memos::Syriac 10 (J)

未分類のメモ。主に趣味のシリア語の学習ノート(その10)。このノートは2014年12月~2015年1月のもの(シリア語歴1年10カ月~2年)。ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第3巻18~20課に当たる。Wheelock’s Latin の36章も含まれる。2014年12月6日から、Madina Books も開始(1~3課)。とりあえずアラビア語とペルシャ語のキーボード配列と文字の順番を覚えた。カラバシは3課しか進めなかったが、そのぶんアラビア語の感覚が少しつかめ、キーボード入力ができるようになったのは良かった。シリア語の大辞典にはアラビア語のものも多いので、そのうち役立つかも…。メディナ本と出会えたタイミングはラッキーだった。

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[sy, ar, sa]; Wiki; Map, 2, 3, ME, Eura | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; Et | G

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Jpeg 34 KiB Edessa (ܐܘܪܗܳܝ)

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 20] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 20 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ]: ܪܰܡܫܐ

2015-01-20

ܦܢܝܬ̥ܐ ܒܳܝ̈ܬܳܢ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܫܶܠܝܐ
pnīṯā bāytān kawkḇē šelyā
f. region they-f spend the night √BWT stars quietness, (noun) calm
ܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܪܰܡܫܐ: ܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܳܪܶܒ ܘܛܳܫܶܐ ܢܘܗܪܶܗ ܡܶܢ ܦܢܝܬ̥ܰܢ، ܘܰܡܫܰܪܶܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ ܘܳܐܬ̥ܶܐ ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܐ.
In the time {ʕeddān Const.} of evening: the sun is setting {ʕRB} and hiding {ṬSY} its light {nuhrā} from our region, and night {le̦lyā, from layləyā N §49A; Ar. layla(t)} begins {šarrī, mšarrē}, and the darkness {ḥeššṓḵā Adj as noun} is coming.

2015-01-21

ܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܪܰܡܫܐ: ܫܳܒܶܩ ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܶܗ ܘܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܶܗ، ܘܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ ܘܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܒܳܝ̈ܬܳܢ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢ̈ܐ ܐܰܘ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟ̈ܐ ܕܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
In the time of evening: everyone leaves {ŠBQ} his work {pulḥānā} and returns to his house, and small birds and pigeons spend the night within the nests or on the branches of the trees.

2015-01-22

ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܪܰܡܫܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ: ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܫܡܰܝܐ ܡܰܙܗܰܪ ܒܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ، ܘܕܳܢܰܚ ܣܰܗܪܐ ܘܡܰܢܗܰܪ ܠܰܐܪܥܐ.
After the evening, in a short time: the face {ʾappay pl. only} of heaven shines brightly {ʾazhar mazhar Aph} with stars, and the moon {sahrā} shines {DNḤ} and illuminates {NHR Aph ʾanhar#1} the ground.
ܘܗܳܘܶܐ ܫܶܠܝܐ ܘܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܡܰܥ: ܐܶܠܐ ܟܒܰܪ ܩܳܠ ܒܘܡܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ، ܐܰܘ ܩܳܠ ܬܰܥܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܳܒܐ܀
And it is quiet, there is quietness and nothing is heard; except perhaps {kḇar} the voice of an owl from trees, or the voice of a fox {taʕlā} from the forest.
2015-01-29: š(ə)mayyā = Ar. səmāʾ, even in Ar. a short, open “a” before a long vowel is half-deleted!

2015-01-24

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Write the answer

1 ܡܘܢ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܟܰܕ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܳܪܶܒ؟
What is [there], when the sun sets?
ܡܫܰܪܶܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ.
The night starts.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܝܢ ܒܢܰܝ̈ܢܳܫܳܐ؟
What do men do?
ܫܳܒܶܩ ܟܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܶܗ ܘܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܶܗ.
Everyone leaves his work and returns to his house.
3 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܒܳܝ̈ܬܳܢ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ ܘܝܰܘܢ̈ܐ؟
Where do small birds and pigeons spend the night?
ܒܳܝ̈ܬܳܢ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢ̈ܐ ܐܰܘ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟ̈ܐ ܕܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ.
They spend the night within nests or on the branches of the trees.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܚܙܶܐ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ؟
What is seen in the sky?
ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܘܣܰܗܪܐ.
Stars and the moon.
5 ܒܰܐܝܕܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܕܳܡܶܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
At which hour do you lie down?
ܕܳܡܶܟ ܐ̱ܢܐ (ܕܳܡܟܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ) ܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܥܣܰܪ.
I lie down at 10 o’clock.

2015-01-28

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ — Put each word in a sentence

6 ܛܳܫܶܐ ܡܰܙܗܰܪ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܫܶܠܝܐ
hides; shines brightly; stars; quietness
ܐܶܢ ܩܰܛܐ ܛܳܫܶܐ، ܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܫܟܰܚ ܠܶܗ.
If a cat hides, you can not find him.
ܟܰܕ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܙܗܰܪ، ܡܨܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܚܙܶܐ ܟܽܠܡܶܕܶܡ.
When the sun shines brightly, you can see everything.
ܒܠܺܠܝܐ ܚܙܹܝܬ̥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܟܰܘܟܒܶܐ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ.
At night I saw stars in the sky.

2015-01-29

ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܡܰܥ ܡܶܕܶܡ، ܗܳܘܶܐ ܫܶܠܝܐ.
When nothing is heard, there is quietness.

2015-01-31

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܪܰܡܫܐ — Make 4 sentences

7 ܐܰܝܟ: ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܡܫܰܪܶܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ
Like: In the evening, night begins.
ܟܰܕ ܗܘܐ ܪܰܡܫܐ ܚܙܹܝܬ̥ ܣܰܗܪܐ.
When it was evening, I saw the moon.
ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܳܪܶܒ.
In the evening, the sun sets.
ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܗܰܦܟܶܬ̥ ܠܒܰܝܬܝ̱.
In the evening, I went home.
ܪ̈ܰܡܫܶܐ ܳܛܒ̈ܶܐ!
Good evening!

Āḏāmā

2015-01-15

Syr. ܐܳܕܳܡܳܐ, Heb. אַדְמָה

Lexicon syriacum

Thesaurus syriacus

2015-01-16:

2015-01-20:

Madina Book [vol. 1, L. 3] — (٣) الدرسُ الثالِثُ

2014-12-15

ṯāliṯun (W §328) = Syr. tlīṯāyā

بيتٌ : اَلْبَيْتُ، كِتَابٌ : اَلْكِتَابُ ، قَلَمٌ : اَلْقَلَمُ، جَمَلٌ : اَلْجَمَلُ
اَلْقَلَمُ مَكْسورٌ.
máksūrun = broken; pass. pt. of KSR
اَلْبابُ مَفْتوحٌ.
maftūḥun = open; pass. pt. of FTḤ // This is almost like ܡܶܬ݂ܦ݁ܬ݂ܰܚ meṯ-pṯa-ḥ
اَلْوَلَدُ جالِسٌ، وَالْمُدَرِّسُ واقِفٌ.
ǧālisun = pt. of ǦLS “to sit” (So Syr. -ā-e- = Ar. -ā-i-, cool!); wāqifun = pt. of WQF “to stand”.
I was confused by the LM ligature ; it took me half an hour to figure it out. The Traditional Arabic and Arabic Typesetting fonts have this glyph. Unicode has U+FCCC ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH MEEM INITIAL FORM.

2014-12-16

(١) الكتابُ جَديدٌ وَٱلْقَلَمُ قَديمٌ.
The book is new and the pen is old. // ǧédīd = new; qadīm = old
(٢) اَلحِمارُ صَغيرٌ وَٱلْحِصانُ كَبيرٌ.
¶ ḥimāru (donkey){#1} = Syc ܚܡܳܪܐṣɐg̮īrun = small ¶ ḥɨṣɐ̄nu = horse ¶ kábīrun = big
#1 I think a ligature for LḤM is used here: [Verified with MAV_BK1_DVD01_PARTA3.avi]; Unicode has: U+FD80 [ ﶀ ] ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH HAH WITH MEEM FINAL FORM: U+FDB5 [ ﶵ ] ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH HAH WITH MEEM INITIAL FORM: U+FC18 [ ﰘ ] ARABIC LIGATURE HAH WITH MEEM ISOLATED FORM: U+FCAA [ ﲪ ] ARABIC LIGATURE HAH WITH MEEM INITIAL FORM
The Arabic Typesetting font has these glyphs:

2014-12-17

(٣) الكُرْسيُّ مَكْسورٌ.
The chair is broken.
(٤) المِنْديلُ وَسِخٌ.
The napkin is dirty. // wasik̮un = dirty
(٥) الماءُ بارِدٌ.
The water is cold. // māʾun = water (Syr. mayyā); bāridun = cold
(٦) القَمَرُ جَميلٌ.
The moon is beautiful. // qamarun = moon;
(٧) البيتُ قَريبٌ والْمَسْجِدُ بَعيدٌ.
The house is near and the mosque is far. // qàrīb(un) = near; bèʕīd(un) = far;
(٨) الحَجَرُ ثَقيلٌ والوَرَقُ خَفيفٌ.
The stone is heavy and the paper is light. // ṯàqīlun = heavy; wàràq = paper; k̮afīf = light;
(٩) اللَبَنُ حارٌّ.
The milk is hot. // ḥārrun = hot
(١٠) القَميصُ نَظيفٌ.
The shirt is clean. // qảmīṣ = Lat. camisia = Fr. chemise; naẓīf = clean.

