memos::Syriac 11 (K)

未分類のメモ。主に趣味のシリア語(その11)。このページは2015年2月~11月くらいのもの(シリア語学習歴2年1カ月~2年10カ月、ただし中断あり)。ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第3巻21~32課くらいに当たる。Wheelock’s Latin の37章も含まれる。2013年4月からカラバシ1巻、同年9月から2巻を学び、2014年4月からは3巻を読んでいる。7月に3巻31課を読んでから、他の作業のためにこちらは中断していたが11月に32課から再開。

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[sy, ar, sa] Map, 2, 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; Et | G

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture

Jpeg 35 KiB Mārẙ Yaʕqṓḇ Church, Nusaybin (ܢܨܝܒܝܢ nṣīḇīn)

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 32] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 32 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪܶܝܢ]: ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ

2015-11-03

ܣܳܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܩܘܩܡܐ ܪܬܰܚ ܨܰܪܘܐ ܢܶܨ̈ܠܐ
sāʕṓrē qūqmā *1 rtaḥ ṣarwā neṣlē
visitor (N §107 -ā-ṓ-) pot to be hot; to seethe, bubble up “Ingredian (coffee)” (sic. ingredient?) #1 bottles; “coffee cups” (Qara) #2

*1 LS2 qôqmā

#1 pine resin; bark (CAL). balsam, mace (Jess). צֳרִי but ضَرْو with ض not ص “juniper”, and (as ḍirw) “gum tree”

#2 lagēna [flask] (LS2); “drinking vessel” (Jess). √nṣl “to pour”

2015-11-04

ܡܰܪܬ̥ܰܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܬ݁ܐ: ܣܰܓܝ ܡܥܰܕܪ݁ܐ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇ ܒܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܟܰܫܝܪܐ and כָּשֵׁר: the s1 thing.
ܥܕܰܪ “to be useful”; Pa. ܥܰܕܰܪ “to help”: עָזַר (*ð - Ar ð - He z - Sy d/ḏ): the Arabic word عذر means “to be guilty, to excuse”; not sure if it is related.
ܒܚܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܰܘܡܐ، ܐܶܬ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܥܘܿܪ̈ܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ. ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ̥ ܡܰܪܬ̥ܰܐ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇: ܐܶܢܐ ܐܶܥܒܶܕ ܠܰܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ. ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ [ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ̥] ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܶܡܳܗ̇: ܘܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ [ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱] ܠܰܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ؟
ʾaykăn (quōmodŏ) both in ES/WS: CAL says ʾaykān for some reason.

2015-11-05

ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܡܰܪܬ̥ܰܐ: ܐܶܡܠܶܐ ܠܩܘܩܡܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܟܶܢ ܐܶܣܝܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ، ܘܡܐ ܕܰܪܬܰܚܘ̱ ܐܶܣܝܡ ܒܗܘܢ ܫܰܟܰܪ ܘܨܰܪܘܐ.
pnā Pa. pannī, pannyaṯ
mlā, ʾemlē, “I will fill”
ʾè(s)sīm
šakkar (šekkar)
ܟܶܢ ܐܶܣܕܘܪ ܠܢܶܨ̈ܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܦܝܢܟܐ، ܘܶܐܡܠܶܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܶܐܩܰܪܶܒ ܠܣܳܥܘܪ̈ܐ.
sḏar “to arrange”: ʾesdór
pīnḵā “tray” (Qara.): Soft K (CAL, LS2, NY-P Mt14:8, 14:11; Mk6:25, 6:28; Lk11:39)
qreḇ “to come near” Pa. qarreḇ “to bring”: ʾèqqarreḇ ܐܹܩܲܪܸܒ݂ Acts24:17

2015-11-06

ܘܡܐ ܕܶܐܫܬܝܘ ܐܶܣܰܒ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܠܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ، ܟܰܕ ܐܳܡܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ: ܠܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ.
nsaḇ “to take”: fut. nessaḇ (a) < *nensaḇ.
ḥulmānā “healing, recovery, (good) health”
ܟܶܢ ܐܰܫܝܓ̥ ܠܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ، ܘܶܐܣܝܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܪܰܦܐ ܕܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ ܒܘܫܳܠܐ ܀
ܐܰܫܝܓ √ŠWG Aph. “to wash”: impf. ܢܫܝܓ and ܬܫܝܓ (N §177C), but ܐܰܫܝܓ (=pf. 3sm =impt.) like a strong verb (ܐܰܟ̥ܬܶܒ̥).
rappā (rap̄a?) Neo-Syr. “shelf” (Qara, Macl 295a): CAL “more likely of foreign origin”. Suspect #1 is ar. رَفّ, but we also have az. rəf (az. ə is [æ]); fa. raf (Wikt. “Cognate with English rift.” sounds fishy); tr. raf. Probably not related to the classic Syriac word ܪܰܦܐ “nest”, though “hen roost” > “small room, attic” > “story, shelf” is thinkable.
mānā “utensil”
buššālā “cooking, cooked food”

2015-11-07

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܡܰܪܬ̥ܰܐ ܒܒܰܝܬܐ؟
ܗܝ ܡܥܰܕ̊ܪܐ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇ ܒܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
2 ܡܰܢ ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ؟
ܐܶܬ̥ܰܘ ܣܳܥܘܿܪ̈ܐ.
3 ܡܘܿܢ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܡܰܪܬ̥ܰܐ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇؟
ܗܝ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: ܐܶܢܐ ܐܶܥܒܶܕ ܠܰܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܠܰܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ؟
ܗܝ ܡܠܳܬ̥ ܠܩܘܩܡܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܟܶܢ ܣܳܡܰܬ̥ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ، ܘܡܐ ܕܰܪܬܰܚܘ̱ ܣܳܡܰܬ̥ ܒܗܘܢ ܫܰܟܰܪ ܘܨܰܪܘܐ.
5 ܡܘܿܢ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܫܳܬ݂ܶܝܢ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ؟
ܢܳܣܒܐ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܠܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ، ܟܰܕ ܐܳܡܪܐ: ܠܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ.

qām, nqūm; sām, nsīm. Both have ā in Pf.

2015-11-08

ܒܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܡܥܰܪܰܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܐܡܳܟ ܒܒܰܝܬܐ؟

6 ܟܳܢܶܫ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܟܳܢܶܫ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܟܳܢܫܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
7 ܡܳܠܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܗܰܒ݁ܒ݂̈ܐ؟
ܡܳܠܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
ܡܳܠܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܝ̈ܐ ܘܡܰܫܩܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗܒܒ̈ܐ.
8 ܙܳܒܶܢ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܘܩܐ؟
ܙܳܒܶܢ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܢ ܫܘܩܐ.
ܙܳܒܢܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܕܡ ܡܢ ܫܘܩܐ.
9 ܛܳܥܶܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܰܚܘܟ ܙܥܘܪܐ؟
ܛܳܥܶܢ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܳܚܝ̱ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
ܛܳܥܢܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܳܚܝ̱ ܙܥܘܪܐ.

2015-11-09

ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܛܰܝܶܒ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ

10 ܡܠܝ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ...
ܡܠܝ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܘܩܡܐ.
11 ܐܰܪܬܰܚ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܥܰܠ ...
ܐܰܪܬܰܚ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ.
12 ܣܝܡ ܫܰܟܰܪ ܘܨܰܪܘܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ...
ܣܝܡ ܫܰܟܰܪ ܘܨܰܪܘܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
13 ܡܠܝ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ...
ܡܠܝ ܩܗܘܬ̥ܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ.
14 ܣܕܘܪ ܠܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ ܥܰܠ ...
ܣܕܘܿܪ ܠܢ̈ܶܨܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܦܝܢܟ݂ܐ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 31] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 31 [ܕܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ]: ܫܰܒܪܐ ܘܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ

2015-07-14

ܦܘܪܢܐ ܡܰܬܩܰܠ * ܪܰܥܦܐ ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ
pū̆rnā maṯqal raʕpā naḥtūmā (naḥtṓmā)
oven weight of non-oven-baked bread baker
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܕܰܫܒܰܥ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ، ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ ܕܢܻܐܙܰܠ ܠܦܘܪܢܐ ܘܢܶܙܒܰܢ [ܘܢܶܙܒܶܢ] ܠܰܚܡܐ ܡܰܬܩܰܠ [ܡܰܬ̥ܩܳܠ ؟] ܚܰܕ ܟܝܠܐ.
A little boy of seven years [old] — his mother gave him 30 zūzīn so that he may go to the oven (=bakery) and he may buy bread, the weight of (=weighing) a kilo.

2015-07-15

ܘܰܨܒܐ ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ ܕܢܰܦܨܰܚ ܥܰܡܶܗ، ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܪܰܥܦܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: ܚܙܝ ܟܡܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ. ܗܐ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܪܰܥܦܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܚܠܳܦ ܪܰܒܐ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܬܶܥܡܰܠ ܟܰܕ ܛܳܥܶܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܗ.
And the baker wanted to joke with him, so he gave him a small loaf of (ash-baked) bread and said: See, how much I love you. Look, I gave you a small loaf instead of {ḥlāp̄} a big one, so that {ʾaykannā d-} you will not labor when you carry it (i.e. so that you can carry it more easily).
ܦܰܢܝ ܫܰܒܪܐ: ܬܰܘܕܝ ܡܳܪܝ̱، ܘܰܐܦܶܩ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ، ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: ܚܙܝ ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢܐ ܟܡܐ ܡܝܰܩܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ! ܗܐ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ ܚܠܳܦ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܬܶܥܡܰܠ ܟܰܕ ܡܳܢܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܀
The little boy answerd: Thank you {tawdī, lit. “praise”}, sir. And he took out [and] gave him 20 zūzīn, and said: See, I too — how much I honor you! Look, I gave you 20 zūzīn instead of 30 so that you will not labor when you count them (i.e. so that you can count them more easily).

2015-07-18

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܫܰܒܪܐ؟
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܦܘܪܢܐ.
2 ܟܡܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ؟
ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ؟
ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܪܰܥܦܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ؟
ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: «ܚܙܝ ܟܡܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ. ܗܐ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܪܰܥܦܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܚܠܳܦ ܪܰܒܐ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܬܶܥܡܰܠ ܟܰܕ ܛܳܥܶܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܗ».
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܫܰܒܪܐ؟
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ، ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: «ܚܙܝ ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢܐ ܟܡܐ ܡܝܰܩܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ! ܗܐ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ ܚܠܳܦ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܬܶܥܡܰܠ ܟܰܕ ܡܳܢܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܗܘܢ.»

ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ؟

6 ܪܰܥܦܐ ܦܘܪܢܐ ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ
ܪܰܥܦܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܕܳܡܶܐ ܠܠܰܚܡܐ.
ܦܘܪܢܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܚܰܡܝܡܐ ܕܒܶܗ ܥܒܝܕ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
ܢܰܚܬܘܡܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܕܥܳܒܶܕ ܘܰܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܰܚܡܐ.

2015-07-19

ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܢ [10 ܠـ90]:

7 ܥܶܣܪܐ، ܥܶܣܪܝܢ،
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ، ܐܰܪܒܥܝܢ، ܚܰܡܫܝܢ،
ܫܬܝܢ (ܐܶܫܬܝܢ)، ܫܰܒܥܝܢ،
ܬܡܳܢܝܢ (ܬܡܳܢܺܐܝܢ)، ܬܶܫܥܝܢ

8 ܟܡܐ ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܰܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ؟
ܬܠܳܬ̥.
9 ܟܡܐ ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܬܡܳܢܝܢ؟
ܬܡܳܢܶܐ.
10 ܟܡܐ ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܚܰܡܫܝܢ؟
ܚܰܡܶܫ.

