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my mail address is in this picture

Jpeg 24 KiB Mountains of North Iraq
by Diyariq (cc-by-sa-4.0)

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 13] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 13 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܥܣܰܪ]: ܬܘܪܬܐ

2017-01-01

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܐ ܘܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܩܰܪ̈ܢܐ ܘܚܰܕ ܕܘܢܒܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ.
A cow is a domestic animal. She has four feet, two horns, and a long tail.
ܘܓܘܫܡܳܗ̇ ܡܟܰܣܰܝ ܒܣܰܥܪܐ ܟܰܪܝܐ، ܘܓܰܘܢܳܗ̇ ܐܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܗܳܘܶܐ ܐܰܘ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܐܰܘ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.
And her body is covered with short hair, and her color is black or white or reddish.

2017-01-02

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܢܳܦܩܐ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܠܡܰܪ̈ܓܐ ܘܥܳܒ̈ܐ.
Every morning a cow goes out to meadows and forests.
ܘܪܳܥܝܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܘܓܶܠܐ، ܘܛܰܪ̈ܦܐ ܕܐܺܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ، ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ [ܗܳܦܟܐ] ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܡܳܪܳܗ̇.
And it eats grass and dried plant and leaves of trees, and in the evening it returns to the house of its owner.

2017-01-03

ܐܶܠܐ ܒܣܳܬ̥ܘܐ، ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܘܬܰܠܓܐ ܘܩܘܪܐ ܩܰܫܝܐ ܡܩܰܘܝܐ ܒܒܰܝܬܐ.
However, in winter, during the time of rain and snow and severe cold, it remains in the house.
ܘܰܡܩܰܪܶܒ ܠܳܗ̇ ܡܳܪܳܗ̇ ܟܶܣܬܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܬܶܒܢܐ ܘܰܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ.
And its owner brings to it fodder, such as straw and barley grains.

2017-01-04

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܡܰܘܬ̥ܪܐ [ܡܰܘܬ̊ܪܐ] ܠܰܢ.
A cow is greatly useful to us.
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܕܡܶܢܶܗ ܡܶܬܥܒܶܕ ܡܰܣܬܐ، ܫܘܡܢܐ ܘܓܘܒܢ̈ܐ.
It provides milk, from which curdled milk, cream, and cheeses are prepared.

2017-01-06

🖉 Memo: A better scan of Costaz: L. Costaz Syrian French English Dictionary : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive: this PDF has embedded bookmarks for ܐ ‎- ܒ ‎- ܓ ‎- ܕ etc.

ܘܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܕܰܒܚܐ، ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܫܟܐ ܕܡܶܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܕܝܢܰܢ ܨܶܡ̈ܕܐ، ܘܣܰܪ̈ܓܐ، ܘܰܡܣܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܘܰܣ‍ܛܰܪ.
And when sacrificed, it provides us skin, from which we make bags, saddles, shoes, etc.
ܡܰܠܘܢ ܒܶܣܪܐ ܗܰܘ ܕܡܶܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܪܝܢܰܢ ܡܶܐܟ̥̈ܠܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܒܰܣܝ̈ܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
What’s more, [it provides us] meat — the thing from which we make delicious dishes.

2017-01-07

🖉 Memo: Precompiled ICU

2017-01-10

ܙܳܕܶܩ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܕܢܺܐܨܰܦ ܕܬܘܪܬܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܝܬ̥ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ ܘܫܶܩܝܐ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܝܰܬܝܪ ܢܺܐܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢܳܗ̇ ܀
Thus it is proper that one will take [good] care of a cow, that is, [more] than [just giving her] (?) food and water, so that one may gain more from her.

2017-01-11 I feel that this ܡܢ is abrupt. My best theory atm is, “[more] than [just giving]”. This might be like Matthew 18:13: ܚܳܕܶܐ ܒܶܗ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܬܶܫܥܝܢ ܘܬܶܫܥܐ ܕܠܐ ܛܥܰܘ “he rejoices in it more than [in] the [other] 99 that did not go astray.” Although Matthew 18:13 has ܝܰܬܝܪ explicitly, N §249E says this: ܡܢ in a comparison denotes that which is surpassed, whether the relation of comparision is, or is not (which is the commoner case), distinctly expressed by means of ܝܱܬܻܝܪ “excelling”, or ܛܳܒ ‘much’.

2017-01-13

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܶܬܬܰܪܣܝܐ ܬܘܪܬܐ؟
Where is a cow fed?
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܡܶܬܬܰܪܣܝܐ ܒܡܰܪ̈ܓܐ.
A cow is fed in meadows.
2 ܡܘܢ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܟܰܕ ܗܝ ܚܰܝ̣ܐ؟
What does a cow provide when it is alive?
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
A cow provides us milk.
3 ܡܘܢ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܟܰܕ ܗܝ ܕܒܝ̣ܚܐ؟
What does a cow provide when it is slaughtered?
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܒܶܣܪܐ ܘܡܶܫܟܐ.
It provides meat and hide.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܥܒܶܕ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ؟
What is made from [its] milk?
ܡܰܣܬܐ، ܫܘܡܢܐ، ܘܰܣ‍ܛܰܪ.
Cheese, cream, and so on.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܥܒܶܕ ܡܶܢ ܡܶܫܟܐ؟
What is made from [its] hide?
ܨܶܡ̈ܕܐ، ܣܰܪ̈ܓܐ، ܘܰܡܣܐܢ̈ܐ (ܘܰܡܣܳܢ̈ܐ).
Bags, saddles, and shoes.

2017-01-14

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܠܦܘܬ̥ ܣܘܟܳܠܐ ܬܪܝܨܐ

rkb D = “to compose”; lp̄ūṯ = “according to”; trīṣā = part. adj. “right”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܝܘܣܝ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ.
Ex. Jṓsī has a red pen.
6 ܬܘܪܬܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܪܓܐ.
A cow eats glass from the meadow.
7 ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܳܢܝܐ ܩܶܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
A bird builds a nest on the tree.
8 ܟܰܠܒܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
The dog is sitting in front of the gate of the house.

2017-01-16

9 ܣܝܡ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܬܘܪܬܐ»

ܐܰܝܟ: ܬܘܪܬܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
e.g. A cow eats grass.
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
A cow gives us milk.
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܚܰܝܘܬ̥ܐ ܪܒܬ̥ܐ.
A cow is a big animal.
ܩܛܰ‍ܠܘ̱ ܬܘܪܬܐ.
They killed a cow.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 12] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 12 [ܕܰܬ̥ܪܶܥܣܰܪ]: ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܚܦܝܛܐ

2016-12-15

ḥp̄īṭā = “diligent” cf. ar حفظ “to be mindful” < *ḥpθ̣

ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܚܦܝܛܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ ܕܙܰܪܥܶܗ ܢܶܫܦܰܪ ܘܢܶܬܶܠ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܚܰܩܠܶܗ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
A deligent farmer who hopes that his seed will become beautiful (=will grow beautifully) and it will give good fruits, takes cares of his farm properly.
ܐܰܘܟܝܬ̥ ܦܳܠܰܚ ܘܟܳܪܶܒ ܠܳܗ̇، ܟܶܢ ܬܳܢܶܐ،
That is, he works and plows it, then he repeats,
ܘܒܳܕܰܪ ܠܙܰܪܥܐ ܩܕܳܡ ܕܢܺܐܬ̥ܶܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ܘܢܶܚܘܬ̥ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܘܰܢܥܰܘܶܟ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܶܗ.
and he spreads seed[s] before winter comes, and rain falls and impede his work.

2016-12-25 qḏām d-nḗṯē “before he/it comes” appears in 1Jn3:19.

2016-12-20

ܘܰܒܩܰܝܛܐ ܟܰܕ ܡܳܛܶܐ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܠܰܚܨܳܕܐ، ܐܳܙܶܠ ܚܳܨܶܕ ܠܫܶܒ̈ܠܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡܰܓ̥ܠܐ [ܡܰܓ̊ܠܐ].
And in summer, when the seed[s] turn into harvest (crops), he goes and reaps the ears of grain with a sickle.
ܘܛܳܥܶܢ ܠܗܶܝܢ ܠܐܶܕܪܐ، ܘܬܰܡܳܢ ܕܳܪܶܟ ܘܕܳܪܶܐ ܠܗܶܝܢ، ܘܦܰܪܶܫ ܠܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܡܶܢ ܬܶܒܢܐ.
And he carries them to the threashing floor, and there he treads and winnow them, and separates the grains from straw/chaff.

2016-12-21

ܟܶܢ ܡܳܠܶܐ ܠܦܶܪ̈ܕܶܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܟܝܣܐ، ܘܢܳܛܰܪ ܠܗܶܝܢ ܒܐܰܘܨܳܪܐ [ܒܰܐܘܨܪܳܐ].
Then he fills the grains into a bag, and keeps them in the storehouse.
ܘܰܠܬܶܒܢܐ ܐܳܣܶܢ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܚܘܕܪܐ.
And he gathers the straw/chaff into a circle.†

† 2017-01-14 Possibly a round straw bale like this is meant: JPG 16 KiB (Image by Jan Ulrich, CC by-sa 3.0)

2016-12-22

ܘܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܡܛܰܝܒ ܡܳܙܘܢܐ ܫܦܝܥܐ ܠܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܰܝܬܶܗ.
And this way he prepares a lot of food for his family members.
ܘܟܶܣܬܐ ܕܣܳܦܩܐ ܠܰܒܥܝܪܶܗ.
And fodder that is enough for his animals.
ܘܰܠܫܰܪܟܐ ܕܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܒܫܘܩܐ، ܘܙܳܒܶܢ ܣܽܘܢ̈ܩܳܢܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܳܝ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܘܰܡܣܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ.
And in the market he sells the rest of the grains, and buys the winter necessaries, which is like clothes, shoes, etc.

2016-12-23

ܘܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܘܡܰܘܬܰܪ ܠܐܰܚܪ̈ܳܢܐ [ܠܰܐ̱ܚܪ̈ܳܢܐ].
And in this way, he has advantage and [at the same time] helps others.
ܘܐܝܬ̥ ܣܰܓܝ ܐܰܟܳܪ̈ܐ ܕܩܳܢܶܝܢ ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ، ܘܬܰܘܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܘܘܰܙ̈ܐ، ܘܬܰܪ̈ܢܳܓ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܘܝܳܬ̥ܪܝܢ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܘܥܰܡܪܐ ܘܒܝ̈ܥܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ܀
And there are many farmers who have small cattle (sheep and goats), cows, (female) geese, hen; and gain from them milk, wool, eggs, etc.

2016-12-25

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܟܡܐ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܶܬܦܠܰܚ ܚܰܩܠܐ؟
How often should {zdq} a farm field plowed {plḥ Gt}?
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܶܬܦܠܰܚ ܟܠܝܘܿܡ.
It should be plowed every day.

ܙܒܰܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ (zḇattā cf. N §28) = “time, instance [as regards repetition: first time, second time, etc.]” — zḇan, zaḇnā “time” is generally mas. in Syriac but fem. in the sense of “instance” with pl. both in -īn and -ān (CAL); generally fem. when used to express an indefinite date or repetition of an action (Jess)

However, teṯplaḥ (3f) is fem. because ḥaqlā is fem.

2 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܡܶܬܒܕܰܪ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ؟
When is the seed (are the seeds) scattered {meṯbḏar} in the farm field?
ܙܰܪܥܐ ܡܶܬܒܕܰܪ ܩܕܳܡ ܕܢܹܐܬ̥ܶܐ ܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ.
The seed is scattered before winter comes.
3 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܡܳܛܶܐ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܠܰܚܨܳܕܐ؟
When does the seed (do the seeds) turn into harvest (crops)?
ܙܰܪܥܐ ܡܳܛܶܐ ܠܰܚܨܳܕܐ ܒܩܰܝܛܐ.
The seed[s] turn into crops in summer.

