission, to commend”; the 3rd rad is always soft; also the 1st is always soft in impf. except in 1sg (§163).

ܥܰܠ “takes the suffixes of a noun in the m. pl.” (Jess. 413) aka Group II (Alan 96). One of those that “assume the plural form in ai before suffixes.” (Nöld. §156 cf. §157 §145A). So do we need a seyame here?

Aruoxam

2013-12-07

هذا بيت.
މިއީ ގެޔެއް.

ge=house: ge-yeh.

هذا مفتاح.
މިއީ ތަޅުދަނޑިއެއް.

مفتاح miftāḥ=key; thalhu-dhan'di=key: thalhu-dhan'di-eh

هذا قلم.
މިއީ ޤަލަމެއް

qalam=pen in Ar.; qalan (ޤަލަން) in Dv. also: ގަލަން (ގަލަމެއް) galan, galameh

2013-12-09

هذا كتاب.
މިއީ ފޮތެއް.
هذا كرسي.
މިއީ ގޮނޑިއެއް.

foiy, fotheh; karsiyun; gon'di, gon'dieh

2013-12-13

މިއީ އެނދެއް.
هذا سرير.
މިއީ މޭޒެއް.
هذا مكتب.

sariyar(un). އެނދު (en'dhu), (en'dheh), “bed” {u+eh=eh}. Similarly, ބިސްގަނޑު (bisgan'du), “omelette” ބިސްގަނޑެއް (bisgan'deh). maktab(un) “desk” √KTB; މޭޒު meyzu, meyzeh.

ތޮޅި (thori) “beans, garfishダツ目ダツ科ダツ、オキザヨリ

ފަންގަނޑު ތޮޅި (fangan'du thori)
Alepisaurus ferox
ヒメ目ミズウオ科ミズウオ
އަލި ތޮޅި (ali thori)
Gempylus serpens
スズキ目クロタチカマス科クロタチカマス
އޮނުގަނޑުތޮޅި (onega'ndu-thori)
Fistularia commersonii
トゲウオ目ヤガラ科アオヤガラ
ރަތް އޮނުގަނޑުތޮޅި (raiy{=red} onugan'du-thori)
Fistularia petimba
トゲウオ目ヤガラ科アカヤガラ

!!! I found on this page PDF versions of: The Dhivehi Language. A Descriptive and Historical Grammar of Maldivian and Its Dialects. Heidelberg: Südasien-Institut / Würzburg: Ergon Verlag 2002. 2 vols., xv + 270 / vi + 280 pp. (Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, 191). (English version of the habilitation thesis "Deskriptive Grammatik des Maledivischen (Dhivehi) und seiner Dialekte unter Berücksichtigung der sprachhistorischen Entwicklung", Heidelberg 1997).

2014-01-02

މިއީ ކޮން އެއްޗެއް؟
kon-echcheh “what, which”
ما هذا؟
މިއީ ގެޔެއް.
هذا بيت.
މިއީ ގެއެއް (ގެޔެއް)⁂ ހެއްޔެވެ؟
heyyeve (?) = ?
أهذا بيت؟
U+0623 [ أ ] ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE = Shift+H
އާނ. މިއީ ގެޔެއް.
aa'n(h) = “yes”
نعم، هذا بيت.

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