ܥܣܰܪ (mas. ܥܶܣܪܐ) inflects like ܚܒܰܪ (emph. ܚܰܒܪܐ) “companion, the other one”. That is, the feminine form in the emphatic state is ܥܣܰܪܬ̥ܐ‎ (*1), which is the same as the masculine absolute singular + ṯā, just like ܚܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ‎ (*2).

*1 T is hard in CAL. While N §150 marks it hard in the phrase ba-ʕsartā “on the tenth day”, N §151 marks it soft in ʕsarṯā “decade”.

*2 P-UK says ḥḇartā with a hard T, but this T is soft in P-NY and N §23E.

ܥܣܰܪܬܐ[2015-10-28: CAL ܥܣܰܪܬ̊ܐ N §151 ܥܣܰܪܬ̥ܐ] means “ten” collectively (Jess), or “object having ten parts” such as “a ten-stringed harp” (CAL), or “decade” (N §151). Its plural form (fem. emph. pl.) is ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ, which has the same form as the masculine emphatic singular + ṯā, just like ܚܰܒܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ (Cf. Alan 65-9). ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ means “tens”, as in “How many tens are there in 30?” Since “collective ten/tens” is feminine, an answer to such a question should be also feminine: ܬܠܳܬ̥, not ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ. This is obvious when you think about “three ten-stringed harps”: ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܬܠܳܬ̥. Indeed, N §148 has a similar example, ܪ̈ܶܒ̊ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܚܰܡܶܫ “five myriads”.

ܥܶܣܪܰܬ̥ in ܥܶܣܪܰܬ̥ ܡ̈ܕܝܢܳܬ̥ܳܐ “Decapolis” (Mt4:25, Mk5:20, 7:31; N §152; lit. “the 10-element group of cities/provinces”) can be seen as the feminine singular in the construct state.

On the other hand, ܥܶܣܪ̈ܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ in Question 7 is puzzling. Obviously it means “multiples of 10”, but what is this word exactly? The closest thing I can find is ܥܣܝܪܳܝܐ (fem. ܥܣܝܪܳܝܬ̊ܐ) “the tenth”. Its feminine plural, “tenth things”, would be ܥܣܝܪ̈ܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ, which is very close to the word in question, but not quite, even though multiples of 10 (i.e. 10, 20, 30, etc.) are indeed “tenth things”. In theory, there should be an adjective ‏*ܥܶܣܪܳܝܐ “of ten”, or — more to the point — its feminine version ‏*ܥܶܣܪܳܝܬ̊ܐ used as an abstract noun, though this can not be attested. A similar word does exist for 50 (ܚܰܡܫܝܢܳܝܬ̊ܐ) and for 100 (ܡܐܐܢܳܝܬ̊ܐ); so ܥܶܣܪܳܝܬ̊ܐ sounds plausible: if ḥamšīn → ḥamšīn-āytā, then surely ʕesrā → *ʕesr(ā)-āytā should be possible.

Botan Nehri (Botan Çayı, Uluçay, Bohtan Su, Eastern Tigris)

2015-06-22

Botan_Nehri_v3.jpg (3 MiB)
2015-06-22 Botan_CayiL.jpg (1.29 MiB)
2015-06-23 Botan_NehriL.jpg (2.06 MiB)
2015-06-25 Botan_Nehri_v2.jpg (3.36 MiB)
2015-07-13 Botan_Nehri_v3.jpg (3.39 MiB) “Çat Tepe” typo fixed
Based on: Turkey Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online,
T.C. Siirt Valiliği,
Ботан (река) — Википедия,
Index of /content/maps/disk2/J/J-37 140 л (Турци(ЭРЗУРУМ), Сири Ирак),
Index of /content/maps/disk2/J/J-38 073 л (Азербайджан (НАХИЧЕВАНЬ), Армени Турци Ирак, Иран (ТЕБРИЗ), Сири,
etc.

World 1:500,000 Index Map - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online

“Mississippi forms” (Types ʾèqqaṭṭel & ʾè(q)qūm) take a Zlāmā Qašyā (è) in ES

2015-06-20

In the Pael, the vowel after the prefix of the 1st singular imperfect (ܐ) is è in ES, not the usual e. A similar thing also happens in the Peal of a 2nd-W verb (cf. N §23I).

I noticed this while looking at Mingana’s paradigms. The real-life example #1 I found is from 2Corinthians 6:17, ܐܹܩܲܒܸ݁ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ (ʾèqqabbelḵṓn) “I will receive you guys”. This is interesting — ES speakers must have been feeling that this double doubling (which I call “Mississippi” phenomenon) was something unusual and should be pronounced with special care.

Example #2: ܐܹܒܲܪܟܵܟ (ʾèbbar(rə)ḵāḵ from ʾèbbarreḵ: Notice the soft K) “I will bless you” (Heb 6:14).

Example #3 (a simple, good one): ܐܹܫܲܠܸܡ (ʾèššallem) “I will salute” (Lk 9:61).

2015-06-21

Maybe this is like *ʾeʾmar > *ʾaʾmar (e-to-a before a guttural) > *ʾḕmar (/aʔ/ to /ɛː/) > ʾḗmar (/ɛː/ to /ɪː/ in WS) “I will say”; the wide è in ES ʾèqqaṭṭel can be interpreted as coming from *ʾe-qaṭṭel > *ʾeʾ-qaṭṭel (1st syllable closed) > *ʾḕ-qaṭṭel (just like *ʾḕmar) > ʾê-qaṭṭel (implicitly long è) ~ ʾè(q)-qaṭṭel (short è with or without doubling): Cf. N §53, §174B. With this theory, ʾè(q)qūm could be also explained.

An interesting example containing both ḗmar and ʾè(q)qūm:

ܐܷܩܘܡ ܐܻܙܰܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܳܒ̥ܝ̱܂ ܘܻܐܡܰܪ ܠܷܗ. ܐܳܒ̥ܝ̱܉ ܚܛܻܝܬ̥ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܘܰܩܕ̥ܳܡܰܝܟ̊.
ܐܹܩܘܼܡ ܐܹܙܲܠ ܠܘܵܬ݂ ܐܵܒ݂ܝ ܘܐܹܡܲܪ ܠܹܗ. ܐܵܒ݂ܝ: ܚܛܹ̇ܝܬ݂ ܒܲܫܡܲܝܵܐ ܘܲܩܕ݂ܵܡܲܝܟ.܀
Surgam, et ibo ad patrem meum, et dicam ei: Pater, peccavi in caelum, et coram te (Lk 15:18⁎). OS has ʾellā at the begining. // ḥṭā = “to sin” // b- = “into” i.e. “against”: not in caelo, but in caelum, like 天に唾する as opposed to 天で唾する.

Mingana §§75, 86; 162–4; 153. Mingana says ܐܹܬ݁ܘܼܒ݂ in §75; so I tend to believe that doubling does occur also in a 2nd-W verb (ʾèttūḇ), though I can’t rule out the possibility that the dot above the T is a typo [This is not a typo. See below and N §23I], as the previous example reads ܐܹܟ݁ܬܸ݁ܒ݂ when it should be ܐܹܟܲܬܸ݁ܒ݂. On the other hand, it is clear that doubling does not occur in a 1st-A verb, as in ܐܹܟ݂ܘܿܠ (ʾêḵól = ʾēḵól) “I will eat”.

Mingana §21: il [Zélam dur] se prononce toujours comme un ê long, sans que jamais il redouble la lettre.

2017-05-11 So ES pronunciation may be ʾēqabbelḵṓn — ʾēbar(rə)ḵāḵ [Hard B?] — ʾēqūm, which is consistent with N §46 fn1, where Nöld. states that the ES è is a narrow [eː] or [ɪː] but not [iː], and also with Mingana §21 (see above).

2017-05-13 ܐܸܕܲܥ (ʾeddaʕ) “I will know” does not have è. So perhaps ܐܸܬܸ݁ܒ (ʾetteḇ) “I will sit”, though this form is not in Peshitta NT. ܕܐܬ݀ܒ in ActsThom 306:20.

2015-07-06

75 - APPLICATION DES RÈGLES 67 ET 70 A QUELQUES CAS PARTICULIERS

(Application of the rules 67 and 70 [hard/soft] to some particular cases)

This is where Mingana clearly states that the 1st rad. is hard in the “Mississippi” forms, both in the strong Pael, and in the hollow Peal [and also in the hollow Pael]. Although for him a Hard Zlāmā is a long ê that does not double the following consonant, the 1st radical is essentially doubled in the 1st sg. impf. of the Pael (ʾèkkatteḇ), as stated by Nöldeke; the situation should be very similar in the 1st sg. impf. of the Hollow Peal (ʾèqqūm), if the 1st radical is indeed hard like Mingana says (2015-07-07: Nöldeke agrees, in N §23I, that there is hardening due to secondary doubling in ʾèddūš “I will trample”, Peal Impf. of √DWŠ).

1° Donc, à la forme ܦܥܲܠ, les lettres radicales sont dures ou douces, selon que la lettre qui les précède est quiescente ou accentuée, ex. ܐܸܟ݂ܬ݁ܘܿܒ݂ j’écrirai, ܟܲܬ݂ܒ݁ܘܼܗܝ ils l’ont écrit, ܐܸܬ݂ܟܲܬ݂ܒ݁ sois écrit, ܦܵܕܴ݁ܐ elle se trompe, pour ܦܵܕ݂ܕ݁ܐ [sic] (du verbe redoublé ܦܲܕ݂‎ 127).
1° Thus, in the form Pəʕal, the radical letters are hard or soft, depending on whether the letter that precedes them is vowelless or voweled, e.g. ʾeḵtóḇ “I will write”, kaṯbū̆(h)y “they-m wrote it-m”, ʾeṯkaṯb “Be written!” [Ethpe. N §163], pāddā “she errs”, instead of pāḏd[ā] (of the geminate verb paḏ 127).
— A la forme ܦܲܥܸܠ la deuxième radicale est toujours dure et la troisième toujours douce, ex. ܟܲܬܸ݁ܒ݂[.] — A la forme ܐܲܦܥܸܠ la deuxième et la quatrième lettre sont douces et les deux autres dures, ex. ܐܲܟ݂ܬܸ݁ܒ݂.
— In the form Paʕʕel the second radical is always hard and the third always soft, e.g. katteḇ. — In the form ʾAp̄ʕel the second and the fourth letters are soft and the other two [are] hard, e.g. ʾaḵteḇ.
— Enfin à toutes les autres formes, la première radicale s’adoucit lorsqu’une préformante la précède, ex. ܢܟ݂ܰܬܸ݁ܒ݂‎, ܡܟ݂ܰܬܸ݁ܒ݂, à moins que cette préformante ne soit un alaph à zélam dur suivi d’une lettre accentuée, ce qui ne se présente qu’à la première personne du singulier de l’aoriste de la forme ܦܲܥܸܠ et des verbes concaves (152) trilitères, ex. ܐܹܟ݁ܬܸ݁ܒ݂‎ [sic] j’écrirai, ܐܹܬ݁ܘܼܒ݂ je me repentirai.
Finally in all the other forms, the first radical becomes soft when a preformative precedes it, e.g. n-ḵatteḇ, m-ḵatteḇ, unless* this preformative is an ʾĀlap̄ at Hard Zlāmā followed by a voweled letter, which occurs only in the 1st person singular aorist of the form Paʕʕel and of the triliteral hollow verbs (152) [in Peal and Pael], e.g. è-(k)k[a]tteḇ “I will write”, è-(t)tūḇ “I will repent”. [*à moins que + subj. with expletive ne]

2015-07-07

A few remarks

(1) This è occurs also in a 2nd-Y hollow verb: as in ʾè(s)sīm in Mt 12:18, ܪܘܼܚܝ ܐܹܣܝܼܡ ܥܠܵܘܗܝ. — Also, ܐܹܡܘܼܬ݂ “I will die” (2Co9:15) from intr. mīṯ, nmūṯ.

(2) In the English version of N §23I, ʾèggarrē “ich hetze” is translated as “I hunt”, which should be understood as CAL √GRY #1 “D to incite”, and not as #2 “D to shoot”. The phrase “I hunt” seems to be a blurred expression due to double translation (Syriac to German to English), possibly from “I sic [a dog]”.

(3) Additional topics:

2015-11-06 In §23I Nöld. says a consonant after è is hard and doubled in the Peal of a hollow verb, where he quotes ʾèddūš; but he says nothing about this when he discusses hollow verbs (§177). Mingana, on the other hand, very clearly states that a consonant after è is hard but not doubled. The ES vowel è and doubling are two different problems. While this kind of è is well attested in NY-P and is explained explicitly by Mingana, Nöld. and Min. say different things about doubling.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 30] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 30 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ]: ܟܰܠܘܣܬܐ ܕܚܰܢܰܐ

2015-06-18

ܟܰܠܘܣܬܐ ܦܰܚܡܐ ܩܰܡܪܐ ܡܢܝܕܐ
kalṓstā paḥmā qamrā mnīḏā
Vulgar doll, toy (LS2) coal strap, belt, girdle shakes, dandles; pt. of ʾanīḏ, Aph. √NWD
ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܟܰܠܘܿܣܬܐ ܕܚܰܢܰܐ! ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܣܰܥܪܐ ܫܰܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ [ܫܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ] ܐܰܝܟ ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ، ܘܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܙܰܪ̈ܩܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܝܰܡܐ.
saʕrā = “hair” ⟦crīnis, crīnēs⟧ // šaʕṓṯā = “wax(-colored); yellow, golden, blond, flaxen” ⟦f. cēra, adj. colōre cērae, flāvus⟧ // zārqā, zārqṯā (Qarahbaš: zarqā, as in cld) “sky-blue, blue-eyed” ⟦caeruleus⟧ أَزْرَق fem. زَرْقَاء: cld. zrōqā Al. or zarqā (pronounced: zerqā) Al. // yammā = יָם‎ = يَمّ
2015-07-08 ܫܰܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ [ܫܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ] “wax” [2017-05-30 Read it šʕōṯā] is a feminine noun, which is also used as an adjective (LS2). Here, it is used (or so it seems at least) as a masculine adjective “yellow”, modifying a masculine noun ܣܰܥܪܐ “hair”. ܣܰܥܪܐ is indeed masculine, as in ܣܰܥܪܗ̇ ܚܠܳܦ ܬܰܟܣܝܬܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܐܶܬܝܗܶܒ ܠܗ̇ “her hair — [which] is in place of covering — was given to her” (1Co11:15). Incidentally, a single piece of hair is called ܡܶܢܬ̥ܐ, which is feminine (Mt 5:36).

2015-06-19

ܠܒ̥ܝܫܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܢܰܚܬ̊ܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܬܰܠܓܐ، ܘܩܘܼܒ̊ܥܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܡܐ،
lḇīšā = pass. pt. (fem. abs.) of lḇeš “to clothe”: not l-ḇīšā “bad thing (acc.)” // naḥtā = “(long) outer garment, coat, robe” // talgā (PS *θalg) = ثَلْج‎ = שֶׁלֶג ⟦nix⟧ // qubbʕā (or qū̆ḇʕā) = “cap” = قُبَّعَة‎ = קוֹבַע // summāqā = “red” ⟦ruber⟧
ܘܰܡܣܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܘܟܳܡ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܦܰܚܡܐ، ܘܩܰܡܪܐ ܟܪܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܣܒ̊ܐ.
msānē = “shoes”
Leeks in Unaizah, Saudi Arabia karrāṯā (Qara. k(ə)rāṯā) = “leek” (N §87: radical T but fem. in Syc), “leek-green” (Jess.); كُرَّاث

2015-06-20

ܟܽܠ ܪܰܡܫܐ: ܡܶܫܬܰܥܝܐ ܚܰܢܰܐ ܥܰܡ ܟܰܠܘܿܣܬܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇.
PS *ʔamas1-: אֶמֶשׁ “yesterday”, مَسَاء “evening” / أَمْس “yesterday”, ምሴት (məsēt) “evening”
ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܛܳܥܢܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܥܰܠ ܕܪܳܥܳܗ̇ ܘܰܡܢܰܨܪܐ ܠܳܗ̇، ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܣܳܝܡܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܥܰܪܣܐ ܘܰܡܢܝܕܐ ܠܳܗ̇.
drāʕā = “arm ⟦brachium⟧, shoulder ⟦armus⟧”: PS *ðrāʕ- זְרוֹעַ‎, ذِرَاع // nṣar = “to sing”: Pa. naṣṣar = “to sing frequently, to lull a baby to sleep with murmuring”, pt. mnaṣṣar, mnaṣ(ṣə)rā. // ʕrsā = “bed”, f. (N §84), PS *ʕrś-: עֶרֶשׂ “couch (with a canopy), bed”, عَرْش (or عَرِيش) “throne, hut, nest” (Steingass, 684b, 691a), “a booth, or shed, or thing constructed for shade” (Lane, 2000a)
ܚܰܢܰܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܟܰܠܘܿܣܬܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇ ܀
رَحِمَ, but prob. unrelated to אָהַב

2015-07-03

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܡܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܚܰܢܰܐ؟
ܚܰܢܰܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܟܰܠܘܿܣܬܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܰܘ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܣܰܥܪܳܗ̇؟
ܫܰܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ [ܫܥܘܿܬ̥ܐ].
3 ܡܳܢܰܘ ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܥܰܝܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇؟
ܙܰܪ̈ܩܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܛܳܥܢܐ ܟܰܠܘܣܬܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܛܳܥܢܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܥܰܠ ܕܪܳܥܳܗ̇.

2015-07-08

ܐܰܝܟܐ ܠܳܒܶܫ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟

5 ܡܣܳܐܢ̈ܐ
ܥܰܠ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ
ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܝ **
ܩܰܡܪܐ
ܥܰܠ ܚܰܨܐ #1
ܥܰܠ ܚܰܨܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ or ܒܚܰܨܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ **
ܢܰܚܬܐ
ܥܰܠ ܦܰܓ̥ܪܐ ?
ܩܘܒܥܐ
ܥܰܠ ܪܹܝܫܐ (ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܝ̱)
ܓܘܪ̈ܒܐ
ܥܰܠ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ #2
ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܝ **??

#1 ʕal ḥaṣṣā (Cf. Mt. 3:4). #2 gurbē = “socks”.

** 2015-07-12 You say b- when you wear shoes on your feet. See below, under 2015-07-12. Unsure about socks. Maybe b-. Also unsure about body — not even sure if the answer is “body” in the first place. For “loins”, while Mattew says ʕal, Luke and John say b-. For “a cap on your head”, Qarahbaš uses ʕal (below 10).

2015-07-10

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܗܰܘ؟

ܩܘܠܬ̥ܐ ܡܰܣܘܪܩܐ ܡܚܰܛܐ
qul(lə)ṯā = “pitcher” ⟦urceus⟧ // massurqā = “comb” ⟦pecten⟧, also msurqā, mas(ḙ)rqā (N §126B). // mḥaṭṭā = “needle” (N §58) ⟦acus⟧: fem. in N §84 but mas. according to CAL, Jess, Qara.
6 ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܶܢ̈ܐ ܒܪܰܡ ܠܐ ܢܳܟܶܬ؟ ... ܡܰܣܘܪܩܐ
(Who on earth is this [guy]) that has teeth {šennē} but {bram} does not bite {NKT}? A comb! {cute :)}
7 ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܝܢ̈ܐ ܒܪܰܡ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ؟ ... ܡܚܰܛܐ
That has eyes but does not see? A needle!
8 ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܕܢ̈ܐ ܒܪܰܡ ܠܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܒܗܶܝܢ؟ ... ܩܘܠܬ̥ܐ
That has ears but does not hear with them? A pitcher!

2015-07-12

ܕܶܐܢ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܟܰܠܘܣܬܐ

9 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܒܫܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܳܗ̇؟
lḇeš = “clothe oneself”; ʾalbeš Aph.
ܡܰܠܒܫܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ.
10 ܡܳܢܐ ܣܳܝܡܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܳܗ̇؟
ܣܳܝܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܘܒܥܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.
11 ܡܳܢܐ ܣܳܝܡܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܶܝܗ̇؟
b-reḡlēh: b- could mean “with, using”, but in this case, “fixed at, bound at” (CAL: w. transitive verbs: to do some (damage, building, fixing, etc.) to something), as in Ephesians 6:15, where ὑποδησάμενοι τοὺς πόδας ἐν “having shoed yourselves (lit. your feet) with…” is rendered as ܣܰܐܢܘ̱ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܝܟ̊ܘܢ “Wear ye, at your feet, …”. Also, ܚܶܠܐ ܕܰܕܒܶܩ ܠܰܢ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܝܢ “dust which adhered to us at our feet” (Lk 10:11). While this is understandable, it is still confusing to me that you say ʕal when you wear your cap, but you suddenly say b- when you wear your shoes. I guess a cap is not so fixed, just sitting on your head, while shoes are fixed, or bound, at your feet. So, what would happen when you wore your socks? Maybe that is b-?
ܣܳܝܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܶܝܗ̇ ܡܣܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܘܟܳܡ̈ܐ.

Psalm 23:1 Heb/Syc

2015-06-17

יְהוָ֥ה רֹ֝עִ֗י לֹ֣א אֶחְסָֽר׃
rōʕī(y) = rōḕ(h) + genitive suffix (“my”), where rōḕ(h) is pt. of rāʕā(h), Syc. rʕā: trans. (“feed”) and intr. (“graze”) both in Heb. and in Syc. (Ar. رَاعٍ) // ʾèḥsār = ʾèḥsar.
ܡܳܪܝܐ ܢܶܪܥܶܝܢܝ̱ ܘܡܶܕܶܡ ܠܐ ܢܚܰܣܰܪ ܠܝ.܀
See 2014-09-04.

arc Imperial Aramaic / Official Aramaic / Reichsaramäisch

2015-06-18

While in ISO it is defined as 700–300 BCE, Aramaic was actually the official language between around 500 and 330 BCE. Indeed, the Achaemenid Empire only existed from around 550 BCE: the reign of Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great) started in 559, the independent empire was born maybe between 553 and 550. On the other hand, the legendary king Achaemenes was said to be from around 700 BCE. Although those Anshan kings before Cyrus had nothing to do with Aramaic, the language was used by the conquering Assyrians as a language of administration communication, and following them by the Babylonian and Persian empires, which ruled from India to Ethiopia, and employed Aramaic as the official language. For this period, then (about 700–320 B.C.E.), Aramaic held a position similar to that occupied by English today. (CAL)

The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Middle Assyrian period of the Late Bronze Age. During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language.

[…]

From the 8th century, the Aramaic language had gradually established itself as a lingua franca of the Empire. By the 6th century, it had marginalized the Akkadian language so much that Aramaic came to be the imperial language of Achaemenid Assyria.

[…]

The Aramaic language from the 8th century BC was adopted as the Lingua Franca of the Assyrian Empire and continued by the Achaemenid Empire. Assyrian scribes are often depicted in pairs: one writing in Akkadian on the cuneiform tablet, the other writing in Aramaic on the parchment or papyrus.

Neo-Assyrian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

After Babylonia regained its independence, Neo-Babylonian rulers were deeply conscious of the antiquity of their kingdom, and pursued an arch-traditionalist policy, reviving much of the ancient Sumero-Akkadian culture. Even though Aramaic had become the everyday tongue, Akkadian was retained as the language of administration and culture.

Neo-Babylonian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2016-11-23

Aramaic became the lingua franca from the time of the Assyrian Empire (eighth century BCE), because the Arameans were a significant sector of the population of Assyria and Babylon, and their writing was simpler than the cuneiform Akkadian (Beyer 1986: 9-14).

Palmyra as a Caravan City

2015-12-15

The next period of Aramaic is dominated by what is called Official, Imperial, or Standard Literary Aramaic because it served as the official administrative language of the Persian empire from the sixth to the fourth centuries, although it may have begun to spread somewhat earlier, under the Assyrians and Babylonians. This is also the dialect found in the Bible, although some scholars assign the book of Daniel to a later category.

Greenspahn: An Introduction to Aramaic (1999, 2007), page 6

2016-11-06

Lake Hula before the 1950s drainage

2015-06-12

File:Grimm, J.L. Mahlmann, H. Tiberias. 1850.jpg

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 29] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 29 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܬ̥ܶܫܥܐ]: ܐܰܝܟܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ

2015-06-03

škīḥ = “found”

ܟܳܗܢܐ ܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ ܚܕܝ ܫܟܝܚ
kāhnā tawdīṯā ḥḏī šḵīḥ
priest acknowledgement, praise, faith, religion to rejoice found
ܟܳܗܢܐ ܚܰܕ، ܣܥܰܪ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܡܶܢ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
sʕar = “to visit”; zḇan = “time”, ba-zḇan = “sometimes, once upon a time” // 2015-06-05 abs. (ʔ)nāš means “someone”, emph. (ʔ)nāšā is not used in this sense: N §146.
ܘܟܰܕ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒ [ܝܰܬ݁ܝܒ] ܗ̱ܘܐ، ܘܗܐ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܕܰܥܣܰܪ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ.
yattīḇ (hard T) = “sitting, having set oneself, seated” (N §118) [Cf. Book 4 Lesson 17]; ʕāʾel = part. of ʕal (ʕLL) “to enter”: N §178B; ša(n)tā (abs. šnā), šnayyā (abs. šnīn) (N §146), f.
ܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܟܠ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ ܠܝ܂ ܡܳܪܝ ܡܳܪܝ܇ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܠܡܰܠܟܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܰܫܡܰܝܐ. ܐܶܠܐ ܡܰܢ ܕܥܳܒܶܕ ܨܶܒܝܳܢܶܗ ܕܳܐܒ݂ܝ ܕܒ݂ܰܫܡܰܝܐ.
(Matthew 7:21⁎) // ṣeḇyānā = “desire”

2015-06-04

ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܡܘܢ ܫܡܳܟ؟ ܘܦܰܢܝ: ܡܘܫܶܐ ܒܰܪ ܝܶܫܘܥ. ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܬܘܒ: ܡܘܢ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܒܶܝܬ̥ ܣܶܦܪܐ؟ ܘܦܰܢܝ: ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ ܘܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ.
tūḇ = “again” // 2015-06-11 סֵפֶר سِفْر
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܟܳܗܢܐ: ܐܶܢ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ ܕܰܐܝܟܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܚܰܕ ܚܰܙܘܪܐ. ܘܦܰܢܝ ܡܘܫܶܐ: ܘܶܐܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ ܕܰܐܝܟܐ ܠܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ!
ḥazzūrā = m. “apple”; ʾatt ʾāmar ʾatt = “you say, toi tu dis
ܘܰܚܕܝ ܟܳܗܢܐ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: ܡܐ ܪܚܝܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܝܳܕܰܥ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܟܰܕ ܗܘ ܙܥܘܪ ܀
ḥḏī = Peal intr. Pf. “he was glad”; rḥīm = “beloved, lovely, lov(e)able”

2015-06-05

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒ [ܝܰܬ݁ܝܒ] ܗ̱ܘܐ ܟܳܗܢܐ؟
ܝܰܬ݁ܝܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܡܶܢ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
2 ܡܰܢ ܥܰܠ ܠܓ̥ܰܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ؟
ܥܰܠ ܝܰܠܘܦܐ ܕܰܥܣܰܪ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܟܳܗܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܟܳܗܢܐ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ.

2015-06-06

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ؟
ܗܘ ܦܰܢܝ: ܐܶܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ ܕܰܐܝܟܐ ܠܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܬܪ̈ܶܝܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܟܳܗܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܡܘܫܶܐ؟
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܟܳܗܢܐ: ܡܐ ܪܚܝܡ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܝܳܕܰܥ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܟܰܕ ܗܘ ܙܥܘܪ.

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ ܟܳܗܢܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܚܕܝ

ܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ: ܗܳܕܶܐ ܪܶܚܡܰܬ̥ ܐܠܳܗܐ.

2015-06-08

ܥܕܬܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܗ̇ ܟܳܗܢܐ.

2015-06-09

ܐܶܢ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ، ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܫܟܝܚ.
ܗܘ ܚܕܝ ܟܰܕ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ ܠܶܗ: «ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ».

ܣܝܡ ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܐ ܫܽܘܳܐܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ʾesārā = Gram. “particle”; šuwwālāyā (šuʾʾā-) = Gram. “interrogative”

7 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ... ܩܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ؟ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ.
8 ܡܘܢ ... ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ؟ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
9 ܟܡܐ ... ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܨܶܡܕܳܟ؟ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ.
ṣemdā = “bond/band (?), bag”
10 ܡܰܢ ... ܙܒܰܢ ܠܳܟ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ؟ ܐܰܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱.
11 ܐܰܝܟܐ ... ܥܳܡܰܪ ܚܳܠܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ؟ ܒܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
ḥālā = “maternal uncle”

Many-to-one correspondences in the PS-to-Syriac Mapping

2015-06-01

Three S’s

(Šīn Rule) The *s1 (maybe /ʃ/ or /s/) in Proto-Semitic (PS) is שׁ in Hebrew, ܫ in Syriac; but in Arabic it is س, not ش.

(Semkaṯ Rule) ܣ is either the lateral *ś /ɬ/ (aka s2) or *s3 (maybe /s/ or /ts/).

2015-11-16 Et. seems to be like Arabic, in that the same letter (Et Ar س) is used for both *s1 and *s3 (Hebrew שׁ and ס, respectively), while a different letter (Et Ar ش) is used for *s2 aka ś (Hebrew שׂ). Syriac, on the other hand, uses the same letter (ܣ) for *s2 and *s3, and a different letter (ܫ) for *s1.

/ʕ ʁ ɬʼ/ Merged

(ʕyn Rule) ܥ has 3 flavors, corresponding to ع‎, غ and ض in Arabic.

(1) The straight *ʕ is simply ܥ and ע and ع.

(2) The *g̮ /ɣ~ʁ/ (ġ) is also ܥ and ע, while kept in Arabic as غ.

(3) The *ṣ́ /ɬʼ/ is ܥ and צ and ض.

2016-10-24 ק in oar for *ṣ́ might have been an emphatic version of ע for *ġ: (1) ʕ (2) ʁ (3) ʁˤ ~ ɢˤ ~ qˤ

T & Θ are the same letter; also D & Ð, and Ṭ & Θ̣

(Taw Rule) The Syriac ܬ is either the straight *t /t/ (e.g. *tis1ʕ-, see above) or the *θ /θ/ (He שׁ).

(Dālaṯ Rule) The Syriac ܕ is either the straight *d /d/ or the *ð /ð/ (He ז).

(Ṭēṯ Rule) The Syriac ܛ is either the straight *ṭ /tʼ/ (He ט / Ar ط), or the *θ̣ /θʼ/ (He צ / Ar ظ).

/ħ χ/ Merged

(Ḥēṯ Rule) The Syriac ܚ (He ח) is either the straight *ḥ /ħ/ or the *ḫ /χ/ (*k̮).

2015-06-10

Five Rules

#1 On S1/S2/S3

(1) When written, Hebrew can distinguish s1, s2, s3 — šī(y)n, śī(y)n, sāmèḵ. (2) Arabic distinguishes s2 as ش, but merged s1 and s3. (3) Syriac distinguishes s1 as ܫ, but merged s2 and s3.

#2 On Ḫ and G̮

Both Hebrew and Syriac are simple about these two:

ح and خ‎ = ח‎ = ܚ

ع and غ‎ = ע‎ = ܥ

#3 On T/Θ and D/Ð

Syriac is simple about these two pairs:

ت and ث‎ = ת and שׁ‎ = ܬ

د and ذ‎ = ד and ז‎ = ܕ

Hebrew is rich with s-like consonants, being able to express *s1/s2/s3 losslessly. On the other hand, the language tends to change a th-like consonant into a s-like consonant, viz. *θ to š, *ð to z, and *θ̣ to ṣ.

#4 On Ṭ/Θ̣

This is like #3, but less obvious.

ط and ظ‎ = ט and צ‎ = ܛ

#5 On Ṣ́ (aka Q Ḍād)

Hebrew is simple about this one:

ص and ض‎ = צ and צ‎ = ܨ and ܥ (Q in OA)

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 28] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 28 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܒܳܪܘܝܐ

2015-05-26

bārṓyā = “creator”

ܬܰܩܶܢ ܪܩܝܥܐ ܪ̈ܰܚܫܳܐ ܐܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܟܰܢܶܫ
taqqen rqīʕā raḥšā ʾaṯrā kanneš
Pa. to construct, form the sky reptiles, creeping things place Pa. to assemble, call together
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܒܶܫܬܐ ܝܰܘܡܝ̈ܢ ܒܪܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ.
brā = “to create”
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ: ܒܪܐ ܠܢܘܗܪܐ ܘܰܩܪܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܐܝܡܳܡܐ،
ܘܰܠܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܐ ܩܪܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ.
nuhrā = “light”; qrāy(hy) = “called him”; ʾīmāmā = “daytime”; ḥeššṓḵā = “dark(ness)”; ES lelyā (lèlyā), WS līlyā (lelyā) = “night” (m.), from layləyā: N §146, §49A

2015-05-27

ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬܪܶܝܢ: ܬܰܩܶܢ ܠܰܪܩܝܥܐ ܘܰܩܪܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܫܡܰܝܐ.
šmayyā = “heaven”
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬܠܳܬܐ: ܟܰܢܶܫ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܠܚܰܕ ܕܘܟܐ،
ܘܰܩܪܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܡܐ، ܘܰܠܝܰܒܫܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
dukkā = “place”; yammā = “sea”; yaḇšā = “dry land”;
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ: ܥܒܰܪ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܘܣܰܗܪܐ ܘܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ.
sahrā = “moon”
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܚܰܡܫܐ: ܒܪܐ ܠܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܕܝܰܡܐ ܘܦܳܪܰܚܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܰܫܡܳܝܐ.
pāraḥṯā = “bird” (soft T, N §§54, 106); collectively
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܶܫܬܐ: ܒܪܐ ܠܪܰܚܫܳܐ [ܠܪ̈ܰܚܫܳܐ] ܘܚܰܝܘܬܐ ܕܰܐܪܥܐ، ܘܠܳܐܕܳܡ
ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܘܣܳܡܶܗ ܒܓܰܢܰܬ̥ ܥܕܶܝܢ.
ḥayyūṯā (here, collectively): originally, ḥay-wəṯā (N §76fn); ʾāḏām = אָדָם; sāmèh = from sām (SWM); ʕḏēn = עֵדֶן (ʕēḏèn).

2015-05-30

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܡܰܢ ܒܪܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ.
2 ܒܰܟܡܐ ܝܰܘܡܝ̈ܢ ܒܪܐ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ؟
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܒܪܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܒܶܫܬܐ ܝܰܘܡܝ̈ܢ.
3 ܒܰܐܝܢܐ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܒܪܐ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܠܫܶܡܫܐ ܘܣܰܗܪܐ؟
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ.
4 ܒܰܐܝܢܐ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܟܰܢܶܫ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ؟
ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܬ݂ܠܳܬ݂ܐ.
5 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܣܳܡ ܠܳܐܕܳܡ؟
ܣܳܡܶܗ ܒܓܰܢܰܬ̥ ܥܕܶܝܢ.

2015-05-31

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬ݂ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܚܰܝܘܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ. ܪܰܚܫܳܐ ܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
An animal has four legs. A creeping creature does not have four legs.
ܪܩܝܥܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܡܰܝܐ.
Heaven is in the sky.
ܐܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܕܒܶܗ ܪܳܒܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ، ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘ.
The place where I grow, is my country.
ܝܰܒܫܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܗ̱ܘ، ܘܠܐ ܝܰܡܐ.
The (dry) land is the earth, and not the sea.
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܒܪܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
God created this world.

2015-06-01

ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܒܰܐܪܥܐ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܒܝܰܡܐ ܒܺܐܝܡܳܡܐ ܒܠܺܠܝܐ ܒܳܐܐܰܪ
b-arʕā “in the land”, ba-šmayyā “in the sky”, b-yammā “in the sea”, b-īmāmā “in the daytime”, b-le̦lyā “at night”, b-āʾar “in the air”
7 ܫܶܡܫܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ... ܒܺܐܝܡܳܡܐ. ܢܘܢܐ ܣܳܚܶܐ ... ܒܝܰܡܐ.
nhar = “to be bright, to shine”; Aph. ʾanhar, not like a 1st-N (*ʾahhar), but like a strong verb (N §173A)
8 ܪܰܚܫܳܐ ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ... ܒܰܐܪܥܐ. ܣܰܗܪܐ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ... ܒܠܺܠܝܐ.
halleḵ Pa. “to go on, to walk”
9 ܦܳܪܰܚܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܝܣܐ ... ܒܳܐܐܰܪ. ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ... ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ.
ṭās (ṬWS) = “to fly”

ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܕܨܶܡܚ̈ܐ — Bh gr 1 240:3–4

2015-05-21

See SyriacG.php#rbyiya.

ܨܡܚܐ܀ ܐܬܘ̈ܬܐ ܕܡܪܟܟܝܢܢ ܘܡܩ̇ܫܝܢ.
ʾāṯā, pl. ʾāṯwāṯā, f. // raḵ √RKK “to be soft”, Pa. rakkeḵ “to soften”, part. mrakkeḵ, pl. mrakkəḵīn (?), +an “we soften” // QŠY Pa. qaššī “to harden”, part. mqaššē pl. -ēn
܏ܬܘ ܒܬܪ ܏ܫܝܢ ܒܫܬܝܬܝܐ.
bāṯar = “after” // So, “We (WS) say šṯīṯāyā, while they (ES) say šṫīṯāyā.”
ܐܦ ܏ܒܝܬ ܏ܕ ܕܪܒܝܥܝܐ ܘܫܒܝܢܝܐ.
ܐܝܢ ܏ܒܝܬ ܕܪܒ݂ܝܥܝܐ ܘܫܒ݂ܝܢܝܐ.
“WS rḇīʕāyā, šḇīnāyā; ES rḃīʕāyā, šḃīnāyā”

Nöld says about Barhebraeus: Now and then too, following mere analogy, he presents forms which can with difficulty be authenticated in the genuine speech. Accordingly if here and there I do not notice Barhebraeus’ data, I trust it will not be attributed to a want of acquaintance with them on my part. Indeed, šbīnāyā with Hard B feels strange. On the other hand, rbīʕāyā makes sense (Cf. ʾarbʕā), and Nöld does not mark the B of this one either, not as soft nor as hard.

ܒܰܪ ܥܶܒܪܳܝܐ “Son of the Hebrew man” = ابو الفرج (ʾabū-l-faraǧ: faraǧ = “freedom”?) = Bar Hebraeus (OR: Barhebraeus). 1225/6*–1286-07-30 {*1537 AG}

Assyrian Library - The Nation's Archives

2015-05-24

Bh adsc. ment. (adscensio mentis) = Le livre de l'ascension de l'esprit sur la forme du ciel et de la terre (sur Gallica) / Internet Archive

2015-05-25

= ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܕܣܘܠܳܩܐ ܗܰܘܢܳܢܳܝܐ K. d-sullāqā hawnānāyā (1279)

2015-05-29

His Christian name was John, but in ordinary life he was known as ’Abulfaraj, an Arabic name such as Christians living amongst Mohammedans were wont to bear. (Bar Hebraeus : Theodor Noldeke)

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 27] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 27 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܫܰܒܥܐ]: ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱

2015-05-15

māṯā = f. “native land, country”

ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬܳܐ ܐܰܫܝܕ ܣܳܢ̈ܐܐ ܒܰܪ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ
ṭāḇāṯā ʾašīḏ sānē bar māṯā
goodness (f. pl. of ṭāḇ) poured, shed (pass. pt. of ʾešaḏ) enemies countryman (?)

2015-05-16

ܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܝ [ܕܝܠܝ̱]، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܳܗ̇ ܪܳܒܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܘܡܶܢ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܗ̇ ܚܳܝܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
rḇā = “to grow”; ḥyā = “to live”

2015-05-17

ܟܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܶܝܗ̇ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ، ܘܡܶܢ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܗ̇ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܫܳܬܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ، ܘܡܶܢ ܡܰܫܒܳܗ̇ ܫܰܦܝܐ ܣܳܐܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
plural noun + suffix: normal if the noun ends in ā, feminine (ṭāḇāṯā → ṭāḇāṯāh) or masculine (mayyā → mayyāh); ay-suffix is used if the noun ends in ē, masculine (pērē → pērē(y)h) or feminine (ʾappē → ʾappē(y)h) [Muraoka §40 NB5].
ḥalyā = “sweet” (3rd-Y pass. pt.), pl. ḥlayyā (N §72; Alan 63, 2):
ḥlē (abs), ḥalyā (emp/f-abs), ḥlīṯā (f-emp) — ḥlēn (abs), ḥlayyā (emp) — ḥalyān (f-abs), ḥalyāṯā (f-emp).
Similarly: qšē, qašyā, qšīṯā — qšēn, qšayyā — qašyān, qašyāṯā.
maš(šə)ḇā (soft B) = “blowing, wind”; šap̄yā = “plain, clear, pure”; sāq (SWQ) = “to breathe”
ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܚܳܝܶܐ ܚܰܝ̈ܶܐ ܕܚܺܐܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܰܕܒܰܣܝܡܘܬܐ [ܬ̥ܐ].
ḥayyē (only pl. m.) = “life”; ḥḗrūṯā = “liberty”; bassīmūṯā = “sweetness, pleasantness, joyousness”
ܚܠܳܦ ܟܽܠܗܶܝܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ: ܕܶܐܪܚܰܡ ܠܡܳܬ̥ܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܠܶܒܝ̱،
ḥlāp̄ = “for, instead, because”; kulhēn hālēn = “all these [things]” (as in Mt13:51, Ac24:8, Col3:8);
d- = This can be understood as, “it is because of all these things that I…”
ʾerḥam = impf. (type e/a); lèb(y), from leḇ = m. “heart”
ܘܕܶܐܦܠܘܚ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܦܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܒܟܽܠܶܗ ܚܰܝܠܝ̱،
plaḥ, ʾep̄lóḥ = “to work”; ʾappēh = from ʾappē, fem. [N §84] pl. “face, surface”; ḥaylā = “force, power, strength”
ܘܕܶܐܩܘܡ ܒܰܐܦ̈ܰܝ ܟܽܠ ܣܳܢܳܐܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܒܳܗ̇ ܒܝܫܬܐ.
ʾeqūm = impf. (N §177A, G): Muraoka p. 109 says ʾaqum, ʾasim, which should be ʾequm, ʾqsim.
b-appay = constr. “against”; ṣḇā bāh bīštā = “to desire, in her, an evil thing”
ܘܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܐܶܗܘܶܐ ܒܰܪ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܀
hāḵanā = “thus, so”

2015-05-18

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

1 ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ؟
ܐܰܪܥܳܟ ܗ̱ܝ.
2 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܫܶܡ ܡܳܬ̥ܳܟ؟
ܨܝܢ،‌ ܨܝܢܶܣܬܰܐܢ (China)؛ ܝܰܦܰܢ، ܝܰܐܦܰܐܢ (Japan).
3 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܚܝܰܘ ܐܰܒܳܗܰܝ̈ܟ؟
ܗܶܢܘܿܢ ܚܝܰܘ ܒܛܘܪܩܺܝܰܐ (Turkey).

2015-05-22

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܠܡܳܬ̥ܳܟ؟
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܶܐܪܚܰܡ ܠܡܳܬ̥ܝ̱.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܠܣܳܢ̈ܶܐܐ ܕܡܳܬ̥ܳܟ؟
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܶܐܩܘܡ ܒܰܐܦ̈ܰܝ ܟܽܠ ܣܳܢܳܐܐ.

2015-05-23

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܡܰܫܒ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܰܫܝܕ ܣܳܢ̈ܶܐܐ ܒܝܫܬܐ
breezes, goodness (pl), shed, enemies, badness
ܡܰܫܒ̥̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܗܘܢ ܪܘܚ̈ܐ.
Breezes are winds.
ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܗܶܝܢ ܡܶܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܛܳܒܝܢ.
Goodness (pl) is something that is good.
ܩܰܛܠܘܗ̱ܝ: ܕܡܐ ܐܰܫܝܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ.
They killed him: blood was shed.
ܣܳܢ̈ܶܐܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܗܘܢ: ܠܐ ܪܳܚܡ̈ܐ.
They are enemies; not friends.
ܒܝܫܬܐ ܠܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇ ܛܳܒ̥ܬ̥ܐ.
Badness is not goodness.

2015-05-24

ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ: ܝܰܩܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܕܰܗܒܐ

yaqqīr = “heavy”; dahḇā (Soft B) = “gold”

ܘܰܪܕܐ ܬܰܠܓܐ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܶܒܫܐ ܫܡܰܝܐ ܢܘܪܐ
rose snow sun honey heaven fire
7 ܩܰܪܝܪ ܡܶܢ ... ܬܰܠܓܐ. ܪܳܡ ܡܶܢ ... ܫܡܰܝܐ.
Colder than snow. Higher than heaven.
8 ܢܰܗܝܪ ܡܶܢ ... ܫܶܡܫܐ. ܚܠܶܐ ܡܶܢ ... ܕܶܒܫܐ.
Brighter than the sun. Sweeter than honey.
9 ܫܰܦܝܪ ܡܶܢ ... ܘܰܪܕܐ. ܚܰܡܝܡ ܡܶܢ ... ܢܘܪܐ.
Prettier than a rose. Hotter than fire.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 26] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 26 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܶܫܬܐ]: ܫܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܐ

2015-05-07

ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ، ܐܶܙܰܠ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܥܰܡ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܣܰܐܪܰܗ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ. ܚܙܐ ܟܰܠܒܐ ܕܪܳܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܘܪܐ.
ʾap̄rēn (-reyn); sa(ʾ)rah (sarrah); rʕel = “to tremble”; kurrā = “cold”;

2015-05-08

ܘܰܫܩܰܠ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܕܢܶܫܕܶܐ ܒܶܗ، ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
šqal = “to lift, take”; šḏā, nešdē “to throw”;
ܚܠܳܦ ܕܬܶܬܶܠ ܠܶܗ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܫܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ، ܟܺܐܦܐ ܬܶܫܕܶܐ ܒܶܗ ܐܰܝܟ ܒܝܫ̈ܐ!
ḥəlāp̄ = “instead of”. While the meaning of the above sentence is clear and obvious, ḥəlāp̄ d- for “instead of” is not attested in Peshitta: James 4:15 is more or less similar, but it looks like “instead + subj”. Lk19:44 is different, more like “because of that”. // tettel = fut. of ya(h)ḇ, as if from NTL: N §183 (6);

2015-05-09

ܘܰܐܦܩܰܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܳܗ̇ ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ ܠܰܚܡܐ، ܘܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܰܐܦܪܶܝܡ ܟܰܕ ܐܳܡܪܐ: ܙܶܠ ܗܰܒ ܠܶܗ ܗܳܢܐ.
np̄aq “to go out”: Aph. ʾappeq (from *ʾanpeq, N §173A), ʾappqaṯ (from *ʾanpqaṯ) “to bring forth, to take out”; ṣemdā = the word found in Isaiah 3, said to be “purse, (hand)bag”, from √ṢMD “to bind”; qṣāṯā = “a broken portion (of bread), morsel” [Here, I think constr. OR + d- is expected, but let’s assume that qṣāṯā laḥmā is an idiom]
ܘܟܰܕ ܣܳܡ ܠܠܰܚܡܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܟܰܠܒܐ ܘܰܗܦܰܟ، ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܣܰܐܪܰܗ: ܗܳܫܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܛܳܒܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܀
šaḇrā att ṭāḇā… = noun + adjective disconnected, like puer es bonus.

2015-05-10

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ؟
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ ܣܶܦܪܐ.
2 ܡܘܢ ܚܙܐ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ؟
ܚܙܐ ܟܰܠܒܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ ܠܟܰܠܒܐ؟
ܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܫܕܶܐ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܒܶܗ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܚܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟ ܚܠܳܦ ܕܬܶܬܶܠ ܠܶܗ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܫܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ، ܟܺܐܦܐ ܬܶܫܕܶܐ ܒܶܗ ܐܰܝܟ ܒܝܫ̈ܐ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܰܐܦܪܶܝܡ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܳܗ̇؟
ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ ܠܰܚܡܐ.

2015-05-11

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܪܳܥܶܠ ܬܶܬܶܠ ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ ܩܘܪܐ
winter; trembling; you will give; a broken portion; coldness
ܟܰܕ ܬܶܫܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܐܳܙ̈ܠܳܢ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ.
When the autumn months go, winter comes.
ܪܳܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܩܘܪܐ.
He is trembling from coldness.
ܟܰܕ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܬܶܠ ܠܝ ܠܰܚܡܐ، ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܠܝ.
When you wish to give me bread, you are giving bread to me.
ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ: ܗܳܕܶܐ ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ ܡܶܢ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
A broken portion: this is a part of bread.
ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܬܳܩܶܦ ܩܘܪܐ.
In winter coldness becomes strong.

2015-05-12

ܡܳܢܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟

ܥܰܡܬ̥ܐ ܚܳܠܐ ܕܳܕܐ ܚܳܠܬܐ
dāḏā = “father’s brother”, ʾam(mə)ṯā = “father’s sister” ⟦amita⟧
ḥālā & ḥāltā = “mother’s brother & sister” have ḥā-, like ḥāṯā.

[ܩܳܪܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ:]

ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܥܰܡܗܶܝܢ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ؟ ܘܰܐܝܠܶܝܢ ܠܐ؟

ʾaylēn = “who, which (pl.)” // dḗḇā = “wolf” // ḥewyā = “snake” (generally m.).

ܐܰܝܟ ܟܰܠܒܐ: ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܥܰܡܶܗ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.

ʕuq-bərā = “mouse” (hard B): the plural is ʕuq-bərē OR ʕu-qab̤rē. Qarabaš uses the plural ʕu-qab̤rē in Book 3 Lesson 16, and here he uses ʕu-qab̤rā as singular. Perhaps Neo-Syr. ʕu-qəb-rā?
Maclean says, “ܥܘܼܩܒܪܵܐ see ܥܩܘܒܪܐ” and in page 242b: ʕā-qób-rā (Hard B, perhaps essentially ʕā-qa̱brā) or by metath. ʕā-bóq-rā, rarely ʕuq-b’rā as OS., m.
2016-10-03 Also in Book 4, Lesson 5, Problem 9.
2017-03-17 Also in Book 4, Lesson 18.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 25] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 25 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܫܐ]: ܡܳܪܝܐ ܐܰܚܝܕ ܟܽܠ

2015-05-03

ʾaḥḥīḏ = “holding”, from ʾeḥaḏ “to hold”: ʾaḥḥīḏ kul = “holding all, omnipotent”.

ܡܳܪܝܐ ܐܰܚܝܕ ܟܽܠ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ:
ܘܰܡܨܶܐ ܚܰܝܠܐ ܕܟܽܠ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ.
mṣē = “able” hence “powerful” ? [2015-05-05: Or “you are able to be”?] // ḥaylā = “army, power, strength”
ܢܶܫܡܐ ܕܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܟܽܠ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ:
ܫܡܰܝܐ ܘܰܐܪܥܐ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܐܝܕܰܝ̈ܟ.
nešmā = “breathing”; beyṯ ʾīḏayk = “house of your hands” (Cf. Hebrews 1:10)

2015-05-05

ܫܡܰܝܐ ܗܝ ܒܰܕܡܘܬ̥ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ܟ:
ܘܣܘܓܐܐ ܕܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܝܢܰܝ̈ܟ.
šmayyā = com. gen. (N §87); ba-ḏmūṯ (constr.) = “in the likeness (of)” Cf. Lk3:22; ʾappē, Abs. ʾappīn, Cst. ʾappay: ʾappayk “your face”; sṓḡā = “multitude” (N §104) Cf. Lk5:19 P-NY.; kawkḇē = “stars”
wsṓ-ḡād-ḵawk-ḇē-ʕay-nayk: there are only 6 syllables (because many of them are long syllables?). I think that this problem (assuming that it is indeed a problem) could have been trivially avoided by inserting hā “lo!” after the w-.
ܒܟܽܠ ܕܘܟܐ ܫܟܝܚܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ:
ܘܠܰܝܬ ܕܥܳܪܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܐܝܕܰܝ̈ܟ.
dukkā = “place”; šḵīḥā = pass. pt. (mas. emph.?) of ʾeškaḥ “to find”; ʕāreq = “to flee” (+ men, Cf. James 4:7)

2015-05-06

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ: ܚܰܝܠܐ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܕܘܟܐ ܥܳܪܶܩ ܀

sukkāl(ā) = “meaning”, here maybe constr.

ܐܶܢ ܚܠܝܡ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܝܠܐ.
If strong/healthy, he has power.
ܐܶܢ ܚܳܝܶܐ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܢܶܫܡܐ.
If living, he has (he is) breathing.
ܐܶܢ ܫܳܐܶܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ «ܐܰܝܟܐ»، ܐܳܡܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܘܟܐ، ܐܰܝܟ «ܒܒܰܝܬܐ» ܐܰܘ «ܒܫܘܩܐ».
If you ask “where”, I say a place, like “in the house” or “in the market”.
ܐܶܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܹܐܒܐ ܕܳܐܬ̥ܶܐ، ܥܳܪܶܩ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ.
If you see a wolf coming, you flee.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 24] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 24 [ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܐܶܡܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ

2015-04-30

ܥܰܡܪܐ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܟܰܕܘ ܫܠܝ
ʕamrā ʾara kaddū šlī
wool interrogative particle is enough to be silent/still
ܚܘܪ ܒܗܰܘ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܕܥܰܠ ܡܰܪܓܐ:
ܕܥܰܡܪܶܗ ܚܶܘܳܪ ܐܰܝܟ ܬܰܠܓܐ.
Now we have ḥewwār [ḥiwwār Jar ḥîwwār], in the absolute state, which makes sense. Why, I’m asking again, is it said ʾemrā d-rḗšèh ʾukkāmā in the previous lesson, with the emphatic state?
ܠܡܘܢ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܦܳܥܶܐ:
ܐܳܗ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܒܳܥܶܐ.
l-mṓn = “why”; hāḵan = “so, thus, in this way”; ʾāh = “O” (Qara.); hānā = should be understood as “this [lamb]”, not “this milk”. bāʕē = “seeks, wants”

2015-05-01

ܟܰܕܘ ܐܳܘ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ:
ܐܶܡܳܟ ܗܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܛܘܪܐ.
kaddū = “enough!”; here apparently in a milder tone, “okay, okay”, “there, there”, or “I fully understand”. Cf. Lk22:51
ܫܠܝ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܬܺܐܬ̥ܶܐ:
ܘܚܰܠܒܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ ܠܳܟ ܬܰܝܬܶܐ.
šlī = imperat.; bāṯar qallīl = “soon after” (Jess.): here, “after a little while” or “soon”, like in Mt26:73, Ac27:14. taytē = “she will bring”, impf. of ʾaytī “to make it come” i.e. “to bring”, Aphel of ʾeṯā “to come” (N §174E, §176C). ܐܝܬܝ + A + ܠ B = “bring A to B”.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 23] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 23 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܐܶܡܪܐ ܕܡܰܪܝܰܡ

2015-04-12

ܡܰܘܒܠܐ ܫܳܘܰܪ ܢܳܩܶܦ ܦܳܪܩܐ
mawblā šāwal nāqep̄ pārqā
Aph to bring, lead to jump to adhere to, follow, agree with to separate from, go away

2015-04-13

ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܕܪܝܫܶܗ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܘܠܰܝܬ ܠܶܗ ܩܰܪ̈ܢܐ. ܘܟܽܠ ܟܡܐ ܕܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܡܰܘܒܠܐ ܠܶܗ ܠܡܰܪܓܐ ܕܢܶܪܥܶܐ.
kul kmā d = “so much as; as much” (Jess)
2015-04-23: ⁂ Why should I say “d-rḗšèh ʾukkāmā” (emph) when “d-rḗšèh ʾukkām” (abs) is expected? Is it because “d-rḗšèh ʾukkāmā” (emph) is considered as restrictive as a whole, modifying ʾemrā [⁑ʾimrā]? In Question 2, I would say “w-rḗšèh ʾukkām” (abs), but I’m not sure.
2017-05-17 One possible reason is, the expression is preceded by ʾemrā ḥewwārā, and so rḗšèh ʾukkāmā sounds natural.

2015-04-14

ܘܬܰܡܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܬܰܦܐ ܡܶܫܬܰܥܝܐ ܥܰܡܶܗ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱: ܩܳܐܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ.
tappā = a stream smaller than a river; ܐܶܫܬܥܝ Ethpe. “to play”, Part. ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ and ܡܶܫܬܰܥܝܐ; ʾīṯ ʾemmaṯ (d) = “sometimes” [⁑ʾimmaṯ Jar ʾēmaṯ]

2015-04-15

ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱: ܕܣܳܐܶܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܒܰܐܪܥܐ ܘܫܳܘܰܪ ܠܰܐܦܰܝ̈ ܠܥܶܠ.
lappay towards, about, esp. in expressions of time and place (Jess), “In the direction” (Qara); lʕel comp. of L- and ʕL. adv. upward, above (Jess), “Up, over” (Qara).

2015-04-16

ܘܝܳܕܰܥ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܕܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܶܗ. ܥܰܠ ܗܳܕܶܐ، ܟܽܠ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܕܳܐܙܠܐ ܢܳܩܶܦ ܠܳܗ̇، ܐܶܢ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܐܳܦ ܗܘ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ، ܘܶܐܢ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܐܳܦ ܗܘ ܩܳܐܶܡ.
ʕal hāḏē = “for this reason” (Cf. 2Peter1:12). kul ʾaykā d = “every place where; wherever”
ܘܟܰܕ ܦܳܪܩܐ ܡܶܢܶܗ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܡܶܚܕܐ ܦܳܥܶܐ ܘܪܳܗܶܛ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܗ̇ ܀
qallīl = “swift, a little (while)”; meḥḏā = “at once, immediately”, Soft D (N §156) < *men ḥḏā; PʕY = “to bleat, to baa”; RHṬ = “to run”

2015-04-20

Written via Bamboo Pad on Windows 7. Obviously I still have a long way to go, but hey it does look like Syriac now, at least :)

2015-04-23

2015-04-24

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

1 ܡܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ؟
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܶܡܪܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܓܰܘܢܶܗ ܕܶܐܡܪܐ؟
ܐܶܡܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܶܘܳܪ، ܘܪܝܫܶܗ ܐܘܟܳܡ.