2016-12-27

4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܶܬܦܰܪܫܝܢ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܡܶܢ ܬܶܒܢܐ؟
How are grains separated from straw?
ܕܳܪܶܟ ܘܕܳܪܶܐ ܠܫܶܒ̈ܠܐ.
He treads and winnows the stalks.
5 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܣܢܝܢ ܠܬܶܒܢܐ ܒܚܽܘܕܪ̈ܐ؟
Why do they gather straw in a circle?
ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܟܶܣܬ̥ܐ ܣܳܦܩܐ ܠܰܒܥܝܪܶܗ.
This way, fodder (f.) is enough for his animals.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܝܢ ܒܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܝܳܬ̥ܪܝܢ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܰܟܳܪ̈ܐ؟
What do they do with grains that is profitable for farmers?
ܡܙܰܒܢܝܢ ܠܫܰܪܟܐ ܕܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ.
They sell the rest of the grains.

2016-12-30

7 ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܙܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܙܳܪܰܥ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ

“Mention {ʾaḏkar C imperat.} four kinds {znayyā N §146} of grains that a farmer seeds.”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܕܘܚܢܐ
Such as: millet
ܐ. ܚܶܛܬ̥ܐ
wheat
ܒ. ܣܥܳܪܐ (ܣܥܳܪܬ̥ܐ)
barley
ܓ. ܪܘܙܐ
rice
ܕ. ܫܘܪܛܐ
pea, oat

2016-12-31

8 ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܐܰܪܒܥ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܩܳܢܶܐ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ

qny = “to acquire, to possess”

ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬܐ

ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬܐ

9 ܟܬ̥ܘܒ 5 [ܚܰܡܫܐ] ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ. ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܡܪܰܒܶܐ ܩܶܢܝܳܢ̈ܐ.
Examples: A farmer seeds wheat grains. A farmer raises {rby D} [his] cattle {qenyānē}.
ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ.
A farmer seeds barley grains.
ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܡܪܰܒܶܐ ܥܶܙ̈ܐ.
A farmer raises [his] goats.
ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܶܗ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܥܶܙܝܢ.
This farmer has ten goats.
ܗܳܢܐ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܚܦܝܛ.
This farmer is diligent.
ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܩܠܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
This farmer has a big farm.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 11] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 11 [ܕܰܚܕܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܡܦܰܠܓ̥ܳܢܐ ܟܺܐܢܐ

2016-11-29

2016-11-30 This lesson is based on LSt (Laughable Stories). In E. A. Wallis Budge (1897), p. 90 CCCLXXI and p. 70, ¶371

ܡܬܰܢܶܝܢ ܕܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܕܺܐܒܐ ܘܬܰܥܠܐ ܐܶܬܚܰܒܰܪܘ̱ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ، ܘܰܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܐܰܟ̥ܚܕܐ ܠܨܰܝܕܐ.
They narrate (=Legend has it?) that a lion and a wolf and a fox were once teamed up, and together went out hunting.
ܘܠܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܛܰܗܪܐ، ܨܳܕܘ̱ ܐܰܝܠܐ ܘܥܶܙܐ ܘܐܰܪܢܒܐ.
And about noon, they hunted a stag (male deer) and a goat and a hare.
ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܠܕܺܐܒܐ: ܩܘܡ ܦܰܠܶܓ̥ ܒܰܝܢܳܬ̥ܰܢ.
And the lion said to the wolf: “Arise, (=Go and) divide [them] among us.”
ܦܰܢܝ ܕܺܐܒܐ: ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܰܢ ܢܶܣܰܒ ܚܕܳܐ، ܥܶܙܐ ܠܰܡ ܠܝ ܐܶܢܐ، ܘܐܰܝܠܐ ܠܳܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ، ܘܰܐܪܢܒܐ ܠܬܰܥܠܐ.
The wolf answered: “Every one of us will take one [animal] {fem!}. The goat — let’s say, I [will take it] for me; and the stag — you [can take it] for you; and the hare — for the fox.”

2016-11-30

ܘܰܪܓ̥ܶܙ ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܘܰܨܦܰܚ ܥܰܠ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܘܩܰܛܠܶܗ.
Then the lion was angry, and suddenly attacked the wolf and killed him.
ܘܐܶܬܦܢܝ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܬܰܥܠܐ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ: ܩܪܘܒ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܦܰܠܶܓ̥.
And he turned toward the fox, and said: “Come near. You divide [them]!”
ܦܰܢܝ ܬܰܥܠܐ: ܠܡܳܢܐ ܦܘܠܳܓ̥ܐ؟ ܥܶܙܐ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܫܳܪܘܬ̥ܳܟ، ܘܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܠܰܦܢܳܝܬ̥ܳܟ [ܠܰܦܢܳܝܬܳܟ]، ܘܐܰܝܠܐ ܠܰܚܫܳܡܝܬ̥ܳܟ.
The fox answered: “Why dividing? The goat will be for your lunch, and the hare for your snack, and the stag for your dinner.”

2016-12-01

ܘܰܓܚܶܟ ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܐܰܝܡܶܟܐ ܝܺܠܶܦܬ ܦܘܠܳܓ̥ܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܟܺܐܢܐ؟
Then the lion laughed, and said to him: “From where did you learn this just [way of] dividing?”
ܦܰܢܝ ܬܰܥܠܐ: ܡܶܢ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܕܰܪܡܶܐ ܩܕܳܡܰܝܟ݁ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܡܰܠܟܐ!
The fox answered: “From the wolf who is placed in front of you, O my great king!”
ܡܰܠܶܦ: ܕܠܐ ܦܰܐܝܐ ܕܰܢܩܘܡ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܠܘܩܒܰܠ ܡܰܢ ܕܥܰܫܝܢ ܐܰܘ ܕܰܩܫܶܐ ܡܶܢܶܗ، ܡܰܠܘܢ ܐܶܢ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܕܒܝܫܬܐ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܪܴܢܶܐ ܀
Teaching (i.e. moral): That it is not proper {fem.} that a man should stand against [someone] from what anyone who is more powerful or what who is harsher than him, especially if he knows that [this person] is planning evil against him.

2016-12-02

Review (Lesson 11)

ṣwd = “to hunt, to fish, to catch (an animal)”
ܨܰܝܕܐ ܗܰܘ ܕܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܕܨܳܕܘ̱
this catching of fish that they caught (Lk5:9)
rḡez, nergaz = “to be angry”
ܟܕ ܫܡܥ ܕܝܢ ܡܠܟܐ܂ ܪܓܶܙ
But when the king heard [of this], he was angry. (Mt22:7)
ܟܕ ܕܝܢ ܫܡܰܥܘ ܥܶܣܪܐ܉ ܪܓܶܙܘ ܥܠ ܗܢܘܢ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܐܰܚܝ̈ܢ.
When the ten heard [it], they were angry at/with the two brothers. (Mt20:24)
ܟܠ ܡ̇ܢ ܕܢܶܪܓܰܙ ܥܠ ܐܰܚܘܼܗܝ
everyone who will be angry with his brother (Mt5:22)
qreḇ, neqróḇ = “to touch, come near”
ܩܪܶܒ ܠܶܗ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ
he touched him and said (Mt8:3)
ܡܰܠܰܐܟ̥̈ܐ ܩܪܶܒܘ
angels came near (Mt4:11)
ܘܰܡܩܰܪܒܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܕܢܶܩܪܘܒ ܠܗܘܢ܁
And they were bringing boys to him so that he might touch them. (Mk10:13)

Chrestomathia Syriaca - Title - SSG Vorderer Orient digital - MENAdoc – Digital Collections

2016-12-03

Review 2 (Lesson 11)

ḥšāmīṯā = “dinner”
ܘܰܗܘܐ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܝܺܕܝܥܐ܉ ܟܰܕ ܗܶܪܳܘܕܶܣ ܒܒܶܝܬ̥ ܝܰܠܕܶܗ܂ ܚܫܳܡܝܬ̥ܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ
Then there came a well-known (special) day. When Herod, on his birthday, gave a dinner (banquet)… (Mk6:21)
ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܝܶܫܘܥ. ܓܰܒܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܥܒܰܕ ܐܰܚܫܳܡܝܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ܂ ܘܰܩܪܐ ܠܣܰܓܝ̈ܶܐܐ.
Jesus was saying: “A certain man gave a big banquet, and called many.” (Lk14:16⁎)

2016-12-04

Review 3 (Lesson 11)

man d- = “he who”
ܡܰܢ ܕܫܳܐܶܠ ܠܳܟ ܗܰܒ ܠܶܗ
Anyone who asks you — give [whatever] to him. (Mt5:42)
ܟܠ ܡܰܢ ܕܫܳܡܰܥ ܡܶܠܰܝ̈ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܠܗܶܝܢ
everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them (Mt7:26)
rnā = “to think”
ܠܐ ܪܴܢܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ
you are not thinking about what belongs to God

2016-12-05

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܥܰܡ ܡܰܢ ܐܶܬܚܰܒܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܐܶܬܚܰܪܰܪ ܥܰܡ ܕܐܒܐ ܘܬܰܥܠܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܕܘ̱؟
ܨܳܕܘ̱ ܐܰܝܠܐ ܘܥܶܙܐ ܘܰܐܪܢܒܐ.
They hunted a stag {ʾaylā} and a goat and a hare.
3 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܦܰܠܶܓ̥ ܕܐܒܐ؟ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܶܗ؟
How did the wolf divide [the animals they hunted]? And what happened {gḏaš} to him?
ܕܐܒܐ ܐܡܰܪ ܠܰܐܪܝܐ: «ܥܶܙܐ ܠܰܡ ܠܝ ܐܶܢܐ، ܘܐܰܝܠܐ ܠܳܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ، ܘܰܐܪܢܒܐ ܠܬܰܥܠܐ.»
The wolf said to the lion: “Let’s say, the goat is for me, the stag is for you, and the hare is for the fox.”
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܕܝܢ ܪܓ̥ܶܙ، ܘܩܰܛܠܶܗ.
The lion, however, got angry and killed him.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܦܰܠܶܓ̥ ܬܰܥܠܐ؟
ܬܰܥܠܐ ܐܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: «ܥܶܙܐ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܫܳܪܘܬ̥ܳܟ، ܘܰܐܪܢܒܐ ܠܰܦܢܳܝܬܟ، ܘܰܐܝܠܐ ܠܰܚܫܳܡܝܬ̥ܳܟ.»
The fox said to him: “The goat will be for your lunch, and the hare for your snack, and the stag for your dinner.”
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܠܳܓ̥ܐ ܟܐܢܐ؟
What did the lion ask about fair dividing?
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: «ܐܝܡܶܟܐ ܝܺܠܶܦܬ ܦܘܠܳܓ̥ܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܟܐܢܐ؟»
The lion asked him: “From where did you learn this fair dividing?”
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܠܰܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
What does this lesson teach us?
ܡܰܢ ܕܥܰܫܝܢ ܐܳܡܰܪ «ܟܐܢܐ ܗ̱ܘ» ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܟܐܢܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Someone who is strong says “it is fair” when it is not fair.

2016-12-06

ܣܝܡ ܐܶܣܳܪܐ ܕܠܳܚܶܡ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘ̈ܩܙܐ

7 ܝܳܬܶܒ ܐܳܪܳܡ [ܥܰܠ] ܟܘܪܣܝܐ
ʾĀrām is sitting on the chair
8 ܥܒܰܪ ܕܐܒܐ [ܠܡܳܬ̥] ܝܶܩܥܐ
The wolf passed toward (?) the cave/den {neqʕā}
9 ܩܳܡ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ [ܒܓ̥ܰܘ] ܠܘܚܐ
The student stood in the wind
10 ܐܶܙܰܠ ܐܰܚܐ [ܥܰܡ] ܕܳܕܶܗ
The brother went with his paternal uncle
11 ܟܶܬ̥ܒܰܬ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ [ܒܝܰܕ] ܩܰܢܝܐ
The girl wrote with a pen
12 ܕܡܶܟ ܟܰܠܒܐ [ܩܕܳܡ] ܬܰܪܥܐ
The dog lay down in front of the entrance

No 8 is iffy. ʕḇar ʕal “to pass through (a city)” is possible (Ac17:1), though oftener “transgress”; also “to pass by someone” (Romans 15:28). However, we can’t use ʕal in 8, because ʕal is necessary in 7. ʕḇar lwāṯ “pass (from one place) to (another place)” is attested in Lk16:26. So I think lwāṯ is the answer for 8.

Memo: Changed the shortcut to the Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) Keyboard Layout (KL), from [LAlt]+[Shift]+[5] to [LAlt]+[Shift]+[0]. Currently, [LAlt]+[Shift]+[3/4/6/8/9] = Syriac (Arabic-compat)/Arabic (4L)/Amharic/Greek (Polytonic)/Armenian (East).

2016-12-11

ܦܪܘܫ ܡܶܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ «ܡܦܰܠܓ̥ܳܢܐ ܟܺܐܢܐ»

prš = “to separate”

13 ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܕܺܐܒܐ - ܛܰܗܪܐ
ܐܪܝܐ - ܬܰܥܠܐ - ܨܰܝܕܐ - ܐܰܝܠܐ
14 ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܐܝܟ: ܨܳܕ - ܦܰܢܝ
ܐܶܬܚܰܒܰܪܘ̱ - ܐܶܡܰܪ - ܩܘܡ - ܦܰܠܶܓ̥
15 ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܟܽܠ - ܠܰܡ
ܡܶܢ - ܐܰܘ - ܐܶܢ - ܥܠ

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 10] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 10 [ܕܥܶܣܪܐ]: ܪܶܚܡܰܬ̥ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܘܬ̥ܐ

2016-11-19

ܐܰܕܰܝ ܙܥܘܪܐ، ܟܽܠ ܪܰܡܫܐ ܟܰܕ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܚܳܢܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܳܠܶܗ،
Little Addai — every evening when he was going out (coming back) from school, he was going to the shop {ḥānūṯā} of his maternal uncle,
ܘܰܡܥܰܕܰܪ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܠܶܗ ܚܕܐ ܫܳܥܐ ܘܫܳܩܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܰܓ̥ܪܐ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ ܒܫܳܒܘܥܐ.
and was helping him for one hour, and received as a reward 10 coins (zūzā) in one week {šāḇṓʕā}.
ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܕܝܘܡ ܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ، ܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܚܳܢܘܬ̥ܐ، ܚܙܐ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܥܣܰܪ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ، ܩܳܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܘܒܳܟ̥ܝܐ.
On the evening of Saturday, when he was returning from the shop, he saw a girl of 10 years standing by (lit. on near) the street and weeping.
ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܫܰܐܠܳܗ̇ ܠܡܳܢܐ ܒܳܟ̥ܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬ݁ܐ؟
And he went near, asked her: “For what are you weeping, O little [girl]?”

2016-11-20

ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܕܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܟܪܝܗܐ. ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ، ܕܐܶܙܒܶܢ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
She replied: “My sick grandpa gave me three zūzīn so that I might buy him milk.”
ܘܗܳܫܐ ܓܶܫܦܶܬ̥ ܒܟܺܐܦܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܘܢܶܦܠܶܬ̥
“And now I came in contact with (stambled on) this stone and fell.”
ܘܡܐܢܐ ܐܶܬܬܰܒܰܪ ܘܚܰܠܒܐ ܐܶܬܶܐܫܶܕ.
“And the vessel (container) was broken {Dt}, and the milk was poured out.”
ܘܙܘ̈ܙܐ ܠܰܝܬ ܠܰܢ ܕܬܘܒ ܢܶܙܒܶܢ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܚ̈ܳܐ ܡܶܣܟܺܢ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܢ!
“And we do not have money to buy [it] again, because we are poor people!”

2016-11-21

ܘܚܳܣ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܐܰܕܰܝ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇ ܠܐ ܬܶܒܟܝܢ [ܬܶܒܟܶܝܢ] ܚܳܬ̥ܝ̱، ܬܳܝ ܥܰܡܝ̱ ܕܐܶܙܒܶܢ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܠܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱.
And Addai had pity {ḥws} on her, and said to her: “You shouldn’t cry {teḇkēn}, my sister. Come with me so that I may buy milk for your grandpa.”
ܘܐܶܙܰܠ ܙܒܰܢ ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܚܰܡܫܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ ܡܐܢܐ ܘܒܰܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ، ܘܫܰܕܪܳܗ̇ ܟܰܕ ܦܨܝ̣ܚܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ، ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇ ܀
And he went [and] buy her a jar with five zūzīn and milk with three, and sent her {šaddrāh} home, while [she was] delighted, to her grandpa.

teC-Cēn: 3rd-Y, Impf. sing. 2f

In 3rd-Y, this form is -ēn, and not -īn (as in teḵtḇīn). [The result is identical to sing. 2m + suffix (“us”).]

ܚܙܗ̇ ܕܝܢ ܝܫܘܥ܂ ܘܶܐܬܪܰܚܰܡ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇. ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܗ̇܂ ܠܐ ܬܶܒܟܶܝܢ.
Jesus saw her, and had compassion on her. So he said to her, “You shouldn’t cry.” (Lk7:13⁎) ES ܬܸܒ݂ܟܹ݁ܝܢ (Cf. 2014-09-22)
ܬܶܚܙܶܝܢ
You will see. (Jn11:40)
ܘܬܶܩܪܶܝܢ ܫܡܶܗ ܝܫܘܥ
You will call his name Jesus. (Lk1:31)

2016-11-22

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܰܕܰܝ؟
ܐܳܙܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܚܳܢܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܳܠܶܗ.
He was going to the shop of his maternal uncle’s.
2 ܟܡܐ ܫܳܩܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܰܓ̥ܪܐ؟
How much was he receiving as a reward?
ܫܳܩܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ ܒܫܳܒܘܿܥܐ.
He was receiving 10 zūzīn a week.
3 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܐ ܒܐܘܪܚܐ؟ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܳܗ̇؟
ܚܙܐ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܒܳܟ̥ܝܐ. ܫܰܐܠܳܗ̇: ܠܡܳܢܐ ܒܳܟ̥ܝܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ؟
He saw a little girl weeping. He asked her: “Why are you crying, O little girl?”
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ؟
How did the girl replay?
ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܕܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܟܪܝܗܐ. ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ، ܕܐܶܙܒܶܢ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܠܒܐ. ܘܗܳܫܐ ܓܶܫܦܶܬ̥ ܒܟܐܦܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܘܢܶܦܠܶܬ̥ ܘܡܐܢܐ ܐܶܬܬܰܒܰܪ ܘܚܰܠܒܐ ܐܶܬܶܐܫܶܕ.
She said, “My sick grandpa gave me three zūzīn so that I might buy milk for him. And now, I stumbled on this stone and fell, and the jar was broken, and the milk was spilled.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܐܰܕܰܝ ܠܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ؟
ܚܳܣ ܥܠܶܗ̇، ܘܰܙܒܰܢ ܠܳܗ̇ ܡܐܢܐ ܘ ܚܰܠܒܐ.
He had pity on her, and bought her a jar and milk.
6* ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܥܰܠ ܥܒܳܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
What do you say about this deed?
ܐܳܡܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܰܐܕܰܝ ܒܰܣܝܡ.
I say Addai is sweet.

2016-11-23

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܕܢܳܩ̈ܦܳܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

*Note: There are two questions numbered “6” in this pace.

ܐܰܠܒܶܫ ܐܰܘܟܶܠ ܐܰܢܗܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܡ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ
to clothe, to feed, to illuminate, to raise, to give
6* ܥܰܬܝܪܐ [ܐܰܠܒܶܫ] ܢܰܚܬܐ ܠܡܶܣܟܹܢܐ
The rich man clothed a poor man in/with a coat.
7 ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ [ܐܰܪܝܡ] ܪܹܝܫܶܗ ܠܥܶܠ
The rooster raised his head above (high).
8 ܪܰܒܳܢܐ [ܝܰܗ̱ܒ] ܕܳܫܢܐ ܠܟܰܫܝܪܐ
The lord gave a gift to the diligent man.
9 ܝܰܘܣܶܦ [ܐܰܘܟܶܠ] ܠܰܚܡܐ ܠܟܰܠܒܐ
Joseph fed bread/food to the dog.
10 ܫܶܡܫܐ [ܐܰܢܗܰܪ] ܠܐܰܪܥܐ ܟܽܠܳܗ̇
The sun illuminated all of the land.

ʾanhar C “to illuminate”

ܘܗܐ ܡܰܠܰܐܟ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܐܶܬܐ ܠܘܳܬܗܘܢ. ܘܬܶܫܒܘܿܚܬ̊ܶܗ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ ܐܰܢܗܪܰܬ̥ ܥܠܰܝܗܘܢ. ܘܰܕܚܶܠܘ̱ ܕܶܚܠܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
And, behold, an angel of God came to their place, and the glory of the Lord illuminated [surroundings] (i.e. shone brightly) over them. So they feared [with] a great fear. (Lk2:9⁎)

2016-12-15 (N §173A) nhar “to be bright” behaves like a strong verb (C ʾanhar), not a 1st-n verb (*ʾahhar). This is quite different from nḥeṯ, neḥḥóṯ “to descend”, C ʾaḥḥeṯ (Ro10:6).

2016-11-28

ܣܝܡ ܒܢܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

11 ܚܳܢܘܬ̥ܐ
store
ܙܶܒܢܶܬ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܒܚܳܢܘܬ̥ܐ.
I bought milk at the store.
ܡܥܰܕܰܪ
to help
ܐܰܕܰܝ ܡܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܚܳܠܶܗ.
Addai helps his uncle.
ܓܫܰܦ
to touch
ܒܝܫܬܐ ܓܫܰܦ ܒܶܗ.
Evilness touched him.
ܐܶܬܶܐܫܶܕ
to be poured/spilled out
ܕܡܐ ܐܶܬܶܐܫܶܕ.
Blood was shed.
ܡܳܐܢܐ
vessel
ܡܐܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܶܗ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
In the vessel there is water.
ܐܰܓܪܐ
reward
ܫܶܩܠܶܬ̥ ܐܰܓܪܐ ܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܫܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܝܢ.
I received 25 zūzīn as a reward.

2016-11-29

malkū(ṯā): malkwā-ṯā -n

ܚܳܢܘܬܐ — abs. ܚܳܢܘ — pl. ܚܳܢ̈ܘܳܬܐ — pl. abs. ܚܳܢ̈ܘܳܢ (CAL)

Thus ܬܠܳܬ ܚܳܢܘܳܢ “Three Shops” (Ac28:15) — ܟܠ ܡܰܠܟܘ “every kingdom” (Mt12:25) — ܟܠܗܶܝܢ ܡܰܠܟ̈ܘܳܬܳܐ ܕܥܳܠܡܐ “all the kingdoms of the world” (Mt4:8)

Peshitā (Peshitta) and Other Versions

2016-12-01/02

Luke 2:9 OS-S

ܐܬܚܙܝ ܠܗܘܢ ܡܠܐܟܐ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܟܕ ܩܐܡ
An angel {mal(ʾ)aḵā} of the Lord was seen (appeared) for them, when he was standing.
ܘܬܫܒܘܚܬܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܢܗܪܐ ܗܘܬ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ
and the glory of the Lord was shining upon them
ܘܗܢܘܢ ܕܚܠܘ ܕܚܠܬܐ ܪܒܬܐ ܀
and they feared [with] a great fear.

2016-12-02

Luke 2:9 Vulgāta

Et ecce Angelus Dominī stetit {stō stetī} iūxtā illōs, et clāritas Deī circumfulsit {fulgeō fulsī} illōs, et timuērunt {timeō timuī} timōre {timor ōris} magnō.

Vulgāta Clēmentīna | Latin Vulgate (Jerome) | Nova Vulgata

2016-12-16

Mt6:33 P/C

ܒܥܰܘ ܕܝܢ ܠܘܩܕܰܡ ܡܰܠܟܘܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ ܘܙܰܕܝܩܘܬܶܗ܉ ܘܟܠܗܝܢ ܗܳܠܝܢ ܡܶܬܬܰܘ̈ܣܦܳܢ ܠܟܘܢ.
Seek (pl.), however, firstly the kingdom of God and his justice; and all of these things are [going to be] added to you guys.
ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܒܥܘ ܠܘܩܕܡ ܡܠܟܘܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ ܘܙܕܝܩܘܬܗ. ܘܗܠܝܢ ܟܠܗܝܢ ܢܶܬܬܰܘ̈ܣܦܳܢ ܠܟܘܢ.
You guys, however, seek firstly the kingdom of God and his justice; and all of these things will be added to you guys.

ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν [τοῦ θεοῦ] καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.

quaerite autem primum rēgnum {n.} et iustitiam eius et omnia haec adicientur {adicio, fut.} vobis /// Quaerite autem primum regnum Dei et iustitiam eius, et haec omnia adicientur vobis.

2017-01-29 ܡܶܬܬܰܘܣܰܦ ܠܟܘܢ ܠܰܐܝܠܶܝܢ ܕܫܳܡܥܝܢ = προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν τοῖς ἀκούουσιν where τεθήσεται is fut. pass. (3 sg.) of τίθημι. Mk4:24

2017-02-13

Hebrews 11:29

ܒܗܰܝܡܳܢܘܬܐ ܥܒܰܪܘ ܝܰܡܳܐ ܕܣܘܿܦ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܝܰܒܝܫܬܐ. ܘܒܹܗ ܐܶܬܒܠܰܥܘ ܡܶܨܪ̈ܳܝܐ܉ ܟܕ ܐܰܡܪܰܚܘ ܥܠܰܘܗܝ ܀
In faith, they crossed the Red Sea as if [walking] on dry land. And by it (the sea; OR in it) Egyptians were swallowed, when they were bold (=they tried to walk) on it.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 9] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 9 [ܕܬ̥ܶܫܥܐ]: ܗܐ ܕܢܰܚ ܣܰܗܪܐ

2016-11-03

ܗܐ ܕܢܰܚ ܣܰܗܪܐ ܘܰܦܪܰܣ ܢܘܗܪܶܗ
Look, the moon rose and spread its light
ܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܘܒ̈ܳܬܐ ܘܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
upon the trees and the houses and water
ܘܗܐ ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܕܳܡ ܒܰܗܪܶܗ
And look, the darkness, from before the twilight (soft light) of the moon,
ܥܪܰܩ ܘܐܶܬܚܰܦܝ ܒܢܶܩܥ̈ܐ ܟܣܰܝ̈ܳܐ
fled and hid itself {ḥpy Ethpa.} into secret {pass. pt. (sg.=kasyā)} dens/holes.

2016-11-04

ܡܐ ܙܗܶܐ ܠܶܠܝܐ ܕܢܰܗܝܪ ܣܰܗܪܶܗ
How splendid the night is, whose [=where the] moon is bright.
I think that the suffix -èh in sahrèh makes the topic-subject structure: 何て素晴らしい夜。その夜は、(夜の)月が明るい。 Both zhē and nahhīr are in the absolute state.
2016-11-06 lit. “[such] a night that its moon is bright”
ܘܰܟܡܐ ܡܰܙܗܰܪ ܒܓܰܙܢܶܗ ܫܡܰܝܐ
And how it lightens {√zhr “to clear”}, with its color, the sky!
ܪܚܝ̣ܡ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܚܶܙܘܶܗ ܘܰܦܐܶܐ ܢܘܗܪܶܗ
Its appearance is loved (lovely) and its light is made suitably (fair),
pass. pt. of √pʾy “to be becoming” is ܦܐܶܐ (as if the 2nd rad. is strong), though also written ܦܶܐܐ. A similar example is ܠܐܶܐ and ܠܐܸܐ (lʾḗ) “being tired” in Jn4:6.
ܘܛܳܒ ܒܳܣܶܡ ܠܝ ܒܢܘܗܪܶܗ ܫܶܠܝܐ
and it (the moon) is very pleasing for me with its calm light.
and [what is] very pleasing for me, in the light of it (the moon), is the calmness. {2016-11-08 šelyā is a noun}
ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܺܐܡܪܐ ܕܰܠܥܶܠ.
INTERPRET THE SPEECH OF THE ABOVE.
Perhaps the author literally loves the moon. Or maybe metaphorically, it means that a bright but modest leader would be very welcome.

2016-11-05

Review (Lesson 9)

ܦܪܰܣ = to spread
ܟܰܕ ܕܝܢ ܐܳܙܶܠ܉ ܦܳܪܣܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܡܐܢܰܝ̈ܗܘܢ ܒܐܘܪܚܐ.
While he was going, they were spreading their clothes {mānā} on the road. (Lk 19:36⁎)
ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܐ (ḥeššōḵā) = dark
ܐܶܢ ܕܝܢ ܥܰܝܢܳܟ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܒܝܫܐ܉ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܦܰܓܪܳܟ ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ. ܐܶܢ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܕܒ̥ܳܟ ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ܉ ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܳܟ ܟܡܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ܀
If your eye should be evil, all of it — all of your body would be dark. If then the light that is in you is dark, your darkness — how much it will be. (Mt6:23⁎)
UK-P says ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ instead of ܚܶܫܘܟ̥ܳܐ ܗ̱ܘ; this patten is normal when the first word is short, but here it has 3 syllables. Mingana §30 claims: Les Occidentaux ne mettent jamais de zaḳaph [ā], mais toujours un phataḥ [ă], avant le waw, quoique la forme du verbe, du nom ou du pronom exige un zaḳaph. N §49B The West-Syrians also write an au produced by ā and u coming together,— with the vowel-sign ◌ܰ
ܥܪܰܩ = to flee
ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܕܝܢ܁ ܩܳܡ ܫܰܩܠܶܗ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ ܘܠܶܐܡܶܗ ܒܠܶܠܝܐ܂ ܘܰܥܪܰܩ ܠܡܶܨܪܶܝܢ܁
Joseph stood up and took him — the boy — and his mother at night, and fled to Egypt. (Mt2:14⁎)

2016-11-06

Review 2 (Lesson 9)

ܚܰܦܝ Pa. = to cover
ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܟܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ܉ ܚܘܒ̊ܐ ܚܰܪܝܦ̥ܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܶܐ ܢܶܗ̣ܘܶܐ ܠܟܘܢ. ܚܘܒ̊ܐ ܓ̥ܶܝܪ ܡܚܰܦܶܐ ܣܘܿܓ̥ܐܐ ܕܰܚ̈ܛܳܗܐ.
Before everything (i.e. most importantly), sharp {ḥarrīp̄ā} love {ḥubbā} toward one another {ḥḏāḏē} should be there for you guys; for love covers a multitude {sṓḡā} of sins {ḥṭāhā}. (1Pt4:8⁎)
ܢܰܗܝܪ = bright (m. sg. abs.)
ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ ܕܦ̥ܰܓ̥ܪܐ܉ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇ ܥܰܝܢܐ. ܐܶܢ ܥܰܝܢܳܟ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܦܫܝܛܐ܉ ܐܳܦ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܦܰܓܪܳܟ ܢܰܗܝܪ ܗ̱ܘ.
The lamp of the body — [that’s what] the eye is. So if your eye should be simple (innocent) {f. sg. abs.}, also all of it — [all of] your body is bright. (Mt6:22⁎)
ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ is from Parthian PNG (čirāɣ)

2016-11-09

ܐܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ [ܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ] ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܠܚܰܒܪܶܗ

ܒܰܪ ܚܳܠܝ̱ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ
[To] Joseph, son of my maternal uncle {ḥālā} (i.e. Dear my cousin Joseph)
ܫܠܳܡܐ ܘܚܘܒܐ.....
Peace and love……
ܒܫܘܪܳܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܝܰܪܚܐ ܥܶܠܶܬ̥ ܠܒܶܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ.
In the beginning of this month, I entered the school, in the fourth grade.
ܡܰܠܦܳܢ̈ܐ ܝܳܨܦܝܢ ܕܝܠܰܢ.
The teachers of ours are earnest [Our] teachers care about us (lit. about [the matter] of ours).
ܘܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܒܰܣܝܡܝܢ، ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܝ ܪܳܚܡܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܒܰܝܢܰܝ ܘܠܳܟ ܠܐ ܛܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܠܥܳܠܳܡ.
And [other] students are very pleasant {ś}, but the friendship of (between) me and you — I’m not going to forget it forever.

2016-11-10

ܐܳܘ ܒܰܪ ܚܳܠܝ̱، ܟܰܕ ܓܶܝܪ ܐܳܬ̥ܶܐ ܥܰܠ ܒܳܠܝ̱ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܰܡܗܰܠܟ̥ܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܢ ܐܰܟ̥ܚܰܕ ܒܕܳܪܬ݁ܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܗܪܐ،
O my cousin, indeed, when it comes to my mind {bālā} — [the memory from] when we were walking together in the ground of the school,
ܘܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܰܢ ܕܪܳܥܶܗ ܠܚܰܨܐ ܕܚܰܒܪܶܗ ܟܪܝܟ، ܘܪܝܫܐ ܠܪܝܫܐ ܣܡܝܟ،
and each of us [was such that] his arm {drāʕā} was wrapped around his friend’s loin {ḥaṣṣā}, and [his] head was reclined on [the other’s] head,
ܘܒܺܐܝܕܰܝ̈ܢ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܚܰܕ ܦܬܝ̣ܚܐ،
and in our hands one book was opened,
ܘܡܶܢ ܚܰܕ ܦܘܡ ܢܶܬܢܶܐ ܠܗܶܪܓܐ.
and [as if] from one month {abs. st.} (i.e. in unison), we would repeat {tnā} (i.e. repeatedly read) the lesson —,
ܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܶܡ̈ܥܰܝ ܫܳܚ̈ܠܳܢ.
suddenly, my tears {demʕṯā, demʕē} drip.
ܐܰܪܰܐ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܬܘܼܒ ܗܰܘ ܙܰܒܢܐ؟
Is that time {stretch of time, era} ever coming back again?

2016-11-12

ܩܪܝ ܫܠܳܡܝ̱ ܠܰܐܚ̈ܐ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ. ܡܫܰܡܗܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܕܶܝܢ ܠܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܒܰܪ ܕܳܕܳܟ.
Say hello to brothers — boys in the class, and especially to ʾAp̄rēm, son of your uncle {father’s brother}.
                 Grandpa———Grandma
                         |
        ———————————————————————————
       |      |                    |
Dad———Mom    Guy1———Wife          Guy2———Wife
    |             |                    |
  Thoma          Joseph               Aphrem

Thoma, Joseph, Aphrem are cousins, sharing the same Grandpa/Grandma.
These Grandpa/Grandma are Mom’s parents for Thoma, and Dad’s parents for Joseph and Aphrem.
Joseph’s Dad (Guy1) is a ḥālā for Thoma, *BUT* a dāḏā for Aphrem.
Aphrem’s Dad (Guy2) is another ḥālā for Thoma, *BUT* a dāḏā for Joseph.
Thoma’s Mom is a dāḏtā (pronounced dāttā) for both Joseph and Aphrem.
If Thoma’s Mom has a sister, she is a ḥāltā for Thoma, *BUT* dāḏtā for J and A.

In summary: ḥāl- is Mom’s sibling; dāḏ- is Dad’s sibling.
            the same uncle/aunt can be a ḥāl- for you, while he/she is a dāḏ- for your cousin.
ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܝ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܝܠܳܟ. ܡܰܠܘܢ ܪܶܗܛܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
Write me about these [things] of yours, more [about] the course of [your] lessons.
ܘܩܰܘܐ ܚܠܝܡ ܠܕܝܠܳܟ ܪܳܚܡܐ.
And remain {qwy D} healthy, [remain] a friend to your [own] matter (i.e. take care of yourself).
ܬܽܐܘܡܰܐ
Tōmâ {ES ܬܐܘܿܡܵܐ}

2016-11-14

Review (Lesson 9a)

šūrāy, šūrāyā = “beginning”

Not sūrīyâ (ܣܘܪܺܝܰܐ, ES ܣܘܼܪܝܼܵܐ)

ܡܶܢ ܫܘܪܳܝܐ
from the beginning
ܡܶܢ ܫܘܪܳܝܶܗ ܕܥܳܠܡܐ
from the beginning of the world
ܫܘܼܪܳܝܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܡܢ ܐܘܿܪܺܫܠܶܡ (ܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ)
The beginning will be from Jerusalem {ʾōrešlem, WS ʾūrīš-}
ܒܫܘܪܳܝܐ
in the beginning
ܒܫܘܪܝ ܗܢܐ ܝܰܪܚܐ
in the beginning of this month

2016-11-15

Review 2 (Lesson 9a)

(y)īṣep̄ = “to worry, to take care”
ܠܐ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܬܹܐܨܦܘܼܢ܂ ܕܰܡܚܳܪ܉ ܗܘ ܓܶܝܪ ܡܚܳܪ ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܝܠܶܗ. ܣܳܦ̥ܶܩ ܠܶܗ ܠܝܰܘܡܐ ܒܝܫܬܶܗ ܀܀
So you should not worry about [a thing] of tomorrow. Because tomorrow, it will be worrying about (OR taking care of) itself. For a day, its [own] badness (i.e. problem) is enough for it. (Mt6:34⁎)
ܘܠܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܕܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܢܹܐܨܰܦ܉ ܐܶܠܐ ܟܠܢܳܫ ܐܳܦ ܕܚܰܒܪܶܗ.
And no one should [only] take care of himself (OR his own life); instead, everyone [should take care of] his friend too. (Philippians 2:4⁎)
ܝܳܨܦܰܬ̊ܝ = ܝܳܨܦܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ
you (f.) are anxious (Lk10:41)

2016-11-17

Review 3 (Lesson 9a)

baynay = “between”
ܙܶܠܘ. ܗܐ ܐܢܐ ܡܫܰܕܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܂ ܐܰܝܟ ܐܶܡ̈ܪܐ ܒܝܢܝ ܕܐܒ̈ܐ.
Go. Look, I am sending you guys, like lambs among wolves. (Lk10:3⁎)
halleḵ = “to walk”
ܠܐ ܗܰܠܶܟ̥ܢ ܒܝܫ ܒܝܫ ܒܰܝܢܳܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ
We did not walk [being] bad-bad among you guys. (2Thessalonians 3:7)
drāʕā = “arm”
ܩܰܒܠܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܕܪܳܥܰܘܗ̱ܝ
He [Simeon] received him upon (in) his arms. (Lk2:28)

2016-11-18

Review 4 (Lesson 9a)

demʕē = “tears”
ܟܶܬܒܶܬ ܠܟܘܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܒܕܶܡ̈ܥܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܬܐ
I wrote these to you guys with a lot of tears. (2Co2:4)
ܘܶܐܬܦܢܝ ܠܘܳܬ ܗܳܝ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬܐ܂ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܫܶܡܥܘܿܢ. ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ: ܠܒܰܝܬܟ ܥܶܠܶܬ. ܡܰܝ̈ܐ ܠܪ̈ܓܠܰܝ ܠܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒܬ. ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܝܢ ܒܕܶܡ̈ܥܶܝܗ̇ ܪ̈ܓܠܰܝ ܨܰܒܥܰܬ.
And he turned himself {ES ܐܸܬ݂݇ܦܢܝܼ} toward this woman, and said to Simon. “You see this woman. I entered your house. You did not give water to (for) my feet. This [girl], however, washed {ES ܨܲܒ̇ܥܲܬ݀ — mystery dot over B} my feet with her tears.” (Lk7:44)
ܡܶܬܕܟܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܶܡܥܰܝܟ
I remember {mettḵar N §26B} your tears (2Ti1:4)
ܘܳܐܬܝ̈ܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܝ̈ ܕܶܡܥܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ ܕܝܶܫܘܥ.
And the tears of Jesus were coming. (Jn11:35⁎)

Book Pahlavi Fonts: Hām-dibīrīh

2016-11-01

Khusro, Ardashir, Shapur, Bahram @ Pahlavi Fonts :: Ancient Iranian Font Project; Ardashir also @ Iran Chamber Society: Iranian Scripts: Pahlavi Script

[MacK] David Neil MacKenzie (1971, 1986): A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary @ Pahlavi Resources

2016-11-17 [MMPP] Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond (2004): Dictionary Of Manichean Middle Persian & Parthian (cf. 2015-12-11); [SogDic] B. Gharib (1995): Sogdian Dictionary (Sogdian–Persian–English)

Ham-dibirih (based on MS Persian KL) @ Persic (“Pahlavi”) Font - fravahr.org
http://www.fravahr.org/IMG/zip/Ham_dibirih.zip
http://icild.ir/uploads/Ham-dibirih.ttf

čirāɣ @ Shapur
PNG
The letter “ṣ” is used for č, and “l” for r. The meaning is “lamp”. The word seems Parthian [xpr]; loaned in Syriac as ܫܪܳܓ̥ emph. ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ.
čirāɣ @ Ham-dibirih
PNG
handām @ Shapur
PNG
“member, limb”: ܗܰܕܳܡ (handām > haddām): fa اندام.
handām @ Ham-dibirih
PNG
mōz @ Ham-dibirih
PNG
Written as “mwṣ” [mwc | N ~], where the letter “ṣ” is used for z; some say the earlier form was indeed mōč. The meaning is “banana”. ܡܘܼܙ: fa موز.

The Ham-dibirih font works better for me. Though mapping is a little confusing, it uses Arabic/Persian Unicode code points and thus the results are automatically right-to-left, which is a big plus. Also, glyphs seem beautiful.

The following is some of the mapping of the Khusro font. Generally, an uppercase letter (e.g. B) is for the connecting form of the same character typed as a lowercase letter (e.g. b).

a: ʾh
b: b  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER BETH
B: b (right-connecting)
&: b (shorter)? BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER ALTERNATE BETH-SIGN 1?
C: c (open)  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER SADHE?
i: gdy (with head)  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER ALTERNATE GIMEL-DALETH-YODTH
k: k  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER KAPH
K: ɣ  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER OLD KAPH
n: wnr  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER WAW-NUN-AYIN-RESH
o: “ty”  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER X2
O: l (hooked)?
p: p  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER FINAL SADHE-PARTIAL PE
s: š  
t: t (simple)  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER TAW
Y: gdy (connecting)?  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER YODTH?
u: “yt”  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER X1
z: z  BOOK PAHLAVI LETTER ZAYIN
Z: z (high)?

2016-11-02

kamar
PNG
Written kml, “waist, belt, girdle”, same as fa كمر “waist”: syc ܩܰܡܪܐ “strap, belt, girdle”: cf. xcl/hy կամար “arc, arch, vault”; καμάρᾱ “anything with an arched cover, e.g. covered carriage/boat, vaulted chamber/ceiling, vault”
LS2 ܩܱܡܪܴܐ (AR, pers. كَمَر Lorsb.Lag GA 80206, cf. Nöld. Pers. St. II 40, Hübschm. Pers. St. 88)

†2017-01-13 Lorsbach, G. W. (?)

2016-11-03

ganǰ
PNG
[gnc | (M gnz), N ~] treasure, treasury. (MacK 35/199)
With the Ham-dibirih font, type ث to get a (headless) g/d/y glyph; the headed version can be input as ئ ([Z] on the Arabic KL). Type ا to get a w/n/r glyph. Type چ (] on Persian KLs) to get a c glyph.
cf. Manichaean Middle Persian [xmn] 𐫃𐫗𐫉 gnz (form not directly comparable)
ܓܰܙܐ (gazzā) “treasure”

2016-11-09 Unfortunately, when the font is installed, the font may not work fine: e.g. ث and ئ and ا are not working, unless presentation forms are used. چ works right, though. The font works fine for me if font is not installed but loaded via AddFontResourceEx. The problem may be fixed if Font Family name (Unicode) “Zar” is changed to “Ham-dibirih” [Fixed-Ham-dibirih.ttf].

2016-11-10 It might be that the glyph problems occur with ExtTextOut plus ETO_IGNORELANGUAGE. In “c++ - Why Non-Unicode apps system locale makes Unicode fonts with symbol charset displayed incorrectly? - Stack Overflow”, substitution by Windows OS has unwanted effects. In the case of Ham-dibirih.ttf (a Unicode font with non-Unicode glyphs), the situation could be reversed: that is, the mapping is correct only if Windows does substitution. I guess this meas that, in this case, when U+062B ARABIC LETTER THEH is typed, the glyph for U+062B itself is not good; what is good is a glyph for U+FE99 ARABIC LETTER THEH ISOLATED FORM, U+FE9A ARABIC LETTER THEH FINAL FORM, etc. The font works under the assumption that the code point U+062B is mapped to one of the four glyphs prepared for U+FE9x, one of which is to be automatically selected depending on the context. This is a cool trick, while potentially risky. “On NT, tell the font renderer not to "help" us with Hebrew and Arabic text.” is also dealing with a similar problem, except they are trying to disable the glyph substitution. Note, this is not about RTL, but about Arabic shaping.

2016-11-04

zamān
PNG
PNG
PNG or PNG
[ODNA < A ʿdnʾ; ẕmʾnẘ, zmnẘ | M zmʾn, N ~] time, hour. (MacK 98/190/195/180)
PNG is ideographic, cf. ܥܶܕܳܢܐ (ʕeddānā) “set time”; its 訓読み is still zamān.
In PNG, a “g/d/y” glyph is used instead of “z”, known as corrupt “ẕ”. Here, the final (repeated) “w/n/r” is an otiose stroke, which I transliterated as .
PNG and PNG are glyph-level variations of the third spelling. The second ẘ can be seen as a pseudo-ʾĀlap̄.
Manichaean Middle Persian [xmn-Mani] 𐫉𐫖𐫀𐫗 [xmn-Syrc] ܙܡܐܢ
2016-11-05 xpr žamān “jmʾn ?”, from which xcl/hy ժամանակ

2016-11-05

dād
MacK23/204: [dʾtẘ | M dʾd, N ~] law, justice; those scriptures dealing with legal matters.
PNG
PNG Glyph variation: TATWEEL is used instead of “a”.
peo dāta “law”: fa داد “justice”
xcl դատ “trial, justice”: syc ܕܳܬ̥ܐ

2016-11-08

tāg
MacK81/148: [tʾkẘ | N tā] item, unit; alone, single.
PNG
fa تا
Probably this and xpr tāg “crown” are different words.

2016-11-09

gōn, gōnag

gōn
MacK37/200: [gwnẘ | N gūn] colour, complexion.
PNG
fa گون
ܓܰܘܢܐ abs/cst ES ܓܘܿܢ WS ܓܘܰܢ
gōnag
MacK37/200: [gwnkẘ | M gwng, N gūna] = gōn; sort, kind, form.
PNG
fa گونه (prs gūna, tg гуна, pes gūne)

2016-11-16

gul “flower”

gul
MacK38/200: [gwl | N ~] flower, rose.
PNG (font hack = ثاج)
fa گل (pes gol), tg гул
ku — kmr [Kurmanji] gul, ckb گوڵ (guł)
ps — ګل (gul)

2016-11-17

paygām (payġām) “message”

paygām
MacK67/160: [pgtʾm ! | M pygʾm, N pay(ɣ)ām] message.
MMPP289b: pygʾm MP [Middle Persian] /paygām/ n. ‘message’
SogDic7661: ptɣʾm B[uddhist], C[hristian], S[ogdian]: patɣām E[tymology] Parth. padgām message
PNG (font hack = ل‌صت‌غم : t and m are intuitive)
fa پیغام (pay-ġām: ay is /ej/ in pes, /aj/ or /æj/ in prs/tg [see below]), پیام (pa-yām)
syc ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡܐ & hbo פִּתְגָם from peo *patigāma ? *paitigāma ?
xcl/hy պատգամ

2016-11-24

Persian /aj ~ ej/ and /aw ~ ow/

By combining fatḥa with ی and with و, the diphthongs ai or ay, and au or aw, are formed, and pronounced like ai in aisle (rare in Persian [pes]) or ey in they, and ou in stout; Ex. میل mail4 or mayl “inclination”, صوم4 ṣaum or ṣawm “fasting.”

In modern Persian the ay is most often pronounced like ey in they; Ex. خیلی [“very”] is pronounced both k͟hailī or k͟heylī (also k͟hailé, etc., etc.) (vide under letter ی); also the au sound, characteristic of the Arabic, Afghan [prs], or Indian accent, tends towards the sound of o in hose.

4 In modern Persian pronounced more like meyl and ṣom.

Phillott, Douglas Craven (1919): Higher Persian grammar for the use of the Calcutta University, showing differences between Afgan and modern Persian; with notes on rhetoric, p. 22

Windfuhr, Gernot L.: Persian Phonology: http://www.linguisticsnetwork.com/wp-content/uploads/Windfuhr-Chapter33-Persian-Phonology1.pdf

See also: More about Persian Vowels (2016-11-25)

2016-11-19

“ball”, “sour milk”

gōy
MacK37/201: [gwd | N ~] ball.
PNG (font hack = ثائ)
fa گوی (guy)
syc ܓܘܿܝܐ
māst
MacK55/170: [mʾstẘ | N ~] curds, sour milk.
PNG (font hack = سغضت‌ا)
fa ماست (māst)
syc ܡܰܣܬܐ

2016-11-23

“gift”

dāšn
MacK25/204: [dʾšnẘ | M dʾš(y)n] gift.
PNG (font hack = صدغفدغاا)
PNG (font hack = *&اا)
Parthian [xpr]/(Manichaean) Middle Persian [xmn]: dāšin [MMPP136]
syc ܕܳܫܢܐ (Qara 4-10)

2016-12-01

“cheese”

panīr
cheese

PNG (font hack = ل‌اثج) MacK64/159: [pnyl | N ~]

Trigger: Armenian պանիր @2016-11-29 [the word for պ @ A Grammar Armenian and English (1873)]

2016-12-04

“lion”

šagr [*ʃaɣr]
lion; astr. Leo

PNG (font hack = دغثج) PNG (font hack = &‍ثج) MacK 78/151: [šgl | M šgr, N šēr]

Trigger: Higher Persian Grammar, p. 22 @ 2016-11-25

2016-12-09

“milk”

The same spelling as “lion” PNG may be read šīr, meaning “milk”. They are homographs, but unlike in Iranian Persian not homonyms. The ideographic spelling of the same word šīr is:

PNG (font hack = غإصقث) MacK 80/221a: [HLḆA < A ḥlbʾ; šyl | M šyyr, N ~]

For Ḇ, the actual letter is like G (with head) or one-half of S. That is, a mini version of B, so to speak. Interestingly, they marked the L (of ḥalḇā) dark!

xml šīr written šyr OR šyyr (MMPP 321a)

2016-12-06/2016-12-07

“secret”

rāz
secret, mystery

PNG (font hack = نـل) MacK 71/174: [lʾc | M rʾz, N ~]

Trigger: Daniel 2:29 @ 2016-12-03

2016-12-10

“elephant”

pīl (pīł)
elephant

PNG (font hack = ل‌ئإ) MacK 68/161a: [pył | M pyl, N ~]

Trigger: Qara Book 1 Lesson 4 ܦܝܠܐ

HQ Scans of Jastrow

2016-10-21

A dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic literature : with an index of scriptural quotations / compiled by Marcus Jastrow @ Digitale Sammlungen UB, uni-frankfurt.de (Goethe University Frankfurt). Not super-high quality, but fairy good. The PDFs are very big though.

Note that pages 1080–1099 are missing in the following scans. Dictionary of Targums Talmuds and MidrashLit.Index.AramHeb Jastrow.1903.2vols. : Marcus Jastrow, originally in many parts, then 2 volumes. 1903. : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 8] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 8 [ܕܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܳܐ]: ܠܺܠܝܐ ܘܣܰܗܪܐ

2016-10-20

ܗܐ ܥܪܰܒ ܠܶܗ ܫܶܡܫܐ، ܘܐܰܡܠܶܟ ܚܶܫܟ̥ܐ [ܚܶܫܟ̊ܐ] ܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܘܰܕܢܰܚܘ̱ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ،
Look, the sun had set already, and darkness reigned on the earth and stars rose appeared in the sky,

*1 2017-04-15 N §224 The preposition ܠ with reflexive personal pronoun often stands alongside of a verb, without essentially modifying its meaning (Dativus ethicus); […] very frequently with verbs of motion.

ܘܫܰܕܰܪܘ̱ ܙܰܠܓ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ ܠܟܽܠ ܦܶܢ̈ܝܳܢ.
and they sent their sparkling rays to every direction.

2016-10-22

ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚܘ̱ ܕܢܶܓܠܘܿܢ ܠܚܶܫܟܐ ܕܠܠܝܐ، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܚܶܫܟܐ ܕܠܠܝܐ ܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܓܳܠܶܐ ܠܶܗ، ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܢ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܥܰܙܝܙܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ ܐܰܘ ܕܣܰܗܪܐ.
But they were not able to uncover the darkness of the night, becuase the darkness of the night [is a thing] which [anything] can’t uncover, except a strong light like the light of the sun or of the moon.

2016-10-23

ܕܢܰܚ ܣܰܗܪܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܕܢܚܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ ܢܰܗܝܪܐ.
The moon rose from the east, like a bright lamp.
ܘܰܣܠܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܟܶܢܦ̈ܐ ܕܐܳܐܰܪ، ܘܰܦܪܰܣ ܢܘܗܪܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܟܽܠ ܕܘܟ݁ ܘܰܓܠܐ ܠܚܶܫܟܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
And it went up onto the “ends” of the air [perhaps it means the highest point, i.e. high in the sky], and it spread its light on every place, and uncovered (removed) the darkness from the surface of the land.
ܘܙܰܗܝ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܓܰܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܩ̈ܠܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
And it illuminated the form[s] of gardens and fields.

2016-10-24

ܡܐ ܪܚܝ̣ܡ ܢܘܗܪܶܗ ܕܣܰܗܪܐ، ܘܡܐ ܪܰܒ ܝܘܬ̥ܪܳܢܶܗ.
How beloved the light of the moon [is], and how great its benefit [is]!
ܡܗܰܕܶܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܠܰܐܟܳܪܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܶܗ، ܠܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܥܳܢ̈ܶܗ، ܘܰܠܚܳܙܘܩܐ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܶܗ، ܘܰܠܦܳܪܰܚܬ̥ܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܳܗ̇ ܘܰܠܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܶܐ [ܘܰܠܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܳܐ] ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒܳܗ̇.
For it leads (guides) a farmer in his field, and a shepherd [in] his pasture (lit. place of the flock), and a traveler on his road, and a bird on her branch, and an animal within her forest.

2016-10-25

ܡܰܠܘܢ [ܡܳܠܘܿܢ] ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܚܶܙܘܶܗ ܘܰܟܡܐ ܙܗܶܐ ܓܰܘܢܶܗ، ܟܰܕ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܢܰܗܪܳܐ ܡܰܨܡܰܚ، ܐܰܝܟ ܡܰܚܙܝܬ̥ܐ ܫܦܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܘܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܡܶܬܗܰܦܰܟ܀
Even more, how beautiful its appearance [is], and how splendid its color [is], when it shines above the surface of a river, like a clear mirror in which the image of the sky and stars is reflected (lit. turns itself). of the image of the sky and stars, in which it reflects itself. (OR: as if reflecting itself in the mirror — a serene mirror image of the sky and stars.)

2016-10-29

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܳܢܚܝ̣ܢ ܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܘܣܰܗܪܐ؟
When do the moon and stars appear?
ܕܳܢܚـܝܢ ܒܠܠܝܐ.
They appear at night.
2 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܕܳܐ ܦܢܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܣܰܗܪܐ؟
From which direction does the moon rise?
ܣܰܗܪܐ ܕܳܢܰܚ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܕܢܚܐ.
The moon rises from the east.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܬ̥ܰܪ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܕܣܰܗܪܐ؟
What does the light of the moon provide?
ܡܗܰܕܶܐ ܠܰܐܟܳܪܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܶܗ.
It guides a farmer in his farmland.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܶܬܚܰܘܶܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܢܰܗܪܐ؟
How does it look above the surface of a river?
ܣܓܝ ܫܰܦܝܪ.
Very beautiful.
5 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܢܰܗܝܪ ܛܳܒ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܐܰܘ ܣܰܗܪܐ؟
Which is brighter {nahhīr}, the sun or the moon?
ܫܶܡܫܐ.
The sun.

2016-10-30

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܐܰܡܠܶܟ
ܡܰܠܟܐ ܐܰܡܠܶܟ ܥܠܰܝܗܘܢ.
The king reigned over them.
ܓܠܐ
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܓܠܐ ܡܶܠܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
God revealed this word/matter.
ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ
ܣܳܡ ܫܪܳܓ̥ܐ ܥܰܠ ܛܰܒܠܳܝܬ̊ܐ (ܛܰܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ).
He put the lamp on the table.
ܚܳܙܘܩܐ
ܚܳܙܘܿܩܐ ܚܳܙܶܩ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ.
A traveler travels on the road.
ܡܶܬܗܰܦܰܟ
ܡܶܬܗܰܦܰܟ ܥܰܠ ܡܰܚܙܝܬ̥ܐ.
He turns himself toward the mirror.
ܡܰܚܙܝܬ̥ܐ
ܚܙܐ ܐܰܦܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܒܡܰܚܙܝܬ̥ܐ.
He saw his face in the mirror.
Parthian čirāɣ

This image was created with the Shapur font:

PNG

The four letters written, from right to left, are essentially Ṣ→L→A→K (𐭰𐭫𐭠𐭪,‎ 𐮏𐮊𐮀𐮉): or in arc 𐡑𐡋𐡀𐡊, i.e. צלאך. However, this Ṣ is for č, L is for r, and K is a modified version, which is for ɣ. As such the word is read čirāɣ. This is the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) form of چراغ (čerāġ). It seems that Middle Persian did not have /e/, and the current /e/ was originally /i/, and in Dari and in Tajiki, it is still /i/. Also, apparently, /ɢ/ is still /ʁ/ in Dari and Taijiki.

MacKenzie pp. 23/152 has:

čirāɣ [clʾɣ | P crʾg, N ~] lamp

This means that the word is čirāɣ, and it is written “clʾɣ” in Pahlavi, while “crʾg” (𐭑𐭓𐭀𐭂) in Parthian [xpr], and the word is identical in New Persian (such as Dari).

Since OS (~200 CE?) has the word ܫܪܳܓܐ, the word was in Syriac before the Sasanian Empire (224 CE), meaning its source may have been Parthian, not Pahlavi. MacKenzie says that /ɣ/ is a non-Persian phoneme, while /ɡ/ may be realized as [ɣ] in V+g+C.

2017-06-14 I mean, the word ܫܪܳܓܐ “lamp” is probably from Parthian [xpr] because it is also in OS (e.g. Mt5:15), and OS may be from around 200 CE, which is before the Sasanian Empire. LS3 actually states that the word is from MPar *širāɣ (southern [southwestern]), not MP *čirāɣ (northern [northwestern]). Note that the Kingdom of Osroene (Urhay) had belonged to the Parthian Empire before it was absorbed into the Roman Empire in 114.

2016-10-31

ܣܝܡ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܠܳܚܡܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܡܰܐܣܶܐ
pt. of ܐܰܣܝ Pa. √ʾsʾ “to heal”: massē < *mʾassē
ܩܳܛܶܦ
gathers
ܢܳܣܰܪ
saws
ܡܙܰܒܶܢ
sells
ܫܳܬܶܐ
drinks
ܚܳܛܶܦ
catches
7 ܢܰܓܳܪܐ [ܢܳܣܰܪ] ܩܰܝܣܐ
A carpenter saws wood.
8 ܨܰܗܝܐ [ܫܳܬ̥ܶܐ] ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
A thirsty man drinks water.
9 ܐܰܣܝܐ [ܡܰܐܣܶܐ] ܟܪܝܗܐ
A doctor treats a sick person.
10 ܓܰܢܳܢܐ [ܩܳܛܶܦ] ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ
A gardener gathers fruits.
11 ܕܺܐܒܐ [ܚܳܛܶܦ] ܥܶܙܐ
A wolf catches a (she-)goat.
12 ܬܰܓܳܪܐ [ܡܙܰܒܶܢ] ܚ̈ܶܛܐ
A merchant sells wheat.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 7] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 7 [ܕܫܰܒܥܐ]: ܟܽܠܰܢ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܢ

2016-10-12

CAL: ʾaḥā, ʾaḥḥīn

ܡܰܐܢܝ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܡܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܳܦ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܒܐ ܐܳܦ ܡܶܢ ܐܶܡܐ.
Little Manī is an orphan (OR Manī is a young orphan), without father and without mother.
yaṯmā = “bereaved, orphan”
ܘܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ ܡܶܣܟܹܢܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܶܗ.
His poor grandfather was providing support for his upbringing.
qūm ʕal = “to provide support, be patron on”; tarbīṯā = “education, upbringing”
ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܩܰܒܠܶܗ ܡܰܓܳܢ ܐܰܝܟ ܫܰܪܟܐ ܕܝܳܠܘܿܦ̈ܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܡ̈ܐ.
The school accepted him for free, like (=as was the case with) the other orphan students.
maggān = “gratis, for free”; šarkā = “remainder, rest”

2016-10-13

ܘܰܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܚܙܐ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܕܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ، ܘܗܳܢܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܡܐ ܠܰܝܬ ܥܰܡܶܗ.
And in the time of lesson, the teacher saw that all of the students had textbooks with them but this orphan didn’t have [one] with him.
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ: ܐܰܝܟܰܘ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܳܟ ܐܳܘ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
The teacher asked him: “Where is your textbook, young man?”
ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܩܳܡ ܡܰܐܢܝ ܘܐܰܪܟܶܢ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܰܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܟܝܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ:
Mani stood up immediately {meḥḏā} and bowed his head, and answered in a downcast voice:
rkn Aph. = “to lower, bend down”: rḵīnā (pass. pt.) = “lowly, downcast”
ܠܰܝܬ ܠܝ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܡܶܣܟܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱.
“I have no textbooks, sir, because my grandfather is poor.”

2016-10-14

ܘܟܰܕ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ، ܚܳܪܘ̱ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ، ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܐܰܦܶܩ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ، ܘܰܐ̱ܚܪܹܢܐ ܟܶܪܟܐ، ܘܰܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ، ܗܰܘ ܕܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܡ [ܥܰܠ؟] ܓܰܒܶܗ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܨܶܡܕܶܗ.
When [his] classmates heard his word, they looked at each other, and all at once one of them took out {ʾappeq, npq Aph.} and gave him [his] textbook, and another a notebook, and the third one a pencil, and the one sitting next to him [gave him his] bag.
ܘܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܨܒܐ ܕܰܢܩܰܒܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ، ܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱ ܠܶܗ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ:
While he did not want to accept them, they said to him:
ܣܰܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܐܰܚܘܼܢ ܣܰܒ ܐܶܢܘܢ، ܠܐ ܗܐ ܟܽܠܰܢ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܢ.
Take {nsb} them, our brother, take them. Look, aren’t all of us brothers?
ܘܐܰܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܚܐ ܡܶܬܥܰܕܰܪ.
And a brother is constantly helped {ʕdr Ethpa.} by a brother.
ܘܟܰܕ ܫܩܰܠ ܣܳܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܒܨܶܡܕܐ. ܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܢܘܰܫܘ̱ ܟܰܦܐ [ܟܰܦ̈ܐ]، ܘܰܩܥܰܘ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܕ ܦܘܡ:
And when he took and put them in the bag, all of the students clapped {nqš} the hands, and proclaimed loudly {qʕy} in unison {#1}:
{#1} OR “with one accord”: lit. from one mouth. Also ܒܚܰܕ ܩܳܠܐ “with one voice” (Ac19:34)
ܢܚܶܐ ܚܘܒܐ، ܬܚܶܐ ܐܰܚܘܬ̥ܐ ܀
“Long live the love {ḥubbā}! Long live the brotherhood {ʾahūṯā}!”
neḥḥē, teḥḥē: WS nīḥē, tīḥē

2016-10-15

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܰܢ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܡܰܐܢܝ؟
ܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܐܰܝܢܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܳܟ؟
3 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܝܰܬ̥ܡܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܦܰܢܝ: ܠܰܝܬ ܠܝ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ، ܡܶܛܠ ܕܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܡܶܣܟܹܢܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕܘ̱ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ؟
ܗܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܗ̱ܒܘ̱ ܠܶܗ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ، ܟܶܪܟܐ، ܘܩܰܢܝܐ.
5 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܨܶܡܕܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܕܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܒܶܗ.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܩܥܰܘ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܟܰܕ ܣܳܡ ܠܰܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܒܨܶܡܕܐ؟
ܗܶܢܘܢ ܩܥܰܘ: ܢܚܶܐ ܚܘܼܒ̊ܐ، ܬܚܶܐ ܐܰܚܘܬ̥ܐ!
sāḇā

*s2: שָׂב “gray, old; an old man”: “OfA and occasionally in Jewish texts: śb” (CAL): “old man” in Com ⟦senex senis⟧, “grandfather” in src, jpa/tmr ⟦avus⟧

tarbīṯā

ܪܒܐ = “to grow in size”: Pa. ܪܰܒ̊ܝ = “to raise (children, etc.)”: ܬܰܪܒܝܬܐ (N §127)

2016-10-18

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

7 ܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܐ
ܐܰܒܐ ܘܶܐܡܐ ܨܳܒܶܝܢ ܕܒܶܪܟܘܢ ܢܹܐܙܰܠ ܠܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܡܶܛܠ ܕܨܳܒܶܝܢ ܕܢܶܬ̊ܠܘܼܢ ܠܶܗ ܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܐ.
ܡܰܓܳܢ
ܠܡܶܣܟܹܢ̈ܐ ܝܳܗܒܝܢ̱ ܚ̱ܢܰܢ ܡܰܓܳܢ.
ܪܟܝܢܐ
ܦܰܢܝ ܒܩܰܠܐ ܪܟܝܢܐ، ܡܶܛܠ ܕܟܶܪܝܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ.
ܢܩܰܫ ܟܰܦܐ
ܚܳܬ̥ܐ ܙܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܘܰܐܚܐ ܢܩܰܫ ܟܰܦ̈ܐ.
ܢܺܚܶܐ
ܢܹܚܶܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ!

keryaṯ lèh = “it was sad for him” (in fem. N §254A); zmar = “to sing”

2016-10-19

ܐܰܝܟܐ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ......؟

8 ܠܰܚܡܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܒܶܣܪܐ ܥܶܢ̈ܒܐ

ܩܰܨܳܒܐ
ܒܶܣܪܐ
ܒܟܰܪܡܐ
ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ
ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܐܰܪ̈ܟܐ
ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ
ܒܦܘܪܢܐ
ܠܰܚܡܐ

qaṣṣāḇā = “butcher”; bēṯ ʾarkē = “archive”

pUrnā = φοῦρνος, el. φούρνος = ⟦furnus⟧ “oven”: փուռն (pʿuṙn), hy. փուռ: cf. فُرْن

9 ܣܝܡ 3 [ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ] ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܒܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ.

  1. ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ.
  2. ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
  3. ܐܶܢܐ ܚܙܹܝܬ̥ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 6] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 6 [ܕܶܫܬܐ]: ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܺܐܡܰܪ؟

2016-10-04

zāḏèq = “it is right to” (with d- + impf. OR inf.)

ܟܰܕ ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܒܪܳܟ. ܐ̱ܡܳܪ ܠܶܗ: ܥܒܶܕ ܛܰܝܒܘ. ܘܟܰܕ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܳܟ ܗܰܘ ܡܐ ܕܒܳܥܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ، ܐ̱ܡܰܪ: ܬܰܘܕܝ.
ḥaḇrā = “friend”; ṭaybū = abs. of ṭaybūṯā (ū is long: N §27C, §76) “goodness, kindness”
ܐ̱ܡܰܪ‎ = ܐܶܡܰܪ in Classical Syriac: Imperat. of 1st-A is ʾa- if the theme vowel is ó (e.g. ʾaḵól “eat!”), otherwise ʾe- (N §174B).
ܟܰܕ ܦܳܓܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܕܝܳܕܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܶܗ، ܐܶܢ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ: ܐ̱ܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܒܪܝܟ ܨܰܦܪܳܟ. ܘܐܶܢ [ܘܶܐܢ] ܒܛܰܗܪܐ: ܒܪܝܟ ܝܰܘܡܳܟ. ܘܐܶܢ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ: ܒܪܝܟ ܪܰܡܫܳܟ. ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܗܘ ܢܦܰܢܶܐ: ܒܪܝܟ ܘܰܒܪܝܟ.
pḡaʕ = “to meet with (a person)” (with b-); brīḵ = “blessed”, pass. pt. of breḵ “to kneel”; ʾaykannā dhū = “so that he may” or “just like he will”

Alan 120 also has: “ʕḇeḏ ṭaybū,” “tawdī,” and “Brīḵ ṣap̄rāḵ!” “Brīḵ waḇrīḵ.”

2016-10-05 ܬܰܘܕܝ is the abs. st. of ܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ “praising” (N §75), which is from ܐܰܘܕܝ “to confess, believe, praise” with prefix t- (N §127).

2016-10-05

ܟܰܕ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐ̱ܡܰܪ: ܫܠܳܡܐ ܥܰܡܳܟ. ܕܗܘ ܢܦܰܢܶܐ: ܫܰܝܢܐ ܘܰܫܠܳܡܐ. ܘܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܦܪܶܫ [ܡܶܬ̥ܦܪܶܫ] ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ، ܐ̱ܡܰܪ: ܦܘܫ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ، ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܗܘ ܢܦܰܢܶܐ: ܙܶܠ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ.
ܥܳܐܶܠ = pt. of ܥܰܠ; šaynā = “peace”
ܦܪܰܫ = “to separate”: Ethpe. ܐܶܬ̥ܦܪܶܫ “to be divided, become separated; to separate oneself, depart”; pūš [long ū: N §177] = impt. of pāš “to remain, stay”

2016-10-06

Alan 120 has ܒܫܲܝܢܵܐ ܘܒܲܫܠܵܡܵܐ “welcome” instead of ܫܰܝܢܐ ܘܰܫܠܳܡܐ: this Salūs et pāx seems to mean “Make yourself at home”. Alan 120 also has “Pūš bašlāmā” and “Zel bašlāmā.”

ܟܰܕ ܥܳܒܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܥܰܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܕܦܳܠܰܚ، ܐ̱ܡܳܪ ܠܶܗ: ܢܚܰܝ̣ܠܳܟ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ. ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܗܘ ܢܦܰܢܶܐ ܥܠܰܝܟ݁: ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܢܚܰܝ̣ܠܳܟ.
ܦܠܳܚ = “to work, labour”; ܚܰـܝܶܠ = Pa. “to strengthen”: Alan 120 has ܚܲܝܠܵܟ݂ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ! without nə-.
ܥܠܰܝܟ݁: a Quššāyā dot is written over K (a rare sight in Qarahbaš).
ʕḇar ʕal means “to pass by, encounter” (e.g. Ac17:1); it could also mean “to transgress” (e.g. Mt15:2/3)
ܟܰܕ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܕܢܶܬܶܒ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܟ، ܐ̱ܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܦܩܘܕ ܬܶܒ. ܘܐܶܢ ܡܠܰܘܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܕܚܳܙܶܩ ܒܐܽܘܪܚܐ، ܐ̱ܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܒܓܶܕܫܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܀
netteḇ = “he may sit” from yīṯeḇ: teḇ is Impt.; pqóḏ = Impt. of pqaḏ “to visit, to command” [also in Alan 120]; lwā = “to go with”, Pa. lawwī “to accompany, follow, escort, conduct, lead”; ḥzaq = “to gird”: to gird oneself for walking, hence to walk abroad, go, travel, depart (Jess.); geḏšā = “accident, fortune”: It seems that Mlawwē-at is “You lead” and not just “You follow/accompany”, and so B-ḡeḏšā ṭāḇā (lit. “in good fortune”) seems to mean “This way if you please.”
2016-10-08: Then again, according to Problem 3, perhaps you’re supposed to say this to anyone who is walking on a road.
2016-10-11: It seems that one can say B-ḡeḏšā ṭāḇā to someone who is going somewhere (see Problem 12).

2016-10-07/08

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܐܡܰܪ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ؟
ܒܪܝܟ ܨܰܦܪܳܟ.
2 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܐܡܰܪ ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܕܦܳܠܰܚ؟
ܢܚܰـܝܠܳܟ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ.
3 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܐܡܰܪ ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܕܚܳܙܶܩ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ؟
ܒܓܶܕܫܐ ܛܳܠܐ.
4 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܐܡܰܪ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܳܟ ܡܶܕܶܡ؟
ܬܰܘܕܝ.
5 ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܦܘܢܳܝ: ܢܚܰܝ̣ܠܳܟ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ؟
ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܢܚܰܝ̣ܠܳܟ.
ܦܘܫ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ؟
ܙܶܠ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ.

punnāy (constr. of punnāyā “return”) = punnāy melṯā “answer, reply”

2016-10-09

ܣܝܡ «ܚܠܳܦ ܫܡܐ» ܕܠܳܚܶܡ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܚܠܳܦ = “instead of”: ܚܠܳܦ ܫܡܐ pl. ܚܠܳܦ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ “pronoun”

2016-10-11 ḥlāp̄ šmā is masculine. According to TS 1289, ḥlāp̄ā = “exchange”, and ḥlāp̄ should be the const. st. of it.

2016-10-12 ES [ħ(ɐ)lɐp ʃmɑ̝ːhɛ̝(ː)]: [ɛɪkænnɑ̝ː iːθɛɪk]

6 ܚܢܰܢ ܒܳܥܶܝܢܰܢ ܫܠܳܡܐ.
We seek/wish wholeness (peace).
7 ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܦܳܠܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܳܬ̥ܐ.
You (sg) cultivate [your] native land. [ܦܳܠܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ may become ܦܳܠܚܰܬ̊ (N §64)]
8 ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܿܢ ܬܥܰܕܪܘܼܢ ܠܡܶܣܟܹܢ̈ܐ.
You guys will help [intensively] (ʕdr Pa.) the poor.
9 ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܝ.
I love my friends.
10 ܗܶܢܶܝܢ ܩܳܛܦ̈ܳܢ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
They (f) pick flowers.
11 ܗܝ ܓܳܕܠܐ ܣܰܥܪܳܗ̇.
She braids her hair.

2016-10-11

12 ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܠܳܚܡ̈ܳܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܣܶܥܪܶܬ̥ ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܒܒܰܝܬܶܗ. ܘܟܰܕ ܥܶܠܶܬ̥، ܐܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ... ܥܰܡܳܟ.
«ܫܠܳܡܐ ܥܰܡܳܟ»
I visited (sʕr) ʾAp̄rem in his house, and when I came in, I said to him: “Šlāmā ʕammāḵ.”
ܘܝܶܕܥܶܬ̥ ܕܚܳܙܶܩ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ، ܐܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ... ܛܳܒܐ.
«ܒܓܶܕܫܐ ܛܳܒܐ»
And I knew he [would] travel in the road. I said to him: “B-ḡeḏšā ṭāḇā.”
ܘܟܰܕ ܢܶܦܩܶܬ̥، ܐܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ... ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ.
«ܦܘܫ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ»
And when I went out (when I left), I said to him: “Pūš ba-šlāmā.”
ܘܦܰܢܝ ܥܠܰܝ: ... ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ ܀
«ܙܶܠ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܐ»
And he replied to me: “Zel ba-šlāmā.”
sʕr
ܟܪܝܗ ܗ̱ܘܹܝܬ̥: ܘܰܣܥܰܪܬܘܿܢܳܢܝ̱
I was sick, and you guys visited me. (Mt25:36)

ES Clips

ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܪܵܥܝܵܐ ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ
[ˈɪn.nɑː nɐː ˈɾʌʕ.jɑː ˈtˤɑː.ʋɑː] 2016-10-15
/ɪ/ is near [i].
ܐܸܢܵܐ ܝܵܘܣܸܦ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ
[ˈɪn.nɑː jʌw.ˈsɪp nɐː] 2016-10-15
While /ɪ/ in /ɪnnɑː/ is near [ɪ], /ɪ/ may sound like [i] in general.
ܐܸܢܵܐ ܡܩܝܼܡ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܥܲܡܵܟ݂ ܩܝܵܡܵܐ
[ˈɪn.nɑ m.ˈqiːm nɐː ˈʕam.mɑχ ˈqjɑː.mɐː] 2016-10-16
/ɪ/ in /ɪnnɑː/ has almost the same quality with /iː/ in /mqiːm/, except maybe slightly wider. /q/ of /qjɑːmɑː/ sounds unclear. I almost hear it as /tˤ/. Perhaps because it is preceded by /x/.
ܗܘ̤ ܝܵܘܣܸܦ ܗ݇ܘ̣
[ˈhuː jʌw.ˈsɪ.p ʊː] 2016-10-17
[ʌw] is almost [ɔ(ː)]. In this clip /ɪ/ is actually [ɪ].
ܗܘ̤ܝܘܼ ܟܵܬ݂ܘܿܒ݂ܵܐ ܣܦܝܼܪܵܐ
[ˈhuː.jʊː kʌː.ˈθo̞ː.ʋɐ s.piːɾɐː] 2016-10-17
ā in a closed syllable tends to be realized as a short vowel.
ܗ̤ܝ ܡܲܪܝܲܡ ܗ݇ܝܼ
[ˈhiː mar.ˈya(m).m iː] 2016-10-18
ܠܵܐ ܝܵܕ݂ܥ̇ܝܼܢ ܚ݇ܢܲܢ ܠܐܲܝܟܵܐ ܐܵܙܹ̇ܠ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ
[ˈlɑː yɐð(ɐ).ˈʕiː.næn ˈlɛɪ.kɐː ˈɑː.zel ˌæt] 2016-10-18
[ɑː] (especially in [lɑː]) may be [ɑ̝ː]. /aj/ is about [ɛɪ]. è of ʾāzèl is near [e], possibly wider (significantly narrower than [ɛ]).
ܐܲܢ݇ܬܘܼ ܡܲܠܦܵܢܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ
[ˈat.tuː mæl.ˈpɑ̝ː.nɑ̝ː ˈɾæb.bɐː] 2016-10-19
a and ā of malpānā are [æ ~ ɛ] and [ɑː ~ ʌː] respectively.
ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܣܵܥܘܿܪܵܐ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ
[ˈaˑt sʌː.ˈʕoː.ɾʌː ˌaˑt] 2016-10-25
“You are a curator.” ā is somewhere among [ʌ ~ ɑ ~ ɐ], and I think this one is nearest to [ʌ]. ō may be wider than [o], but not [ɔ]. The a of the second at is a little centered, like [ɐ].
ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܣܵܥܘܿܪܵܐ
[ˈaˑt ˌæˑt sɑ̝ː.ˈʕoː.ɾʌː] 2016-10-25
Practically the same as above. The two ā’s in sāʕōrā sound differently here: the first ā is wider near [ɑ] while the second ā is darker like [ʌ ~ ɐ].
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Biblical Aramaic (Daniel 2:17–19, 2:22–36)

Daniel 2:1–16, 2:20–21 are in SyriacL.php.

Daniel 2:37– are in SyriacN.php.

2016-10-07

Daniel (arc) 2:17⁎

אֱדַ֥יִן דָּֽנִיֵּ֖אל לְבַיְתֵ֣הּ אֲזַ֑ל וְ֠לַחֲנַנְיָה מִֽישָׁאֵ֧ל וַעֲזַרְיָ֛ה חַבְר֖וֹהִי מִלְּתָ֥א הוֹדַֽע׃
בַּיְתָ֫א = bayṯā : T is soft! BH בַּ֫יִת, jpa/tmr בֵּיתָא ‎ = ܒܰܝܬ̊ܐ ‎= بَيْتٌ
חַבְר֫וֹהִי ‎ = ܚܰܒ̥ܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱
הוֹדַ֫ע ‎ = ܐܰܘܕ̊ܰܥ
A טִפְחָ֖א phrase may be sub-divided by a תְּבִ֛יר, which is often preceded by a דַּרְגָּ֧א (conjunctive). A תְּ֠לִישָׁא גְדוֹלָא is a sub-sub-divider.

2016-10-08

Daniel (syc) 2:17–18⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܠܒܲܝܬܹܗ ܐܸܙܲܠ̣: ܘܲܠܚܲܢܲܢܝܵܐ: ܘܲܠܡܝܼܫܵܐܹܝܠ: ܘܲܠܥܲܙܲܪܝܵܐ ܚܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܵܘܗܝ: ܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܗܵܕܹܐ ܓܠ̣ܵܐ.܀ ܕܢܸܒ݂ܥܘܿܢ ܪ̈ܲܚܡܹܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܕܲܫܡܲܝܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܐ݇ܪܵܙܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ: ܕܠܵܐ ܢܹܐܒ݂ܕܘܼܢ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܘܚܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܘܗܝ [ܘܚܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܵܘܗܝ] ܥܲܡ ܫܲܪܟܵܐ ܕܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ.܀
ܐ̱ܪܳܙܐ = “a secret, anything having a secret or mystical meaning”
ܐܶܒܰܕ Impf. ܢܹܐܒܰܕ “perish”
ܫܰܪܟܐ = “the rest”

2016-10-09

Daniel (arc) 2:18⁎

וְרַחֲמִ֗ין לְמִבְעֵא֙ מִן־קֳדָם֙ אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א עַל־רָזָ֖ה דְּנָ֑ה דִּ֣י לָ֤א יְהֹֽבְדוּן֙ דָּנִיֵּ֣אל וְחַבְר֔וֹהִי עִם־שְׁאָ֖ר חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל