memos::Syriac 8 (H)

未分類のメモ。主にシリア語の学習ノート。このファイルは、ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第2巻27~31(最終)課と第3巻(2014年4月7日開始)1~11課に当たる。Wheelock’s Latin の33~34章と、エチオピア文字の研究なども含まれる。このファイルより以前の部分は過去ログ参照。

[ Archive ]

CAL ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS; Wiki; Map, 2, 3, ME | Alan o; Qara., 1, 2, 3; Nöld., fem, de | Per L-Sh; Gaf; Et


ひらめき

2014-07-14

今朝、目が覚めたとき、突然ひらめいた。 フルメタルパニックOPの「二人で逃げ場所探して 走った天気雨の中」と姫ちゃんのリボンのED2「突然夕立に追われて 逃げ込んだ鉄橋の下」が似ていると…。

何で十年以上たってから突然そんなことに気付くのか、という点はともかくとして、考えてみれば、作品の構造も似ている。 超常能力を持つ、おてんばな女の子(姫子とかなめ)。 相棒のやんちゃなクラスメート(ダイチとソースケ)。 それを別世界から見守るエリカとテッサ。 舞台になっている場所(国立と仙川)も、同じ東京西部にあって結構近くみたいだ。

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 11] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 11 [ܕܰܚܕܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܪܝܢ

2014-06-05

ܦܰܩܚܐ ܫܶܒܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ
paqḥā šeb(b)lā ʾīṯay bāṯarken#1
m. flower, bud f. (rarely m) ear of grain = šebbalṯā I am afterwards

#1 CAL bāṯarḵen

ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܰܦܫܶܗ: ܐܶܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܐܶܗܘܶܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܐ.
A boy said about himself {nap̄šā + èh}: I used to be {īṯay wḗṯ} a little boy, and now I am a boy, and afterwards I will be {ʾehwē} a good man.
ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܗܰܒܳܒܐ: ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ ܦܰܩܚܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ ܗܰܒܳܒܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܦܺܐܪܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.
And he said to a flower: you used to be {ʾīṯayk wayt} a bud, and now you are a flower, and later you will be {tehwē} a sweet {ḥalyā} fruit.

2014-06-06

ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܫܶܒܠܐ: ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬܝ̱ ܥܶܣܒܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟܝ̱ ܫܶܒܠܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܬܶܗܘܶܝܢ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
And he said to an ear of grain: You-f used to be grass. And now you-f are an ear of grain. And you-f will be {tehwēn} aromatic bread.
ܗܘ ܙܳܓܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܝܥܬܐ [ܒܝܥܬ̥ܐ]، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܙܳܓܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܀
This young rooster {zāḡā}: used to be an egg {bḗʕṯā f.}, and now he is a young rooster, and later he will be a beautiful rooster.

2014-06-10

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܰܦܫܶܗ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܐܶܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܐܶܗܘܶܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܗܰܒܳܒܐ؟ ܠܫܶܒܠܐ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܗܰܒܳܒܐ: ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ ܦܰܩܚܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ ܗܰܒܳܒܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܦܺܐܪܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ. ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܫܶܒܠܐ: ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬܝ̱ ܥܶܣܒܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟܝ̱ ܫܶܒܠܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܬܶܗܘܶܝܢ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܥܰܠ ܙܳܓ̥ܐ؟
ܗܘ ܙܳܓ̥ܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܝܥܬ̥ܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܙܳܓ̥ܐ، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪܟܶܢ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ.
4 ܡܶܢ ܡܘܢ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܦܺܐܪܐ؟
ܦܺܐܪܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܗܰܒܳܒܐ.
5 ܡܶܢ ܡܘܢ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܠܰܚܡܐ؟
ܠܰܚܡܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܫ̈ܒ̊ܠܐ.

2014-06-11

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

6 ܦܰܩܚܐ : ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ : ܥܶܣܒܐ : ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ

2014-06-17

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܦ̈ܙܐ — Fill in the blanks

7 ܗܰܒܳܒܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ... ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ... ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
ܗܰܒܳܒܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܦܰܘܚܐ ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ܦܺܐܪܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
ܢܦܰܩ ܡܶܢ (nəp̄aq) “to come (out) from; to end up differently from (how it started)”
8 ܦܰܪܘܓ̥ܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ... ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ... ܪܰܒܐ.
ܦܰܪܘܓ̥ܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܝܥܬܐ [ܒܝܥܬ̥ܐ] ܘܗܳܘܶ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
ܦܰܪܘܓ̥ܐ (parrūḡā) “chick” ⟦pullus⟧
9 ܛܰܠܝܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ... ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ... ܛܳܒܳܐ.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܳܐ [ܛܳܒܐ].

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 10] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 10 [ܕܥܶܣܪܐ]: ܚܰܡܫܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܒܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ

2014-05-31

ܒܫܰܒܘܥܐ ܕܰܥܒܰܪ، ܐܶܙܰܠ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܠܰܩܪܝܬܳܐ [ܠܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ] ܕܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܳܠܶܗ.
In a week {šāḇṓʕā WS šabbûʕā} that passed by, Yawsep̄ {ES Yāw-} went to a village where his maternal uncle {ḥālā} lives.
ܘܩܰܘܝ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܝܢ، ܘܟܰܕ ܗܦܰܟ، ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ* [ܫܰܦܝܪܐ] ܗܳܝ ܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ!
And he remained {qawwī QWY Pael} there five days, and when he returned, he said: how beautiful that {hāy f.} village is! {AFAIK “beautiful” should be fem-abs šappīrā} [2014-09-15: as in ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܶܠܚܐ. (Mk9:50)]
ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ: ܢܳܦܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܘܩܳܛܶܦ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܟܰܦܐ ܕܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
Every day in the morning: I was going out {nāp̄eq wḗṯ} to the garden and I was picking a handful {kappā} of roses and flowers.

2014-06-01

ܒܛܰܗܪܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ ܘܩܳܛܶܦ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܡܠܶܐ ܣܰܠܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܘܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ.
In the noon {ṭahrā}, I was going to the vineyard, and was picking a basketful of {mlē, pass.pt.constr.} olives and figs.
ظهر (ẓUhr) //
construct state adj. (or rather pass.pt.) “A-ed” + emph. st. noun “B” + “C” = “A-ed B of C” Cf. 2014-05-03
2014-06-03 mlē + B (emph. st.) = B-ful, as in basketful, handful, etc. The question is, how should the following nouns be understood? Theory 1: They are modified by mlē (“filled olives”), where mlē is modified by sallā (“basket-filled olives”). Theory 2: Apposition (“full of basket—olives and figs”). This construction is different from the “filled with the spirit” type, because “basket” is a unit (it’s not like “filled with a basket”), and it seems impossible to interpret this as “a basket filled with olives” because the genitive of the con. st. is NOT olives, assuming that the con. st. stands immediately before the genitive (N §208). Basically, the sentence says “I picked a lot of olives” “I picked a …ful of olives” and the “basket” is additional info to explain “…ful”. So I guess I’m supporting Theory 1. So how is that different from ܟܝܣܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ “a bag filled with money”? I think that if you really want to talk about the basket you used, rather than the olives you got, you could say ܣܰܠܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ “a basket filled with olives”. But obviously you can’t put that phrase after “I picked”, unless you’re talking about fantasy trees whose fruits are baskets. In short, ܣܰܠܐ ܡܠܶܐ “a basket filled with” and ܡܠܶܐ ܣܰܠܐ “a basketful of” are different. Although in general you can put an adjective anywhere (before or after a noun) in Syriac, the construct state is intrinsically position-sensitive, where the word order does matter.
2017-05-10 Perhaps one can understand this based on the phrase “to fill the basket with olives and figs”, where both “the basket” and “with olives and figs” are objects in Syriac. Its passive form can be “the basket filled with olives and figs”, but it also can be “olives and figs filled into the basket” i.e. “a basket(ful) of olives and figs”. That is, mlē is not in the const. st., but in the abs. st. See N §291.
ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ، ܐܳܦ ܣܳܚܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥، ܐܳܦ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܨܶܢܳܪܬܐ.
In the evening, I was going down to the river; I was both swimming and hunting {√ṢWD} fish with a fish hook {ṣennārtā; Hard T after a long vowel, esp. after R—N §23E}.
ܩܕܝܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ.
The village is very beautiful. {Here, fem-abs is used (see above); ṭāḇ is adv.}
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܟܰܪ̈ܡܐ ܘܓܰܢ̈ܐ، ܘܐܺܝܬ̥* [ܘܺܐܝܬ̥] ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܳܦ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܀
There are vineyards and gardens in it, and there is a big river {m.} in it too.

2014-07-13

2014-06-02

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ؟
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܠܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܳܗ̇ ܚܳܠܶܗ.
2 ܟܡܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܩܰܘܝ ܒܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ؟
ܩܰܘܝ ܒܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܝܢ.
3 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ؟ ܒܛܰܗܪܐ؟ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ؟
ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ. ܒܛܰܗܪܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܟܰܪܡܐ. ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܒܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܟܰܪ̈ܡܐ ܘܓܰܢ̈ܐ، ܘܢܰܗܪܐ ܪܒܐ.

ܫܟܝܚ (šḵīḥ) Originally pass-pt. “to be found, be present” Cf. ܐܶܫܟܰܚ “to find”

2014-06-03

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

5 ܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ : ܨܶܢܳܪܬܐ : ܩܰܘܝ : ܩܛܰܦ

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܡ̈ܶܠܐ — Match opposite words

6 ܟܦܶܢ : ܢܚܶܬ̥ : ܓܚܶܟ : ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ : ܣܟ̥ܰܪ
ܣܠܶܩ : ܩܳܡ : ܣܒܰܥ : ܦܬܰܚ : ܒܳܟܶܐ

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 9] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 9 [ܕܬ̥ܶܫܥܐ]: ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܦܪܐ

2014-05-20

ܓ̥ܒܰܠ* ܫܪܳܪܐ ܥܰܦܪܐ ܝܰܕܝܕܝ̱ ܢܦܰܚ
gḇal#1 šrārā ʕap̄rā yaddīḏ n(ə)p̄aḥ
to form firmness, truth dust, earth my dear = yaddīḏā “beloved” + suff. to breathe, to blow

#1 While the soft G in ʾAlāhā ḡḇal in this lesson makes sense, the G of Gḇal is in general hard.

ܙܰܟܰܝ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܥܰܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܘܰܫܡܰܥ ܕܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ: ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܦܪܐ.
Little Zak(k)ay went to school with his sister, and heard the teacher say(ing): ʾAlāhā created us from earth (soil).
ܘܟܰܕ ܗܦܰܟ̥ܘ̱ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ، ܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ: ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܪܳܪܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܦܪܐ؟
And when they-m returned {hp̄aḵ 3m-pl} home, he asked {šaʾʾel D} his sister: Is it the truth that ʾAlāhā created us from earth?
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ: ܐܝܢ ܝܰܕܝܕܝ̱، ܐܝܢ ܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ.
The sister said: Yes, my dear, yes, the teacher said the truth.

2014-05-21

ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܡܳܕܶܝܢ ܘܳܝ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܡܶܛܪܐ!
The boy said: Well then {māḏēn}, alas (doom) for us {wāy + l-} from rain!
ܐܶܢ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܥܠܰܝܢ ܢܰܗܦܶܟ ܠܰܢ ܬܘܒ ܠܥܰܦܪܐ!
If it (rain) goes down upon us {ʕlayn, suffix II}, it will return {√HPK Aph. ʾahpeḵ; nahpeḵ impf. sg-3m/pl-1c, lit. “make us turn/change”} us again {tūḇ} into dust!

2014-05-22

ܘܓܶܚܟ̥ܰܬ̥ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܘܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ [ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ̥]: ܠܐ ܝܰܕܝܕܝ̱، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܟܰܕ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܢܦܰܚ ܒܰܢ ܐܳܦ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܶܗ، ܥܰܠܗܳܕܶܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܥܒܶܕ ܒܰܢ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܀
And the sister laughed {gḥaḵ} and said: “No, my dear, because ʾAlāhā — when he formed us {gḇal} — brew/breathed into us, and#2 the breath {nešmā} [was] from his spirit… Because of this-f (=therefore), rain does not impact us#3.”

#2 OR if translating ʾāp̄ as “even”: “brew, into us, even his [very] breath from his spirit”

#3 maʕbeḏ, pt. of ʾaʕbeḏ Aph.: lit. “not make [anything] do in/with us”, “not make [anything] happen to us”

Aphel Reviewed

Pf. ʾaḵteḇ1, ʾaḵt(ə)ḇaṯ // Impf. naḵteḇ, taḵteḇ // Part. maḵteḇ, maḵt(ə)ḇā
1 Also impf. sg-1c, imperat sg-2m.

2014-05-24

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܙܰܟܰܝ؟
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܡܰܥ ܕܶܐܡܰܪ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ؟
ܫܡܰܥ ܕܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ: ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܦܪܐ.
3 ܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܚܰܬ̥ܐ ܟܰܕ ܫܰܐܠܳܗ̇؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: ܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ.
ܫܰܐܠܳܗ̇ — I think this is the first time when the object suffix “her” is used in Qarahbaš. More importantly, this is a Pael + suffix (also 2nd-A, but that is not important). See below.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܡܶܛܪܐ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܡܳܕܶܢ ܘܳܝ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܡܶܛܪܐ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܟܰܕ ܓ̥ܰܒܠܰܢ ܢܦܰܚ ܒܰܢ ܐܳܦ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܶܗ، ܥܰܠܗܳܕܶܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܥܒܶܕ ܒܰܢ ܡܶܛܪܐ.

2014-05-25

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

6 ܥܰܦܪܐ : ܢܶܫܡܐ : ܡܰܥܒܶܕ : ܓܶܚܟ̥ܰܬ̥

2014-05-26

ܣܝܡ «ܐܝܢ» ܐܰܘ «ܠܐ» ܐܰܝܟܐ ܕܠܳܚܡܐAnswer “yes” or “no”

7 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܳܦܰܪ ܠܳܟ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܓܰܢ̈ܐ؟
ŠPR l- = to be beautiful for. ḥezwā = m. appearance, vision. gannē = pl. of ganṯā, CAL “vocalizations with /a/ are probably Hebraisms” [גַּן] i.e. gin- may be more original.
ܐܝܢ، ܫܳܦܪܐ ܠܝ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܓܰܢ̈ܐ.
8 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܗܳܪܶܓ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܟܽܠ ܪܰܡܫܐ؟
HRG = to apply the mind; maybe “to study” here, as in hergā.
ܐܝܢ، ܗܳܪܓܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܽܠ ܪܰܡܫܐ.
9 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܩܳܠܐ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ؟
Mystery expression “to do voice” again (Cf. Vol. 2 Lesson 24); I bet it means “to be noisy”.
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܳܠܐ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ.
10 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܶܬܛܰܝܰܒ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܥܺܕܬܐ؟
meṭṭayyaḇ, from ܐܶܬܛܰܝܰܒ (ʾeṭṭayyaḇ Cf. N §26B) Ethpa. “to be prepared, to prepare oneself, to be present”, from ṭayyeḇ Pa. “to get ready, to prepare”
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܡܶܬܛܰܝܒ̥ܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܥܺܕܬܐ.
11 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܳܚܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܟܺܐܦ̈ܐ ܒܩ̈ܰܛܐ؟
MḤY = to strike. kḗp̄ā f. stone (N §84) [as in σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς — 2014-08-29]. This should mean “throw stones to cats”, though in theory it could also mean “strike stones with cats”.
ܠܐ، ܠܐ ܡܳܚܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܺܐܦ̈ܐ ܒܩ̈ܰܛܐ.

Pael + Object Suffixes (Perfect)

2014-05-24

1. [sg-3m] qaṭṭel becomes qaṭ(ṭə)l- before a vowel, by reducing the e to (ə): qaṭ(ṭə)lèh1, qaṭ(ṭə)lāh; qaṭ(ṭə)lāk, qaṭ(ṭə)lèḵẙ1; qaṭ(ṭə)lan(ẙ). Like in Peal, the old stem is used before a consonant: qaṭṭelḵṓn1, qaṭṭelḵēn.

1 Starting today, I’ll use è (instead of é) for ES e WS e, while keeping ḕ as is for ES ē WS ī (and ṑ as is for ES ō WS ū).
2014-05-27 I’ve replaced every é in transliteration on this page with è. This way, (1) what is a wider E in ES is shown by è, conceptually like in French, and (2) Now ES ḕ is a long version of ES è, which makes more sense (actually I had already used è this way on 2014-04-16, when I wrote “kəṯāḇā ¦da-ḏ(ə)yāTÈqḕ […] perhaps the È is long (ḕ).”).
2014-08-28 I’ve replaced ḕ with ḗ, ṑ with ṓ.

The examples in N §187 show that the 2nd rad. is hard and the 3rd rad. is soft, clearly suggesting that the 2nd rad. is (essentially) doubled even after the verb is suffixed.
ܒܰܪܟ̥ܶܗ (bar(rə)ḵèh) “he blessed him” from ܒܰܪܶܟ
ܩܰܒ̊ܠܰܢ (qab(bə)lan) “he received us” from ܩܰܒܶܠ
ܦܰܩܶܕܟ̥ܘܿܢ (paqqeḏḵṓn) “he ordered you” from ܦܰܩܶܕ

2. [sg-3f] qaṭ(ṭə)laṯ becomes qaṭṭelṯ- before a vowel, by deleting the stem-end a (because *qaṭṭ(ə)laṯ-èh is “too open”), and restoring the ə as e (because *qaṭṭ(ə)lṯ-èh, with four consecutive consonants, is impossible): qaṭṭelṯèh, qaṭṭelṯāh; qaṭṭelṯāḵ, qaṭṭelṯèḵẙ; qaṭṭelṯan(ẙ); BUT qaṭ(ṭə)laṯḵṓn, qaṭ(ṭə)laṯḵēn.
ܩܰܒܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ (qabbelṯèh) “she received him” from ܩܰܒܠܰܬ̥
ܛܰܒ̊ܰܥܬ̥ܰܢܝ̱ (ṭabbaʕṯan) “she dipped me” from ܛܰܒ̊ܥܰܬ̥
Thackston is wrong again, reading these forms as *qaṭṭlāṯ-. Don’t listen to him. A good paradigm is in Ungnad (1913), pp. 120–1, not to mention Mingana.

2014-05-25

3. [sg-1c] qaṭ(ṭə)lèṯ (Mingana shows a hard T in the base form too, but probably just a typo) gets a suffix just like in Peal. That is, (α) a suffixed form is very similar to sg-3f, but with a hard T: qaṭṭeltèh, qaṭṭeltāh{##}; qaṭṭeltāḵ, qaṭṭeltēḵẙ; (β) the new stem (maybe with -ə-) is used before a consonant too (+pl2) — which is different from sg3f + pl2: qaṭṭelt(ə)ḵṓn, qaṭṭelt(ə)ḵēn. Like in Peal, Thackston is using the wrong (old) stem for (β), but he is roughly correct about (α) except for the hardness of T.
N §187 ܚܰܝܶܠܬ̊ܳܟ (ḥayyeltāḵ) “I strengthened thee” from ܚܰܝܠܶܬ̥ (ḥay(yə)lèṯ)
Gal 1:12 ܩܰܒܶܠܬܳܗ̇ (qabbeltāh) “I received her” ES ܩܲܒܸ̇ܠܬܵܗ̇ (the dot above B may be a Quššāyā, but there is a similar dot above L or Q{#}) // from ܩܰܒܠܶܬ̥ (qab(b)lèṯ) ES ܩܲܒ݁ܠܹ̇ܬ݂ (a dot above L{#})
Titus 1:5 ܦܰܩܶܕܬܳܟ (paqqeḏtāḵ2) “I ordered thee” ES ܦܲܩܸ̇ܕܬܵܟ (A dot above Q{#}; D is not marked) // from ܦܶܩܕܶܬ̥ (peqqəḏèṯ2)
Mt 28:20 ܦܰܩܶܕܬܟ̥ܘܢ (paqqeḏt(ə)ḵṓn2) “I ordered you guys” ES ܦܲܩܸܕ݂ܬ̇ܟ݂ܘܿܢ (D is marked soft; the dot above T may be a general dot or a Quššāyā dot{#}) — a real example where the new stem is used in sg-1c +pl-2m!
2 Peshitta Tool makes the D hard, which means assimilation to T, or falling away (N §26B: paqqe(t)tāḵ, paqqe(t)təḵṓn), à la ʕḗ(t)tā “church”.