2014-12-18

p. 15

(١) اِقْرَأ وَاكْتُبْ مَعَ ضَبْطِ أَواخِرِ الكَلِماتِ:
maʕ = with; ḍabṭ = adjustment; ʾawāk̮ir = pl. of “last, end, bottom”; kalimāt = pl. of kalima(tun) “word”
مَسجِدٌ. المسجدُ. الماءُ. ماءٌ. البيتُ. بابٌ. قلمٌ. القلمُ.
الكَلْبُ. كَلْبٌ. قميصٌ. ولدٌ. الحجرُ. الولدُ. حِمارٌ. الحمارُ.
الحِصانُ. حِصانٌ.
(٢) اِقرَأ وَاكْتُبْ:
(١) الْمَكْتَبُ مَكْسورٌ.
The desk is broken. // máktab = desk (“t” dental, somewhat like “ts”);
(٢) الْمُدَرِّسُ جديدٌ.
The teacher is new. // ǧédīdun = new
(٣) القميصُ وَسِخٌ.
The shirt is dirty. // wàsik̮un
(٤) اللَبَنُ بارِدٌ.
The milk is cold. // bāridun
(٥) المسجدُ مَفتوحٌ.
The mosque is open. // máftūḥun
(٦) الحجرُ كبيرٌ.
The stone is big. // kábīrun

2014-12-19

(٧) اللَبَنُ بارِدٌ والماءُ حارٌّ.
The milk is cold and the water is hot.
(٨) الْمُهَندِسُ جالِسٌ والْمُدَرَّسُ والْمُدَرِّسُ واقِفٌ.
The engineer is sitting and the teacher is standing. // muhandis(un) = engineer;
(٩) القمرُ بعيدٌ.
The moon is far.
(١٠) المِنديلُ نظيفٌ.
The napkin is clean. // naẓīfun

2014-12-20

(٣) اِمْلَأْ الفَراغ فيما يلي بوضع الكَلِمَة المناسبة مِنْ الكَلِمات التالية:
Fill the blank with (?) {fīmā YLY} the proper (?) word from the following words. // √MLʔ = fill (a-a); farāg̮ = space; fī = in, because of — fīmā = ?; YLY=“follows”; √WḌʕ to put, place, waḍʕun (?) = (noun) ?; kalima = word, pl. kalimāt; munāsaba = happening, opportunity; tālī (?) = following
2014-12-28: fīmā = while; waḍʕun = INF. or, putting down, setting, composing, position; munāsib = fitting; tālī = following.
Fill in the blank(s) while “YLY” by placing the suitable word from the following words.
Helped by The student's Arabic-English dictionary, now I’m pretty sure what this sentence means, except I still can’t figure out what “YLY” is.
2015-01-21: Fill in the blank in what follows (in the following) by placing the suitable word from the following words.
Finally got it, yay! مَا يَلِي “the following, what follows” is found under ولي “to follow”, in Madina_Books_Glossary.pdf, page 240. يَلِي (yalī) seems to be the Impf. (AKA present/aorist), 3 sg. m. of this double-weak verb (1st-W, 3rd-Y). There is a paradigm in وَلِيَ - ويكاموس, except there the word is vocalized as يَلِيَ with an additional -a. I’m not sure about this -a. Other than that, everything seems cool now.

2014-12-22

جَميلٌ. وَسِخٌ. مَفْتوحٌ. حَارٌّ. ثَقيلٌ. خَفيفٌ.
ǧémīlun = beautiful. wasik̮un = dirty. máftūḥ = open. ḥārrun = hot. ṯàqīlun = heavy. ḳafīfun = light.
(١) الحجرُ ثقيلٌ.
The stone is heavy.
(٢) الباب مفتوحٌ.
The door is open.
(٣) القمرُ جميلٌ.
The moon is beautiful.
(٤) الوَرَقُ خفيفٌ.
The paper is light.
(٥) المنديل وَسِخٌ.
The napkin is dirty.
(٦) اللَبَنُ حارٌّ.
The milk is hot.

2014-12-23

p. 16

(٤) اِمْلَأْ الفَراغ فيما يلي بوضع كَلِمَة مناسبة:
(١) المنديل نظيف.
The napkin is clean.
(٢) القام مكسور.
The pen is broken.
(٣) الماء بارد.
The water is cold.
(٤) البيت قريب.
The house is near.
(٥) القمر بعيد.
The moon is far.
(٦) المدرس واقف.
The teacher is standing.
(٧) الولد جالس.
The boy is sitting.
(٨) الحَجَرُ كبير.
The stone is big.
(٩) القلم قديم.
The pen is old.
(١٠) الكتاب جديد.
The book is new.

bảqïyà /bɑqɨja/ “to stay”; ṣảdru /sˤɔd̪rʊ/ “chest”

الكمات [الكَلِماتُ] الجَديدَةُ:

2014-12-25

القَمَرُ جَديدٌ قَديمٌ وَسِخٌ

2014-12-27

نظيف حارّ بارِد صغير
ṣag̮īrun = small, young = ܙܥܘܪܐ
كبير مفْتوح مكسور ثقيل
ṯàqīlun = heavy
خفيف جميل واقف جالس
jālisun = sitting
نَجْمٌ : اَلنَّجْمُ
naǧimun : an-naǧimu = star
رَجُلٌ : اَلرَّجُلُ
raǧulun : ar-raǧulu = man
دِيكٌ : اَلدِّيكُ
dīkun : ad-dīku = rooster
طَالِبٌ : اَلطَّالِبُ
ṭālibun : aṭ-ṭālibu = student

2015-01-12

p. 17 (reading this page after p. 18)

(١) النَّجْمُ بَعيدٌ.
The star is far.
(٢) الرَّجُلُ واقِفٌ.
The man is standing.
(٣) السُّكَّرُ حُلْوٌ.
The sugar is sweet.
(٤) الطَّالِبُ مَريضٌ.
The student is sick.
(٥) الدِّيكُ جميل.
The rooster is beautiful.
(٦) الدَّفتَرُ جديد.
The notebook is new. // daftar
(٧) التَّاجِر غَنِيٌّ.
The merchant is rich. // g̮aniyyun
(٨) الدُّكّان مفتوح.
The shop is open.
(٩) الولد فَقير.
The boy is poor. // fảqīr(un)
(١٠) التُّفّاح لَذيذ.
The apple is delicious/tasty.
(١١) الطَّبيب طَويل والـمُدَّرِس والـمُدَرِّس قَصير.
The doctor is tall and the teacher is short {qaṣīrun}.

2015-01-14

ʾIʿrab - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

الـمَرفوع
Nominative
الـمَنصوب
Accusative
الـمَجرور
Genitive

2015-01-20

(١) اِقْرَأْ وَاكْتُبْ مَعَ ضَبْطِ أَوَاخِرِ الكَلِمَاتِ:
Read and write, with adjustment, the endings of the words.
البابُ. التّاجرُ. النجم. القمر. الدّيكُ. الماءُ.
السّرِيرُ. البيتُ. المسجدُ. الرّجلُ. السّكرُ. الْوَرَقُ.
sarīr = bed (en.wikt has the wrong vowel); wàràq = paper.

2015-01-21

(٢) اِمْلَأْ الفَراغ فِيمَا يَلِي بوَضْع كَلِمَةٍ مُنَاسِبَةٍ:
Fill in the blank in what follows (in the following) by putting a suitable word. // (ملأ) = to fill; فَرَاغ = space; munāsibun = suitable √NSB
(١) ... غني. التّاجر غَنِيٌّ.
The merchant is rich.
(٢) ... حلو. السّكّر حُلْوٌ.
The sugar is sweet.
(٣) ... مريض. الطّالِبُ مَريضٌ.
The student is sick.
(٤) ... لذيذ. التُّفَّاحُ لَذيذٌ.
The apple is tasty.
(٥) ... طويل. الطَّبيب طويل.
The doctor is tall.
(٦) ... قصير. الـمُدَرِّس قَصير.
The teacher is short.

2015-01-02

p. 18

(٣) اِخْتَرْ كَلِمَةً من القائِمَةِ (ب) تناسب الكَلِمَة الَّتي في القَائِمَةِ (أ):
Choose a word from the list B related to {tanāsub-an ?} the word which is in the list A.
ʾiχtar = impt. of ʾiχtāra VIII √XYR “choose, select” // qāimatun = list // tanāsub (?) = relationship. [#1] // allatī = rel. pron. fem. // fī = in.
2015-01-21 #1 tanāsubun is a noun from √NSB VI; the word in the sentence should be adjective. Can the same word mean “(be) related to”?

2015-01-03

The form VIII corresponds to ʾeṯpəʕel, except that the T and the 1st radical is swapped, just like ʾestəḇar (from *ʾeṯsəḇar). Pf. iXtāRa from *iXtaYaRa, Impt. iXtaR from *iXtaYiR

ئ = [Z]

الطَّالِبُ مَريضٌ.
The student is sick {marīḍun}.
الدُّكّانُ مَفْتوحٌ.
The shop {dukkānu} is open.
التُّفَّاحُ لَذيذٌ.
The apple {at-tuffāḥu, collective} is tasty {laḏīḏun}.
الماءُ حَارٌّ.
The water is hot.
الحَجَرُ ثَقيلٌ.
The stone is heavy.
القَلَمُ مَكْسورٌ.
The pen is broken.

2015-01-06

الكَلِماتُ الجَديدَةُ:

حُلْوٌ مَريضٌ الدُّكَّانُ غَنِيٌ [غَنِيٌّ]
ḥulwun “sweet”; marīḍun “sick”; ad-dukkānu “the shop”; g̮aniyyun “rich”
طَويلٌ فَقيرٌ قَصيرٌ التُفَّاحُ
ṭawīlun /ṭɐ-/ “tall, long”; faqīrun /fɑ-/ “poor”; qaṣīrun “short”; at-tuffāḥu “the apple”

2015-03-31

p. 19

اَلْحُرُوْفُ الْقَمَرَيَّةُ وَاَلْحُرُوْفُ الشَّمْسِيَّةُ
ḥurūfu = pl. of ḥarfun. šamsu Cf. Syc. šemšā
(١) أ : اَلأَبُ
MAV_BK1_DVD01_PARTB1.avi ~19:10

2015-04-01

(٢) ب : اَلْبابُ
(٣) ج : الجنّة
ǧannatu = “garden”, Syc. gannṯā
2016-10-23 tmr גִּ(י)נְּתָא ‎= myz גינתא (Nöld. Mand. Gr. p. 172; CAL ginta): ࡂࡉࡍࡕࡀ ‎= גַּן ‎= ገነት (LLA 1176; LS2 gannat)
(٤) ح : الحِمار
ḥimāru = “donkey”, Syc. ḥmārā
(٥) خ : الخُبْز
k̮ubzu = “bread”
(٦) ع : العَيْن
ʕaynu = Syc. ʕaynā = עַיִן
(٧) غ : الغَداءُ
g̮adāʾu = “lunch”
(٨) ف : الفَم
famu = Syc. pūmā = פֶּה
٨ looks like the kanji 八(はち).
(٩) ق : القمر ٭
(١٠) ك : الكَلْب
kalbu = Syc. kalbā = כֶּלֶב
(١١) م : الماء
māʾu = Syc. mayyā = מַיִם
(١٢) و : الوَلَد
(١٣) ه : الهَواء
hawāʾu =“air”
(١٤) ي : اليَد
yadu = Syc. ʾīḏā = יָד

2015-04-02

(١) ت : التّاجِر
(٢) ث : الثَّوب
ṯawbu = “dress”
(٣) د : الدّيك
dīku = “rooster”
(٤) ذ : الذَّهَب
ḏahabu = “gold” Syc. dahḇā = זָהָב // ð/z/d // OA zhb (CAL)
(٥) ر : الرَّجُل
raǧulu = “man”
(٦) ز : الزَّهْرَة
zahratu = “flower”
(٧) س : السَّمَك
samaku = “fish”
(٨) ش : الشَّمْس ٭
(٩) ص : الصَّدْر
ṣadru = “chest”
(١٠) ض : الضَّيْف
ḍayfu = “guest, stranger”
(١١) ط : الطّالِب
(١٢) ظ : الظَّهْر
ẓahru = “back”
(١٣) ل : اللَحْم
laḥmu = “meat” Syc. laḥmā = לֶחֶם
(١٤) ن : النَّجْم

End of p. 19

2015-05-26

p. 20

قرين
اِقْرأ الكلمات الآتية واكتبها مراعياً قواعد نطق الحروف القمرية والشمسية:
ʾiqraʾ ʾal-kalimāt… ʾātīt (? something from ʾatā “to come”? maybe “following”?) wa-(u)ktub-ha (+“her”) murāʕ…yan? (“considering”? RʕY) qawāʕid (“grammar”) nāṭq (“pronunciation”) ḥurūfu-l-qamariyya(t) wa-š-šamsiyya(t) “Read the following (?) words and write them, considering the grammar of pronunciation of the moon and sun letters.” (should be close enough!)

2015-05-27

البيت. الديك.
ad-dīku = “the rooster”
المدرِّس.
al-mudarrisu = “the teacher”
الباب. الطالب. السكر.
as-sukkaru
الدفتر.
ad-daftaru = “the notebook”
الأَخ.
al-ʔak̮u = “the brother” Syc. ʾaḥḥā = אָח
الرَسُول.
ar-rasūlu = “the messenger”
الوَجْه.
al-waǧhu = “the face”
الصَدِيْق.
aṣ-ṣadīqu = “the friend”

2015-05-30

القُرآن.
الصَلاة.
ʾaṣ-ṣalāt(u) “the prayer”
الكَعْبة.
ʾal-kaʕbaẗu
الرَأْس.
ʾar-raʔsu = “the head” Syc. rḗšā // 2015-06-10 רֹאשׁ
الإِصْبَع.
ʾal-ʔiṣbaʕu = “the finger”
الصَابُون الظُفْر.
ʾaṣ-ṣābūnu “the soap”; ʾaẓ-ẓufru = “the fingernail” // 2015-06-10 צִפֹּרֶן (ṣippōrèn; You type the Dagesh after the vowel point, a bit counter-intuitive) ܛܶܦܪܐ ⟦unguis⟧

2015-05-31

الفَجْر.
ʾal-faǧru = “the dawn”
الظُهْر.
ʾaẓ-ẓuhru = “the noon, midday” Syc. ܛܰܗܪܐ (PS *θ̣hr)
2015-06-10 צָֽהֳרַ֫יִם (ṣohŏ-ra-yim, maybe I will write it ṣɔhɔ̆-ra-yim, or ṣòhŏ̀-ra-yim : Gesenius §9v; prob. not a true dual: G §88c; Wiktionary says this is a defective sp. of ṣohŏrayī(y)m, while G §88c suggests it was expanded from *ṣohŏram)
2015-06-14 G §8a says: Qāmĕṣ denotes either ā, â, more strictly å̄ (the obscure Swedish å) and å̂, as יָד yå̄d (hand), רָאשִׁים rāʼšîm (heads), or å̆ (in future transcribed as ŏ), called Qāmeṣ ḥāṭûph, i.e. hurried Qameṣ. According to this book, (1) the normal Qamats (Qāmèṣ) ā/â is to be pronounced [oː] — probably more like [ɔː] or possible even [ɒː] — , just like ā in West Syriac; while (2) the Qamats Qatan (Qāmèṣ Qāṭān, aka Ḥāṭū(w)p̄ חָטוּף) is its short version, [o~ɔ~ɒ]. What is meat by “the obscure Swedish å” is vaguely understandable, though not very clear, since in Swedish the vowel denoted by å can be either a long [oː] (e.g. våt: perhaps a bit wider than [oː] and less rounded) or a short [ɔ] (e.g. lång). Apparently, (1) ā is originally /aː/, which may be realized as [ɔː] or [oː] (esp. by Ashkenazim); (2) ò (Qāmèṣ Qāṭān) is [o~ɔ~ɒ], and may not be the shorter version of ō (Ḥōlèm). In reality, QQ is almost always said to be a wider o, even ɒ, at least when explained in English: ŏ as in not [ɒ/ɑ] (Green, 1902); o as in not (Wilson, 1908); ŏ as in ‘dog’ [ɒ/ɔ/ɑ] (Wood, 1913).
العَصْر.
ʾal-ʕaṣru = “the period of time, season, century”
المغْرِب
ʾal-mag̮ribu
العِشاء.
ʾal-ʕišāʔu = “the evening prayer”

End of p. 20.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 19] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 19 [ܕܰܬܫܰܥܣܰܪ (ܕܰܬܫܳܬܰܥܣܰܪ)]: ܛܘܝܳܠܐ

2014-12-13

ܡܰܠܘܢ ܝܳܥܶܐ ܗܰܘܢܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܪܰܓ̥ܝܐ
mallṓn #1 yāʕē hawnā tāqep̄ raḡyā
rather, more to sprout, bloom mind, sense to be strong moist, fresh, green (fem)
ܡܐ ܛܳܒ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܛܘܝܳܠܐ.
How very much I love walking around {ṭuyyālā}.
ܛܘܝܳܠܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܡܰܠܘܢ ܕܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܐ:
Walking around is very pleasing even more, however, in the days of the spring {taḏ(ʾ)ā}.
ܬܕܐܐ taḏʾā, teḏʾā, LS2 ܬܸܕܵܐܐ téḏā, CAL tēḏā “grass, spring rain, spring time”, TS2-4390: taḏā, taʾDā apud Orientales remotiores téḏʾā. // Heb. דֶּשֶׁא dèšè “grass” [2014-12-19] // 2015-06-08 Syc Metathesized from PS *dθ- ?
ܐܳܐܰܪ ܫܦܶܐ؛ ܟܝܳܢܐ ܫܳܚܶܢ؛ ܘܒܶܗ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܝܳܥܶܐ؛ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܶܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܦܳܩܚܝܢ.
The air is pure; the nature becomes warm; and in it herb {ʕesbā (but pl. -ḇē) N §93} sprouts; roses and flowers flourish {PQḤ}.

2014-12-18

ܒܶܗ ܓܶܝܪ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܰܡ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܠܡܰܪ̈ܓܐ ܐܰܘ ܠܥܳܒ̈ܐ.
In it, indeed, I go out with [my] brothers and [my] friends {ḥaḇrā} to the meadows {margā} or to the forests {ʕāḇā}.
ܘܬܰܡܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܪܰܓ̥ܝܐ ܢܶܫܬܥܶܐ، ܐܰܘ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܢܶܣܚܶܐ، ܐܰܘ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܢܶܣܰܩ.
And there, upon green grass we will play, or within a small river we will swim {sḥā, nesḥē}, or on the trees we will ascend (climb) {#2}. // ܐܫܬܥܝ (ʾeštəʕī < *ʾeṯšəʕī) = “to play” Ethpe. of ŠʕY. // #2 sleq “go up” (e,a); Impf. nessaq < *neslaq. N §183 (5).

2014-12-23

ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܠܛܽܘܝܳܠܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܣܰܓܝ ܡܰܘܬ̥ܰܪ [ܡܰܘܬ̊ܰܪ] ؛ ܟܰܕ ܓܶܝܪ ܠܳܐܐܰܪ ܫܰܦܝܐ ܣܳܐܶܩ : ܗܰܘܢܶܗ ܢܳܗܰܪ ، ܘܚܰܝܠܶܗ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܘܠܶܒܶܗ ܒܳܣܶܡ ܀
Every person loves walking around {ṭuyyālā}, because it much profits (=it provides a lot of good things) {#3}; for when one breathes {SWQ} the clear/pure {šp̄ē šap̄yā, Pass. Pt.} air: his mind {hawnā} shines (=is clear) {NHR}, and his strength {ḥaylā} is strong {TQP}, and his heart {lebbā} is sweet (=merry) {BSM}.
#3 mawtar, pt. of ܐܰܘܬ̊ܰܪ “to profit”, Aph. of √YTR (N §175B, D), ܝܺܬ̥ܰܪ “to gain”

2014-12-29

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Write the answer

1 ܒܰܐܝܢܐ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܒܳܣܶܡ ܛܘܝܳܠܐ؟
In which time, walking around is pleasing?
ܛܘܝܳܠܐ ܒܳܣܶܡ ܒܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܐ.
Walking around is pleasing in the days of spring.
2 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܒܬܰܕܐܐ؟
Why is it pleasing in spring?
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܳܐܐܰܪ ܫܦܶܐ؛ ܘܒܶܗ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܝܳܥܶܐ؛ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܦܳܩܚܝܢ.
Because the air is pure; and in it herb sprouts; roses and flowers are opening.

2014-12-30

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܛܘܝܳܠܐ؟
What do you do in (=when) walking around?
ܢܳܦܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܡܰܪ̈ܓܐ ܐܰܘ ܠܥܳܒ̈ܐ.
I go out to meadows or to forests.
4 ܒܐܰܝܕܐ [ܒܰܐܝܕܐ] ܕܘܟܬ̥ܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܛܘܝܳܠܐ؟
In what place {dukkəṯā f.} do you love walking around?
ܪܳܚܶܡ ܛܘܝܳܠܐ ܒܥܳܒ̈ܐ.
I love walking around in forests.

2015-01-07

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓܳܡ̈ܐ — Put each word in a sentence

5 ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܫܰܦܝܐ ܢܳܗܰܪ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܠܶܒܐ
Friends, Clear, Shining, Being strong, Heart {lebbā}
ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܦܳܠܚܝܢ ܐܰܟܚܕܐ.
Friends work together.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܠܶܒܐ ܫܰܦܝܐ.
A child has a pure heart.
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܢܳܗܰܪ.
The sun shines.
ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܩܘܪܐ.
In winter coldness is strong.
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܠܶܒܐ ܛܳܒܐ.
A good man has a good heart in him.

2015-01-14

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܗܰܘ؟What is it?

What on earth is it…

6 ܕܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܣܓܝ : ܒܪܰܡ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܩܳܪܶܐ؟ ... ܩܰܢܝܐ
That writes well; yet it does not know reading (=how to read)? … PEN
7 ܕܟܰܕ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܢܳܨܰܚ : ܘܟܰܕ ܫܳܬܶܐ [ܫܳܬ̥ܶܐ] ܡܳܝ̈ܳܐ ܡܳܐܶܬ̥؟ ... ܢܘܪܐ
That, when it eats (=consumes), shines; and, when it drinks water, it dies {√MWT}? … FIRE
8 ܕܡܰܠܶܦ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ : ܘܗܘ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܩܳܪܶܐ؟ ... ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ
That teaches reading; and it does not know how to read? … BOOK
9 ܕܰܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܝܰܘܡܐ : ܐܶܠܐ ܠܰܝܬ ܠܶܗ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ؟ ... ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ
That walks everyday, but it does not have legs? … TIME

Madina Book [vol. 1, L. 2] — (٢) الدرس الثاني

2014-12-12

aṯ-ṯānī = al + ṯānin “second” (W I p. 260)

ما ذٰلِكَ؟ ذلك نَجْمٌ. هذا مَسْجِدٌ وذلك بيت. هذا حِصان وذلك حِمار. أذلك كَلْب؟ لا، ذلك قِطّ. ما ذلك؟ ذلك سَرير.
ḥiṣānun = Syr. sūsyā; ḥimārun = Syr. ḥ(ə)mārā

2014-12-14

من هذا ومن ذلك؟ هذا مُدَرِّسٌ وذلك إمام.
When a vowel mark + Shadda is normalized, the Shadda comes later, even for Fatha + Shadda where the Fatha is higher.
ما ذلك؟ ذلك حَجَرٌ.
ḥaǧarun = stone
هذا سُكَّرٌ وذلك لَبَنٌ.
sukkarun = sugar; labanun = milk
اِقْرَأْ وَاُكْتُبْ:
Here a word-initial ʾèlif — one for ʾi, and the other for ʾu — does not take a hamza; this is because they are conjunctiōnis, i.e. connective (W §19 Rem d, Rem f, (b); §15 Rem a).
(١) هذا سكر وذلك لبن. (٢) من ذلك؟ ذلك إمام. (٣) أذلك قط؟ لا، ذلك كلب. (٤) ما هذا؟ هذا حجر.
kèlbu(n), ḥaǧar(un)
اَلْكَلِمَاتُ الْجَدِيدَةُ:
kèlimātu(n) = pl. of kèlimatun f. “word”; -atun {T Marbuta} to -ātun {Normal T} (W §301). ǧedīdatu(n) = fem. (sg.) of ǧedīdun (W §293, 294) “new”. It seems that a plural noun, if inanimate, is treated as feminine singular. This is kind of like 3rd pl. fem. in Syriac, which is generally identical to 3rd sg. mas.
إِمَامٌ، حَجَرٌ، سُكَّرٌ، لَبَنٌ.

Indo-Aryan languages

2014-12-09

This is a sister group of the Iranian languages, including:

  1. Eastern zone:
  2. East Central zone: Awadhi, Chhattisgarhi
  3. Central zone: Gujarati (47m); Rajasthani/Marwari; Romani; Hindi (260m)/Urdū (64m)
  4. Northwestern zone: Panjābī (Punjabi, 63m+30m); Sindhi (20m); Sarāikī (14m)
  5. Nuristani: a small language group in E Afghanistan, incl. Kati/Kamviri
  6. Northern zone: Nepali (15m, not incl. Dotyali)
  7. Southern zone: Marathi (72m); Konkani
  8. Sinhalese-Maldivian: Maldivian (Divehi); Sinhala (16m)
  9. Sanskrit
  10. Pali

2014-12-10

This group is HUGE. While there are only 3 or 4 Iranian languages with more than 10 mil speakers (Persian, Pashto, Kurdish; 4 if you count Persian and Dari separately), any major Indo-Aryan language has more than 10 mil speakers by default, sometimes even more than 100 million!

The Urdū Alphabet has 38 letters; roughly speaking, the Persian 32 + 6 “new” letters:

Also note that the Urdū ہ behaves differently than the Arabic ه, though the two look like the same when isolated. In Unicode, the Urdū H is U+06C1 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL. This guy is a bit elusive, written as a simple curved line, sometimes with a “reversed comma” below. The retroflex guys are like Pashto ring guys, but with a small ط above, instead of a ring below.

2014-12-24

The Western Panjābī alphabet consists of 39 [?] letters, incl. U+06BA [ ں ] ARABIC LETTER NOON GHUNNA.

The Nasta'liq script used by Urdū denotes nasalization by employing the Arabic letter ˂ن˃ nūn but removing the dot (˂ں˃), called nūn ghunna.

Nasal vowel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014-12-25

According to this page, the Western Panjābī [pnb][pa-Arab] Alphabet has:

But it does not have ژ, which makes س the 20th letter (Ur+2). Then it has ڰ {GAF WITH RING} (and its variant ڳ {GUEH}) after ڈ, which makes ل the 33rd letter (Ur+3); ݨ {NOON WITH SMALL TAH} after ن (and its variant ں), which makes و the 37th letter (Ur+4). The next letter ہ is 34th in Ur, 38th in Pa. Panjābī has a normal (Arabic-like) ه, but it’s not treated as a separate letter (Urdū does not have it anyway). Panjābī has ھ too, but it’s not treated as a separate letter either; nor is ء. The next letter ی is 37th in Ur, 39th (last) in Pa. The 38th (last) Urdū letter ے is not counted in Pa.

شاہ مکھی

Panjābī vs. Urdū

AlQalam Taj Nastaleeq. 2012. Pakistan. http://alqlm.org/fontfiles/AlQalam%20Taj%20Nastaleeq-Regular1%28shipped%29.zip

Hindi vs. Urdū, with Lahnda (incl. Western Panjābī & Sarāikī) and Sindhī

Table 1: gh/jh have the same code points both in ur and sd; glyphs may be different
hi ur lah sd pa
k ک ڪ
kh کھ ک
g گ
gh گھ گھ
نڳ ڱ
c چ
ch چھ ڇ
j ج
jh جھ جھ
ñ نڄ ڃ
Table 2
hi ur lah sd pa
ٹ ٽ
ṭh ٹھ ٺ
ڈ ڊ
ḍh ڈھ ڍ
ݨ ڻ
ت
ط
t̪h تھ ٿ
د
d̪h دھ ڌ
n ن
ں
p پ
ph پھ ڦ
b ب
bh بھ ڀ
m م
Table 3: rh/lh/-h have the same code points both in ur and sd; glyphs may be different
hi ur lah sd pa
y ی ی ي
ي
ē ے
r ر
rh र्ह رھ رھ
ड़ ڑ ڙ
ṛh ढ़ ڑھ ڙھ
l ل
lh ल्ह لھ لھ
ਲ਼ ?
w و
ś ش ਸ਼ ?
s ث
س
ص
h ح
ہ ه
-h ھ ھ
Table 4: mh/nh have the same code points both in ur and sd
hi ur lah sd pa
a ا
ख़ خ ਖ਼
z ज़ ذ ਜ਼ ?
ز
ض
ظ
ž झ़ ژ ژ  ?
ʕ ع
ग़ غ ਗ਼
f फ़ ف ਫ਼
q क़ ق
mh म्ह مھ مھ
nh न्ह نھ نھ
ṇh ڻھ

2014-12-26

Some of the ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ gur(ə)mukī letters are confusing. For example, U+0A38 [ ਸ ] GURMUKHI LETTER SA looks like U+092E [ म ] DEVANAGARI LETTER MA.

2015-01-27

2015-01-28

The total number of letters is 39, if you don’t count: HAMZA, YEH BARREE, HEH DOACHASHMEE, NOON GHUNNA, and JEH (Persian ž). Also note that in Western Panjābī /pʰ/ is simply denoted as P (B-mod) + Two-Eyes, while in Sindhī an F-mod is used (F + Four-Dots) for this one, as the Four-Dot B-mod is taken by /bʱ/.

2015-02-02

ڄ says that Sarāikī uses a digraph نڄ instead of Sindhī ڃ, like in the old Sindhī orthography. According to Gueh, Sarāikī uses a digraph, نڳ, instead of Sindhī ڱ.

Pak Nastaleeq is a Nastaliq font that supports Sarāikī/Sindhī letters too: Urdujahan.com | Urdu fonts download.

2015-11-11

ڱ seems to be peculiar to Sindhī. In Uyghur, ڭ is used for /ŋ/. This letter was also used historically in a few languages including Ottoman Turkish (ota). It behaves like an Arabic Kāf, having a small ک in its final form (ڭڭڭ); that is where it’s different from Moroccan Gāf, which behaves like a Persian Kāf (ݣݣݣ).

2015-01-25

Secret of KEHEH

Sindhi has:

ڪ‍kāf U+06AA ARABIC LETTER SWASH KAF
کkʰē U+06A9 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH
خk̮ē [x] U+062E ARABIC LETTER KHAH

Sindhi Alphabet; Sindhi alphabets, pronunciation and language; Script. Available Fonts: South Asian Language and Resource Center.

This explains the reason behind the strange Unicode name, KEHEH, which is supposed to be ke̊hêh. In Urdū, this is کھ; in Pashto ګ might be used for this.

2015-01-27: Similar Unicode names:

2015-01-26

52 Sindhi Letters (49 Letters + 3 Digraphs)

32 Persian Letters minus že = 31; plus 18 new letters!

#1–10: P comes last, not #5
ا ب ٻ ڀ ت ٿ ٽ ٺ ث پ
ʔ b ɓ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ s p
#11–23: in Deva #20 is written as implosive of retro-D
ج ڄ جھ ڃ چ ڇ ح خ د ڌ ڏ ڊ ڍ ذ
ʄ dʑʱ ɲ tɕʰ h x d̪ʱ ɗ~ᶑ ɖ ɖʱ z
#24–34: no Persian ž
ر ڙ ڙھ ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ
r ɽ ɽʱ z s ʃ s z z (ʕ) ɣ
#35–49: Persian order (W before H)
ف ڦ ق ڪ ک گ ڳ گھ ڱ ل م ن ڻ و ه ي
f q k ɡ ɠ ɡʱ ŋ l m n ɳ ʋ h j

NOTE: The letter ڳ is written as in the Devanagari script, which is underlined. FreeSerif and FreeSans have the wrong glyph for this one, as underlined.

2015-01-27

2015-01-31

2015-02-01

2015-02-18

2015-02-21

ننڍو (nanḍhō) “small” // fem. ننڍي (nanḍhī)

2015-02-22

2015-01-29

Languages of Pakistan

Administrative units of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Languages of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pakistan (Administrative Divisions) 2010 (721K)
Pakistan (Shaded Relief) 2009 (2.0MB)
PAKISTAN - CENSUS (1998?)

pak_map.png

  1. Punjab Province: [W.] Panjābī 75%, Sarāikī 17% (in South Punjab), S. Hindko
  2. Sindh Province: Sindhi 60%, Urdū 21%
  3. Balochistan Province: [W/E/S] Balochi {W. Iranian} 55%, [S.] Pashto {E. Iranian} 30%
  4. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA): [N/C] Pashto 99%
  5. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Xayber Pəṩtûnxwâ: ṩ=x in Northern Pashto) [former NWFP]: [N.] Pashto 74%, Sarāikī 4%, N. Hindko
  6. Islamabad Capital Territory: Panjābī 72%, Urdū 10%, Pashto 10%
  7. Azad Kashmir: Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
  8. Gilgit–Baltistan: Pakistan-administered Kashmir (self-governing). This is where K2 is, and Siyāčina Glacier (SG).

NW Indo-Aryan = Lahnda + Sindhi (+ Dardic?), where Lahnda includes W. Panjābī, Sarāikī, Hindko (N/S), Poṭhohari, and Mirpur Panjābī. For some reason, E. Panjābī in India is classfied as Central Indo-Aryan.

2015-01-30

Panjabi or Punjabi?

After some listening…

The inherent vowel “a” in Panjabi is nearer to [ʌ] than to [æ], so I guess “Punjabi” is the better spelling for English speakers. Although that is obviously an English-centric spelling (the vowel is not like /u/ at all), English is one of their official languages both in India and Pakistan. More accurately, this “a” seems to be a lower version of [ɐ], best described as “full-vowel [ə]”. To differentiate it from a weak [ə], I’ll write it [ɞ] for now.

Samples (from Muharni.com - Learn to read and count in Punjabi Language):

So, Panjabi = Panjābī is actually like [pɞ̃d͡ʒɒːbiː].

Teach Yourself Panjabi
Panjabi Alphabet
Learn Punjabi In 25 Days
Gurmukhi Gian Come To Learn Punjabi
An Introduction To Punjabi Grammar, Conversation And Literature

2015-01-31

Gurmukhī SA: A Karmic Loop Will Get You!

The Gurmukhī letter SA is conceptually the bar and a tailless み, written this way Guru_SA.png or this way Guru_SA2.png. In handwritten fonts and in Karmic Sanj (from Gurmukhi Fonts: the name Karmic Sanj seems to be a parody of Comic Sans MS, hopefully with good karma :)), the letter actually looks like that. But in normal Gurmukhī fonts (Gurmukhi Fonts) the loop is so tight that there is no “eye” left at all. So VERY confusingly it looks like the Dēvanāgarī letter MA , except that the Gurmukhī SA may have a slightly larger loop and that the vertical line before the loop may be less straight (slightly more curved) in it than in Deva MA. It is important to see Guru SA as a simplified version of Deva SA . Also note that in Gurmukhī the row U A I SA HA comes first, before KA KHA GA GHA NGA, which makes it feel like あいうえお かきくけこ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 18] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18 [ܕܰܬܡܳܢܰܥܣܰܪ (ܕܰܬܡܳܢܬܰܥܣܰܪ)]: ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܘܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ

2014-12-03

ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܥܰܕܠܐ ܐܰܪܚܶܩ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ
ʾeškaḥ ʕaḏlā ʾarḥeq perdē
found #1 before Aph. to remove, to go far away f. grains, seeds #2
ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦ̊ܪܐ ܕܰܪܡܶܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ، ܘܛܰܥܢܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܕܶܗ، ܘܰܪܗܶܛ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܶܡܶܗ. ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܶܡܝ̱! ܗܐ ܨܶܦ̊ܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
ܪܡܶܐ Pass. pt. of RMY, “fallen, lying”. ܪܡܸܐ ES.
A verb with an e (e.g. ܛܥܶܢ) has an e also when suffixed, if the 2nd radical has a vowel. For example, while ܛܶܥܢܰܬ̥ “she carried” is voweled just like ܩܶܛܠܰܬ̥ “she killed”, ܛܥܶܢܬ̥ܶܗ “she carried him” has an e, voweled differently from ܩܛܰܠܬ̥ܶܗ “she killed him”. On the other hand, such a verb is suffixed just like ܩܛܰܠ is, when the 2nd radical of the suffixed form is vowelless. For example, while ܛܥܶܢ and ܩܛܰܠ have different vowels, ܛܰܥܢܶܗ and ܩܰܛܠܶܗ are voweled identically.
ܪܗܶܛ “he ran”.

2014-12-04

ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ: ܐܳܗ̇ ܒܶܪܝ̱، ܗܳܢܐ ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܶܗ، ܘܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܣܰܓܝ ܙܥܘܪ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܐܶܡܶܗ ܒܳܥܝܐ ܠܶܗ.
ܦܪܰܚ “fly” — ܡܨܶܐ may take inf. or d+impf.; here it takes part. — ܒܥܐ √BʕY “seek, desire, pray, beg”
ܟܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܶܢ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܗ ܒܩܶܢܶܗ ܥܰܕܠܐ ܢܡܽܘܬ̥.
ܣܳܡ √SWM “place”; this one has an exceptional ī in Impf. (nsīm); otherwise normal. — ʕḏlā “before” — ܡܝܬ̥ √MWT “die” has an ī, exceptionally; Impf. ܢܡܘܬ̥ is normal.

2014-12-05

ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܪܗܶܛ ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܘܣܳܡܶܗ ܒܩܶܢܐ.
meḥḏā (from men ḥḏā N §156): “at once”.
ܘܟܰܕ ܐܰܪܚܶܩ ܚܙܐ ܕܗܐ ܐܶܡܶܗ ܐܶܬ̥ܳܬ̥ ܣܳܡܰܬ̥ ܒܦܘܡܶܗ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܀
ܐܰܪܚܶܩ Aph. “go far away” √RḤQ be distant // 2014-12-08: This verb in Aphel can be used with or without a reflexive object. ܐܰܪܚܶܩܘ̱ ܠܟܘܢ ܡܶܢܝ̱ “remove yourselves from me” (Mt7:23). ܐܰܪܚܶܩܘ̱ ܡܶܢܟܘܢ ܟܠܳܗ̇ “remove all of it from you” (James1:21). ܐܰܪܚܶܩ ܦܰܘܠܳܘܣ “Paul went far away” (Ac19:9).

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Write the answer

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ؟
ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
2 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܛܰܥܢܶܗ؟
ܛܰܥܢܶܗ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܶܡܶܗ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܐܡܶܗ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܶܡܝ̱! ܗܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܐܳܗ̇ ܒܶܪܝ̱، ܗܳܢܐ ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܢܦܰܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܶܗ، ܘܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܣܰܓܝ ܙܥܘܪ. ܟܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܶܢ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܗ ܒܩܶܢܶܗ ܥܰܕܠܐ ܢܡܘܬ̥.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܟܰܕ ܐܰܗܦܟ̥ܶܗ ܠܩܶܢܐ؟
ܚܙܐ ܕܶܐܡܶܗ ܕܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܶܬ̥ܳܬ̥ ܘܣܳܡܰܬ̥ ܒܦܘܡܶܗ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܚ̈ܶܛܐ.

ܐܰܗܦܶܟ Aph. “bring back, return”

2014-12-08

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] Put each word in a sentence

6 ܐܰܪܚܶܩ
ܐܰܪܚܶܩ ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܐ.
ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
ܐܶܫܟܰܚ
ܓܰܒܪܺܐܝܶܠ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܩܰܛܘ ܙܥܘܪ ܕܢܳܘܶܐ.
ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ
ܒܰܪ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܶܡܶܗ.

2014-12-10

ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܠܳܚܡܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐFill in the blanks

ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ = pl. of ṭalyā. Normally, the plural of this would be ṭlayyā (like qanyā, qnayyā: N §72); but when this word means “boy”, the irregular plural form ṭlāyē is used (N §146). ܚ̈ܶܛܐ = pl. of ḥëṭṭəṯā. ܩܰܝܣ̈ܐ = pl. of qaysā, “wood”. ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ = pl. of lḇūšā, “clothing”. ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ = pl. of pḗrā. ܢܘܢ̈ܐ = pl. of nūnā, “fish”.