2015-04-25

3 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܡܰܘܒܠܐ ܠܶܗ؟
ܡܰܘܒܠܐ ܠܶܗ ܠܡܰܪܓܐ ܕܢܶܪܥܶܐ.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱: ܩܰܐܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ. ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱: ܕܣܳܐܶܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܒܰܐܪܥܐ ܘܫܳܘܰܪ ܠܰܐܦܰܝ̈ ܠܥܶܠ.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܪ ܟܰܕ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܦܳܪܩܐ ܡܶܢܶܗ؟
ܡܶܚܪܐ ܦܳܥܶܐ ܘܪܳܗܶܛ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܗ̇.

2015-04-26

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

6 ܫܳܘܰܪ ܦܳܪܩܐ ܢܳܩܶܦ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܳܘܰܪ ܠܰܐܦܰܝ̈ ܠܥܶܠ.
ܠܐ ܦܳܪܩܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܢܳܩܶܦ ܠܶܐܡܶܗ.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܐ ܥܰܡܝ̱.

2015-04-28

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܩܳـ̈ܠܐ ܠܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ

7 ܟܰܠܒܐ ܩܰܛܐ ܣܘܣܝܐ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ
ܩܳܪܶܐ ܦܳܥܶܐ ܢܳܥܰܪ ܢܳܘܶܐ ܢܳܒܰܚ ܨܳܗܶܠ
sūsyā = “horse”; nāʕar = “to bray” [WAV]; nābaḥ = “to bark”; ṣāhel = “to neigh”
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ، ܐܶܡܪܐ ܦܳܥܶܐ، ܚܡܳܪܐ ܢܳܥܰܪ، ܩܰܛܐ ܢܳܘܶܐ، ܟܰܠܒܐ ܢܳܒܰܚ، ܣܘܣܝܐ ܨܳܗܶܠ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 22] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 22 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪܶܝܢ]: ܡܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܣܰܠܐ

2015-03-09

ܟܰܣܝ ܦܰܣܬܐ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ ܒܗܶܬ̥ ܐܝܩܳܪܐ
kassī passəṯā saḵlā bəheṯ ʾīqārā
to cover f. palm; (Neosyr.) handkerchief stupid; a fool to be ashamed honor
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܚܰܕ، ܕܰܥܣܰܪ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ، ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܫܘܩܐ ܘܰܙܒܰܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ.
One student, who was 10 years old, went to the market place and bought fruits.
Note: The expression “is 10 years [old]” is predicative, and “years” is in the absolute state (but šnayyā Emph. seems also possible: N §237). The word “years” itself is a noun, not a predicative adjective; hence a Seyame. Other examples: ܒܰܪ ܐܰܪܒܥܝܢ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ “a son of 40 years old”, ܒܰܪ̱ܬ̥ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ ܬܰܪܬܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ “a daughter of 12 years old”.
ܘܣܳܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒܣܰܠܐ، ܘܟܰܣܝ ܦܘܡܐ ܕܣܰܠܐ ܒܦܰܣܬܐ ܚܰܘܳܪܬܐ، ܘܰܗܦܰܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
And he put them in a basket and covered the opening of the basket with a white {fem.} handkerchief, and he returned home.

2015-03-10

ܘܰܦܓܰܥ ܒܶܗ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ، ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܡܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܣܰܠܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ؟
Then a foolish man encountered {pḡaʕ b-} him and asked him: What is in this basket {Jess: com. gen.} which you’re carrying, O little boy?
ܦܰܢܝ ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܐܶܠܘ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܕܟܽܠ ܢܶܚܙܶܐ ܘܢܶܕܰܥ ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܣܰܠܐ، ܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܦܰܣܬܐ!
The infant {#1} answered: If {#2} I desired so that everyone may see and know {#3} what is in the basket, I would not cover it with a handkerchief!

2015-04-12: Generally ܟܠ is singular. ܟܠ ܓܶܝܪ ܕܫܳܐܶܠ ܢܳܣܶܒ “For every one that asks takes.” (Mt7:8)

2015-03-11

ܘܰܒܗܶܬ̥ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ ܘܶܐܙܰܠ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܶܗ.
Then the fool was ashamed and went in his direction. {ʾezal b-}
ܡܰܠܶܦ: ܙܳܕܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܕܢܶܛܰܪ ܐܝܩܳܪܶܗ ܕܢܶܛܰܪ ܠܶܫܳܢܶܗ ܀
This teaches: It is proper for a son of man to want to guard {nṭar Impf. neṭṭar} his honor [and] to watch his tongue {leššānā ⁑liššānā Jar līšānā}.

2015-03-13

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ

1 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܫܘܩܐ.
2 ܡܰܢ ܦܓܰܥ ܒܶܗ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ؟
ܦܓܰܥ ܒܶܗ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ: «ܡܘܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܣܰܠܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ؟»
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ: «ܐܶܠܘ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܕܟܽܠ ܢܶܚܙܶܐ ܘܢܶܕܰܥ ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܣܰܠܐ، ܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܦܰܣܬ̥ܐ!»
5 ܡܘܢ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܕܢܶܛܰܪ ܐܝܩܳܪܶܗ ܕܢܶܛܰܪ ܠܶܫܳܢܶܗ.

2015-03-27

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܗܰܠܶܝܢ ܒܝܰܕ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

2015-03-30

6 ܦܰܣܬܐ ܟܰܣܝ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ ܦܓܰܥ
ܦܰܣܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܚܰܘܳܪܬܐ.
ܟܰܣܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܡܶܢܝ̱.
ܚܙܹܝܬ̥ ܠܓܰܒܪܐ ܣܰܟ̥ܠܐ.
ܝܶܫܘܥ ܦܓܰܥ ܒܗܘܢ.

ܕܰܪܓܐ ܕܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ

dargā = “order”; ḥayyē (pl.) = life.

7 ܫܰܒܪܐ، ܛܠܝܐ، ܥܠܰܝܡܐ، ܓܰܒܪܐ، ܣܳܒܐ
ʕlaymā = “youth”
8 ܫܒܰܪܬܐ، ܛܠܝܬܐ، ܥܠܰܝܡܬܐ، ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬ̥ܐ، ܣܳܒܬ̥ܐ
šḇarṯā (Soft T CAL LS2, Hard T wikt); ʕlaymṯā (Soft T, N §112); sāḇṯā (Soft T, N §135)

Memo

မြန်မာဘာသာစကား - ဝိကိပိဒိယ

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 21] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 21 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ]: ܩܪܝ ܘܰܥܒܶܪ

2015-02-05

1.. ܙܶܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܠܘܚܐ ܘܰܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܫܡܳܟ ܘܫܶܡ ܐܰܒܘܟ، ܘܰܩܪܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ. ܟܶܢ ܠܚܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܘܰܗܦܘܟ.
Go to the place of the blackboard, and write your name and the name of your father, and read them in a loud voice. Then {ken} remove them and return {h(ə)p̄óḵ √HKP}.
zel Impt. √ʔZL N §183 (4) // ʾaḇūḵ from ʾaḇā. // lḥī Impt. √LḤY “wash away, delete”

2015-02-17

2.. ܩܘܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܘܰܡܢܝ ܐܶܢܘܢ. ܟܶܢ ܙܶܠ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܡܶܢܝܳܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ، ܘܰܩܪܝ ܘܰܗܦܘܟ.
Stand in front of the students and count them. Then go [and] write the number {menyānā ⁑min- Jar min-} on the blackboard, and read [it] and return.
3.. ܙܶܠ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ ܫܶܡ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܘܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ، ܘܰܠܚܝ ܘܰܗܦܘܟ.
Go [and] write, on the blackboard, the name of the day and the hour (period) {šāʕṯā Soft T: N §23E} of this lesson, and remove [them] and return.

2015-02-18

4.. ܡܢܝ ܡܰܘܬܒ̈ܐ ܕܰܒܣܶܕܪܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܡܘܬܒܐ ܟܡܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱، ܟܶܢ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ.
Count the seats of the class, and all the seats as long as (≈where?) there are students on it, then write them on the blackboard.

2015-02-21

5.. ܙܶܠ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܥܰܠ ܠܘܚܐ ܫܶܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܕܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܡܝܢܳܟ، ܘܰܕܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܡܶܢ ܣܶܡܳܠܳܟ ܀
Go [and] write, on the blackboard, the name of the student who is sitting on the right of you, and who is sitting on the left of you.
yammīnā takes men.

2015-02-22

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܦܘܫܳܩ
What is the interpretation?
1 ܡܢܝ
Count!
ܠܚܝ
Delete!
ܩܪܝ
Read!
ܗܦܘܟ
Return!
ܥܒܶܕ.
Do!

2015-03-08

ܣܝܡ ܟܽܠ ܫܡܐ ܥܰܡ ܓܶܢܣܶܗ
Put each word with its kind.
ܓܰܡܠܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ ܟܶܪܟܐ ܐܶܡܐ.
Camel, Small bird, Grapes, Scroll (notebook), Mother.
2 ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ ܡܘܙܐ ܚܰܘܚܐ ... ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ
Figs, Banana, Plum, … Grapes.
3 ܟܰܠܒܐ ܦܝܠܐ ܬܰܘܪܐ ... ܓܰܡܠܐ
Dog, Elephant, Ox/Bull, … Camel.
4 ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܠܘܚܐ ... ܟܶܪܟܐ
Book, Pen, Blackboard, … Notebook.
5 ܝܰܘܢܐ ܢܶܫܪܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ... ܨܶܦܪܐ
Dove, Vulture, Rooster, … Small bird.
6 ܐܰܒܐ ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܳܕܐ ... ܐܶܡܐ
Father, Sister, Uncle (Father’s brother: Cf. ḥālā), … Mother.
ܡܰܪܩܳܘܣ ܒܰܪ ܕܳܕܶܗ ܕܒܰܪܢܰܒܰܐ in Colossians 4:10 is Μάρκος (Μᾶρκος) ὁ ἀνεψιὸς Βαρνάβα (Βαρνάβᾳ), where ἀνεψιός could mean “cousin” or “nephew (sister’s son)”. John Gill's Exposition: “and Marcus, sister's son to Barnabas; the same with John Mark, whose mother's name was Mary, said here to be sister to Barnabas, Acts 12:12 concerning whom there was a difference between Paul and Barnabas, Acts 15:37, and is the same Mark that wrote the Gospel, and was converted by the Apostle Peter, 1 Peter 5:13 and who is said to have received his Gospel from him; he is also mentioned 2 Timothy 4:11 Philemon 1 24. The Arabic version calls him here, the "brother's son of Barnabas": and the Syriac version, בר דדה, "his uncle's son": however, Barnabas being so great a man as he was, and so well known, it added some credit to Mark, that he was a relation of his”.
ܡܵܪܩܘܿܣ ܒܲܪ ܕܵܕܹܗ ܕܒܲܪܢܒ݂ܵܐ Marcus cônsōbrīnus Barnabae (cŏn- may allophonically become cōⁿ- before S or F)

Wheelocks 37

2015-04-30

1. Dehinc petet ā frātre meō et sorōre ut occāsiōnem carpant et in urbem quam celerrimē ineant.
Then he will beg my brother and sister to seize {carpō ere} the chance and go into the city as quickly as possible.
2. Nisi domum hāc aestāte redīssēs, in longō itinere Athēnās fortasse peregrīnātī essēmus, et nōs ibi oblectāvissēmus.
If you had not returned home in this summer, perhaps we would have traveled {peregrīnor} a long way to Athens, and there we would have enjoyed ourselves.
3. Nē levēs quidem timōrēs ferre poterātis; rūrī, igitur, nōn in urbe semper vīvēbātis.
You guys were not able to endure even slight fears; so you guys always lived in the country {rūs rūris}, not in the city.

2015-05-01

4. Haec locūtī, lēctōribus et lēctrīcibus persuādēbunt nē opēs cupīdinēsque praemiīs bonae vītae antepōnant.
After saying {loquor locūtus} these things, they will persuade [their] male and female readers not to put power and desire before the rewards of a good life.
antepōnō + A (acc) + B (dat) = “prefer A to B”. antepŌnō cAttōs cAnibus

2015-05-03

5. Multōs annōs eōs cīvitātī servīre coēgit, sed animōs numquam contudit.
For many years he forced {cōgō coēgī} them to serve the state, but he never crushed {contundō tundere} [their] spirits.
6. At nōs, ipsī multa mala passī, cōnātī sumus eīs īrātīs persuādēre ut servōs vinculīs līberārent et nē cui nocērent.
But! We, having endured many bad things ourselves, tried to persuade these angry men to liberate the slaves from the chains and not to harm anyone.
7. Sī quis vult aliōs iuvāre, cūret ut ad eōs adeat plēnus sapientiae.
If anyone wants to help others, let him take care so that he approaches them [as someone] full of wisdom.

2015-05-06

8. Philosophī cōtīdiē requīrēbant utrum illī discipulī nātūrae pārērent.
The philosophers used to seek every day whether those pupils obeyed {pāreō ēre +dat} nature.
9. Contemnāmus omnia perīcula, ea ex pectoribus exigāmus, et fateāmur haec difficillima Rōmae suscipienda esse.
Let us scorn {contemnō ere} all dangers, let us drive {exigō igere} them from our hearts, and let us admit that these very difficult things have to be undertaken at Roma.
10. Omnēs solent mīrārī ea pulcherrima quae Athēnīs vident.
All men are accustomed to admire the very pretty things which they see at Athens.

2015-05-10

11. Nisi māvīs morī, exī Syrācūsīs, sequere alium ducem, et accēde Athēnās.
Unless you (sg) prefer to die, exit Syracuse, follow another leader, and come near Athens.
12. Fēmina candida ante speculum immōta stetit, sed sē spectāre recūsāvit et animōs recreāre nōn potuit.
The beautiful woman stood unmoved in front of the mirror, but she refused to look at herself and could not restore [her] spirits.
13. Paucās hōras duodecim puerī puellaeque humī sedēbant, ut magistra, subrīdēns et eōs serēnāns, plūrimās fābulās nārrābat.
For a few hours the twelve boys and girls was sitting on the earth, when the woman teacher, smiling and cheering them up, was telling many, many stories.
14. Sī sapiēs et tibi imperāre poteris, fīēs grātior iūstiorque, parcēs miserīs ac amīcōs fovēbis.
If you are wise and able to command (=behave) yourself, you will become more pleasing and fairer, you will be lenient to the poor, and also you will comfort your friends.

2015-05-21

15. They commanded that this be done in Rome for three days.
Imperāvērunt ut id fieret Rōmae tria diēs.
16. Unless he goes to Syracuse within five days, his father’s fear will become greater.
Nisi Syrācūsās quīnque diēbus ībit, timor patris fīet maior.

Syracuse is located in the SE corner of Sicily.

2015-05-22

17. He thought that his brother would perhaps not go away from home that summer.
Putāvit frātrem illā aestāte domō fortasse nōn abitūrum esse.
18. Nobody may speak freely in that country, as we all know.
Licet nēminī līberē dīcere in illā patriā, ut nōs omnēs scīmus.
As in: Licet autem nemini contra patriam ducere exercitum (Philippica XIII 14)

2015-05-26

SA1. Mortālis facta perībunt.
Mortal deeds will pass away.
SA2. Noctēs atque diēs patet ātrī iānua Dītis.
At night and also at day (=night and day) the dark door of Dis is open.
SA3. Annī eunt mōre modōque fluentis aquae. Numquam hōra quae praeteriit potest redīre; ūtāmur aetāte.
Years go in the manner and mode of flowing water (=like flowing water). An hour that has passed can never return; let us enjoy the period of life.
SA4. Heu, obiī! Quid ego ēgī! Fīlius nōn rediit ā cēnā hāc nocte.
Alas, I have perished! What have I done! My son did not return from dinner this night.
SA5. Frāter meus ōrat nē abeās domō.
My brother is begging you not to go away from (=leave) home.

2015-05-31

SA6. Dīcit patrem ab urbe abīsse sed frātrem esse domī.
He says that his father left the city but that his brother is home.
SA7. Tertiā hōrā forīs ībam Sacrā Viā, ut meus mōs est.
At the third hour, I was outside (OR: At the third hour in the forums??) going on the Sacred Way, which is my custom.
SA8. Dēnique Dāmoclēs, cum sīc beātus esse nōn posset, ōrāvit Dionȳsium tyrannum ut abīre ā cēnā licēret.
At last Damocles, as he was not able to be happy in that way, begged Dionysius the tyrant that he be permitted to leave the dinner.
SA9. Eō tempore, Syrācūsīs captīs, Mārcellus multa Rōmam mīsit; Syrācūsīs autem multa atque pulcherrima relīquit.
At that time, as Syracuse having been captured [212BC], Marcellus sent many things to Rome; he left, however, many and very beautiful things at Syracuse.

2015-07-10

SA10. Diēs multōs in eā nāve fuī; ita adversā tempestāte ūsī sumus.
For many days I was in on this ship; we experienced such bad weather.
SA11. Īram populī ferre nōn poterō, sī in exsilium ieris.
I will not be able to bear/endure the anger of the people, if you go into exile.
SA12. Caesare interfectō, Brūtus Rōmā Athēnās fūgit.
Caesar having been killed [44BC], Brutus fled from Rome to Athens.

2015-07-13

SA13. Ipse Rōmam redīrem, sī satis cōnsiliī dē hāc rē habērem.
I myself would return to Roma, if I had enough plan about this matter.
SA14. Nēmō est tam senex ut nōn putet sē ūnum annum posse vīvere.
No one is so old that he does not think that he can live for one year.
SA15. Dum nōs fāta sinut, oculōs satiēmus amōre; nox tibi longa venit, nec reditūra diēs.
As long as our Fates allow, let us satisfy [our] eyes with love; a long night comes to you, and [once gone,] the day is not to return.

2015-07-16

dĭēs

2015-07-20

*Martial 2.71

Candidius nihil est tē, Caeciliāne. Notāvī:
sī quandō ex nostrīs disticha pauca legō,
prōtinus aut Mārsī recitās aut scrīpta Catullī.
Nothing is purer {#1} than you, O Caeciliānus. I have noticed:
if I ever (OR: If and when I) read a few couplets {#2} from our {#3} [scripts],
immediately you recite either Marsus’s or Catullus’s {#4} scripts.
Hoc mihi dās, tamquam dēteriōra legās,
ut collāta magis placeant mea? Crēdimus istud:
mālo tamen recitēs, Caeciliāne, tua!
Are you doing this for me, as if you were reading worse things,
so that, brought together (for comparison) {#5}, mine were more pleasing? We {#3} believed that one (OR: That’s what I believed):
still I prefer {mālŏ for mālō} [that] you recite, O Caeciliānus, yours!

2015-07-21

Collata magis placeant mea

A few translated versions I checked, such as Bohn's Classical Library (1897), all take this one like: “You do that for me so mine will sound better? Gee, thanks! But in that case, you can just recite your own poems. I guess that would work bettter…” Probably that’s what it means, more or less. I myself understood it that way when I first read it. Although collāta magis placeant mea itself could mean both “when compared with mine, theirs might sound better” and “when compared with mine, mine might sound better”, the second interpretation seems more reasonable, at least at the first glance, given that the previous line says tamquam dēteriōra legās, meaning “as if you were reciting something worse” i.e. “as if mine were better and theirs were worse”.

If so, mea is more importantly the subject of placeant and less importantly the object of collāta. It works doubly as “when compared with mine, mine might sound better”, where with mine is not absolutely necessary but the second mine is necessary, without which the subject of placeant would be dēteriōra.

BUT, isn’t that actually possible? “As if you were reciting something worse, so that, compared with mine, even theirs (=those supposedly worse things) might sound better (=so that you might redeem them)? Okay, I understand your noble intention. Still, I’d prefer it if you could go easy on me, just trying to redeem yours…” That may be more poignant than the normal interpretation. This interpretation is possible if you take dēteriōra vaguely as “rather poorly-written things [though not as bad as mine]”, and not specifically as “worse than mine”.

2015-12-23

TRIMALCHIL’S EPITAPH

Satyricon 71–72, supposedly by Petronius (14?–66 AD)

“Īnscrīptiō quoque vidē dīligenter sī haec satis idōnea tibi vidētur: ‘C. Pompeius Trimalchiō Maecēnātiānus hīc requiēscit. Huic sēvirātus absentī dēcrētus est. Cum posset in omnibus decuriīs Romae esse, tamen nōluit. Pius, fortis, fidēlis, ex parvō crēvit; sestertium relīquit trecentiēs, nec umquam philosophum audīvit. Valē. Et tū.’”
īnscrīptiō ōnis f; idōneus a um = “suitable”; C. = Gaius; requiēscō ere; sēvĭrātus or sexvĭrātus ūs m = “the dignity of a sexvir (member of a group of six officials)”; dēcernō ere crēvī crētum = “decide, settle, decree”; decūria ae = “club”; pĭus = “devoted”; crēscō ere crēvī crētum = “increase, arise”; sestertius a um adj. “two and a half”: sestertius m. = a small silver coin (~0.04 USD), originally equal to two and a half asses, or one fourth of a denarius; relinquō ere līnquī lictum = “leave behind”; trecentiēs = “three hundred times”: trecentiēs (sc. centēna mīlia) = 300 times 100,000 = 30 million; philosophus = “philosopher”
Haec ut dīxit Trimalchiō, flēre coepit ūbertim. Flēbat et Fortūnāta; flēbat et Habinnas; tōta dēnique familia, tamquam in fūnus rogāta, lāmentātiōne triclīnium implēvit.
flēre = “to weep”; ūbertim = “profusely”; tōtus a um; tamquam = “as it were, as if, so to speak”; fūnus neris n; rogātus pass. pt. of rogō = “ask (for)”; lāmentātiō ōnis f = “a wailing, moaning, weeping, lamenting”; triclīnium = “dining room”; impleō plēre plēvī plētum = “to fill”

2015-12-25

MĀRCUS QUĪNTŌ FRĀTRĪ S.

Cicero, Epistulae ad Quīntum Frātrem 1.2.14

Licinius, servus Aesōpī nostrī, Rōmā Athēnās fūgit. Is Athēnīs apud Patrōnem prō līberō virō fuit. Deinde in Asiam abiit. Posteā Platō, quīdam quī Athēnīs solet esse multum et quī tum Athēnīs fuerat cum Licinius Athēnās vēnisset, litterīs Aesōpī dē Liciniō acceptīs, hunc Ephesī comprehendit et in custōdiam trādit.
quīdam = someone.
Petō ā tē, frāter, ut Ephesō exiēns servum Rōmam tēcum redūcās. Aesōpus enim ita īrāscitur propter servī scelus ut nihil eī grātius possit esse quam recuperātiō fugitīvī. Valē.
re-dūcō. īrāscor ī. scelus sceleris, n.

File:CUINET(1892) 2.664 Van Vilayet.jpg

2015-07-17