# 2014-08-19: The mystery dot should be for the 1c-sg Pf [N §6, Tack xii(3)].

## 2014-10-12: qaṭṭeltāh could mean both “I killed her” and “You (sg-m) killed her”.

2014-05-26

Other stems take a long vowel (-ů → û, -ẙ → ī, otherwise +ā). The pl-3m and pl-3f lose the stem-end vowel, because a form like *qaṭṭel-û-n, *qaṭṭel-ā-n would be too “vowel-y”. However, pl-3f restores the original stem for +2pl, while pl-3m always uses the new stem.

4. [pl-3m] qaṭṭelů is suffixed exactly like in Peal, where the initial vowel of a suffix disappears: qaṭ(ṭə)lûh̊y, qaṭ(ṭə)lûh; qaṭ(ṭə)lûḵ, qaṭ(ṭə)lûḵẙ (-èḵẙ “deflowered” by û-); qaṭ(ṭə)lûn(ẙ); AND qaṭ(ṭə)lûḵṓn, -ḵēn. At this point, I believe that the y in -ûh̊y is not silent. I also believe that the û is actually long (ū), though not 100% sure about this. At least Ungnad clearly states that this is -ūy from *-ūhī.
N §187 ܒܰܬ̊ܠܘܗ̇ (bat(tə)lûh) “they-m deflowered her” from ܒܰܬܶܠ
Lk 9:53 ܩܰܒܠܘܗ̱ܝ (qab(bə)lûy) “they-m accepted him” // Peshitta Tool reads it qablū(hy), with a long U and a silent Y.
Acts 21:17 ܩܰܒܠܘܢ (qab(bə)lûn) “they-m accepted us”

2014-09-13: Sometimes the ů simply falls out before ḵṓn/ḵēn while the short vowel before the 3rd rad. is kept: *qaṭṭel-ḵṓn instead of qaṭṭəlû-ḵṓn (N §186 ¶3). There is a Peshitta example, in both ES and WS, in Acts 15:24: dallaḥḵṓn b-mellē instead of dalləḥûḵṓn b-mellē, “they disquieted you guys with words”, ἐτάραξαν ὑμᾶς λόγοις. Peshitta Tool says it is 3m-sg, but from the context this must be 3m-pl.

2015-01-07: Also, Hark. ܡܛܠ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܕܰܫܡܰܥܢܰܢ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܝܢ ܡܶܢܰܢ ܟܕ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱: ܕܰܠܰܚܟܘܢ ܒܡ̈ܠܐ: “Now that we have heard that some of us (when they) went out [and] disturbed you guys with words.” ⟦Quoniam audivimus, quod quīdam ex nobis exeuntes turbaverunt vos verbis.⟧

5. [pl-3f] qaṭṭel gets ā, just like in Peal: qaṭ(ṭə)lāy, -āh☆, -āḵ☆, -èḵẙ☆, -ān(ẙ); BUT qaṭṭelḵṓn☆ -ḵēn☆. Just like in Peal, pl-3f forms are diffent from sg-3m forms only in +“me/us/him” (-ān vs. -an; -āy vs. -èh). Hardness aside, these forms are identical to Peal forms when written, except that pl-2 forms (with the old stem) are obviously different.
N §187 ܫܰܒ̊ܚܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (šab(bə)ḥāy) “they-f praised him” from ܫܰܒܰܚ

2014-05-27

6. The remaining forms are trivial. [pl-1c] qaṭṭeln: qaṭṭeln-āy, āh, āḵ, èḵẙ, āḵṓn, āḵēn. [sg-2m] qaṭṭelt: qaṭṭelt-āy, etc. [pl-2m] qaṭṭeltṓn: qaṭṭeltṓn-āy, etc. [pl-2f] qaṭṭeltēn: qaṭṭeltēn-āy, etc. [sg-2f] qaṭṭeltẙ: qaṭṭelt-īw, īh, ān(ẙ).
N §187 ܒܰܪܶܟ̥ܢܳܟ̥ܘܢ (barreḵnāḵṓn) “we blessed you”
Acts 20:14 ܩܰܒܶܠܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (qabbelnāy) “we received him”
1Cor 15:1 ܩܰܒܶܠܬܘܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (qabbeltṓnāy) “you guys received him”
1Thes 2:13 ܩܰܒܶܠܬܘܢܳܗ̇ (qabbeltṓnāh) “you guys received her”
Gal 4:14 ܩܰܒܶܠܬܘܢܳܢܝ̱ (qabbeltṓnān) “you guys received me”
1Thes 4:11 ܦܰܩܶܕܢܳܟ̥ܘܢ (paqqeḏnāḵṓn) “we ordered you guys” ܦܲܩܸܕܵܢܟ݂ܘܿܢ (paqqiḏānḵṓn [sic!])

Peal + Suffix vs. Pael + Suffix

If hardness of 2nd and 3rd radicals is ignored or unrelated:

  1. The “he” forms are written identically both in Peal and in Pael, except that they are not identical in +2pl, where the old stem is used. So are the “they-f” forms.
    ܩܰܛܠܶܗ (Peal qaṭlèh ≈ Pael qaṭ(ṭə)lèh); BUT ܩܛܰܠܟ̥ܘܢ vs. ܩܰܛܶܠܟ̥ܘܢ
  2. The “they-m” Pe. and Pa. forms are always written identically.
    ܩܰܛܠܘܗ̱ܝ (Peal qaṭlûy ≈ Pael qaṭ(ṭə)lûy)
  3. The “she” forms are different in Pe. and Pa.: q(ə)ṭalṯèh vs. qaṭṭelṯèh. So are the "I" forms.
  4. Other forms are based on the normal (unsuffixed) stem, hence obviously Peal and Pael are different.

Pael + Object Suffixes (Imperfect)

2014-06-02

(1) Pael n(ə)qaṭṭel as opposed to Peal neqṭól; accordingly, nqaṭṭlīw OR nqaṭṭlèh, nqaṭṭlīh; nqaṭṭlāḵ, -èhẙ; nqaṭṭlan(ẙ); BUT nqaṭṭelḵṓn, -ḵēn.

sg-3f/sg-2m (tqaṭṭel) and pl-1c (nqaṭṭel) are suffixed in the same way. So is sg-1c ʾeqqaṭṭel: ʾeqqaṭṭlīw OR -èh, etc.

(2) pl-3m (nqaṭṭlūn): nqaṭṭlūnāy OR -èh, nqaṭṭlūnāh; etc.

Amharic

2014-05-17

ድንች (dən(ə)čə // sounds like -či) “potato”

  1. = (d) + broken by a right middle hook
  2. = (n) + broken by a left top hook
  3. (č) = an Amharic modification, from (t) (Also used in Tigrinya, Tigré) // broken by a left top hook , similarly but more like, broken with a zigzag

2014-05-18

ቲማቲም (tīmātīm(ə)) “tomato”

  1. (tī) = + right bottom horizontal line
  2. (mā) = + right vertical extention
  3. = broken by a left leg

Seven Easy Guys

  1. like λ
  2. vaguely like “m”
  3. [Shift]+[S], like Heb. ש or Rus. Шш OR Σ rotated
  4. like Q or Gk. Koppa (Ϙϙ)
  5. like “t”
  6. like Heb. א
  7. vaguely like “w”

2014-05-19

A Few More Nice Guys

  1. Heb. ר mirrored
  2. Heb. ב / Syr. ܒ rotated
  3. Vaguely “N” (mirrored, kind of)
  4. ʕayn=“eye”

2014-05-21

S Guys

SĀT is a strange guy. It’s obviously SA 𐩪 SAT, but other than that, it doesn’t have many friends, even though it is s1, the most normal S in a way. Arabic uses SHIN for S, which is in Ethiopic (SA 𐩦‎), ש in Hebrew. Heberew and Syriac use SAMEKH for S, while Ethiopic does not have this s3 guy at all (SA 𐩯). Note that (L) and (S) are confusable.

After */ɬ/ > /ʃ/ was merged into /s/, becoming the same sound as , Amharic invented a new character for /ʃ/: , which is a with an overline.

[V] TSA is originally /ṣ/ (SA 𐩮 SADHE). This one is like Hebrew צ. Amharic has another TS, [Shift]+[V] TZA, originally /ḍ/ (SA 𐩳 DHADHE). For ṣ and ḍ, Arabic has ص and ض // They look like Syriac ܨ, which is Hebrew צ; therefore, these two Arabic letters are cousins of . Both and are pronounced as the same ejactive /(t)s'/ in Amharic.

In summary:

  1. (s1) must be memorized.
  2. (s2) is very easy to recognize. EAE ś
  3. Ethiopic and Arabic do not have s3 (Heb. ס Syr. ܣ). Am. is just a modified version of . EAE š
  4. (ṣ) is relatively easy (Ar. ض Heb. צ Syr. ܨ). It’s with a big circle above, kind of.
  5. (ḍ EAE ṣ́) must be memorized. For convenience, one may think it as a kind of θ, though in fact it isn’t (the real Ethiopic version of θ is ). Another mnemonic would be Kanji 日 (ZITSU: close enough to TZA, not only sharing a similar glyph shape).

2014-05-25

H Guys

HA. U+10A60 [ 𐩠 ] OLD SOUTH ARABIAN LETTER HE

[Shift]+[H] HHA, originally /ħ/, later just /h/. U+10A62 [ 𐩢 ] OLD SOUTH ARABIAN LETTER HETH; transliterated as ḥ.

[Y] XA, originally /x/ or /χ/, later just /h/. U+10A6D [ 𐩭 ] OLD SOUTH ARABIAN LETTER KHETH; transliterated as ḫ.

[Shift]+[K] KXA /x/. Amharic mod. of (KA); used in Tigrinya too; EAE translit. ḵ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 8] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 8 [ܕܰܬܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܫܰܒܘܥܐ

2014-05-16

ܫܰܒܘܥܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܙܩܰܦ ܐܺܝܘ
šāḇṓʕā WS šabbûʕā šaʾʾel zqap̄ ḗw
m. “week” ⟦hebdomas f⟧ Pa. “to ask” “to lift up, erect” good! (εὖ)
ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܕܝܽܘܡ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܥܰܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܘܫܰܐܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܠܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ: ܡܰܢ ܡܶܢܟ̥ܘܢ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܟܡܳܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܫܰܒܘܥܐ؟
On the morning of Monday {yṓm trēn b-šabbā#1, lit. “day of Two-on-Sabbath”}, a teacher went into the classroom, and asked them {šaʾʾel ʾennṓn; not a suffix} — the students: Who among you guys knows how many days there are in one week?
  1. #1 ܫܰܒ̊ܐ (šabbā) f. is abs. st. sg. of ܫܰܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ [N §81]. ܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬ̥ܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ = with Constr. St. ܝܘܡ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ [Cf. Robinson (1962) p. 128]
  2. ܫܰܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ “Saturday”; ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒ̊ܐ “Sunday”; ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ “Monday”; ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ “Tuesday” OR with the short, feminin-like numeral, ܬܠܵܬ݂ܒܫܲܒܵܐ (tlāṯ-bə-šabbā Alan 108); And so on, up to ܚܰܡܫܐ ܒܫܰܒ̊ܐ “Thursday”.
  3. “Friday” is ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ (ʕrûḇtā [Mt 27:62; Alan 64, 108], CAL ʕrubtā, Qara ʕrûBṯā: “the eve, day of preparation”)

2014-05-17

ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܚܰܕ، ܕܰܫܡܶܗ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ، ܙܩܰܦ ܨܶܒܥܶܗ ܘܩܳܡ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: ܐܶܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱، ܘܐܳܦ [ܘܳܐܦ] ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ!
One student, whose name is Yṓḥanān, erected his finger {ṣeḇʕā f} and stood up and said: I do, Sir, and also I know the names of them!
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ: ܙܶܠ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ.
The teacher said to him: Go [and] write them on the blackboard.
ܘܐܶܙܰܠ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܰܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ: ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܚܰܡܫܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ، ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ، ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
And he went and wrote them thus: Sunday {ḥaḏ bšaḇā}, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday {ʕrûḇTā}, Saturday {šab(bə)ṯā}.
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ: ܗܳܫܐ ܩܪܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ.
The teacher said to him: Now read {imperat. 2m sg} them.
ܘܟܰܕ ܩܪܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܐܺܝܘ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ!
And when he read them, [the teacher] said to him: Well done, a hard-working student!

2014-05-18

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܒܰܐܝܢܐ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ؟
ܒܝܽܘܡ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ.
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬ̥ܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ؟
ܫܰܐܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ: ܡܰܢ ܡܶܢܟ̥ܘܢ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܟܡܳܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܫܰܒܘܿܥܐ؟
3 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܙܩܰܦ ܨܶܒܥܶܗ؟
ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ: ܐܶܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱، ܘܳܐܦ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ!
5 ܟܡܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܫܰܒܘܥܐ؟
ܫܰܒܥܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܫܰܒܘܥܐ.
ܫܰܒܘܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ.
ܫܰܒܥܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܫܰܒܘܥܐ.

2014-05-19

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

6 ܫܰܒܘܥܐ : ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ : ܐܺܝܘ : ܙܩܰܦ

ܣܝܡ «ܩܕܳܡ» ܐܰܘ «ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ» ܕܘܟܬ̥ܐ ܕܠܳܚܡܐ — Put “before” or “after” in its proper place

ܐܰܝܟ: ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ.

7 ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ ... ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܚܰܡܫܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ ... ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܚܰܡܫܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ ... ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ.
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ.
ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ ... ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܥܪܘܒܬ̥ܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ ... ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܒܫܳܒܐ.
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܒܫܳܒܐ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 7] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 7 [ܕܫܰܒܥܐ]: ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ؟

2014-05-10

ܪ̈ܰܕܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ ܦܶܥܪܐ ܚܫܰܒ ܢܶܥܒܰܪ
raDāyāṯā#1 ḥrḗnā peʕrā ḥšaḇ neʕbar#2
f. cars; sg. raDāytā#1 other m. cleft, chasm, opening to count, to think (of) he/we will pass away; pass through
ܐܶܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥* [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥] ܒܳܗ̇ ܪ̈ܰܕܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܘܰܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܥܒܰܪ ܠܓܰܒܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ، ܘܠܐ ܚܳܪ ܠܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܐܰܘ ܠܣܶܡܳܠܐ، ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ؟
If someone should be standing by [such] a road {f} that there are cars on it, and wished that he (may) pass through to the other side {gabbā} and did not look the right and the left, what would possibly happen? (lit. “what perhaps exists?”)

2014-05-12

ܐܶܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܒܫܘܪܐ ܦܶܥܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܚܰܫܒܶܗ ܩܶܢܐ ܕܨܶܦܪܐ، ܐܶܢ ܐܰܥܶܠ ܐܝܕܶܗ ܒܦܶܥܪܐ ܗܰܘ، ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ؟
If [someone] sees a small opening in the wall and thinks it [as] the nest of a bird, if he has inserted his hand into that opening, what might happen?

2014-05-13

ܐܶܢ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ ܘܰܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܣܚܶܐ ܟܰܕ ܗܘ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܣܰܚܘܐ. ܐܶܢ ܫܕܐ ܗܘ ܠܶܗ ܒܢܰܗܪܐ، ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ؟
If [someone] has gone to a river and has wished to swim when he does not know swimming (how to swim). If he has thrown himself into the river, what might happen?
ܐܶܢ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܒܥܳܒܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ، ܘܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ. ܐܶܢ ܩܛܰܦ ܘܐܶܟ̥ܰܠ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ، ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ؟
If [someone] has found, in the forest, a tree loaded with fruits, and does not know what these fruits are. If he has taken and eaten from them (some of them), what might happen?

2014-05-14

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܥܒܰܪ ܠܐܽܘܪܚܐ [ܠܽܐܘܪܚܐ]؟
How is it right {zāḏeq pt. only} (=How are you supposed) to pass through a street?
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܰܢܚܘܪ ܠܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܐܰܘ ܠܣܶܡܳܠܐ.
It is proper that one should look right and left. {ḥār √ḤWR Impf. nḥūr (ū is long N §177)}
2 ܡܘܢ ܟܒܰܪ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܐܶܢ ܠܐ ܚܳܪ؟
What could happen if one did not look?
ܟܒܰܪ ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ ܬܶܩܛܘܠ ܠܶܗ (ܬܶܩܛܠܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱) (ܬܶܩܛܠܶܗ).
Perhaps a car will kill him.
ܟܒܰܪ ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ ܬܕܘܫ ܠܶܗ (ܬܕܘܫܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ؟) (ܬܕܘܫܶܗ ؟).
Perhaps a car will run over him.1
3 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܬܪܰܥܶܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܦܶܥܪܐ؟
What is proper to think about the opening? {ʾeṯraʕʕī √RʕY Ethpa. “to be accepted, to think” impf. neṯraʕʕē}
ܟܒܰܪ ܩܶܢܐ ܕܥܘܩܒܪܐ.
Perhaps the nest of a mouse {ʕuqbrā}?
ܟܒܰܪ ܩܶܢܐ ܕܚܶܘܝܐ.
Perhaps the nest of a snake.
4 ܡܰܢ ܠܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܣܚܶܐ ܒܢܰܗܪܐ؟
Who is not proper to swim in a river?
ܗܘ ܕܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܣܰܚܘܐ.
He who does not know how to swim.
5 ܡܘܢ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܐܶܢ ܐܶܟ̥ܰܠ ܦܺܐܪܐ ܠܐ ܝܺܕܝܥܐ؟
What is there (=What happens) if one eats a fruit not known {yīḏīʕ pass. pt.}?
ܟܒܰܪ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܟܪܝܗ.
Perhaps he will be(come) sick {krīh}.
ܟܒܰܪ ܣܰܡܐ ܢܶܩܛܘܠ ܠܶܗ (ܢܶܩܛܠܶܗ) (ܢܶܩܛܠܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱).
Perhaps the poison will kill him.

1 2014-05-20 A 2nd-W verb usually takes a prefix without a vowel, e.g. n(ə)-, though in poems ne- may be used [N §177]. Suffixed forms of a 2nd-W: ܠܵܐ ܓܹܝܪ ܫܲܕܲܪ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܠܲܒ݂ܪܹܗ ܠܥܵܠܡܵܐ ܕܲܢܕ݂ܘܼܢܝܼܘܗܝ ܠܥܵܠܡܵܐ܇ ܐܸܠܵܐ ܕܢܸܚܹܐ ܥܵܠܡܵܐ ܒܐܝܼܕܹܐ܂܀ (Jn 3:17) “For ʾAlāhā did not send his son to the world so that he might judge it — the world; but so that the world might live by his hand (by means of him).” √DWN dūn “to judge”, impf. nəḏūn “he will judge”; nəḏūnīw (OR nəḏūnèh) “he will judge him”. ALSO Acts 24:6. SIMILARLY, √ŠWṬ “to despise”, šūṭ, nəšūṭ, nəšūṭīw (1Cor16:11). But note that a 2nd-W may get ī instead of ū in the middle (that is, a 2nd-Y), as in sām, nəsīm.

2014-05-15

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ Make a sentence from each word

6 ܦܶܥܪܐ : ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ : ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ : ܐܰܥܶܠ

ܫܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܦܶܥܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
The wall has a small opening in it.
ܐܘܪܚܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ.
The road has a car in it.
ܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܥܒܰܪ ܠܓܰܒܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ.
He wanted to pass through to the other side.
ܐܰܥܶܠ ܐܝܕܶܗ ܒܦܶܥܪܐ.
He inserted his hand into the opening.

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܠܡ̈ܶܠܐ Match nouns to verbs

ܐܰܝܟ: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܦܳܪܚܐ

7 ܨܶܦܪܐ : ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ : ܚܶܘܝܐ : ܣܰܡܐ : ܢܰܗܪܐ
ܩܳܛܶܠ : ܢܳܟܶܬ : ܡܛܰܒܰܥ : ܕܳܝܫܐ : ܦܳܪܚܐ

ܨܶܦܪܐ ܦܳܪܚܐ.
A bird flies {praḥ, pt-f}.
ܪܰܕܳܝܬܐ ܕܳܝܫܐ.
A car treads (runs over) {√DWŠ pt. dāʾeš, dāyšā}.
ܚܶܘܝܐ ܢܳܟܶܬ.
A snake {ḥewyā m} bites.
ܣܰܡܐ ܩܳܛܶܠ.
Poison {sammā m} kills.
ܢܰܗܪܐ ܡܛܰܒܰܥ.
A river makes [you] sink.

Peal Impf/Impt + Obj. Suffix

2014-05-15

There are two classes of unsuffixed forms: (1) -∅ and (2) -ūn/ān/īn.

§1 [3m-sg] neqṭól is an example of (1), where:

(A) The new stem without ó***, neqṭl-, is used before a vowel, just like [3m-pl] neqṭl-ūn. The form neqṭl-ī- is often used for “him” and “her”.

(B) The old stem (neqṭól-***) is used before a consonant: neqṭól-ḵṓn “he will kill you guys”, neqṭól-ḵēn “he will kill you girls”

2014-08-10: *** I had made it neqṭṓl, perhaps because of N §48: In many cases ܘܿ may denote an o originally short, but lengthened by the tone; so perrhaps in ܢܷܩܛܘܿܠ [...] Still, there is as little certainty about this [...] Starting today, I treat the o in Impf. (a/o, etc.) and Impt. as “Maybe long, maybe short” (neqṭồl). [Cf. Palacios (1931, 1954) 13c]

2014-08-18: I will write this ô as ȯ̂ instead of ồ (neqṭȯ̂l).

2014-08-25: I will just use ô for this (neqṭôl).

2014-08-28: Basically, this ô should be short; because if it’s long, it can’t become ə as in neḵtôḇ vs. neḵtəḇūn.

2014-09-29: According to N §158D, the ô in qṭôl and qṭôlūn (Impt.) is short.

2015-01-12: Now I will use ó for this, instead of ô.

§1.1 Suffixed forms of Class (1) share the same pattern:

§1.2 [2m-sg] teqṭól “you (m.sg) will kill” has additional, imperative-like forms, which retain the ó, and are used chiefly in prohibitions: teqṭól-ā-yh̊ẙ1 ♥ (ES prob. teqṭólayh̊ẙ: see below (4)), teqṭólēh, teqṭólayn(ẙ).

Unlike -eh, -ēh is feminine!

And -āy is just another “Heart” ending!

[2014-12-15: The feminine suffix -ēh for “her” is also used in 3rd-Y Imperfect, e.g. neḡlēh “He will show her”.]

[2015-01-06: Perhaps the -ēh of Impt. and 2nd Impf. is from -ay-(ā)h, and the -ēh of 3rd-Y is from -ē-(ā)h < -Vy-(ā)h.]

1 Thackston §15.2 is wrong about this one, saying *-īwh̊ẙ instead of -āyh̊ẙ. Additionally, his table is misleading, suggesting that those -āy/ēh/ayn endings (OR -īw/ēh/ayn according to him) are possible both with the “you (m.sg)” form and with the “she” form.

§2 A stem of Class (2) gets -ā-. However, +2f-sg is -èkẙ and +3m-sg can be -èh, where the -ā- is missing. [Both in (1) and (2), there are always 2 or 3 possible forms for “him”.]

§2.1 [3f-pl] neqṭlān, simply has -ān- insted of -ūn-: neqṭlān-ā-yh̊ẙ ♥ OR neqṭlān-èh “they-f will kill him”, +3f-sg neqṭlānāh; neqṭlānāḵ, neqṭlānèḵẙN; neqṭlānān(ẙ); neqṭlānāḵṓnNBR, etc. — Similarly, [2f-pl] teqṭlānāyh̊ẙ ♥ OR teqṭlānèh “you girls will kill him”, etc.

§2.2 Similarly, [2f-sg] teqṭlīn: teqṭlīn-ā-yh̊ẙ ♥ OR teqṭlīn-èh “thou-f wilt kill him”, +3f-sg teqṭlīnāh; teqṭlīnānẙ, teqṭlīnānNBR

2014-12-10, 2014-12-13: In Perfect and Imperative, the 2nd sg. fem. form is practically identical to the 2nd sg. mas. form (qṭóltẙ = qṭólt, qṭólẙ = qṭól). However, they are quite different in Imperfect (teqṭlīn ≠ teqṭól).

ܐܶܥܒܶܕ “I will do” // ܥܺܐܕܐ ܐܶܥܒܕܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱ “the festival — I will do it” [Acts 18:21] // OR ܐܶܥܒܕܶܗ “I will do it”

ܐܶܥܒܕܝܗ̇ ܠܰܣܒܰܪܬ̥ܶܗ “I will do (preach) it — his gospel (sḇarṯèh f < sḇarṯā).” [1Corinthians 9:18]

ܐܶܥܒ݁ܶܕ݂ ES ܐܸܥܒܸ݁ܕ݂

ʕḇaḏ (a/e)
ʾeʕbəḏīw = ʾeʕbəḏèh
ʾeʕbəḏīh

2014-05-16

Regular Verb With Suffixes (Peal) [Nöldeke §185]
N185.jpg 283 KiB

2014-05-23

Imperat.

§1 [2m-sg] qṭól: The ó is kept even though the 3rd rad. (l) gets its own vowel and the 2nd rad. makes an open syllabale. Exactly like the long suffixed forms of 2m-sg, impf.

§2 [2f-sg] qṭólẙ: Predictably qṭólī-.

§3 While qṭólā-, qṭólī-, and qṭólē- are acceptable, the Syriac people generally did not like qṭólû- + suffix, and used quṭlû- + suffix instead, to avoid the open syllable in this case (qṭó- > quṭ-). This form is like Pf. 3rd pl. mas. qaṭlû-. The u after the 1st rad. is short(*) [N §190D]. Similarly, as a longer form, quṭlūnā- + suffix is preferred to qṭólūnā- + suffix.

2014-09-14: (*) This u occurs even when the verb type is not a/o. For example: dḇar/neḏbar (a/a, because of the 3rd R) “lead (away)”; dḇarů “you guys take away!”; duḇr-û(h)y “you guys take him away!” (Jn18:31) instead of *dḇar-û(h)y.

2016-05-09: *Dḇarû(h)y does occur in Jn18:31 S, however (see below).

— That said, forms like qṭólûh̊y2 ❊ OR qṭólūnāyh̊ẙ3 ♥ are also found, though less common.

2 N §190A “here and there”. Robinson (1962) p. 81 fn. “also found”.

3 N §190F “less common”.

§4 Suffixed 2f-pl forms: Each of them has a seyame. Unlike 2f-sg, qṭólẙ becomes qṭólā-. The longer form is qṭólēn(ā-).

Notice that, in WS, the shorter form of “You girls, kill him!” is identical to “You boy, kill him!”. However, these two are different in ES, because, while both ES and WS use qṭólāy(hy) for “You girls”, the 2nd sg. m. form is qṭólay(hy) in ES.

2014-07-29

Imperative: -āy is sometimes -ay in ES, but not always

East Syriac (ES) References: Mingana Clef and the NY Peshitta (1886)

(1) Impt. 2m-sg +him ends in -āy(hy) in WS, -ay(hy) in ES (N §49B, §190G):

Jn 19:6 ܨܠܘܒܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (ṣlóḇāy(hy)) “crucify (2m-sg) him!” — ES ܨܠܘܿܒܲܝܗܝ (ṣlóbay(hy))

(2) On the other hand, impt. 2f-pl (short form) +him has -āy(hy) both in ES and WS (Cf. N §190E):

Rom 15:11 ܫܰܒܚܳܝ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ (šabbḥāy(hy)) Pa. “praise (2f-pl) him!” — ES ܫܲܒ݁ܚܵܝ̈ܗܝ

This is in 2f-pl, because the subject ʾemwāṯā “peoples” is plural, and treated as feminine.

Pael Impt. keeps the a after the 1st rad. and takes the same endings as Peal Impt. According to Mingana*1, the e is kept only in 2m-sg*2. (α) [2m-sg] qaṭṭel: qaṭṭelāy(hy) {Ungnad p. 121} (ES qaṭṭelay(hy) {Mingana}) qaṭṭelēh qaṭṭelayn; BUT (β) [2f-sg] qaṭṭelẙ: qaṭṭlīw(hy) qaṭṭlīh qaṭṭlīn; (γ) [2m-pl] qaṭṭelů: qaṭṭlû(h)y -ûh -ûn (like Peal 2m-pl quṭlû(h)y); (δ) [2f-pl] qaṭṭelẙ: qaṭṭlāy(hy) (also in ES) -āh -ān.

(3) Maybe ES has -āy in the longer forms too (quṭlūnāy(hy), qṭólēnāy(hy), etc.), which is certainly true for Impf. forms (e.g. neqṭlūnāy(hy)).

(4) 2014-12-19: The “prohibition” Impf. teqṭólāy(hy) is probably teqṭólay(hy) (short a) in ES. Mingana §496 says, Avec le prohibitif, les pronoms suffixes s’annexent quelquefois à l’aoriste d’après la manière pour l’impératif; although he shows no examples of the “him” form of this, he makes the following comment on the ES form qṭólay(hy) “kill him!” in §491 Footnote 2: Les Occidentaux, mettent ici à tort, un zaḳaph à la dernière radicale, au lieu d’un phataḥ, ex. ܩܛܘܽܠܳܝܗܝ tue-le. Therefore it is probable that teqṭólāy(hy) with a long ā is also wrong in his eyes.

(5) 2014-12-20:

  1. In Peal Impt., a “strange” form like qṭólāy(hy) ES -ay(hy), where the vowel before the 3rd radical is kept, is used in general, except in the pl. m. quṭlû-.
  2. In Pael/Aphel Impt., a “strange” form is not so common. It is seen only in the sg. m. (e.g. qaṭṭelāy(hy) ES -ay(hy), qaṭṭelēh), and in the longer forms (see below). These forms are quite strange, where every one of the three radicals is voweled. From šabbaḥ, we have šabbaḥayn(y) “glorify me” (Jn 17:5); BUT šabbəḥīn(y), šabbəḥûn(y), šabbəḥān(y).

2014-09-15

Impt. 2m-pl (More examples)

lḇeš/nelbaš (e/a intr.) “to clothe oneself”; lḇašů “clothes yourselves!”; luḇšû(h)y “clothe yourselves with him” (Ro13:14). šqal/nešqól (a/o) “to lift up, carry, take away”; šqólů; šuqlû(h)y < *šqólû(h)y. ʕḇaḏ/neʕbeḏ (a/e) “to do, to make”; ʕḇeḏů; ʕuḇdû(h)y < *ʕḇeḏû(h)y (N §190D).

ܐܶܡܰܪ, Impf. ܢܺܐܡܰܪ ES ܢܹܐܡܲܪ (a/a 3rd-R); Impt. 2m-pl ܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱ “you guys say!” ܐܘܡܪܘܗ̱ܝ *ʔəma-rû(h)y > ʔum-rû(h)y.

Pael/Aphel Impt. 2m-pl: the vowel after the 2nd rad. is deleted, just like in Peal, but a new vowel (the u in Pael) is not inserted after the 1st rad. as there is already a vowel after (or before if Aphel) the 1st radical. The net result is, these suffixed forms are identical to the suffixed Pf. 3m-pl forms of the same verb.

palleṭ Pa. “escape, deliver”; Impt. palleṭů; pal(lə)ṭûnẙ “save me!” // qabbel; qabblû(h)y “You guys receive him!” or “They received him”

ʾaṯqen Aph. “to correct, restore”; Impt. ʾaṯqenů; ʾaṯq(ə)nû(h)y “restore him!”

2016-05-07 [N §174B] (I) Many of 1st-A verbs have ó in Impf/Impt (e.g. nēḵól); then the Impt starts with ʾa- (e.g. ʾaḵól). (II) Only a few of them have a (e.g. nḗmar), when the Impt starts with ʾe- (e.g. ʾemar). In WS, type (I) is like ܢܶܐ in Impf, while type (II) is usually like ܢܺܐ.

2015-11-25

ʾumrûh̊y (Mt10:27⁎)

ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܒܚܶܫܘܿܟ̥ܐ܉ ܐܘܡܪܘܗ̱ܝ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܒܢܰܗܝܪܐ. ܘܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܒܶܐܕ̥ܢܰܝ̈ܟ̊ܘܢ ܫܳܡܥܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ܉ ܐܰܟ̥ܪܶܙܘ̱ ܥܰܠ ܐܶܓܳܪ̈ܐ.
ܡܸܕܸ݁ܡ ܕܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܚܸܫܘܿܟ݂ܵܐ: ܐܘܼܡܪܘܼܗܝ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܒܢܲܗܝܼܪܵܐ. ܘܡܸܕܸ݁ܡ ܕܒܸܐܕ݂ܢܲܝ̈ܟ݁ܘܿܢ ܫܵܡ̇ܥܝܼܢ ܐܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ: ܐܲܟ݂ܪܸܙܘ ܥܲܠ ܐܸܓܵܪܹܐ̈.܀
ḥeššṓḵā “dark(ness)”; nahhīrā “light”; ʾaḵrez Aph. “to proclaim, preach”; ʾeggārā “wall, roof”

In S: ܐܡܪܘܗܝ (ʾemarûh̊y ?): The regular form of the Impt. masc. pl. with suffix occurs in ܕܘܒܪܘܗܝ Joh xviii 31 S (sic), but for verbs with initial ܐ we find ܐܡܪܘܗܝ ‘say ye it’ Matt x 27 S, ܐܚܕܘܗܝ ‘take ye him’ Matt xxii 13 S, Mk xiv 44 S. (Burkitt, Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe, vol. 2, p. 55.)

2016-05-09

duḇrûh̊y vs. *dḇarûh̊y (Jn18:31⁎ P/S)

Although Burkitt (1904) reads ܕܘܒܪܘܗܝ in John 18:31 and he even says “sic”, this was updated by Agnes Smith Lewis as ܕܒܪ̈ܘܗܝ [The Old Syriac Gospels (1910), p. 299]. This means that in S, Suffixed Impt. pl. m. is always of type qṭólû-, and not quṭlû-, that is, the vowel before the 3rd rad. is kept. In this case, *dḇarû(h)y instead of duḇrû(h)y (the form in John 18:31 P).

ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܦܝܠܰܛܳܘܣ. ܕܘܒܪܘܗ̱ܝ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ܁ ܘܕܘܢܘܗ̱ܝ ܐܰܝܟ ܢܳܡܘܣܟ̥ܘܢ. ܐܳܡ̇ܪܝܢ ܠܶܗ ܝܺܗ̈ܘܕܳܝܐ. ܠܐ ܫܰܠܝܛ ܠܰܢ ܠܡܶܩܛܰܠ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ.
ܐܸܡ̣ܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܦܝܼܠܵܛܘܿܣ: ܕܘܼܒ݂ܪܘܼܗܝ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܘܕ݂ܘܼܢܘܼܗܝ ܐܲܝܟ ܢܵܡܘܿܣܟ݂ܘܿܢ. ܐܵܡܪܝܼܢ ܠܹܗ ܝܗ݇ܘܼ̈ܕܵܝܹܐ: ܠܵܐ ܫܲܠܝܼܛ ܠܲܢ ܠܡܸܩܛܲܠ ܠܐ݇ܢܵܫ.܀
ܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܦܝܠܛܘܣ ܡܕܝܢ ܕܒܪ̈ܘܗܝ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܘܕܘܢܘܗܝ ܐܝܟ ܢܡܘܣܟܘܢ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܠܢ ܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ ܠܢ ܠܡܩܛܠ
DWN (dān) = “to judge”; nāmōsā = νόμος, “law, custom, customary law”; šallīṭ = (with l- and inf.) “to have the right to do, to be allowed to do”
ܡܳܕ̥ܶܝܢ = “well then, therefore” (οὖν)

2016-05-06

zuqpûh̊y (Jn19:6⁎)

ܟܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܚܙܰܐܘܗ̱ܝ ܪ̈ܰܒܰܝ ܟܳܗ̈ܢܐ ܘܕܰܚ̈ܫܐ ܩܥܰܘ ܘܳܐܡܪܝܢ. ܨܠܘܿܒܳܝܗ̱ܝ܁ ܨܠܘܿܒܳܝܗ̱ܝ܀ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܦܝܠܰܛܳܘܣ. ܕܒܰܪܘ̱ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܿܢ ܘܙܘܩܦܘܗ̱ܝ. ܐܶܢܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܠܐ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܠܬ̥ܐ܀
ܟܲܕ ܕܹܝܢ ܚܙܵܐܘܼܗܝ ܪܲܒܲܝ̈ ܟܵܗ̈ܢܹܐ ܘܕܲܚܫܹ̈ܐ: ܩܥ̣ܵܘ ܘܐܵܡܪܝܼܢ: ܨܠܘܿܒܲܝܗܝ: ܨܠܘܿܒܲܝܗܝ. ܐܵܡܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܦܝܼܠܵܛܘܿܣ: ܕܒܲܪܘ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܘܙܘܼܩܦܘܼܗܝ: ܐܸܢܵܐ ܓܹܝܪ ܠܵܐ ܡܸܫܟܲܚ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܒܹܗ ܥܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ.܀
ܕܰܚܫܐ = [CAL] Iranian “attendant, lictorAn officer in ancient Rome, attendant on a consul or magistrate”; [LS2] pers.? satellesattendant, guard, follower, lictor; [Jess] only pl. m. “the guard, attendants, yeomen” [Wikt] From Parthian *daxš. [2016-11-17 Not in MacK][2016-11-21 Not in MMPP]
ܦܥܐ = “cry out, shout, scream”
ܨܠܰܒ impf. ܢܶܨܠܘܒ = “to crucify”
ܙܩܰܦ impf. ܢܶܙܩܘܿܦ = “to lift up, hang (on a tree), to rise up”: P-UK ܙܘܩܦ̥ܘܗ̱ܝ with a soft p̄. [Also the vowel ā is called Zqāp̄ā.]
ʕell(ə)ṯā = “pretext, cause, evidence, proof”

2014-08-14

Infinitive

Peal l-meqṭal: (1) the vowel between the 2nd and 3rd rad. (-a-) is deleted if the suffix begins with a vowel: l-meqṭ(ə)l-èh, etc. (2) Otherwise simply: l-meqṭal-ḵṓn, etc.

Pael la-mqaṭṭālū — ū is long and originally is -ūṯ (ṯ reappears when suffixed) [N §167]: la-mqaṭṭālūṯ-èh, la-mqaṭṭālūṯ-ḵṓn, etc.

2015-01-10: Sometimes, a non-Peal inf. (-ū) + “me” ends in -ūṯẙ instead of -ūṯanẙ.

Examples of Imperative forms: Peal, Pael, Aphel

2014-09-19

Peal

  1. ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ “You guys, hear!” and ܫܘܡܥܘܢܝ̱ “You guys, hear me!” (Mk7:14; Ac15:13) ܫܘܼܡܥܘܼܢܝ // šma-ʕů to šum-ʕûnẙ

Pael

  1. ܩܰܒܶܠ ܟܬܳܒܳܟ ܘܬ̥ܶܒ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܬܡܳܢܺܐܝܢ ܟܘܪ̈ܝܢ “Receive your book, and sit {yīṯeḇ: teḇ} [and] write ‘80 kṓr’.” (Lk16:7) ܩܲܒܸ݁ܠ ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܟ: ܘܬܸܒ݂ ܟܬ݂ܘܿܒ݂ ܬܡܵܢܐܝܼܢ ܟ̈ܘܿܪܝܼܢ. // ES Seyame not on R. // Kor = Jess. 11⅑ bushels (≈404.1 L) [2015-01-11: 10*Ephah ≈ est. 380L; LSJ κόρος (D), ὁ, Hebr. A.kor, a dry measure containing, acc. to J.AJ 15.9.2, 10 Att. medimni (about 120 gallons) ≈ 500L]
  2. ܩܰܒܶܠܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “Accept him!” (Philemon 1:12/1:17) ܩܲܒܸ݁ܠܲܝܗܝ // WS -āy(hy), ES -ay(hy)
  3. From ܫܰܒܰܚ Pa. Impt. 2m-sg, ܫܰܒܰܚܰܝܢܝ̱ “glorify me!” (Jn17:5), ܫܲܒܲܚܲܝܢܝ // in +"me/us" even WS has ayn // Peshitta Tool šabbaḥaynə(y)
  4. ܘܶܐܢ ܨܳܒܶܝܢ ܐ̱ܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܩܰܒܶܠܘ̱ ܕܗܘܝܘ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܕܰܥܬ̥ܝܕ ܠܡܶܐܬ̥ܐ ܀ (ṣāḇē(t)tṓn < ṣāḇēn tṓn) “And if you guys are willing, accept that he is Elīyā that is (OR: was) prepared {ʕṯīḏ} to come.” (Matthew 11:14⁎) ܘܐܸܢ ܨܵܒܹܝܢ ܐܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ: ܩܲܒܸ݁ܠܘ: ܕܗܘܝ̤ܘ ܐܹܠܝܼܵܐ ܕܲܥܬ݂ܝܼܕ݂ ܠܡܹܐܬ݂ܵܐ.܀
    1. This may sound strange, like “believe that if you want to, but the fact is different”; sure enough, both S. and C. have ܨܒܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܠܡܩܒܠܘ (la-məqabbālū: Long ū N §167) “if you guys are willing to accept, he is…” implying “even if you don’t accept it, the fact is this.”
    2. Peshitta Tool says hūyū=“that is to say”, but this one should be hū (pron.) + hū (copula) “he is the one” as in CAL. Also explained very well in Alan 91. [2015-01-11: P-NY, with Alan, spells this as ܕܗܘ̤ܝܘܼ in Lk 4:41, but as ܕܗܘܝ̤ܘ here and in Mt 16:20, Lk 24:21, Jn 9:9, possibly implying a contracted pronunciation, e.g. dhū-yū > dhūw.]
    3. καὶ εἰ θέλετε δέξασθαι, αὐτός ἐστιν Ἠλίας ὁ μέλλων ἔρχεσθαι // δέξασθαι is aor. inf. of δέχομαι. Apparently Peshitta reads this word as aor. imperat. δέξασθε, if it is based on Greek at all. Since Old Syriac versions are exactly like Greek versions, probably Peshitta is the one that is strange here.
    4. Vulgate: et si vultis recipere, ipse est Elias, qui venturus est.
    5. qabbelů could be also Pf. 3m-pl.
  5. ܩܰܒܠܘܗ̱ܝ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܒܡܳܪܝܐ “You guys accept him, therefore {hāḵḗl}, in the Lord!” (Philippians 2:29) ܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܗܝ ܗܵܟܹܝܠ ܒܡܵܪܝܵܐ // The e in qabbel- is predictably deleted, except that in 2m-sg we have qabbel-ây ēh ayn. The suffixes -ûy ûh ûn are the same as in Pael. // Also note that qab(bə)lûy(hy) could be Pf. 3m-pl.
  6. 2014-09-20 ܘܶܐܢ ܠܐ ܐܳܦܶܢ ܐܰܝܟ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ ܩܰܒܠܘܢܝ̱ “And if not, even if [so] {ʾāp̄en CAL Hard P}, you guys accept me as a fool!” (2Corinthians 11:16) ܘܐܸܢ ܠܵܐ: ܐܵܦܸܢ ܐܲܝܟ ܕܲܠܣܲܟ݂ܠܵܐ ܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢܝ // Similarly, with “me”, qab(bə)lûn(y); this could be 3m-pl too. ES has “dal” before saḵlā.
    1. This sentence comes after “No one should think that I am a fool!” and could be interpreted as a humble request: “If what I just said is not true and I am indeed a fool, even if so, at least accept me as your foolish friend.” The intention is unclear for two reasons. First, Paul says something negative (not a man shall think this way), and then says “if otherwise”, which could mean either “if what I said is wrong and one may think that way” or “if anyone doesn’t think that way”. Secondly, the true intention of ʾāp̄en is unclear. It is even possible to think that qabblûy(hy) is Pf. 3m-pl, and the real meaning is “Let no one take me for a fool [anymore], even though they [originally] received me as a foolish person,” although since the subject is “not a man” (singular), 3m-pl would be abrupt (no one and they mix well in English, but not in Syriac).
    2. εἰ δὲ μή γε, κἂν ὡς ἄφρονα δέξασθέ με: Okay, so it’s basically, “if you think otherwise, even if so, accept me just like [you would accept] a poor idiot”.
    3. The Vulgate is the winner in the clearness contest here: ne quis me putet insipientem esse, alioquin {or else} velut {just like} insipientem accipite me.

Aphel

  1. ܐܰܘܟܶܠ “Make eat (Feed)!” Aphel Impt. 2m-sg (=Pf. 3m-sg =Impf. 1m-sg*) ܐܵܘܟܸ݁ܠ // ܐܰܘܟܶܠܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “Make him eat!” (Ro12:20) ܐܵܘܟܸ݁ܠܲܝܗܝ // Notice ES uses ay(hy) instead of āy(hy) also in Aphel: ʾawkelay(hy)

    * As in 1Co13:3, “Even if I let them eat all that I have…”

  2. ܐܰܫܩܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “Make him drink” (ibid.), 3rd-Y Aphel. ܐܲܫܩܵܝܗܝ // ES āy(hy) if 3rd-Y. {See Mingana, Paradigme Douzième} < *ʾašqeyay(hy)
  3. ܐܰܦܝܣܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (ʾap̈sāy Greek P; from πείθω) Aphel Impt. “Persuade him” (1Timothy 5:1) ܐܲܦܝܼܣܲܝܗܝ // ES ay(hy) again < *ʾap̈yesay(hy)

Wheelock 34

2014-05-10

1 Nisi quis plēbī opem celeriter referet auxiliumve prōmissum praebēbit, mīlia virōrum morientur.
Unless someone brings back help quickly to the common people {plēbs plēbis f} or offers {praebeō} the promissed aid, thousands of men will die.
2. Cum urbs plēna custōdiārum esset, nōn ausī estis suscipere scelera tam gravia quam voluerātis.
With the city being full (=Since the city was full) of guards, you guys did not dare to undertake such grave crimes that you guys had wished.
3. Dīc nunc cūr velīs tē ad istam dīvitem et candidam cōnferre. Vērē ac līberē loquere; nōlī recūsāre!
Now tell [me] why you wish {velīs = subj.pres. of velō} to betake yourself to (=why you want to visit) that rich and shining girl. Speak truly and freely; do not wish to refuse {recūsō}!
4. Dīvitiīs trāditīs, heu, illī philosophī eādem nocte subitō profectī sunt in exsilium, unde numquam ēgredī potuērunt.
After [their?] riches had been given over (confiscated?), alas, those philosophers suddenly (on) the same night set forth {proficīscor, profectus sum} into exile, where they were never able to go out {ēgredior}.

2014-05-13

5. Nē patiāmur hanc antīquissimam scientiam āmittī.
Let us not permit this very old knowledge to be lost.
6. Fateor mē vīnō merō apud mē ūsūrum esse.
I admit that I will enjoy {ūsūrus esse = fut. inf. of ūtor} pure wine at my place.
7. Ab initiō nōn comprehendistī quantus exercitus nōs sequerētur et quot elephantōs istī mīlitēs sēcum dūcerent.
At first you did not understand how great an army was following us, and how many elephants these soldiers were leading with them.

2014-05-15

8. Prīmō respondit sē nōlle sequī ducem mediocris virtūtis sapientiaeve, cum cīvitās in līmine bellī stāret.
At first, he answered that he did not want to follow a leader of mediocre virtue or wisdom, when the state stood {stō} on verge of war.
9. Ex urbe subitō ēgressus, ferrō suō morī semel cōnātus est.
Suddenly having gone out from the city, he once tried {cōnor} die with his own sword.
10. Cum Aristotelēs hortārētur hominēs ad virtūtem, tamen arbitrābātur virtūtem in hominibus nōn nāscī.
Although Aristotle encouraged {hortor subj-impf} men to virtue, he nevertheless was thinking that virtue was not born in men.

2014-05-18

11. Māter paterque nunc rūsticantur ut ā labōribus remissiōne suāvī ūtantur.
[My] mother and father now live in the country {rūsticor ārī} so that they may enjoy sweet relaxation {remissiō ōnis f} (=vacation) from the labors {labor bōris}.
12. Dā mihi, amābō tē, multum salis et vīnum aquamve, ut cēnā maximē ūtar.
Give me, PLEASE (lit. I will love you), a lot of wit and wine or water so that I may very much enjoy the dinner.
13. They did not permit me to speak with him at that time.
Mē eī (Mē cum eō?) dīcere tum nōn passī sunt.
14. We kept thinking (arbitror) that he would use the office more wisely.
Arbitrābāmur eum officiō sapientius ūsūrum esse.
15. If any one should use this water even once, he would die.
Sī quis hāc aquā etiam semel ūtātur, moriātur.

2014-05-21

16. If those four soldiers had followed us, we would not have dared to put the weapons on the ships.
Sī illī quattuor mīlitēs nōs secūtī essent, arma in nāvibus pōnere nōn ausī essēmus.
¶ arma, armōrum, n.
17. This dinner will be good, provided that you use salt.
Haec cēna erit bona, dummodo sale ūtāris.
SA1. Cēdāmus Phoebō et, monitī, meliōra sequāmur.
Let us yield to Phoebus and, having been warned, let us follow better things.
2. Nam nēmō sine vitiīs nāscitur; optimus ille est quī minima habet.
For no one is born without faults {vitium}; he who has the least [vice] is the best.

2014-05-27

3. Mundus est commūnis urbs deōrum atque hominum; hī enim sōlī, ratiōne ūtentēs, iūre ac lēge vīvunt.
The world is the common city of gods and men; for they alone, usuing reason, live by laws {iūs iūris} and statute {lēx legis}.
4. Tardē sed graviter vir sapiēns īrāscitur.
Slowly but gravely a wise man becomes angry.
(*Publilius Syrus) A Latin writer of maxims in the 1st century (ca. 85–ca. 43) BCE. A Syrian, brought as a slave to Italy. Syria was a Roman province, annexed in 64 BCE (until around 638 CE).
5. Quae cum ita sint, Catilīna, ēgredere ex urbe; patent portae; proficīscere; nōbīscum versārī iam diūtius nōn potes; id nōn feram, nōn patiar.
Since these things are thus, Catilīna, go out of the city; the doors are open; start; now you can no longer stay with us; I will not bear it, nor permit [it].
6. Cūra pecūniam crēscentem sequitur et dīves male dormit.
Worry follows increasing money and a rich man poorly sleeps.

2014-05-29

7. Sī in Britanniam profectus essēs, nēmō in illā tantā īnsulā iūre perītior fuisset.
If you had set out into Britain, nobody in that big island would have been more skilled in law.
8. Nisi laus nova nāscitur etiam vetus laus in incertō iacet ac saepe āmittitur.
Unless new praise is born, even old praise lies in [being] uncertain and often is lost.

2014-05-30

9. Spērō autem mē secūtum esse in libellīs meīs tālem temperantiam ut nēmō bonus dē illīs querī possit.
I hope, however, that I followed in my little books such modesty that no one good may be able to complain about them.
10. Hōrae quidem et diēs et annī discēdunt; nec praeteritum tempus umquam revertitur, nec quid sequātur potest scīrī.
Hours, indeed, and days and years go away; neither does past time ever return, nor can what follows be known.
11. Nōvistī mōrēs mulierum: dum mōliuntur, dum cōnantur, dum in speculum spectant, annus lābitur.
You know {nōscō, nōscere, nōvī} the habits of women: while they plan, while they try, while they look at a mirror, a year slips by.
12. Amīcitia rēs plūrimās continet; nōn aquā, nōn igne in plūribus locīs ūtimur quam amīcitiā.
Friendship contains very many things; we do not enjoy water nor fire in more places than friendship.

2014-06-02

13. Homō stultus! Postquam dīvitiās habēre coepit, mortuus est!
A fool man! After he started {coepī pf} to have the riches, he died.
14. Ō passī graviōra, dabit deus hīs quoque fīnem.
O you who have suffered from rather serious things, the god will give an end to them too.

2014-06-06

Et ille quidem animam ēbulliit, et ex eō dēsiit vīvere vidērī. Exspīrāvit autem dum comoedōs audit, ut sciās mē nōn sine causā illōs timēre.
And he indeed bubbled out [his] soul, and since then he ceased to be seen alive. He died, however, while he [was] listening to comic actors, so that you may know that I do not fear those men without a reason.
Ultima vōx eius haec inter hominēs audīta est, cum maiōrem sonitum ēmisisset illā parte quā facilius loquēbātur: “Vae me, putō, concacāvī.” Quod an fēcerit, nesciō — omnia certē concacāvit!
This last voice of his was heard among them, while he let out a bigger sound from that part with which he used to speak more easily: “Alas, I think, I defecated upon myself. Which, I do not know if he did, [but] he certainly defecated on all (everywhere).”

2014-06-09

Mentītur quī tē vitiōsum, Zōile, dīcit:
nōn vitiōsus homō es, Zōile, sed vitinum!
He who says that you, Zōilus, are vicious {vitiōsus}, is lying:
You are not vicious, Zōilus, but [you are] (=your very existence is) vice.

2014-06-11

Bella es, nōvimus, et puella, vērum est,
et dīves — quis enim potest negāre?
You are beautiful, we know, and you are a girl, it is true,
and you are rich — who, really, can deny [it]?
Sed cum tē niminum, Fabulla, laudās,
nec dīves neque bella nec puella es!
But when you praise yourself too much, Fabulla,
you are neither rich nor beautiful nor a girl.

2014-07-20

Catullus 51

Ille mī pār esse deō vidētur,
ille, sī fās est, superāre dīvōs,
quī, sedēns adversus, identidem tē
spectat et audit
dulce rīdentem, miserō quod omnīs
ēripit sēnsūs mihi: nam simul tē,
Lesbia, aspexī, nihil est super mī,
[Lesbia, vōcis,]
lingua sed torpet, tenuis sub artūs
flamma dēmānat, sonitū suōpte
tintinant aurēs, geminā teguntur
lūmina nocte.
That man seems to me to be like a god,
that man, if it is right [to say this], [seems] to be better than gods,
who {sg/pl here sg}, sitting {sedeō} opposite [you], again and again
sees and hears you
sweetly smiling, which takes away all senses
from miserable me: for as soong as
I beheld you, O Lesbia, none remains for me,
[Lesbia, none of voice,]
but my tongue grows numb, a thin {tenuis} flame, under my limbs,
flows through {MAYBE like, I feel chilly?}, with the sound of itself
my ears ring, my eyes {lūmen nis n. poetic} are covered by twin {geminus ā}
night {=doubled darkness}.
Ōtium, Catulle, tibi molestum est;
ōtiō exsultās nimiumque gestīs;
ōtium et rēgēs prius et beātās
perdidit urbēs.
Leisure {ōtium OR Idleness}, O Catullus, is troublesome for you;
in leisure you exult and are triumphant {gestīre} too much {nimium};
leisure previously
have destroyed both kings and happy towns.

The Poetry of Gaius Valerius Catullus/51 - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 6 / Cf. Alan125] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 6 [ܕܶܫܬܐ]: ܟܝܣܐ ܐܰܒܝܕܐ

2014-05-03

ܪܳܕܶܐ ܩܳܥܶܐ ܐܰܘܕܝ ܩܰܒܶܠ ܫܳܘܶܐ
rāḏē qāʕē ʾawdī#1 qabbel#2 šāwē
to travel √RDY to shout, cry out √QʕY APHEL to confess, praise, give thanks √YDY Pa. to receive, accept to be worthy, to deserve √ŠWY usu. with d- or l-
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܠܫܘܩܐ، ܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢܶܗ ܟܝܣܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ ܘܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܒܶܗ.
A certain rich {ʾattīrā} man#3, while he was going — one day — to the market place; from him [his] money bag full-of-money#4 fell, and he did not know about it#5.

2014-05-04

ܘܪܳܕܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܪܶܗ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
And a small boy was traveling behind {bāṯar} him.
ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܠܟܝܣܐ ܕܰܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ، ܡܶܚܕܐ ܫܰܩܠܶܗ، ܘܰܪܗܶܛ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܥܶܐ: ܕܳܕܐ ܕܳܕܐ، ܗܐ ܟܝܣܐ ܕܰܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢܳܟ!
And when he saw the money bag that fell (=saw the money bag fall) from the rich man, he at once {meḥḏā < men ḥḏā; D is soft N §156} took it, and ran {√RHṬ} after the rich man while shouting: Uncle, uncle, look, the money bag that fell from you!
ܘܰܫܩܰܠ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ ܠܟܝܫܐ، ܘܐܰܘܕܝ [ܘܰܐܘܕܝ] ܠܶܗ ܠܫܰܒܪܐ.
And the rich man received the money bag, and gave thanks to him — to the boy.
ܘܟܰܕ ܨܒܐ ܢܶܬܶܠ* [ܕܢܶܬܶܠ] ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ، ܠܐ ܩܰܒܶܠ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܠܐ ܥܶܒܕܶܬ̥ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܫܳܘܶܐ ܠܰܐܓ̥ܪܐ.
And when he wished {ṣḇā √ṢBY}#6 he would give#7 something to him, the boy did not accept {qabbel D} [it], but {ʾellā} said: I did not do {ʕeḇdèṯ#8} something that deserves reward {ʾaḡrā}.

2014-09-28: ṣḇā usually takes Impf. or Inf. Alan 125 also has this as ṣḇā neṯel lèh.

2014-05-05

ܘܚܳܪ ܒܶܗ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ ܘܐܰܢܝܕ [ܘܰܐܢܝܕ] ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ [ܘܶܐܡܰܪ]: ܛܘܒܐ ܠܰܐܒܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥* [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥] ܠܗܘܢ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܗܳܢܐ ܀
And the rich man looked at (OR respected) {√ḤWR} him and shook/wagged (=nodded repeatedly)#9 his head, and said: Goodness is for (=Blessed are) [such] fathers {ʾaḇāhē} that there are to him good sons like this.

2014-05-06

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ؟
(To) where was the rich man going?
ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܫܘܩܐ.
He was going to the market place.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢܶܗ؟
What did fall from him?
ܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢܶܗ ܟܝܣܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ.
A bag full of money fell from him.
3 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܐ ܠܟܝܣܐ؟
Who saw the money bag?
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܙܥܪܐ ܚܙܐ ܠܟܝܣܐ (ܫܰܒܪܐ ܙܥܪܐ ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱).
A small boy saw the money bag (A small boy saw it).
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܒܟܝܣܐ؟
What did he do with the money bag?
ܡܶܚܕܐ ܫܰܩܠܶܗ، ܘܰܪܗܶܛ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ.
Immediately he took it, and ran after the rich man.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ؟
What did the rich man say?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: «ܛܘܒܐ ܠܰܐܒܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܗܳܢܐ.»
He said: “Blessed are fathers who have good boys like this [one].”

2014-05-07

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ Make a sentence from each word

6 ܥܰܬܝܪܐ : ܛܘܒܐ : ܐܰܓ̥ܪܐ : ܐܰܢܝܕ ܪܝܫܶܗ

ܐܶܙܰܠ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ ܠܫܘܩܐ ܘܰܙܒܰܢ ܚܰܡܫܝܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
The rich man went to the market place and bought 50 apples.
ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ ܛܘܒܐ.
He gave me blessing.
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܟܘܢ ܐܰܓ̥ܪܐ ܪܰܒܐ.
There is a big reward for you guys.
ܐܰܢܝܕ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܓܰܒܪܐ.
The man wagged his head.

ܦܪܘܫ ܫܡܐ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ Note the odd word in each row

7 ܡܘ̈ܙܐ ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܚܰܘܚ̈ܐ
bananas, figs, olives, RAIN, peaches
8 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܘܰܙܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ
bird, dove, RIVER, goose, rooster
9 ܢܘܪܐ ܐܰܒܐ ܐܶܡܐ ܐܰܚܐ ܚܳܠܐ
FIRE (f), father, mother, brother, maternal uncle
10 ܨܰܦܪܐ ܪܰܡܫܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ ܛܰܗܪܐ ܣܰܝܦܐ
morning, evening, night, noon, SWORD

Memo: FSI Language Courses - French Phonology // FSI Language Courses - Arabic Written

Peal Perfect + Object Suffixes

2014-05-04

Suffixed “He”: 1st Radical Gets a

1-A. The sg3m form CCaC becomes CaCC before a vowel-initial suffix [-èh/āh, -āḵ/èḵẙ, -an(ẙ)].

As if any open syllable must be avoided, the a moves back to the previous radical when the (ex-)syllable-closing consonant gets its own vowel:

ܩܛܰܠ ܩܰܛܠܶܗ
“Too close for comfort”

Suffixed “She/I” Is Like Unsuffixed “He”

1-B. The sg3f form CeCCaṯ and the sg1c form CeCCèṯ become CCaCṯ and CCaCt respectively, before a vowel-initial suffix. Before a consonant-initial suffix, the old stem is used in the 3rd sg. fem., just like in the 3rd sg. mas., while the new stem is retained in the 1st sg.

*1 The fact ignored by Thackston. According to Ungnad §46b, the 3rd sg. f. form is originally -aṯ, while the 1st sg. is originally -tu. *2 About which Thackston is very wrong, saying *qeṯlèṯḵṓn.

## 2014-10-12: qṭaltāh could mean both “I killed her” and “You (sg-m) killed her”.

See N §185 / Thackston §7.3 / Paradigme Dixième: Conjugaison du Verbe Sain QṬaL au Prétérit: Première Forme PʕaL in Mingana (1905) / Paradigms V in Muraoka (2005) / Robinson (1962) §20 / Paradigm XI in Ungnad (1913) / Paradigma X in Brockelmann (1960, repr. 1981) / PARADIGMA II. — Verbum regulare cum suffixis in Palacios (1931, nov. ed. 1954).

Note: In several suffixed forms [the “he/they-f” forms minus -ḵṓn/ḵēn forms, and any of the “they-m” forms], the same spelling could be either Pe. or Pa. except that the hardness of the 2nd and/or 3rd radicals is different if they can be spirantized.

2014-05-05

Suffixed “They”: Like Suffixed “He” 1st Radical Gets a

2. The pl3m form CCaCů becomes CaCC+û; this is like sg3m+suffix but with -û- (that is -ū-, though possibly -u-). The pl3f form CCaC becomes CaCC+ā, but in the end pl3f+suffix is almost identical to sg3m+suffix.

“We” and “You”: Easy

3. The other forms (1st person plural, and 2nd persons) are much simpler — one can use an unsuffixed stem + ā (or ī) to make a suffixed form. These endings (ā + obj. suffix) are similar to the ones used in qaṭl(ā)- “they-f killed”: -āy(hy), -āh; -āḵ, -èḵ(y); -ān(y), -ān; -āḵṓn, -āḵēn (not -ḵṓn & -ḵēn). They are also identical to the endings used after qaṭl- “he killed”, except that (1) “him” is not -èh, but -āy(hy); (2) “me/us” is not -an & -an(y), but -ān(y) & -ān; (3) “you guys/you girls” is not -ḵṓn & -ḵēn, but -āḵṓn & -āḵēn (the ā is always there).

** 2014-07-26: Usually the 3f-pl forms get a seyame. Some authors put a seyame also for the suffixed 2f-pl (Robinson 1962), or even for the unsuffixed 2f-pl (Mingana, Clef).

## 2014-10-12: qṭaltāh could mean both “I killed her” and “You (sg-m) killed her”.

“He” Example

Mt2:14⁎ Yāwsip̄ then stood up, took {šqal, šaqlèh} him — the boy — and his mother in/during the night, and fled {ʕraq} to Mëṣrēn (Egypt).

2014-05-06

“She” Example

ܕܒܰܪܬ̥ܶܗ ܪܘܚܐ
Lk4:1 The Spirit led him. ܕܒܰܪ (dḇar) + him = ܕܰܒܪܶܗ (daḇrèh) ܕܶܒܪܰܬ̥ (deḇraṯ) + him = ܕܒܰܪܬ̥ܶܗ (dḇarṯèh) // Again, the holy spirit is feminine!

2014-05-07

“I” Examples

ܛܪܳܘܦܝܡܳܘܣ ܕܶܝܢ ܫܒܰܩܬ̊ܶܗ
About ṬrŪPīmŌs, on the other hand, I left him. (2Timothy 4:20) ܫܒܰܩ (šḇaq) “he left”  ܫܶܒܩܶܬ̥ (šeḇqèṯ) “I left” + him = ܫܒܰܩܬ̊ܶܗ (šḇaqtèh)

“They-m” Examples

ܫܰܒܩܘܗ̱ܝ ܘܶܐܙܰܠܘ̱
They left him (Jesus) and went away. (Mt22:22)  ܫܒܰܩܘ̱ (šḇaq) “they left” + “him” = ܫܰܒܩܘܗ̱ܝ (šaḇqûy) ܫܲܒ݂ܩܘܼܗܝ
ܫܰܒܩܘܗ̇ ܛܳܥܝܐ
They (the soldiers) left her (the boat) wandering {ṬʕY part.} (=drift). (Acts 27:32)  ܫܒܰܩܘ̱ (šḇaq) “they left” + “her” = ܫܰܒܩܘܗ̇ (šaḇqûh)

2014-05-08

“He” vs. “They-f”

ܐܶܫܟܰܚ “to find”: this can be both 3m-sg and 3f-pl (as in Lk 24:23). However, when an object suffix for “him” is attached, ܐܶܫܟܚܶܗ (ʾeškḥèh) “he found him” and ܐܶܫܟܚܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ (ʾeškḥāy) “they-f found him” are distinct.

2015-01-09: This is like gallā (3rd sg. m. OR 3rd pl. f.), gallyèh (3rd sg. m.), gallyāy(hy) (3rd pl. f.).

After a while, Jesus found him. (Jn 5:14)
And they-f entered, and they-f did not find it — the body {paḡrā m} of Jesus. (Lk 24:3⁎) // ʕalēn (single L, see below) = ʕal 3f-pl

“We” and “You”

ܫܡܰܥܢ “we heard”: ܫܡܰܥܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “we heard him”

ܣܥܰܪܬ “thou visited”: ܣܥܰܪܬܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “thou visited him”: ܣܥܰܪܬܘܢ “you visited”: ܣܥܰܪܬܘܢܳܢܝ̱ “you visited me”

ܥܒܲܕ݂ܬ݁ܘܿܢ (ʕḇaḏtṓn) “you guys made”: ܥܒܲܕ݂ܬ݁ܘܿܢܵܝܗܝ (ʕḇaḏtṓnāy) “you guys made it…” (Mt 21:13)

2014-05-09

New & Old Stems

In the +pl2 forms — that is, when the suffixed object is either “you guys” or “you girls”:

In other words: (α) a new stem is used when the “he/she/they-f” forms are suffixed, except that the old stem is used for +pl2; (β) a new stem is always used when the “I/they-m” forms are suffixed; (γ) the old stem is always used as is when the “we/thou/you” forms are suffixed. The “I” forms are rather simple, where always the same one stem is used when suffixed (qṭalt-āḵ, qṭalt-ḵṓn; qṭalt-èḵ, qṭalt-ḵēn; qṭalt-èh, qṭalt-āh). The “she” forms are difficult, where two different stems are used (qṭalṯ-āḵ, BUT qeṭlaṯ-ḵṓn). IF we ignore the +pl2, the suffixed “I” forms and the suffixed “she” forms are identical, except that the -T- is hard in the “I” forms.

ܡܟܲܪܬ݁ܟ݂ܘܿܢ (mḵart(ə)ḵṓn) “I have betrothed you guys”

2015-01-09:

ܐܶܠܐ ܝܺܕܰܥܬܟܘܢ܂ ܕܚܘܒܶܗ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܠܰܝܬ ܒܟܘܢ.
ἀλλὰ (ἀλλ’) ἔγνωκα ὑμᾶς, ὅτι τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς.
ḥubbā “love” (John 5:42⁎) // The Greek Polytonic KL does not support U+2019 [ ’ ] RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK, as in ἀλλ’.

2014-05-27

Two Important Points

Third person forms are more difficult when suffixed, because:

  1. Only sg-3m/f and pl-3f are mixed-stem, where you have to worry about +2pl forms.
  2. In pl-3m, û wins against è in -èḵẙ. The è in the suffix -èḵẙ (“you girl”) wins against -ā-, but loses against -û-.
When suffixed, sg-3f is mixed-stem while sg-1c is single-stem (1-color)
sg-3f qeṭlaṯ qṭalṯèhqṭalṯāhqṭalṯāḵqṭalṯèḵqṭalṯanqeṭlaṯḵṓn
sg-1c qeṭlèṯ qṭaltèhqṭaltāhqṭaltāḵqṭaltèḵqṭaltḵṓn

For qṭaltḵṓn , Thackston says *qeṭlèṯḵṓn, which is hypercorrect and non-standard.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 5] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 5 [ܕܚܰܡܫܐ]: ܒܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܘܰܫܡܰܝܐ

2014-05-01

ܒܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܘܰܫܡܰܝܐ:
ܡܰܪܕܶܐ ܪ̈ܘܚܐ ܐܳܦ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
He creates the earth and the heaven:
he makes winds flow and water(s).
ܪܕܐ “to travel, to go forward” √RDY: Aph. ܐܪܕܝ “to let flow”
ܡܙܰܗܶܐ ܓܰܢ̈ܶܐ ܘܐܽܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ [ܘܽܐܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ]:
ܒܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
He make gardens {gannā gan(n)ṯā m, pl. gannē} and small gardens {ʾōrīṯā f, pl. ʾōryāṯā#1 cf. LS2} shine {zahhī Pa}:
with fruits and sweet {ḥalyā pl. ḥlayyā#2 N §72} flowers.

#1 īṯā→yāṯā (fem) Type (N §75): ܬܰܟ̥ܣܝܬ̥ܐ “garment”, ܬܰܟ̥ܣܝ constr., ܬܰܟ̥ܣܝܳܬ̥ܐ pl.  Similarly, taḥwīṯā taḥw(ə)yāṯā [ES taḥḙwyāṯā] “proof, example”

#2 yā→ayyā Type (N §72, Alan 63-2): ܩܫܶܐ “rough”, ܩܰܫܝܐ emph/f-abs, ܩܫܝܬ̥ܐ f-emph, ܩܫܶܝܢ pl-abs, ܩ̈ܫܰܝܳܐ (qšayyā) pl-emph, ܩܰܫ̈ܝܰܝ (qašyay) constr. // Cf. ܩܘܫܳܝܐ (quššāyā) and ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ // Similarly, ܩܰܢܝܐ and ܩ̈ܢܰܝܳܐ

2014-05-02

ܐܰܢ̱ܬܽ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܳܪܐ ܕܰܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ:
ܘܡܶܢܳܟ ܟܽܠ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܚܰܝܐ.
You are the lord of beings:
and from you {mennāḵ}, every living {ḥayyā} breath/soul {nešmā} [is born].
ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ (hwayyā) “created things, beings” = pl-emph of ܗܘܶܐ and ܗܰܘܝܐ = pass. pt. of ܗܘܐ
ܘܒܳܟ ܩܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܟܽܠ ܒܶܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ:
ܘܠܳܟ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܦܰܐܝܳܐ.
And by you, all creatures are standing:
and for you, it is right (=there should be) {zāḏeq}—fitting/nice {paʾyā} praise/glory {šuḇḥā}.
ܒܪܝܬ̥ܐ f. “a creature”, pl. ܒܰܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ oftener ܒܶܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 4] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 4 [ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܗܐ ܝܶܪܒܶܬ̥

2014-04-28

ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܟܰܕ ܪܳܗܶܛ ܥܺܐܕܐ:
ܘܰܛܥܝܢ ܨܶܡܕܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܒܐ.
ʕḗḏā came (while) running {rheṭ}:
and (while) carrying his bag on one side {gabbā} (=in one hand).
ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܚܘܪ ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܝܰܕܝܕܐ:
ܗܐ ܝܶܪܒܶܬ̥ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܳܕܝ̱ ܫܰܒܐ.
And he said: Look, my beloved {yaddīḏā} father {ʾāḇ}:
Lo, I have grown up like my uncle {dāḏ#1} Šabbā.
ܐܝܢ ܗܳܫܐ ܗܘܺܝܬ̥ ܬܰܠܡܝܕܐ:
ܚܘܪ ܒܝ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ.
Yes/Truly {ʾḗn}, now I became {hwḗṯ} a student {talmīḏā}.
Look at me well, Mār, father.
ܘܗܳܢ ܨܶܡܕܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥* [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥] ܠܝ ܒܐܺܝܕܐ [ܒܺܐܝܕܐ]:
ܗܐ ܣܳܗܶܕ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܝ* [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ] ܪܰܒܐ.
And this {hān=hānā} bag which I have in [my] hand (lit. which exists to me in the hand):
Lo, you are witnessing/testifying {sheḏ} that I am big (OR I am a big man#2).

#1 The father’s brother, i.e. “your brother”: dāḏā (emph); dāḏ (abs); dāḏ (“my”, with a silent Yṓḏ).

#2 Commonly, ʾīṯay + noun (in the emph. st.): ܐܶܢܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܣܳܒܐ “For I am an old man” (Lk1:18)

2014-04-29

ܥܺܐܕܐ‎ = عيد as in عيد الفطر (-fi-), the first day of the month of Shawwal.

ܩܪܶܒ‎, ܢܶܩܪܘܿܒ (e/o) “to be near”

2014-04-27

ܘܰܦܫܰܛ ܐܝܕܶܗ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܩܪܶܒ ܠܶܗ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ
And Jesus stretched out his hand [and] touched him and said. (Mt8:3)

2014-04-28

ܗܳܝܕܶܝܢ ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܗܘܢ ܕܰܒ̈ܢܰܝ ܙܰܒܕܰܝ ܗܝ ܘܰܒܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܘܣܶܓܕܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܘܫܐܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܀
Then {hāydēn, archaic} the mother of the sons of Zabday#1 came (near) to him — she and her sons (=together with her sons) — and worshiped {sḡer} him, and was asking (=was about to ask) something from him. (Mt20:20⁎)
#1 Peshitta Tool says “Zaḇḏay”, but the D seems hard. Especially, the Mosul NT has ܙܰܒ̥ܕ̊ܰܝ explicitly.

Ter millesimus, decies millesimus

2014-04-25

SCALE NOVAE, OR, A LADDER TO LATIN

http://cdigital.dgb.uanl.mx/la/1080022254/1080022254_16.pdf has: ter millesimus, quater millesimus; decies millesimus; centies millesimus.

45 (D:r Friedrich Ellendts Latinska Språklära): quinquies millesimus, sexies millesimus; decies millesimus; quinquagies millesimus; centies millesimus; quingenta quingenties millesimus; decies centies millesimus;

Λατινικά (Γ Γενικού Λυκείου – Θεωρητικής Κατεύθυνσης): Ηλεκτρονικό Βιβλίο: ter millesimus; quinquies millesimus; decies millesimus; quinquagies millesimus; centies millesimus; decies centies millesimus

A concise... practical grammar of the Latin ton...: bis millesimus; quinquies millesimus; decies millesimus; quinquagies millesimus; centies millesimus.

sexies millesimus (?), septies millesimus (?), octies millesimus (?), novies millesimus (?), decies millesimus, undecies millesimus (??), duodecies millesimus (??) Tabelle Lateinischer Zahlwörter, Tabel met numeralia in het Latijn - Wikipedia [2015-01-16: BAD They didn’t get tria mīlia right.]

2015-01-17

One must get 3000 right: tria mīlia.

Other tricky numbers include:

2015-01-18

Generally, 17 is said to be septendecim, but it seems that the word actually used was septemdecim (e.g. In M. Antonium Oratio - Philippica V - Wikisource). Livy did use septen-decim (centum septendecim milia trecenta undeuiginti = 117,319), but he says ab annis septemdecim, and again ab annis septemdecim.

-ensimus (ē?) is often used instead of -ēsimus.

alter may be used, instead of secundus, with vīcensimus, etc.

Sometimes sexcentēsimus is used for sesc-; sexdĕcim (=sēdĕcim) seems rare; sexcentī (=sescentī) is rare.

-iēs is the simplified form of -iens (iēns?), used after the Augustan period (43BC–14AD): quīnquĭens (ē?) > quīnquĭēs. sexiens, sexiēs. septiens, septiēs. octiens, octiēs. noviens, noviēs. deciens, deciēs. duodeciens, duodeciēs. vīciens, vīciēs.

A real-life example of dĕcĭēs millēsĭmus is in 2 Esdras (Latin Ezra), 7:138.

Sī nōn dōnāverit dē bonitāte suā […] nōn poterit dĕcĭēs millēsĭma pars hominum vīvificārī.
If he does not give from his kindness {bonitās ātis}, not [even] one ten-thousandth part of humans will be able to be vivified {vīvificō}.

2015-12-25

Centiēs Centēna Mīlia

After nōngenta mīlia (900,000: noviēs centēna mīlia seems less common), deciēs centēna mīlia (1,000,000=10×100,000: ⅭⅭⅭⅭⅠↃↃↃↃ) is commonly used; less commonly, deciēs centum mīlia or mīlle mīlia. This literally means “10 times; 100,000 at a time”.

Hence: undeciēs centēna mīlia (1,100,000), duodeciēs centēna mīlia (1,200,000), …, vīciēs centēna mīlia (2,000,000), etc. Then centiēs centēna mīlia (10,000,000), ducentiēs centēna mīlia (20,000,000), trecentiēs centēna mīlia (30,000,000), etc. Then possibly milliēs centēna mīlia (100,000,000).

Such a big number is typically used when the (explicit or implicit) unit is sestertius. See Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, sestertĭus (pages 1685–6):

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 3] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 3 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]܆ ܩܘܡ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܩܘܡ

2014-04-15

ܒܰܪ “son” (emph. ܒܪܐ) with suffixes [N §146; Alan 98; Cf. Thackston p. 19]:

ܕܶܡ “blood” (emph. ܕܡܐ) is suffixed similarly.

ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܐܰܫܝܓ̥ ܣܰܪܶܩ ܫܰܪܝ
ʕḏakkḗl ʾašīḡ sarreq šarrī
until (now), yet #1 Aph. to wash √ŠWG #2 Pa. to comb, to empty** Pa. to begin √ŠRY
ܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܫܶܬ̥ ܕܨܰܦܪܐ، ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ ܕܝܽܘܣܝ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܥܰܪܣܶܗ ܘܰܚܙܳܬ̥ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܕܰܡܝܟ.
At 6 o’clock {šāʕṯā Soft T, N §23E; CAL hard T} in the morning, the mother of Yṓsī {a male name like Joseph, unlike Eng. Josie} came near {QRB} to {lwāṯ “towards”} his bed {ʕarsā m} and she saw [that he was] still asleep/sleeping {dammīḵ Verb Adj Like bassīr}.
ܣܳܡܰܬ̥ ܐܝܕܳܗ̇ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܰܒܩܳܠܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: ܩܘܡ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܩܘܡ، ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܕܘ ܕܢܰܚ ܘܗܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ، ܥܶܕܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܓܶܝܪ ܕܬܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
She put {sāmaṯ √SWM} her hand on his head, and she said in a beautiful voice: Wake up, my son, wake up. The sun has already {men kaddū} risen; and, look, the rooster is crowing; for {gēr} it is time {ʕeddānaw < ʕeddānā + hu**} that you should go {tḗzal a/a #3} to school.

** According to Alan 92, -ā + (h)w becomes aw in WS when the first word consists of not more than three letters; obviously, the word-ending ʾĀlap̄ does not count as “letters”—if the ʾĀlap̄ is included, the first word has 4 letters in both of Alan’s examples too (ܗܳܪܟܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ and ܕܰܟ̥ܝܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ). Also, the following part of this lesson has ܛܰܠܝܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ.

2014-04-16

ܘܰܦܬܰܚ* [ܘܰܦܬ̥ܰܚ] ܝܘܣܝ ܥܰܝܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܰܢܚܶܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܪܣܶܗ، ܘܰܠܒܶܫ ܡܐܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱.
And Yṓsī opened {wa-p̄ṯaḥ} his eyes{#4} and went down {nḥeṯ} from his bed, and put on {lḇeš} his clothes {mānā m}.
ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܐܰܫܝܓ̥* [ܕܰܐܫܝܓ̥] ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܣܰܪܶܩ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ: ܝܺܬ̥ܒ* [ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ] ܩܕܳܡ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗܶܪܓܶܗ.
And after {bāṯar (d)} he washed his face{#5} and combed his hair {saʕrā m}, he sat in front of the table and began{#6} reading his lesson.
ܝܘܣܝ ܛܰܠܝܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ. ܥܰܠ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܐܶܡܶܗ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܶܗ ܀
Yṓsī is a hard-working student. Because of this {ʕal hāḏē} his mother loves him.

Mk7:34 — ܦܬ̥ܰܚ and ܐܶܬ̥ܦܰܬܰܚ

This is one of the few places where Aramaic words are used in the Greek NT: Ἐφφαθά (epʰpʰatʰa), that is ʾeṯpattaḥ in Classic Syriac.

ܘܚܳܪ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܘܶܐܬܬܰܢܰܚ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܬ̥ܦܰܬ݈̊ܚ ܀
And he looked into the sky {šmayyā m} and sighed (perh. more lit. made himself sigh) and said to him: Be opened!

Great links: Peshitta

Peshitta | Aramaico (Portuguese (Brazil)) [This blog has as main objective to search, index and categorize existing resources on the web related to language and Aramaic culture, such as books and other sites. Occasionally, the author of this blog will publish notes and personal studies, results of their own research. It should be noted that in any way the author of the blog is an expert in the Aramaic language, being just an enthusiastic student of this area, without any kind of relationship and/or support of churches, universities, religious denominations, etc.]

MDZ-Reader | Tome | Dējatêqē hdattā hu / Lee, Samuel (NT, London 1816) [downloadable as one big PDF]

2014-04-17

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ ܕܝܽܘܣܝ؟
(To) where did the mother of Yṓsī come near {qreḇ qerbaṯ}?
ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܥܰܪܣܶܗ.
She came near to {lwāṯ} his bed.
2 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܝܘܣܝ؟
In what way {ʾaykan} did she see Yṓsī? (=How was he when she saw him?)
ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܕܰܡܝܟ.
She saw [that he was] still asleep.
ܐܰܝܟܰܢ is from ܐܰܝܟ ܗܳܢܐ according to Jess. Note that this word is ܐܲܝܟܲܢ in ES too.
3 ܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ؟
What did she say to him?
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: «ܩܘܡ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܩܘܡ، ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܕܘ ܕܢܰܚ ܘܗܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ، ܥܶܕܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܓܶܝܪ ܕܬܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.»
She said: “Wake up, my son, wake up. The sun has already risen; and, look, the rooster is crowing; for it is time that you should go to school.”
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܝܘܣܝ ܟܰܕ ܩܳܡ؟
What did Yṓsī do when (after) waking up.
ܠܒܶܫ ܡܐܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܰܐܫܝܓ̥ ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܣܰܪܶܩ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ: ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܩܕܳܡ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗܶܪܓܶܗ.
He put on his clothes, and after he washed his face and combed his hair, he sat in front of the table and began reading his lesson.
5 ܠܡܘܢ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ؟
For what does his mother love him?
ܐܶܡܶܗ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܛܰܠܝܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ.
His mother loves him because he is a hard-working student.

2014-04-18

dem, dmā: dmeh, demhṓn, dèm

Mt9:20, London (1920) / Mossoul (1898) / NY (1886). rḏā “to go forward, to flow”. dem, dmā m.; dm-āh (3f-sg); dem-hṓn (3m-pl); dèm (1c-sg):

ܘܗܳܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ݁ܬܳܐ ܕ݂ܪܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܕ݂ܡܳܗ̇ ܫܢܺܝ̈ܢ ܬܱ݁ܪܬܱ݁ܥܶܣܪ̈ܶܐ܆

ܘܗܳܐ ܐܰܢ݇ܬ̊ܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܪܳܕ̥ܶܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܳܐ ܕܡܳܗ̇ ܫ̈ܢܺܝ̣ܢ ܬܰܪܬ̊ܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܶܐ

Mt26:28. Notice ES dèm (as opposed to dimhṓn, etc.):

ܗܳܢܰܘ ܕܷ݁ܡܝ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܰܬ݂ܺܩܺܐ ܚܕ݂ܰܬܴ݁ܐ܇

2014-04-19

ܗܰܒ ܦܘܫܳܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ — Put each word in a sentence

6 ܥܰܪܣܐ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܰܦ̈ܐ ܣܰܥܪܐ
Bed / Time / Clothes / Face / Hair
ܝܘܣܝ ܕܰܡܝܟ ܗܘܐ ܒܥܰܪܣܶܗ.
Yṓsī was asleep in his bed.
ܗܘܐ ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܪܰܡܫܐ.
It was the time of the evening.
ܝܘܣܝ ܠܒܶܫ ܡܐܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱. ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܶܒܫܰܬ̥ ܡܐܢܶܝܗ̇.
Yṓsī put on his clothes. His sister put on her clothes.
ܝܘܣܝ ܐܰܣܝܓ̥ ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱. ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܐܰܣܝܓ̥ܰܬ̥ ܐܰܦܶܝܗ̇.
Yṓsī washed his face. His sister washed her face.
ܝܘܣܝ ܣܰܪܶܩ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ. ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܣܰܪܩܰܬ̥ ܣܰܥܪܳܗ̇.
Yṓsī combed his hair. His sister combed her hair.

ܪܰܟܶܒ 3 ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܥܰܠ «ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ» — Make 3 sentences

7 ܐܰܝܟ: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܗܶܪܓܶܗ.

ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
A hard-working student reads well.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ.
A hard-working student does not play in a road.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܐܘܒܶܕ ܥܶܕܳܢܶܗ.
A hard-working student does not waste {mawbeḏ pt. of Aphel √ʾBD} his time.
8 ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ: ܚܰܕ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ... ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ « ܕܶܟ̥ܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥ »
ܚܕܐ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ... ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ « ܢܶܩܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥ »
We say: One, two, three... sons in masculine forms {deḵrāʾīṯ}; one, two, three... daughters in feminine forms {neqbāʾīṯ}.
9 ܡܢܺܝ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܕ ܠܥܶܣܪܐ: ܕܶܟ̥ܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ‐ ܘܢܶܩܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥
ܚܰܕ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܫܬܐ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܬܡܳܢܝܐ ܬܶܫܥܐ ܥܶܣܪܐ: ܚܕܐ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܫܶܬ̥ ܫܒܰܥ ܬܡܳܢܶܐ ܬܫܰܥ ܥܣܰܪ ܀

Numerals

2014-04-19

Random observations: ܛ and ܬ vs. θ and τ

  1. Alphabet-wise and number-wise, ܛ‎=θ=9 and ܬ‎=400≈τ=300. ܬ and τ are the “same” letter, but the Greek and Syriac number symbols are off by one unit starting from 90; for, while ܨ‎=90, Greek SAN (Ϻ) is not used at all as a number sign.
  2. Pronunciation-wise, ܛ‎=τ and ܬ‎=θ, twisted.
  3. BTW: Both ܣ (semkaṯ) and ξ (ksī=xi) vaguely sound like “sixty”; this could be a great way to remember ܣ = ξ = 60. [2014-08-28]

2014-08-20

Arabic (Abjad) Numerals

Abjad numerals up to 400 are essentially identical to Syriac/Hebrew numerals. They are also identical to Greek numerals, except that 90…400 are off by one, due to the missing ϻ.

400 is ت, just like in Syriac/Hebrew.

Ṯā Ḵā (Ḫā) — Ḏāl Ḍād — Ẓā ̣Gayn

500 is ث. Maybe they just put something similar to ت right after it.

600 is خ, another very light (voiceless) sound. This one happens to be (semi-)identical to the Greek numeral 600, i.e. χ.

Then comes 700, ذ; this one is stronger (voiced), but not so heavy.

800 is ض, a heavy sound. Can be seen as a heavier version of 700.

900 is ظ, another heavy sound. This one happens to be semi-identical to the Greek numeral 900, i.e. ͳ or ϡ. Also it can be seen as the heaviest version of the “9 ط‎ / 90 ص‎ / 900” trio.

1000 is غ, the heaviest (harshest) sound, in a way.

Maghreb Order

This order can be viwed as a “no-shh” system:

For 300, don’t use Šīn, but use the plain Sīn instead. Then, for 60, use Ṣād instead of Sīn, and for 90 use Ḍād instead of Ṣād. Since Ḍād is already taken, 800 and 900 will be off by one, and there’s nothing (but Šīn) for 1000; so the marginalized Šīn is finally used here.

Because of two different orders, the Abjad Numerals are only reliable up to 50. Either Sīn or Ṣād could be used for 60, and Sīn may mean 60 or 300, while Ṣād may mean 90 or 60. If it’s clear that Ḍād is used for a number less than 800 (as 90, as in 90–99, 190–199, etc.), then it’s Maghreb.

2014-12-06

W. Wright: A Grammar of the Arabic Language, I §32

William Wright

The original version by Carl Paul Caspari is in Latin. August Müller translated it into German, which Wright re-translated into English. The 4th german version (1876) is on uni-halle.de; the 5th german version (1887) is on archive.org.

                      x10               x100              x1000
1 2 3 4   5 6 7   8 9 1  2 3 45  6 78 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 
ʾabāǧadin hawazin ḥāṭiya kalamna saʕfaṣ qurišat ṯaḫāḏ ḍaẓāġ
ʾabāǧadin hawazin ḥāṭiya kalamna ṣaʕfaḍ qurisat ṯaḫāḏ ẓaġāš  (N. Africa)
                                 +    +     +         + + +

2014-12-08

    1. ʾalif
    2. bāʾ, tāʾ, ṯāʾ
    3. ǧīm, ḥāʾ, ḫāʾ
    4. dāl, ḏāl
    1. Early R: rāʾ, zāy (zāʾ)
    2. Friends of Zāy: sīn (60), šīn; ṣād, ḍād; ṭāʾ, ẓāʾ
    1. ʕayn (70), ġayn
    2. fāʾ (80), qāf
    3. kāf, lām, mīm, nūn
    4. hāʾ, wāw, yāʾ

Persian guys: (1) Add pe after bāʾ, če after ǧīm, že after zāy, gāf after kāf. (2) Swap hāʾ and wāw. (3) s̱ for ṯ; ẕ for ḏ. ż for ḍ. v for w.

Wright says “fètḥ or fètḥa, a, è (as in pet), e (nearly the French e muet)”, which is confusing, because: (1) è should mean [æ~ɛ], while the e in pet is narrower than [ɛ]; and (2) the e in muet is wider. Originally, Caspari says: “Fètḥ, vel Fètḥa, a, ä sive è, e”, which should simply means “a, æ or ɛ, e”.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 2] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 2: ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܨܰܦܪܐ

2014-04-10

ܫܦܶܐ ܡܢܰܨܪ̈ܳܢ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ ܫܶܥܝܐ
šp̄ē mnaṣṣ(ə)rān kṯīḇtā šeʕyā
plain, cleared, simple, pure, serene chirp, twitter (Pa-pt-f-pl) f. writing m. a game, a play, show, amusement
ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ: ܐܳܐܰܪ ܫܦܶܐ، ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܨܡܰܚ، ܘܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ ܡܢܰܨܪ̈ܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
How beautiful this morning is! The air {com.gen. here m.} is clear {#1}, the sun {com.gen usually m.} is (making everything) shining {#2}, and the birds are chirping on the trees.
ܒܨܰܦܪܐ: ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܘܳܐܙܶܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܢܺܐܠܰܦ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ.
In the morning: every person {(ʾe)nāš N §146} wakes up from [their] sleep {šenṯā f N §105} and goes {ʾāzel pt-m} to school, so that he may learn reading and writing.

2014-04-11

ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܗܶܐ ܒܫܘ̈ܩܐ، ܘܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܐܽܘܪܚܐ* [ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ] ܐܰܝܟ ܕܠܳܐ ܢܰܘܒܶܕ ܥܶܕܳܢܶܗ.
A hard-working student does not wander around {√PHY} in streets/bazaars {šūqē, pl. of šūqā m}, and does not play in a road {ʾurḥā#3 f. N §82, 84 (and 20, 103)}, as he will not{#4} waste{#5} (lest he waste) his time {ʕeddānèh < ʕeddānā, m.}.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܗܳܪܶܓ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ، ܘܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܥܝܐ، ܘܕܳܡܶܟ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܀
A hard-worwking student concentrates/studies {√HRG} during the time of lessons, and plays during the time of play {√ŠʕY}, and lies down {√DMK} during the time of sleep.

2014-04-12

Mt10:39⁎

ܡܰܢ ܕܶܐܫܟܰܚ ܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܢܰܘܒܕܝܗ ܘܡܰܢ ܕܢܰܘܒܶܕ ܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܡܶܛܽܠܳܬ̥ܝ̱ ܢܶܫܟܚܝܗ ܀
ܡ̇ܢ ܕܐܸܫܟܲܚ ܢܲܦ̮ܫܹܗ ܢܵܘܒ݁ܕ݂ܝܼܗ̇܇ ܘܡ̇ܢ ܕܢܵܘܒܸ݁ܕ ܢܲܦ̮ܫܹܗ ܡܸܛܠܵܬ݂‍ܝ܇ ܢܸܫܟ݁̇ܚܝܼܗ̇܂܀
He who has found/attained {ʾeškaḥ Hard K, √ŠKḤ with prothetic A} his life/soul {nap̄šā pl. nap̄šāṯā, f. N §82} (OR himself {N §223}) will destroy it {nawbəḏīh ES nāw-}, and he who has destroyed his life (OR himself) because of me {meṭṭülāṯ / meṭṭōlāṯ (?) CAL meṭṭūlāṯ} will find/attain it.
⟦Qui invenit animam suam, perdet illam: et qui perdiderit animan suam propter me, inveniet eam.⟧

2014-04-13

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܫܶܡܫܐ؟
When {ʾëmmaṯ} does the sun rise?
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ.
The sun rises in the morning.
2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒ̈ܳܢ ܘܰܡܢܰܨܪ̈ܳܢ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ؟
Where do birds sit/dwell and chirp?
ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
On the trees.
3 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܳܙܺܠ̱ܝܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܳܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ؟
(To) where do people {#2} go {ʾāzzīn#1} in the morning?
ܐܳܙܺܠ̱ܝܢ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
They go to school.
#1 CAL: In Syriac and Babylonian [Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (tmr)] the lamadh is often retro-assimilated to zayin when there is no separating vowel in the form, presumably reflecting a more colloquial form, since such is always the case in spoken Aramaic.; N §183 (4); Muraoka p. 14.; Thackston p. 11.
#2 N §146 This word is never found in the emph. st. in the plural; but in the constr. st. and with suff. it is found only in the pl. Here, it is used in the emph. st. and its pronunciation seems to be identical to the one of the singular form.
4 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܗܶܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܒܫܘܩ̈ܐ؟
Why doesn’t a student wander around in bazaars?
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܠܐ ܢܰܘܒܶܕ ܥܶܕܳܢܶܗ.
Because he will not waste his time.
5 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܗܳܪܶܓ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܗܳܪܓܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱؟ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ ܡܶܫܬܰܥܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱؟
When do you study? When do you play?
ܗܳܪܶܓ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ. ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܥܝܐ.
ܗܳܪܓܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ. ܡܶܫܬܰܥܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܥܝܐ.
I study during the time of lessons. I play during the time of play.

2014-04-14

Put each word in a sentence — ܗܰܒ ܦܘܫܳܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܡܰܨܡܰܚ܆ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ܆ ܦܳܗܶܐ܆ ܢܰܘܒܶܕ܆ ܢܺܐܠܰܦ܆
shining; service, labour, work {pulḥānā m}; wander around; will waste; will learn;
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܨܡܰܚ.
The sun is shining.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ.
A successful student loves work.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܗܶܐ ܒܫܘܩ̈ܐ.
A successful student does not wander around in bazaars.
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܗܳܪܶܓ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܠܐ ܢܰܘܒܶܕ ܥܶܕܳܢܶܗ.
A successful student studies in order not to waste his time.
ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܢܺܐܠܰܦ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ.
Everyone goes to school to learn reading and writing.

ܣܝܡ ܒܰܪ̱ܬ [ܒܰܪ̱ܬ̥] ܩܳܠܐ ܕܠܳܚܡܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ — Fill in the blanks

7 ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ... ܠܐ ܦܳܗܶܐ ... ܘܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ... .
ܗܳܪܶܓ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ... ܘܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ... .
ܝܳܠܘ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܗܶܐ ܒܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܘܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ.
ܗܳܪܶܓ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܗܶܪܓܐ ܘܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܥܝܐ.
A hard-working student does not wander around in bazaars and does not play in a road. He studies during the time of study and plays during the time of play.

Memo

The Assyrian Language Course Book for Beginners / Assyrian Kurdish Yizidis Dictionary / Modern Assyrian Phonology / Chaldo-Syrio-Assyrian Language / from كتب مسيحية - كتب كلدانية - كتب اشورية

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 1] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 1: ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ

2014-04-07

ܡܰܘܬܒܐ ܚܳܕܰܪ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ
mawt(ə)ḇā ḥāḏar mešt(ə)ʕēn qeryānā
m. seat to go around (pt) they play m. calling, reading
ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܡܰܘܬܒ̈ܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܡܰܘܬܒܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܚܰܕ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ.
Our school—there are seven classrooms in it, and every classroom—there are ten seats in it, and every seat—one student {yālṓp̄ā, m} sits on it.
ܟܽܠ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܟܘܪܣܝܐ، ܘܰܚܕܐ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ، ܘܰܚܕܐ ܠܘܚܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
Every classroom—there are in it one chair and one table for {meṭṭül#1} a teacher, and one blackboard {f. in Syc N §84} for lessons.
ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܐܳܦ ܕܳܪܬ̥ܳܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܳܕܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇ ܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ ܘܒܳܗ̇ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܟܽܠ ܥܶܕܳܢ ܐܰܦܬܐ.
Our school also has a large courtyard {dārtā f. CAL hard T; hard T also in Question 6} in it, for which a high wall goes around, and in which boys play [in] every time of recess.

2014-04-08

ܐܶܢܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܶܗ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ ܀
I much love [my] school, because in it I [can] learn reading and writing.

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܟܡܐ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ؟
How many grades (classes) are there in your school?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ.
There are seven classes in it.
2 ܟܡܐ ܡܰܘܬܒ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܟܽܠ ܣܶܕܪܐ؟
How many seats are there in every class?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܡܰܘܬܒ̈ܐ.
There are ten seats in it.
3 ܟܡܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܟܽܠ ܡܰܘܬܒܐ؟
How many students are there on (lit. “in”) every seat?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ.
There is one students on it.
4 ܠܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܠܘܚܐ؟
For what is a blackboard?
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
For lessons.
5 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ؟
ܐܰܪܰܐ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ...
Do you like [your] school? And why?
ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܶܗ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ.
ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܶܗ ܝܰܠܦܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ.
I like [my] school, because in it I [can] learn reading and writing.

ܠܡܘܢ (lmṓn) “why”

2014-04-09

Put each word in a sentence — ܗܰܒ ܦܘܫܳܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

ܦܘܫܳܩ (pūšāq) “interpretation, translation, explanation, commentary”

6 ܡܰܘܬܒܐ ܕܳܪܬܐ ܫܘܪܐ ܐܰܦܬܐ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ
seat, yard, wall, recess, reading
ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܡܰܘܬܒܐ.
In a classroom, a student sits on a seat.
ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܕܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܕܳܪܬܐ ܕܒܳܗ̇ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ.
A school has a yard in it, in which boys play.
ܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ ܚܳܕܰܪ ܠܕܳܪܬܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
A high wall encircles the yard of the school.
ܟܽܠ ܥܶܕܳܢ ܐܰܦܬܐ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܝܳܠܦܝܢ.
[In] every recess time, boys play and do not study.
ܒܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܝܳܠܦܝܢ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ.
In a school, students learn reading and writing.

Name five things you may find in a classroom — ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ* [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܫܶܡ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ

ܕܟܰܪ (dḵar) “to remember, call to mind” — Aphel “to remind, make mention of, mention”: should be ܐܰܕ̥ܟ̊ܰܪ (ʾaḏkar) [N §164, Lk20:37] Perhaps Qarahbaš likes ḵ after a soft consonant.

Lit. “Mention the name[s] of five [things] from those which you see in a classroom.” ܫܶܡ ܚܰܡܫܐ feels a little strange; the noun is singular when it says “five”.

ܐܰܕܟܰܪܝ̱ ... ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܚܳܙܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ

7 ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܘܪܣܝܐ

Exodus 32:6

ܘܩܵܡܘ ܠܡܸܓ݂ܚܲܟ ܘܲܠܡܸܫܬ݁ܥ̣ܵܝܘܼ

(w-qām lmiḡḥaḵ {GḤK “laugh” Pe inf.} wa-lmištʕāyū {ŠʕY Ethpeel “play” inf.})

And they stood to laugh and play.

ˀeṯqṭel

ܘܗܘ ܐܶܬ̥ܩܛܶܠ
And he was killed. (Acts 5:36) // ʾeṯq(ə)ṭel / ES ʾiṯɇq(ə)ṭil
ܘܡܐ ܕܶܐܬ̥ܩܛܶܠ ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܢܩܘܡ
And when {mā d} he has been killed, he will stand {impf} in the third day. (Mark 9:31)

M(ə)hagyānā & Marɇhṭānā

2014-04-09

Mhagy. = fuller / Marhṭ. = quick

ɇ (2016-11-17; WAS: ɩ @ 2014-10-10; WAS: ı; WAS: í) — marhəṭānā: N §52C “shorter [vocalisation]”; as opposed to the underline, which “denotes a fuller vocalisation”; Cf. Alan 41.

N §§17 and 52 suggest that a məhagyānā denotes a fuller vowel, mainly when one of the letters is a liquid [here it means NLR, and probably also M (cf. §31)] or ʕʔHYW. Alan mentions the same nine letters in Lv 2 L 41. The two are talking about the same thing, and according to Nöldeke, marhəṭānā (ES marɇhṭānā) = a very short vowel, məhagyānā = a fuller vowel, e.g. the (2017-06-04; WAS ě @ 2016-11-15; WAS: ḙ @ 2014-10-10; WAS: i̱) in ܚܸܟ̱ܡܬ݂ܵܐ (ḥeḵḙm(ə)ṯā) N §17 ⟦sapientia⟧, also written like ܚܸܟ݂ܡ݈ܬ݂ܵܐ with the line below the third letter.