7 ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ... ܢܘܢ̈ܐ.
A fisher {OR hunter: ṣayyāḏā} catches {ṢWD} fishes.
ܓܰܢܳܢܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ... ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
A gardener {gannānā} harvests {QṬP} fruits.
8 ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ ... ܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
A farmer plants (grains of) wheat.
ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܦ ... ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ.
A teacher teaches boys.
9 ܢܰܓܳܪܐ ܢܳܣܰܪ ... ܩܰܝܣ̈ܐ.
A carpenter saws woods.
ܚܰܝܳܛܐ ܚܳܐܶܛ ... ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ.
A tailor sews clothes.

Random memos

2014-12-03

[*] un, deux, trois, quatre, cinq, six, sept, huit, neuf, dix
ūnus, duo, trēs, quattuor, quīnque, sex, septem, octō, novem, decem
onze, douze, treize, quatorze, quinze, seize, dix-sept, dix-huit [diz-], dix-neuf, vingt
ūndecim, duodecim, tredecim, quattuordecim, quīndecim, sēdecim, septendecim, duodēvīgintī, ūndēvīgintī, vīgintī
vingt-et-un, vingt-deux, vingt-trois, vingt-cinq, vingt-six, vingt-sept, vingt-huit, vingt-neuf
vīgintī ūnus, vīgintī duo, vīgintī trēs, vīgintī quattuor, vīgintī quīnque, vīgintī sex, vīgintī septem, duodētrīgintā, ūndētrīgintā
trente, quarante, cinquante, soixante, soixante-dix, quatre-vingts, quatre-vingt-dix [-vɛ̃dis], cent
trīgintā, quadrāgintā, quinquāgintā, sexāgintā, septuāgintā, octōgintā, nōnāgintā, centum

2014-12-27

2014-12-31

ISIRI 9147:2007 (“is”) vs. Microsoft Farsi (“was”)

U+0653 ARABIC MADDAH ABOVE [ ٓ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_X (“x”‎)

U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE [ ٔ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_N (“n”‎)

U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW [ ٕ ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_N (“n”‎)

U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF [ ٖ ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_V (“v”‎)

U+066A ARABIC PERCENT SIGN [ ٪ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_5 (“5”‎)

U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR [ ٫ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_3 (“3”‎)

U+066C ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR [ ٬ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_2 (“2”‎)

U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF [ ٰ ‎]
          [Shift]+VK_V (“v”‎)

U+2010 HYPHEN [ ‐ ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_OEM_5 (“\”‎)

U+2022 BULLET [ • ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_8 (“8”‎)

U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS [ … ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_M (“m”‎)

U+2212 MINUS SIGN [ − ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_OEM_PLUS (“=”‎)

U+FD3E ORNATE LEFT PARENTHESIS [ ﴾ ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_K (“k”‎)

U+FD3F ORNATE RIGHT PARENTHESIS [ ﴿ ‎]
          [AltGr]+VK_L (“l”‎)

Standard Persian Keyboard For Windows | Ehsan Akhgari
http://persian-computing.ir/download/Iranian_Standard_Persian_Keyboard_(ISIRI_9147)_(Version_2.0).zip

2015-01-22

91 – Le trait prétermissif [mḇaṭṭlānā: destroying completely] est celui qui se met sur une lettre tacite ou qui ne se lit pas (11, 12), ex. ܐ݇ܢܵܫܵܐ homme, ܓܲܢ݇ܒܵܪܵܐ [gabbārā N §28] géant. Dans le cas de deux de ces lettres, les Orientaux ne mettent aucun trait; ainsi le et le iodh de ܩܲܛܠܘܼܗܝ ils l’ont tué [#1], ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܘ̈ܗܝ ses livres, n’ont pas de prétermissif; et dans le cas de trois, ils en mettent un sur la troisième lettre [#2], ex. ܩܵܛܠܝܼܢ ܐܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ [qāṭlī(t)tṓn] vous tuez.

#1 This means that he does not read the y in qaṭlû(h)y.

#2 In the following example, three letters (ܢ and ܐ and another ܢ) are silent, and the third one of them is marked.

2015-01-24

93 – Toutes ces règles n’existent complètes que chez les Orientaux; car les Occidentaux n’ont gardé que le prétermissif lequel {#3}, chez eux, peut se mettre aussi bien sous la lettre, ex. ܐܰܢ݇ܬ toi ou ܐܰܢ݈ܬ ‎(25, note); et pour ce qui regarde {#4} les deux autres traits, ils mettent indifféremment l’un ou l’autre, selon qu’ils prononcent les deux lettres en question en une seule émission de voix ou en les distinguant.{#8} Cependant lorsque la deuxième quiescente est un alaph, ils donnent toujours à la première un zélam écrit, ex. ܡܶܬ̥ܶܐܡܰܪ on dit pour ܡܸܬ݂̱ܐܡܲܪ ‎{#5}; et lorsqu’elle est un was, la première requiert un ʿiṣaṣ écrit, ex. ܢܶܫܽܘܼܚܽܘܼܢ ils pousseront pour ܢܸܫ̱ܘܚܘܼܢ ‎{#6}; enfin lorsqu’elle est un iodh, la première prend un hibas écrit aussi, ex. ܡܶܬ̥ܺܝܼܕ̥ܰܥ il est reconnu pour ܡܸܬ݂̱ܝܕܲܥ ‎(9; 66; 81) {#7}.

#3 lequel, laquele, etc. are sometimes used without a preposition, and works like a non-restrictive which in English. // 2015-01-25: Using qui instead would be slightly confusing, as qui could also mean les Occidentaux, even though such a possibility would be ruled out anyway once you saw the following peut.

#4 pour ce qui regarde = pour ce qui concerne: “concerning the two different strokes” lit. “for that which concerns…”

#5 Maybe ES is somewhat non-standard: N §34, §17.

#6 Here, Mingana treats the example as a strong verb, and not as a hollow verb.

#7 Maybe ES is non-standard.

#8 2015-01-25: If freely paraphrased: “They do or do not put a line depending on whether…, and when they do put a line, they use one of the two styles quite randomly.” I think there is a problem here, because, on the one hand, “A ou B selon que C ou D” is supposed to mean “A or B, depending on whether C or D”, that is, “A if C, and B if D”; yet, on the other hand, the first “ou” (ils mettent indifféremment l’un ou l’autre) and the second “ou” (ils prononcent les deux lettres en question en une seule émission de voix ou en les distinguant) are not corresponding in this sentence. Perhaps it would be better to say: « ils mettent indifféremment l’un ou l’autre, selon qu’ quand ils prononcent les deux lettres en question en une seule émission de voix ou en les distinguant. »

Madina Book [vol. 1, L. 1] — (١) الدَّرْسُ الأوَّلُ

2014-12-06

darsu “study”; ʾawwalu “first”

DjVu versions of the Madina Books were posted on December 3, 2014. They are Qarahbaš-like and look interesting. (These scans sometimes look better though generally not so good.)

LQ Toronto - Learn the language of the Qur'an

[Mastering Madina Arabic]

Some related Videos:
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd01
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd02
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd03
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd04
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd05
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd06
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd07
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd08
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book1Dvd09
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book2Dvd01
https://archive.org/details/ArabicLanguageCourseVideos-Book2Dvd02
etc. more

سرير sarīrun

كرسي kursīyun (كرسی): I’ll just use the normal Y (U+064A [ ي ] ARABIC LETTER YEH) at the end of the word. TUS says that U+06CC [ ی ] ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH is used in Koranic Arabic; but this one can’t be typed via the Arabic keyboard layout. Using U+0649 [ ى ] ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA instead, would be confusing.

قميص qamīṣun نجم naǧmun

قرين (١) — qarīn 1

2015-01-21 QRYN qarīn “joined, companion, related”; QARN qārin “companion, helper”; QARŸ(?) qāriʾ(?) “reader”

ما هذا؟
هذا مفتاح.
ما هذا؟
هذا كتاب.
ما هذا؟
هذا قلم.
ما هذا؟
هذا باب.
ما هذا؟
هذا بيت.
ܗܳܢܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ.
ما هٰذا؟
هذا كرسي.

2014-12-08

قرين (٢) — qarīn 2

أهذا بيت؟
لا، هذا مسجد.
أهذا مفتاح؟
لا، هذا قلم.
أهذا قميص؟
نعم، هذا قميص.
أهذا نجم؟
نعم، هذا نجم.

2014-12-09

قرين (٣) — qarīn 3

اِقْرَأْ وَاكْتُبْ:
(ʾ)iqraʾ = imperat. of qaraʾa “to read”. uktub = imperat. of kataba. // When the stem has an U, the prosthetic vowel is U too; otherwise it is I (W §98).
2015-05-26: Maybe wa-(u)ktub, the (u) dropped?
هذا مكتب. هذا مسجد. هذا قلم.
maktabun = desk
هذا سرير. ما هذا؟ هذا كرسيّ.
أهذا بيت؟ لا، هذا مسجد. ما هذا؟ هذا مفتاح.
من هذا؟ هذا طبيب.
ṭabībun = doctor
من هذا؟ هذا ولد.
waladun = boy
من هذا؟ هذا طالب.
ṭālibun = student
أهذا ولد؟ لا، هذا رجل.
raǧulun = man

2014-12-10

Conflicts between Syriac and Arabic. The West Syriac vowel mark in ܡܳ, that is ā, looks like as if it was the same symbol in مُ, that is u. After I started learning Arabic, several things that seemed obvious have suddenly become confusing. Maybe this just needs some getting used to. I find this strange feeling rather intriguing.

ما هذا؟ هذا مسجد. من هذا؟ هذا تاجر.
tāǧirun = merchant.
هذا كلب. أهذا كلب؟ لا، هذا قطٌّ.
kalbun = dog.
هذا حمار. أ هذا حمار؟ لا، هذا حصان.
ḥimārun = donkey. ḥiṣānun = horse.
وما هذا؟ هذا جمل.
Observation: ǧamalun is from *gamal- (like “camel”). Also, masǧidun is “mosque”. These facts suggest that the Arabic ǧ was originally more like /ɡ/, rather than /dʒ/ etc.

2014-12-11

ما هذا؟ هذا ديك.
dīkun = rooster.
من هذا؟ هذا مدرس.
mudarrisun = teacher.
أهذا قميص؟ لا، هذا منديل.
mindīlun = napkin.
(١) ما هذا؟ هذا قلم. (٢) هذا كلب. (٣) من هذا؟ هذا طبيب. (٤) هذا جمل. (٥) أهذا كلب؟ لا، هذا قط. (٦) أهذا ديك؟ نعم. (٧) أهذا حصان؟ لا، هذا حمار. (٨) هذا منديل. (٩) أهذا ولد؟ نعم. (١٠) من هذا؟ هذا رجل.

Wheelocks 36

2014-12-03

1. Poterāsne etiam centum virīs persuādēre ut viam virtūtis sine praemiīs sequerentur?
Were you able to even persuade 100 men to follow the way of virtue without rewards?
2. Haec fēmina vult ex urbe ēgredī et ad illam īnsulam proficīscī ut sine morā illī agricolae nūbat et semper rūsticētur.
This woman wants to exit from the city and set out to that island so that she may marry {nūbō ere + dat.} that farmer without delay and always live in the country {rūsticor ārī}.
3. Petēbant ā nōbīs ut etiam in adversīs rēbus huic ducī pārērēmus et servīrēmus.
They used to ask us to obey {pāreō +dat.} and serve this leader even in adverse matters (situations).
4. Haec ab fēminīs facta sunt nē tantam occāsiōnem āmitterent.
These were done by the women so that they might not let such a great chance go.
5. Rogāmus tē ut honōre et opibus sapientius ūtāris et hōs quīnque amīcōs semper foveās.
We ask you (sg) to use honor (OR your office) and power more wisely {sapientius, comp of sapienter} and always support {foveō} these five friends.

2014-12-04

6. Nisi quis hoc suscipere audēbit, nōlent nōbīs crēdere et fīent īrātī.
Unless someone dares to undertake this, they will be unwilling to believe us and they will become angry.
7. Rogāvit nōs cūr neque dīvitibus neque pauperibus placēre cōnātī essēmus.
He asked us why we had tried to please neither the rich nor the poor.
8. Arbitrābātur tālem vītam nōn ex dīvitiīs sed ex animō plēnō virtūtis nāscī.
He used to think that such a life was born not from wealth but from a spirit full of virtue.
9. Scientiam et ingenium magis quam magnās dīvitiās mīrēmur.
Let us admire {mīror ārī; ēmur Subj-pres} knowledge and innate talent rather {magis} than great wealth.
10. Senātus ducī imperāvit nē hostibus victīs nocēret sed eīs parceret et remissiōnem poenae daret.
The senate ordered the leader not to harm the conquered {vincō victum} enemies but to spare them and to give [them] remission/relaxation {remissiō ōnis} of punishment.

2014-12-06

11. Ille ōrātor vulgum īrātissimum vōce potentī serēnāvit atque, ut omnibus subrīsit, eōs oblectāvit.
That orator soothed the very angry common people with his powerful voice and even, as he smiled {subrīdeō rīsī} at everyone, he pleased {oblectō} them.
12. Ut parva puella per iānuam currēbat, subitō occidit et genua male contudit.
When the little girl was running through the door{#1}, suddenly she fell and bruised {contundō tudī} her knees badly {genū n.}.
#1 iānua f. (from i, ire; Cf. Janus [guardian god of portals, doors, and gates])
13. Dummodo sīs aequus hīs virīs, fīent tibi fidēlēs.
Provided that you (sg) are just to these men, they will become faithful to you.
14. That summer they urged that this be done better.
Eā/Illā aestāte {aestās tātis f} hortātī sunt ut id/hoc melius fieret.

2014-12-08

15. Provided that this is done, they will beg us to spare him.
Dummodo id/hoc fīat, ōrābunt nōs (petent ā nōbis) ut eī parcāmus.
16. That teacher wants to persuade her twenty pupils to study more good literature.
Illa magistra vīgintī discipulīs persuādēre vult ut plūribus litterīs bonīs studeant.
17. Since his hope is becoming very small, let him confess that he commanded (imperō) those two men not to do it.
Cum spēs fīat minima, fateātur {fateor ērī} sē illīs duōbus imperāvisse nē id facerent.

2014-12-12

SE1. Dīxitque Deus: “Fīat lūx.” Et facta est lūx.
And God said: “Let light be made.” And light was made.
2. Fatendum est nihil dē nihilō posse fierī.
It is to be admitted that nothing can be made from nothing.
3. Magnae rēs nōn fīunt sine perīculō.
Great things are not made without risk.
4. Hīs rēbus cognitīs, ille suōs hortātus est nē timērent.
Since (OR Although) these things were known, that man encoraged his men not to fear.
5. Omnia fīent quae fierī aequum est.
All things will happen, as long as letting them happen is just (=which it is right to happen). {omne/omnia quod/quae}

2014-12-14

6. “Pater, ōrō tē ut mihi ignōscās.” “Fīat.”
“Dad, I bag you to forgive me.” “Make it so.”
7. Dum loquimur, fūgerit invida aetās: carpe diem!
While we speak, envious time will have fled: harvest the day!
8. Carpāmus dulcia; post enim mortem cinis et fābula fīēs.
Let’s seize sweet things; for after death you will become ash and a story.
9. Ante senectūtem cūrāvī ut bene vīverem; in senectūte cūrō ut bene morar.
Before old age, I cared so that I might live well; in [my] old age I care so that I may die well.
10. Solōn dīxit sē senem fierī cotīdiē aliquid addiscentem.
Solon said that he became old, every day learning something more.

2014-12-18

11. Caret pectus tuum inānī ambitiōne? Caret īrā et timōre mortis? Ignōscis amīcīs? Fīs lēnior et melior, accēdente senectūte?
Is your breast {pectus toris n} without vain ambition? Is it without anger and fear of death? Do you forgive friends? Do you become more lenient and better, as old age approaches?
12. Hoc dūrum est; sed levius fit patientiā quidquid corregere est nefās.
This is harsh; but whatever is wrong to correct, becomes lighter with patience.
13. Sapiāmus et cēdāmus! Leve fit onus quod bene fertur.
Let us be wise and let us allow (=accept) [it]! The burden which is borne well, becomes light.
14. Ego vōs hortor ut amīcitiam omnibus rēbus hūmānīs antepōnātis — vae illīs quī nūllōs amīcōs habent!
I urge you guys to put friendship before every human things — woe to those who have no friends!
15. Petō ā vōbīs ut patiāminī mē dē studiīs hūmānitātis ac litterārum loquī.
I beg you guys to permit me to speak about the studies of culture and literature.

2014-12-24

Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt mala plūra
quae legis hīc; aliter nōn fit, Avīte, liber.
Good things are; certain things are mediocre; more things {plūrēs, plūra; plūrium} are bad;
which you read here; otherwise a book is not made, Avītus.

2014-12-30

Lēctor et audītor nostrōs probat, Aule, libellōs,
sed quīdam exāctōs esse poēta negat.
[Our] reader and [our] listener approve{#1}, Aulus, our little books, but a certain poet denies that they are perfected {ex-igō, -āctum}.
{#1} originally “approves” (probat), not probant.
2015-01-25: Maybe, “A (OR Any) reader-and-listener approves our little book, but a certain poet…”
Nōn nimium cūrō, nam cēnae fercula nostrae
mālim convīvīs quam placuisse cocīs!
I do not care too much, for I would prefer {mālim = subj of mālō} that the course of our dinner pleased {plāceō, uī +D} [our] guests [rather] than [the] cooks!

2015-01-08

Ōdī et amō! Quārē id faciam fortasse requīris.
Nescio, sed fierī sentiō et excrucior.
I hate and I love! Perhaps you inquire how I will do this.
I don’t know, but I feel [it just] happening, and I am tormented greatly.
faciam = present subjunctive following requīris quārē, NOT future indicative! (Could be ambiguous only in the 1st sing.)
ōdī = perfect tense conjugations are used to express present tense; Cf. odium

2015-01-20

Ut recitem tibi nostra rogās epigrammata. Nōlō—
nōn audīre, Celer, sed recitāre cupis!
You ask [me] to recite to you our epigrams. I am unwilling—
you do not want to listen, Celer, but to recite!

2015-01-21

Quis igitur vērō līber est? Tantum vir sapiēns, quī sibi imperat, quem neque fortūna adversa neque paupertās neque mors neque vincula terrent, quī potest cupīdinibus fortiter respondēre honōrēsque contemnere, cuius virtūs cōtīdiē crēscit, quī in sē ipsō tōtus est.
Who, therefore, is truly free? Only a wise man, who commands himself, whom neither bad luck nor poverty nor death nor chains frighten, who is able to strongly respond to [his] desire {cupīdō dinis f} and to despise honors/public office, whose virtue increases every day, who is whole (complete) in himself.

2015-03-12

Senātum coēgī. Intrōdūxī Volturcium sine Gallīs. Fidem pūblicam eī dedī. Hortātus sum ut ea quae scīret sine timōre nūntiāret.
I gathered the senate. I introduced Volturcius without the Gauls. I gave him public faith (immunity). I encouraged him to report {nūntiō} whatever he knew without fear.
Tum ille, cum sē ex magnō timōre recreāvisset, dīxit sē ab Lentulō habēre ad Catilīnam mandāta ut auxiliō servōrum ūterētur et ad urbem quam prīmum cum exercitū accēderet.
Then he, after he had recovered himself from his great fear, said that he had orders {mandātum} from Lentulus to Caliline to use the help of slaves and approach the city with an army as soon as possible.
Intrōductī autem Gallī dīxērunt sibi litterās ad suam gentem ab Lentulō datās esse et hunc imperāvisse ut equitātum in Italiam quam prīmum mitterent.
Moreover, when introduced, the Gauls said that a letter from Lentulus to his tribe had been given to them, and that this man had ordered them to send the cavalry into Italy as soon as possible.
Dēnique, omnibus rēbus expositīs, senātus dēcrēvit ut coniūrātī, quī hās īnsidās mōlītī essent, in custōdiam trāderentur.
Finally, as everything had been exposed/revealed, the senate decided {dēcernō, dēcrēvī} that the conspirators, who had worked at {Subj. plupf. of mōlītus esse} these plots, be handed over into custody.

scīret, mōlītī essent: subjunctive by attraction in another subjunctive clause.

Peshitta Examples

2015-01-21

ʾaḥyaṯèḵ(y) ES ʾaḥyāṯèḵ(y)

Analysis of Peshitta verse 'Matthew 9:22'

ܝܶܫܘܥ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܶܬ̥ܦܢܝ ܚܙܳܗ̇܂ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇܉ ܐܶܬ̥ܠܰܒ̄ܒ̥ܝ̱ ܒܪ̱ܰܬ̥ܝ̱܅ ܗܰܝܡܳܢܘܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܐܰܚܝܰܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ̱. ܘܶܐܬ̥ܰܐܣܝܰܬ̥܁ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ̊ܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܝ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܝ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ܀܀
ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܕܹܝܢ ܐܸܬ݂ܦܢܝܼ ܚ̣ܙܵܗ̇ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܵܗ̇: ܐܸܬ݂ܠܲܒܲܒ݂ܝ ܒܪܲܬ݂ܝ: ܗܲܝܡܵܢܘܼܬܹܟ݂ܝ ܐܲܚܝܵܬܹܟ݂ܝ. ܘܐܸܬ݂ܐܲܣܝܲܬ݀ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܬ݂ܵܐ ܗ̇ܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܵܝ̇ ܫܵܥܝ݂ܵܐ.
Jesus then turned himself, saw her; and said to her: “Be encouraged, my daughter — your faith {haymānūṯā} has made you live.” And healed (indeed) was the woman {ʾattā N §146}, from that hour. (Mt 9:22⁎)

Lexeme ')s)'; Lexeme ')t)'; Lexeme 'dk)'.

2015-06-11

ʾaytyaṯèh ES ʾaytyāṯèh

The -yaṯ of the 3rd fem. sing. (e.g. ʾaytyaṯ “she brought”) becomes -yāṯ- in ES, when a vocalic suffix is attached (N §194): -yāṯèh, -yāṯah; -yāṯāḵ; -yāṯan(y); but -yăṯḵṓn. For a strong verb, these forms are simple: qaṭṭ(ə)laṯ, qaṭṭelṯèh; ʾaqṭ(ə)laṯ, ʾaqṭelṯèh. For a 3rd-Y, however, this -eCṯèh ending (*-eyṯèh) doesn’t work.

ܘܰܐܝܬ̊ܝ ܪܺܫܶܗ ܒܦ̊ܝܢܟ̥ܐ܉ ܘܶܐܬ̥ܝܗܶܒ̥ ܠܰܛܠܝܬ̥ܐ. ܘܰܐܝܬ̊ܝܰܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇.
ܘܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܼ ܪܹܫܹܗ ܒܦܝܼܢܟ݂ܵܐ: ܘܐܸܬ݂ܝܼܗܸܒ݂ ܠܲܛܠܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ: ܘܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܵܬܹܗ ܠܐܸܡܵܗ̇.܀
And he [Herod Antipas] made it come — his [John’s] head — in a platter/tray; and it was given to the girl. And she brought it to her mother. (Mt 14:11⁎)

2015-06-12

2015-06-15

ʾaytyaṯḵṓn

In this case, ʾaytyaṯ takes -ḵṓn as it is, both in ES and WS.

Analysis of Peshitta verse '2Corinthians 7:9'

ܐܶܠܐ ܚܰܕܘܬ̥ܐ ܣܰܓܺܝܐܬ̥ܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ̥ ܠܝ. ܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܕܟ̥ܶܪܝܰܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ܉ ܐܶܠܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܟ̥ܰܪܝܽܘܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ ܠܰܬ̥ܝܳܒ̥ܘܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܝܬ̊ܝܰܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ. ܟܶܪܝܰܬ̥ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ ܓܶܝܪ ܒܕ̥ܰܐܠܳܗܐ܉ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܰܒ̥ܡܶܕܶܡ ܠܐ ܬ̥ܶܚܣܪܘܢ ܡܶܢܰܢ.
ܐܸܠܵܐ ܚܲܕܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼܐܬ݂ܵܐ ܥܸܒ݂ܕܲܬ݀ ܠܝܼ: ܠܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܕܟܸܪܝܲܬ݀ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܡܸܛܠ ܕܟܲܪܝܘܼܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܠܲܬ݂ܝܵܒ݂ܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܼ ܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܲܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ. ܟܸܪܝܲܬ݀ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܓܹܝܪ ܒܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ: ܐܲܝܟܲܢܵܐ ܕܲܒ݂ܡܸܕܸ݁ܡ ܠܵܐ ܬܸܚܣܪ݈ܘܼܢ ܡܸܢܲܢ.܀
But it made much joy for me — not about [the fact] that things were sad for you guys, but because [the] sadness of you guys made you guys come to penitence. Indeed, things were sad for you guys in [respect to the matter] of God, in such a way that — in anything — you guys will not suffer damage because of us. (2Co 7:9⁎)

2015-06-16

2015-11-07

Matthew 8:6/7⁎

ܘܳܐܡܰܪ. ܡܳܪܝ̱܉ ܛܰܠܺܝܝ̱ ܪܡܶܐ ܒܒ̥ܰܝܬܐ܉ ܘܰܡܫܰܪܰܝ܉ ܘܒܝܫܳܐܝܬ̥ ܡܶܫܬܰܢܰܩ. ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܝܶܫܘܥ܉ ܐܶܢܐ ܐܹܬ̥ܶܐ ܘܰܐܣܶܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱.
ܘܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ: ܡܵܪܝ: ܛܲܠܝ݇ܝ݇ ܪܡܸܐ ܒܒܲܝܬܵܐ: ܘܲܡܫܲܪܲܝ: ܘܒ݂ܝܼܫܵܐܝܼܬ݂ ܡܸܫܬܲܢܲܩ.܀ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܠܹܗ ܝܼܫܘܿܥ: ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܹܬܹܐ ܘܐܲܣܹܝܘܗܝ.܀
rmẹ̄ [WS rmē, ES rmî] “fallen, lying”: pass. pt. of rmā (RMY)
mšarray “paralyzed”: pass. pt. of šarrī Pa. “to begin, to relax”
ʾeštannaq “to be pained, tormented”: Ethpa. of šanneq Pa. “to punish, torture”
ʾassī (impf. ܢܰܐܣܶܐ but ܐܰܣܶܐ) Pa. “to heal”

2015-11-09

Matthew 8:8⁎

ܥܢܳܐ ܩܶܢܛܪܘܿܢܐ ܗܰܘ̇ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ. ܡܳܪܝ̱܉ ܠܐ ܫܳܘܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܬ̥ܶܥܘܿܠ ܬܚܶܝܬ݁ ܡܰܛܠ̱ܠܝ̱. ܐܶܠܐ ܒܰܠܚܘܿܕ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ܂ ܘܢܶܬ̥ܰܐܣܶܐ ܛܰܠܝܝ̱.
ܥܢ̣ܵܐ ܩܸܢܛܪܘܿܢܵܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ: ܡܵܪܝ: ܠܵܐ ܫܵܘܹ̇ܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܕܬܸܥܘܿܠ ܬܚܹܝܬ݂ ܡܲܛܲܠ݇ܠܝ: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܒܲܠܚܘܿܕ݂ ܐܸܡ̣ܲܪ ܒܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ: ܘܢܸܬ݂ܐܲܣܸܐ ܛܲܠܝ݇ܝ.܀
qenṭrṓnā “centurion”
šāwē Pt. “to be worthy”
teʕʕól “you will enter”
tḥēṯ “under” (generally +noun).
maṭllā (N §146), mṭalṯā (orig. mṭalləṯā N §59), “a booth, roofing”: ES maṭṭal(l)ẙ [as if med. gem. N §146], WS maṭṭlalẙ // In UK-P, the word seems to be maṭlẙ, just like kespā:kespẙ “my silver”.
balḥṓḏ “alone, only”
ʾassī Pa. “to heal”: Ethpa. ʾeṯassī, neṯassē (neṯʾassē) “he will be healed”

2015-11-10

Matthew 8:9⁎

ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢܐ ܓܶܪ ܓܰܒ̥ܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܰܬ̥ܚܶܝܬ̥ ܫܘܠܛܳܢܐ. ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܬܚܶܝܬ̥ ܐܝܕ̥ܝ̱܂ ܐܶܣܛܪܰܛܺܝ̈ܘܿܛܐ. ܘܳܐܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗܳܢܐ ܕܙܶܠ܂ ܘܳܐܙܶܠ. ܘܠܰ‍ܐ̱ܚܪܹܢܐ ܕܬ̥ܐ܂ ܘܳܐܬ̥ܶܐ. ܘܰܠܥܰܒ̥ܕ̊ܝ̱ ܕܰܥܒ̥ܶܕ̥ ܗܳܕ̥ܶܐ ܘܥܳܒ̥ܶܕ̥.
ܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܓܹܝܪ ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܕܲܬܚܹܝܬ݂ ܫܘܼܠܛܵܢܵܐ: ܘܐܝܼܬ݂ ܬܚܹܝܬ݂ ܐܝܼܕ݂ܝ ܐܸܣܛ̈ܪܵܛܝܼܘܿܛܹܐ: ܘܐܵܡ̇ܲܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܙܸܠ: ܘܐܵܙܹ̇ܠ: ܘܠܲܐ݇ܚܪܹܢܵܐ ܕܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܐܵܬܹ̇ܐ. ܘܲܠܥܲܒ݂ܕ݁ܝ ܕܲܥܒܸܕ݂ ܗܵܕܹܐ ܘܥܵܒܹ̇ܕ݂.܀
šulṭānā = “power”; ʾesṭraṭīyṓṭā [NY ʾesṭrā-]: TS1-304, “soldier”; CAL LS2, ʾesṭraṭyṓṭā
(ʾ)ḥrḗnā = “other” N §146

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