2016-11-15: Both Alphonse Mingana and Alan Aldawood mentioned the mnemonic ܥܲܡܠܲܝ̈ ܢܘܼܗܪܵܐ /ʕamlɛɪ nʊhɾɑ(ʔ)/ (01_amlay_nohra.au)

2014-05-02

Phonetically between the 1st and 2nd C of CCC

U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE ◌݇ is acute-like, i.e. a line from upper right to lower left. U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW ◌݈ is grave-like, i.e. a line from upper left to lower right [2014-08-23: except in Noto Sans Syriac Eastern, where both are acute-like]. Alan’s mhagyānā, however, is a line from upper right to lower left. Also note that the word marhəṭānā (ES marɇhṭānā) itself has a marɇhṭānā in it, even though the 3rd letter is H (and the 2nd letter is R): ܡܲܪܗ݇ܛܵܢܵܐ [from rheṭ “to run”, ʾarheṭ “to make (something) run, to drive, Gram. to let the voice pass on quickly”]. It seems that often a quicker pronunciation — marɇhṭānā — is used when a fuller pronunciation is expected, while the opposite is rarer. Apparently ES ɇ and ḙ come between the 1st and 2nd of three consecutive consonants [which is true: see blow], unlike normal ə, which comes between the 2nd and 3rd: e.g. ḥeḵ-mṯ-ā → ḥe-ḵḙm-ṯā (as opposed to ḥeḵ-məṯā), which Nöld. writes ܚܸܟ̱ܡܬ݂ܵܐ and Alan writes ܚܸܟ݂ܡ݈ܬ݂ܵܐ (except that his oblique line is from upper right); both are read as if written ܚܸܟܸܡܬ݂ܵܐ (ḥeḵem(ə)ṯā).

2014-08-22

Mhagy. if the 2nd C = LRNM/YW/ʔʕH

(mhagyānā) N §17, §52; Alan 41

ܡܗܰܓ̊ܝܳܢܐ (m(ə)hag(g)yānā, Nöld. mehagyānā, CAL mhaggyānā) is an inserted vowel, or a diacritic used in East Syriac to indicate the existance of such a vowel. This vowel is inserted after the first C in CC(ə)C — that is, typically after the second letter in CvCC(ə)Cv, and usually when the third letter [the 2nd C of CCC] is a sonorant (LRNMYW, sometimes also B1) or a guttural (ʔʕH, sometimes also Ḥ); but if the third lettter is ʾAlap̄, the vowel might be inserted after it (N §34); also, if the second letter is a vowel mark for the first, it doesn’t count as the “second letter” for the purpose of this section (Cf. N §122). The inserted vowel is typically e (ES i), sometimes a, rarely è (Cf. N §135); and it is more than a schwa though being short. For example, if an is inserted in ܐܰܕܪܟܶܗ (ʾaḏr(ə)-ḵèh), the result is ʾa-ḏḙr(ə)-ḵèh.

Marɇhṭānā, on the other hand, is a very short e in East Syriac, which may be inserted in the same position when a Mhagyānā is not used — typically when the third letter is not a sonorant nor a guttural. For example, ʾeṯk(ə)-ṯeḇ may become ʾeṯɇk(ə)-ṯeḇ.

In a typical case, Mhagyānā and Marhṭānā are written as a horizontal line below/above the second letter in CvCC(ə)Cv, respectively: e.g. ܐܲܕ̱ܪܟܹܗ.

Sometimes they are written as an oblique line below/above the third letter, respectively: e.g. ܐܲܕܪ݈ܟܹܗ.

Read a horizontal line as “Insert a vowel after this consonant.”; read an oblique line as “Insert a vowel before this consonant.”

2014-10-07: (1) In Mt5:9, tQr has a Mhagyānā: ܢܸܬ݂ܩ݈ܪܘܿܢ (neṯḙq(ə)-rṓn ?). However, this is probably a fluke; the exact same word is written with a Marhṭānā in Romans 9:26. (2) Sometimes the oblique line is written on the 1st C of CCC: ܐܸܬ݂݇ܩܪܝܼܘ Jn2:2; ܬܸܬ݂݇ܩܪܸܐ 1Th5:27; ܢܸܬ݂݇ܩܛܸܠ Revelation 13:10.

2015-06-16: ܬܸܚܣܪ݈ܘܼܢ is in 2Corinthians 7:9.

1 2017-06-13 ܐܰܪܶܒ̊ܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ (a variant of ܐܰܪܒܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ) may be seen as a Mhaggyānā form.

2014-10-10

Traits — Mingana’s explanation

89 – Le trait vocalisateur se met sous une quiescente précédant une des neuf suivantes: ܥܲܡܠܲܝ̈ ܢܘܗܪܵܐ également quiescente (il se met aussi entre les deux lettres); il a pour effet de mouvoir cette lettre par un zélam idéal, ex. ܚܸܟ̱ܡܬ݂ܵܐ sagesse (lisez ܚܸܟܸܡܬ݂ܵܐ ḥekhemtha [ḥe-ḵḙm-ṯā]), ܣܸܒ̱ܠܬܵܐ [se-Bḙl-Tā #5] échelle, ܐܸܬ݂̱ܝܠܸܕ݂ [ʾe-ṯḙy-leḏ (=ʾeṯīleḏ) Ethpe.] il est né, ܐܸܬ̱ܥܪܝܼ [ʾe-ṯḙʕ-rī (=ʾeṯʕrī) Ethpe.] il a été saisi.

90 – Le trait propulsif a un effet tout contraire au précédent; il se met non sous mais sur une lettre quiescente précédant une autre quiescente étrangère aux neuf susdites; son effet est d’unir la prononciation des deux quiescentes en une seule émission de voix, ex. ܐܸܬ݂݇ܒܙܸܙ [ʾeṯɇb-zez Ethpe.] il a été pillé, ܐܸܬ݂݇ܚܪܸܙ [ʾeṯɇḥ-rez Ethpe.#1] il a été empilé, ܡܲܚ݇ܙܝܵܐ [maḥɇz-yā#2] théâtre, ܡܲܫܬ݇ܝܵܐ [sic! mašɇt-yā] boisson; lisez etheb-zez, mašt-ia etc.

[…]

92Exceptions. On met un propulsif à la place d’un vocalisateur:

1º sur l’avant-dernière lettre de la 1e personne du pluriel, au préterit des verbes, ex. ܩܛܲܠ݇ܢ [qṭalɇn] noun avons tué (pour ܩܛܲܠ̱ܢ [qṭa-lḙn]).

2º sur l’avant-dernière lettre de l’impératif passif de la forme trilitère primitive, à toutes les personnes, quand elles sont sans noun, ex. ܐܸܬ݁ܕܲܟ݂݇ܪ [ʾat-taḵɇr] souviens-toi.

3º sur l’avant-dernière lettre des noms trilitères de la forme ܦܲܥܠܵܐ annexés au pronom suffixe de la 1e personne du singulier, ex. ܦܲܓ݂ܪ݇ܝ [paḡɇr] mon corps.

4º Sur toute lettre quiescente qui suit un waw quiescent {#3}, ex. ܢܲܘ݇ܡܬܵܐ [nawɇm-tā] sommeil, ܨܲܘ݇ܪܗܘܿܢ [ṣawɇr-hṓn] leur cou (15).

Mots isolés qui font encore exception. Le mot ܕܸܒܚ̱ܬܵܐ [de-ḇḙ(ə)-ṯā] sacrifice, prend un vocalisateur pour un propulsif {#4}; au contraire, on met un propulsif à la place d’un vocalisateur aux mots suivants: ܡܲܥ݇ܡܕܵܢܵܐ [maʕɇm(ə)-ḏā-nā] baptiste, ܡܲܪ݇ܗܛܵܢܵܐ [marɇh-ṭā-nā] propulsif, ܪܘܼܒ݂ܥ݇ܗܘܿܢ [sic! ruḇɇʕ-hṓn] leur quart, ܟܢܲܥ݇ܢ [knaʕɇn] Canaan, ܚܲܝܘ̄ܬܵܐ [sic! ḥayɇw-tā] bête (pour distinguer ce nom de ܚܲܝܘܼܬܵܐ [ḥay-yū-ṯā] vie).

Peshitta Examples

[Mhag+H] ܢܸܬ݂ܗ݈ܪܘܼܢ (ne-ṯḙh-rūn) “they will wonder” (Mt13:54)

[Mhag+ʔ] ܢܸܫܐ݈ܠܘܼܢ (ne-šḙʾ-lūn) “they will beg” (Mt18:19)

ܗܝ ܕܝܶܢ ܢܶܦܩܰܬ̥܂ ܘܳܐܡܪܐ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇. ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܫܶܐܠܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱. ܐܳܡܪܐ ܠܳܗ̇. ܪܺܫܶܗ ܕܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ ܡܰܥܡܕܳܢܐ.
ܗ̤ܝ ܕܹܝܢ ܢܸܦܩܲܬ݀ ܘܐܵܡ̇ܪܵܐ ܠܐܸܡܵܗ̇: ܡܵܢܵܐ ܐܸܫܐܠ݈ܝܼܘܗܝ: ܐܵܡ̇ܪܵܐ ܠܵܗ̇: ܪܹܫܹܗ ܪܝܘܿܚܲܢܵܢ ܡܲܥ݇ܡܕ݂ܵܢܵܐ.܀
She, then, went out; and [was] saying to her mother: “What shall I beg him?” [Her mother was] saying to her: “The head of Jṓḥa(n)nān the Buptist.” (Mark 6:24⁎)

2015-11-17 [Mhag+ʔ] ܡܲܛܐ݈ܒ݂ܝܼܢ (ma-ṭḙ(ʾ)-ḇīn) = ܡܰܛܶܐܒ̥ܝܢ “doing good (pl.)” (Lk6:33)

2016-11-15 Marɇhṭānā connecting ʔ and Ṣ (P-NY, Mt6:34). ܬܹܐܨ݇ܦܘܼܢ “you guys will worry” (√yṣp), written tè-ʾɇṣ-pūn instead of tēṣpūn. In this case, probably the mark means that ܬܐܨ should be read as one syllable.

Qarahbaš [vol. 2, L. 31] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 31 (ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ): ܫܠܶܡ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ

2014-04-03

31) 0059uK-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܦܰܘܕܐ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ ܦܘܫ ܫܠܳܡܐ
pawdā ša(t)tā pūš šlāmā
m. error f. year remain (Impt.) m. safety, peace

2014-04-04

ܗܐ ܫܠܶܡ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
Behold, this book has come to en end.{#1}
ܐܶܢܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܗ ܕܠܐ ܦܰܘܕܐ.
I now read it [in such a way] that [there is] not a mistake.{#2}
ܘܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥* [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥] ܒܶܗ.
And I know every word {emph!#3} that exists in it.

2014-04-05

ܒܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܩܳܕܡܐ ܣܳܠܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ ܕܪܳܡ، ܘܫܳܩܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܢܐ.
In the year to come {#4} {qāḏmā pt-f of qḏam}, I’m going up {pt of sleq, intr.} to the class/grade that is higher, and I’m carrying/receiving {pt of šqal} a [text]book bigger/greater than this.
ܦܘܫ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ: ܣܶܕܪܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܐ.
Farewell {lit. “Stay in peace” Alan L. 120}: my beloved class.
ܦܘܫ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ: ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܀
Farewell: my sweet [text]book.

Qarahbaš [vol. 2, L. 30] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 30: ܥܰܠ ܝܘܠܦܳܢܐ

2014-03-29

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ܐܰܝܢܐ ܡܰܠܟܘܬ̥ܐ ܒܶܛܠܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ
ʾaynā malkūṯā beṭlānā lā mṣē**
who, which kingdom f. N §76 #1 suspension of labour, esp. on holy days; leisure, idleness be not able, can’t

#1 CAL malḵūṯā with a soft K, probably a typo.

** √MṢY pass. pt. ES ܡܨܸܐ (mṣî: mṣi? mṣī?) Does ES always have -î instead of -ē in pass-pt of 3rd-Y? (act-pt of 3rd-Y has -ē in ES too) Seems that way. ܛܲܠܝ݇ܝ݇ ܪܡܸܐ (ṭal rmî) = ܛܰܠܝܝ̱ ܪܡܶܐ (ṭalī rmē) “my boy is placed” Mt. 8:6

2014-06-05 Allan writes ܢܸܗܘܸܐ instead of ܢܸܗܘܹܐ, suggesting î ≈ ē. This vowel could be written as ī̀ or ḗ [or ë̄ — 2014-08-28]. // 2014-09-23 Or maybe ẹ̄ as in glāyẹ̄n.

2014-09-02 This problem is discussed in Nöldeke §8. In Pass. part. ES uses Zlāmā Pšīqā instead of Zlāmā Qašyā for no apparent reason. If needed, these could be transliterated as mṣẹ̄, etc.

2016-10-08: [Pael Impf. ending in ē] In P-NY, ܢܚܰܘܶܐ is written ܢܚܵܘܸܐ when not suffixed (e.g. Mt24:29). Also: ܢܕܲܟܸ݁ܐ “he will purify” (2Timothy 2:21); ܐܹܕܲܡܸܐ “I will compare/liken” (Lk7:31); ܢܓܲܒܸ݁ܐ “we will gather” (Mt13:28); etc.

ܡܳܪܝ* [ܡܳܪܝ̱] ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܐܳܡܰܪ:
Mār ʾAp̄rēm (Master Ephrem) says:
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܗܰܒ ܝܘܠܦܳܢܐ
God {ʾălāhā}, give learrning
ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܕܪܳܚܶܡ ܝܘܠܦܳܢܐ
to whoever loves learning

2014-03-30

ܘܰܠܪܰܒܐ ܕܡܰܠܶܦ ܫܰܦܝܪ
…and to a master who teaches well,
ܡܰܠܶܦ (mallep̄) < ܡܰܐܠܶܦ (*mʾallep̄) is act-part of Pa. ܐܰܠܶܦ (ʾallep̄). N §174D
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܒܡܰܠܟܘܬ̥ܳܟ
he will be (OR may he be) {nehwē} a master {#2} in your kingdom
#2 rabbā must be a noun; if it was an adjective (“he will be great”), it would have to be in the absolute state (nehwē rabb).

2014-04-01

ܐܰܝܢܐ ܕܪܳܚܶܡ ܝܘܠܦܳܢܐ
Who he loves to study,
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ ܒܟܽܠܥܶܕܳܢ
he will be (OR may he be) successful/hard-working always {b-ḵül-ʕeddān#3 “in every time” “at all seasons”}.
#3 D is hard: LS2 “ܥܷܕ݁ܳܢܳܐ” (emph-st) here in abs-st. ES -ʕiddān N §128A Cf. Ephesian 6:18
ܘܐܰܝܢܐ* [ܘܰܐܝܢܐ] ܕܪܳܚܶܡ ܒܶܛܠܳܢܐ
And he who loves suspension of labour,
ܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܕܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ
he is not able to become a successful/skilled man {? #4}.

Qarahbaš [vol. 2, L. 29] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 29: ܪܝܫܐ

2014-03-24

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ܓܘܫܡܐ ܠܥܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܫܰܥܘܬ̥ܐ
gušmā lʕel nāš šaʕōṯā ?
m. body (abs gšum) above com. gen. person, someone (emp nāšā) yellow {N §101 as šʕōTā “wax”; Costaz has it “yellow” but as šʕŌTā }#1

#1 Hard T in CAL: šʕōtā, perhaps from šăʕawtā. On the other hand N §101 says this is like N §77: ōṯā with a Soft T. wikt:ܫܥܘܬܐ š(ə)ʕōṯā OR šAʕōṯā

2017-05-30 Read it šʕōṯā.

ܪܝܫܐ ܣܝܡ ܠܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܓܘܫܡܐ.
The head {rḗšā, m} is placed higher than (=above) the body.
ܘܐܺܝܬ* [ܘܺܐܝܬ̥] ܒܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܦܘܡܐ، ܚܰܕ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ، ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܘܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ.
And there are in it (m) one mouth, one nose {nḥīrā}, two eyes, and two ears {ʾeḏnē}.

2014-03-26

ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ: ܒܝܰܕ ܦܘܡܐ ܐܳܟܶܠ* [ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ] ܘܫܳܬ̥ܶܐ؛ ܒܝܰܕ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ ܣܳܐܶܩ ܪܝ̣ܚܐ؛ ܒܝܰܕ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ؛ ܒܝܰܕ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܩ̈ܳܠܐ.
Everyone eats and drinks with their mouth, breathes (=snuffs/feels) {√SWQ} a smell {rḗḥā N §74 §328D} with their nose, see everything with their eyes, and hears voices/sounds with their ears.
ܪܝܫܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ.
This head has black {ʾukkāmā} hair {saʕrā m}.
ܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܰܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ: ܐܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܫܰܥܘܬ̥ܐ.
The hair of boys {ṭalyā pl. ṭlāyē N §146} is {part. of hwā} either black or yellow.
ܐܶܠܐ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܣܳܒ̈ܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܀
But {ʾellā} the hair of old men {sāḇē} [is] white {ḥëwwārā CAL ḥiw- ES ḥiw- }.

2014-03-27

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܣܝܡ ܪܝܫܐ؟
Where is the head placed?
ܪܝܫܐ ܣܝܡ ܠܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܓܘܫܡܐ.
The head is placed above the body.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܪܝܫܐ؟
What is there in (on) the head?
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚܰܕ ܦܘܡܐ، ܚܰܕ ܢܚܝܪܐ، ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܘܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ.
There are in it one mouth, one nose, two eyes, and two ears.
3 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܣܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ؟
Where are the ears placed {sīmān √SWM pass-pt-pl-f}?
ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ ܣܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܒܪܝܫܐ.
Ears are placed in (on) the head.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܐ؟
What is there above the head?
ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܐ.
Hair is above the head.
5 ܡܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܪܝܫܳܟ؟
ܡܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܪܝܫܶܟܝ̱؟
What is the color of the hair of your head?
ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܪܝܫܝ̱ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ.
The color of the hair of my head is black.

2014-03-28

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ̥

6 ܒܝܰܕ ... ܫܳܡܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ
ܒܝܰܕ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܒܝܰܕ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ ܫܳܡܥܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
With [my] ears I hear.
7 ܒܝܰܕ ... ܣܳܐܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ
ܒܝܰܕ ܢܚܝܪܐ ܣܳܐܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܒܝܰܕ ܢܚܝܪܐ ܣܳܝܩܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
With [my] nose, I breathe.
8 ܒܝܰܕ ... ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
ܒܝܰܕ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܒܝܰܕ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܚܳܙܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
With [my] eyes, I see.
9 ܒܝܰܕ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ
ܒܝܰܕ ܦܘܡܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܒܝܰܕ ܦܘܡܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
With [my] mouth, I eat.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܣܰܥܪܐ ܕܛܰܠܝܐ ܐܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܫܰܥܘܬ̥ܐ ܀
The hair of a boy is either black or yellow.

Qarahbaš [vol. 2, L. 28] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 28: ܗܳܫܐ ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱

2014-03-18

28) 0054fR-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0055Hj-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܩܪܶܒ ܢܶܛܒܰܥ ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱ ܢܶܣܚܶܐ
qreḇ neṭbaʕ paṣṣān nesḥē
to come nere, to touch to sink (fut) save me! to bathe, to swim (fut) √SḤY
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ ܕܢܶܣܚܶܐ.
A small child {under 5 years old} went down to the river to bathe/swim.
ܘܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܣܰܚܘܐ: ܩܪܶܒ ܕܢܶܛܒܰܥ.
And because he did not know swimming {saḥwā} (=did not know how to swim), he came near to sink (=he was nearly drowned).
ܘܰܩܪܐ ܠܓܰܒܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܕܩܳܐܶܡ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܟܰܕ ܐܳܡܰܪ: ܩܪܘܒ ܕܳܕܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱، ܕܗܐ ܛܳܒܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ!
And he called a man who [was] standing (=who was present) there {tammān}, when he said while saying: Come nere {qróḇ***, impt. of qreḇ}, O good uncle; save me, for behold (=because) I am sinking!

2014-03-19

ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܐܳܘ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܣܰܚܘܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ، ܠܡܘܢ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ؟
And the man came near and said to him: O child, when you don’t know how to swim, why {lmṓn = lmānā} did you come down to the river?
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܫܰܒܪܐ: ܐܳܘ ܕܳܕܐ ܛܳܒܐ، ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱ ܗܳܫܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܘܬܐ، ܟܶܢ ܐ̱ܡܰܪ ܟܽܠ ܡܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ!
The child said to him: O good uncle, save me now from death {mawtā}, and then {ken} say {⁂mar = usu. ʾemar, impt.} all that you wish {√ṢBY part.} (=say whatever you want).

2014-03-20

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܫܰܒܪܐ؟
(To) where did the child go down?
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ.
The child went down to the river.
2 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܩܪܶܒ ܕܢܶܛܒܰܥ؟
Why did he nearly sink?
ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܣܰܚܘܐ.
He did not know how to swim.
3 ܠܡܰܢ ܩܪܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ؟
Whom did the child call?
ܩܪܐ ܠܓܰܒܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܕܩܳܐܶܡ ܬܰܡܳܢ.
He called a man who was there.
4 ܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܓܰܒܪܐ؟
What did the man say to him?
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: «ܐܳܘ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܣܰܚܘܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ، ܠܡܘܢ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ؟»
He said: “O child, [even] though you don’t know how to swim, why did you go down to the river?”
5 ܡܘܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܫܰܒܪܐ؟
What did the child reply?
ܐܶܡܪ ܫܰܒܪܐ: «ܐܳܘ ܕܳܕܐ ܛܳܒܐ، ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱ ܗܳܫܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܘܬܐ، ܟܶܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܟܽܠ ܡܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ!»
He said: “O good uncle, save me from death now, and then say whatever you wish!”

2014-03-21

Rearrange these sentences — ܬܰܪܶܨ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܗܳܠܶܝܢ

6 ܣܰܘܟܐ ܥܰܠ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ.
A small bird is sitting on the branch {sawkā OR sawkṯā f. N §98}.
7 ܥܳܒܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܦܝܠܐ.
ܦܝܠܐ ܥܰܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒܐ.
The elephant lives in the forest.
8 ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܓܘܒܐ.
ܓܘܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
The water hole {gubbā, m} has water in it {bèh}.
9 ܢܰܗܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܚܶܐ ܢܘܢܐ.
ܢܘܢܐ ܣܰܚܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ.
A fish swims in the river.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

10 ܐܶܡܰܪ ܓܰܒܪܐ: ܠܡܘܢ ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ؟
The man said: Why did you come down to the river?

Wheelock 33

2014-03-18

1. Dummodo exercitus opem mox ferat, moenia urbis celeriter cōnservāre poterimus.
Provided that the army soon brings help, we will be able to quickly maintain the walls of the city.
2. Cum cōnsilia hostium ab initiō cognōvissēs, prīmō tamen ūllum auxilium offerre aut etiam centum mīlitēs prōmittere nōluistī.
Although you had known the plans of the enemies from the beginning, nevertheless at first you did not want to offer any help, nor even to send 100 soldiers.
3. Sī dīvitiae et invidia nōs ab amōre et honōre ūsque prohibent, dīvitiēsne vērē sumus?
If riches and envy always {ūsque} keep us from love and honor, do we really rich?
4. Pauper quidem nōn erit pār cēterīs nisi scientiam ingeniumve habēbit; sī haec habeat, autem, multī magnopere invideant.
Indeed a poor man will not be [treated] like others unless he has knowledge {f.} or {-ve} innate talent {n.}; if he should have them {n.pl.!}, however, many people would be jealous {invideō ēre} greatly.

2014-04-05

5. Nisi īnsidiae patērent, ferrum eius maximē timērēmus.
If his plot were not clear {pateō ēre} [but it is in fact clear], we would fear {timeō ēre} his sword very much.
6. Sī quis rogābit quid nunc discās, refer tē artem nōn mediocrem sed ūtilissimam ac difficillimam discere.
If anyone asks what you are studying now, answer {referō} [them] that you are studying art that is not ordinary {mediocris e} but very useful and very difficult.
7. Lēgēs ita scrībantur ut dīvitēs et plēbs—etiam pauper sine asse—sint parēs.
Let laws be written in such a way that the rich and the common people {sg.f.}—also the poor without money—may be the same (treated equally).
8. Sī custōdiae dūriōrēs fortiōrēsque ad casam tuam contendissent, heu, numquam tanta scelera suscēpissēs et hī omnēs nōn occidissent.
If tougher and stronger guards had gone hastily {contendō ere#1} to your house, alas, you never would have undergone {suscipiō ere cēpī} such great crimes and all of these men would not have died {occidō ere}.
#1 To direct or bend one's course eagerly somewhere; or, neutr., to strive to get to a place, to seek to arrive at, to go, march, or journey hastily to, etc. (Lewis–Short)

2014-04-10

9. Illa fēmina sapientissima, cum id semel cognōvisset, ad eōs celerrimē sē contulit et omnēs opēs suās praebuit.
That very wise woman, as she had known it once, very quickly betook herself to them (m) and offered {praebeō ēre uī} all of her resources.
10. Dūrum exsilium tam ācrem mentem ūnō annō mollīre nōn poterit.
[Even] harsh excile will not be able to soften such a keen mind in one year.
11. Propter omnēs rūmōrēs pessimōs (quī nōn erant vērī), nātae suāvēs eius magnopere dolēbant et dormīre nōn peterant.
Because of all the very bad rumors (which were not true), his sweet daughters {nāta} greatly were griving {doleō ēre} and were not able to sleep.
12. If those philosophers should come soon, you would be happier.
Sī illī philosophī mox veniant, fēlīcior sīs.
13. If you had not answered very wisely, they would have hesitated to offer us peace.
Sī nōn (OR Nisi) sapientissimē respondissēs {respondeō ēre dī}, nōbīs pācem offerre dubitāvissent {dubitō}.

2014-04-12

14. If anyone does these three things well, he will live better.
Sī quis haec tria bene faciet, melius vīvet.
15. If you were willing to read better books, you would most certainly learn more.
Sī meliōrēs librōs legere vellēs, certissimē plūs discerēs.
SA1. Sī vīs pācem, parā bellum.
If you wish peace, prepare for war.
2. Arma sunt parvī pretiī, nisi vērō cōnsilium est in patriā.
Weapons are of little value, unless indeed a plan/judgement is in [our] fatherland.

2014-04-14

3. Salūs omnium ūnā nocte certē āmissa esset, nisi illa servēritās contrā istōs suscepta esset.
The safety of all persons would surely have been lost in one (=in a single) night, if that strictness against those men had not been undertaken.
4. Sī quid dē mē posse agī putābis, id agēs—sī tū ipse ab istō perīculō eris līber.
If you think that something can be done about me, you will do it—if you yourself are free from that risk.
5. Sī essem mihi cōnscius ūllīus culpae, aequō animō hoc malum ferrem.
If—in my own heart{#1}—I were conscious of any fault [of mine], I would bear this evil with a calm mind [but in reality I am innocent and this is not acceptable].
#1 mihi: I think this one is an ethical dative.
6. Dīcis tē vērē mālle fortūnam et mōrēs antīquae plēbis; sed sī quis ad illa subitō tē agat, illum modum vītae recūsēs.
You say that you really prefer the fortune and habits of the ancient common people; but if someone should suddenly lead you to those things (=give those things to you, OR take you to the past world), you would refuse {recūsō} their mode of life.

2014-04-15

7. Minus saepe errēs, sī sciās quid nesciās.
You would err less often, if you should know what you do not know. (Publilius Syrus)
8. Dīcēs “heu” sī tē in speculō vīderis.
If you see yourself in the mirror, you will say “Alas.”
9. Nīl habet īnfēlīx paupertās dūrius in sē quam quod rīdiculōs hominēs facit.
Unhappy poverty has nothing harsher in itself than the fact that it makes men ridiculous/absurd.

2014-04-17

Latin Catullus 13 Translation - Carmen 13 - Gaius Valerius Catullus (Latin)

Cēnābis bene, mī Fabulle, apud mē
paucīs (sī tibi dī favent) diēbus—
sī tēcum attuleris bonam atque magnam
cēnam, nōn sine candidā puëllā
et vīnō et sale et omnibus cachinnīs;
You will dine well, O my Fabullus, at my place
for a few days (if the gods are favorable toward you)—
if with you {tē-cum} you bring {adferō attulī} a good and great
dinner, not without a shining girl,
and wine and wit {sāle salis} and all laughters;
Note: attulĕris fut-pf, as opposed to attulēris subj-pf.

2014-04-18

haec sī, inquam, attuleris, venuste noster,
cēnābis bene; nam tuī Catullī
plēnus sacculus est arāneārum.
I say, if you bring these things, O our charming {venustus} man,
you will eat well; for your Catullus’s
money bag is full of spiderwebs.
Sed contrā accipiēs merōs amōrēs,
seu quid suāvius ēlegantiusve est:
But in return you will accept pure loves,
or what is sweeter or more elegant:
nam unguentum dabo, quod meae puellae
dōnārunt Venerēs Cupīdinēsque;
for I will offer {dabo=dabō} perfume, which to my girl
Venuses and Cupids have given {dōnārunt=dōnāvērunt};
quod tū cum olfaciēs, deōs rogābis,
tōtum ut tē faciant, Fabulle, nāsum.
when you smell it, you will ask the gods
to make you, O Fabullus, a total nose.

2014-04-24

Semper pauper eris, sī pauper es, Aemiliāne:
dantur opēs nūllī nunc nisi dīvitibus.
Always you will be poor, if you are poor, O Aemillianus:
resources {n pl} are given to no one now, if not (=except) to rich men.
An Philippus, rēx Macedonum, voluisset Alexandrō, fīliō suō, prīma elementa litterārum trādī ab Aristotele, summō eius aetātis philosophō, aut hic suscēpisset illud maximum officium, nisi initia studiōrum pertinēre ad summam sapientissimē crēdidisset?
Can it be that Philippus, the king of Macedonians, would have wanted the first elements of literature to be taught {trādō ere} to Alexandrus, his own son, by Aristoteles, the greatest philosopher of his era {aetās tātis}? Or (can it be that) he would have undertook this very important duty, if he had not very wisely believed that the beginning {initium} of studies {studium} relate to {pertineō} the whole?

2014-05-03

Cum Quīntus Fabius Maximus magnō cōnsiliō Tarentum fortissimē recēpisset et Salīnātor (quī in arce fuerat, urbe āmissā) dīxisset, “Meā operā, Quīnte Fabī, Tarentum recēpistī,” Fabius, mē audiente, “Certē,” inquit rīdēns, “nam nisi tū urbem āmīsissēs, numquam eam recēpissem.”
As QFM, with a great plan, had very forcefully recaptured Tarentum and Salinator (who was in the citadel {arx arcis f}, as the city had been lost) had said, “Thanks to me, QF, you recaptured Tarentum,” Fabius said laughing, while I was hearing, “Certainly, indeed if you had not lost the city, I would have never recaptured it.”

Qarahbaš [vol. 2, L. 27] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 27: ܫܶܒ̈ܠܐ ܕܙܰܪܥܐ

2014-03-04

27) 00524l-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels) / 0053fs-791x1024.jpeg (JPEG Image, 791×1024 pixels)

ܚܨܳܕܐ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܫܶܒ̈ܠܐ ܣܦܝܩ
ḥṣāḏā zarʕā šeb(b)lē sp̄īq
reaping, the harvest seed, grain f. spikes empty, lacking
ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܚܨܳܕܐ، ܢܦܰܩ ܡܰܬ̥ܰܝ ܥܰܡ ܐܰܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ ܕܢܶܚܙܶܐ ܠܙܰܪܥܐ.
On one of the days of reaping, Matthew (Maṯay) went out with his father to the field so that he may see (i.e. to see) the grain.
ܝܘܡ (yṓm) abs/cnst, ܝܰܘܡܐ emph; pl. ܝܰܘܡܝܢ abs, ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ cnst, ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ [ES ܝܵܘ̈ܡܹܐ] and ܝܰܘ̈ܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ [ES ܝܵܘ̈ܡܵܬ݂ܵܐ] emph. ¶ yawmāṯā (still mas.) is much oftener, meaning vaguely “(a few) days”, or “a period of time”. yawmē may mean “specific days”, as in “a week has seven days” [V3L8; Alan 108]
impf. of 3rd-Y: neḤZeY > neḥzē; 3m-pl *neḤZəYūn > neḥzṓn***; 3f-pl neḤZ(ə)Yān (regular); 2f-sg *teḤZəYīn > teḥzēn
ܘܰܚܙܐ ܚܕܐ ܫܶܒܠܐ ܕܪܝܫܳܗ̇ ܪܳܡ.
And he saw one spike whose head [was] high.
More lit. “he saw [such] a spike that its head [was] high.” Since rām is in the abs. st., it should be predicative, i.e. its head is/was high.

2014-03-15 This can be understood as topic-subject. “About the spike, (it is true that) its head was high.” “He saw the spike, about which (it is true that) its head was high.”

2014-03-17 Maybe think this as something like a 連体修飾節 in Japanese: “頭が高い麦の穂”; or in Classic Japanese: “麦の穂の頭のいと高きを…” (the same word order).

2014-03-06

ܘܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܰܐܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ: ܠܡܳܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ، ܫܶܒܠܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܝܫܳܗ̇ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܪܳܡ؟
And he asked {šaʾʾel Pa.} his father: Why, O great (=lit, my load, i.e. “sir”) Father, is this spike’s head thus {hāḵan: ⁂CANADA doesn’t have this word} high?
More lit. “Why—this (f) spike (f)—[is] her head (m) thus high (m)?” The meaning seems obvious, but the structure feels strange. It’s almost like double subjects—a topic subject + the logical subject of a predicative adjective—as in この象は(その)鼻が長い, or この麦の穂は、その頭が高い, or even 私は目が悪い. A clear-cut way to say this would be “the head of this spike...” ܪܝܫܐ ܕܫܶܒܠܐ (ܕܫܶܒܰܠܬ̥ܐ) ܗܳܕܶܐ or ܪܝܫܳܗ̇ ܕܫܶܒܠܐ (ܕܫܶܒܰܠܬ̥ܐ) ܗܳܕܶܐ.
Maybe this is an example of the topic-comment sentence in Syriac. This sentence type, which is fairly common in Semitic languages in general, consists of a topic that is not the logical subject of the comment part of the sentence; a referent pronoun in the comment part indicates the relationship of the topic to the comment [Thackston p. 105; Cf. Mura §113]: “[Speaking of] this spike (=topic), its head is so high (=comment).” [2016-01-06 See also: Greenspahn, An Introduction to Aramaic (2007), Lesson 13, p. 69 “casus pendens”]
Now that I think about it, John 12:47 (He who listens to my words and does not observe them—I do not judge him) 従わない者は、これを裁かない。 is just like 戦力は、これを保持しない。 in which 従わない者 and 戦力 are topics, but not logical subjects.

2014-03-14

ܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܰܒܐ: ܐܳܘ ܒܶܪܝ̱، ܕܰܥ ܕܟܽܠ ܪܝܫܐ ܕܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܪܳܡ، ܣܦܝܩ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ.
The father said {ʾemar. Thackston p. 9}: O my son {bèr Alan 98, N §146}, know#1 that every head which [is] thus high, [is] emptier {sp̄īq} than everything {köl meddem} [else] (=is most fruitless).

2014-03-16

Write the answer — ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܢܦܰܩ ܡܰܬ̥ܰܝ؟
(To) where did Matthew go out?
ܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ.
He went out to the field.
2 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ؟
Why did he go out to the field?
ܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ ܕܢܶܚܙܶܐ ܠܙܰܪܥܐ.
He went out to the field so that he may see the grain (i.e. to see the grain).
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ؟
What did he see in the field?
ܚܙܐ ܚܕܐ ܫܶܒܠܐ ܕܪܝܫܳܗ̇ ܪܳܡ.
He saw a spike whose head [was] high.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܰܐܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ؟
What did he say to his father?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: «ܠܡܳܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ، ܫܶܒܠܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܝܫܳܗ̇ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܪܳܡ؟»
He said: “Why, O great Father, does this spike has such a high head?” (Lit. Why, about this spike, is its head thus high?)
5 ܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܒܐ؟
What {mṓn} did [his] father say to him?
«ܐܳܘ ܒܶܪܝ̱، ܕܰܥ ܕܟܽܠ ܪܝܫܐ ܕܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܪܳܡ، ܣܦܝܩ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ.»
“O my son, know (remember) that every head which [is] thus high [is] emptier than everything [else] (i.e. emptiest).”

2014-03-17

Fill in the blanks — ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ̥

6 ܥܶܙܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ...
ܥܶܙܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
A goat gives us milk.
7 ܣܰܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ...
ܣܰܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.
A vine gives us grapes {ʕënbē, CAL ʕi-}.
8 ܚܰܩܠܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܳܢ ...
ܚܰܩܠܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܳܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
The field {f} gives us grains of wheat {ḥëṭṭē, CAL hi/e-}.
9 ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܽܘܠܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ...
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܽܘܠܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܒܝܥ̈ܐ.
A hen {tarnāḡultā} gives us eggs.
10 ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܰܢ ...
ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܰܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
A tree gives us fruits.
11 ܝܰܡܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܰܢ ...
ܝܰܡܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܰܢ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ.
A sea {yammā, m} gives us fish.

Practice writing — ܠܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

12 ܟܽܠ ܪܝܫܐ ܕܪܳܡ: ܣܦܝܩ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܀
Every head that is high, is emptier than everything [else].

Errata

2014-03-04

N §87 Eng. not Ger.: For ܫ̈ܒ̊ܠܷܐ, read ܫܷ̈ܒ̊ܠܷܐ.

2014-03-14

Alan Lesson 114: ܬܲܪܬܹܝܢ ܐܵܘ ܬܠܵܬ݂ ܙܲܒ݂ܢܝܼ̈ܢ — For Three or four times, read Two or three times.

2014-07-30

N §190G (Eng/Ger): For “§ 84B”, read “§ 49B”.

2014-08-06

N §193 (Eng): Perfect Sg. 3. f. Peal + Sg. 2. f.: For ܓܠܴܬ̥ܟ̥ܝ, read ܓܠܴܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ, as in the original German version.

N §192 (Eng): For “iu into ”, read “īu into ” as in the original German version.

2014-08-10

N §193 (Ger): Impt sg. f. Peal + Sg. 3. m.: For ܓܠܴܐܝܘܗ̄ܝ, read ܓܠܴܐܺܝܘܗ̄ܝ (OK in the English version).

N §193 (Eng/Ger): Impt pl. f. Peal + Sg. 3. f./Pl. 1.: For ܓܠܴܝܷܢܳܗ̇ and ܓܠܴܝܷܢܳܢ, read ܓ̈ܠܴܝܷܢܳܗ̇ and ܓ̈ܠܴܝܷܢܳܢ, respectively.

2014-09-03

Alan Lesson 99: ܡܝܲܩܪܵܐ — For Honorable, Nobel, read Honorable, Noble.

2014-09-05

N §145 F (Eng): For ܒܺܝܫܬܝ, read ܒܺܝܫܬ̊ܝ (OK in the German version).

2014-09-06

Muraoka §42d fn33: For 'her queen/, read 'her queen'.

2014-09-07

N §145 J (Ger): For “Die im St. abs. sg. auf ܝܴܐ ausgehenden”, read “Die im St. emph. sg. auf ܝܴܐ ausgehenden”.

N §145 J (Eng): For “Forms which end in ܝܴܐ in the abs. st. sing.”, read “Forms which end in ܝܴܐ in the emph. st. sing.”.

2014-09-14

Muraoka p. 108 (Verb paradigms II) Afel Pf.:

2014-09-29

Muraoka p. 111 (Verb paradigms IV. Gaminate Verbs) Ptc. pl. f.: For tākān, read tākkān.

2015-01-09: See §66 c) in the very same book.

2014-10-05

N §176 (Eng) Paradigm, Ethpeel, Perf. pl. 2. f.: for ܐܷܬܪܡܺܝܬ̊ܝܢ, read ܐܷܬܪܡܺܝܬܷ̊ܝܢ.

2014-10-12

N §190D (Eng): For “a longer form in īnā as in the Impf.”, read “a longer form in īnā as in the Impt.”.

N §190D (Ger): For “Eine längere Form mit īnā wie im Impf.”, read “Eine längere Form mit īnā wie im Impt.”.

2014-12-20

N §190B (Eng): For “but also in the Pael and Ethpaal, read “but also in the Pael and Aphel”. The original German edition does not have this typo.

2014-12-22

N §176 (Eng) Paradigm, Pael, Impt. pl. f.: for ܪ̈ܡܳܝܷܝܢ, read ܪܱ̈ܡܳܝܷܝܢ; OK in Ger.

2015-03-10

N §146 (Eng) “year”: for ܫ̈ܢ̈ܝܢ, read ܫ̈ܢܺܝܢ; OK in Ger.

2015-05-17

Muraoka, Verb paradigms III, Peal (p. 109), Impf. sg. 1: for ܐܲܩܘܼܡ ʾaqum ܐܲܣܝܼܡ ʾasim read ܐܸܩܘܼܡ ʾequm ܐܸܣܝܼܡ ʾesim.

2016-11-04

Qarahbaš Book 4, p. 2: for “to enculcate the students”, read “to inculcate the students”.

2017-06-19

Muraoka §40 N.B. 4: for ܡܸܠܬ݂ܸܗ, read ܡܸܠܬ݂ܹܗ.


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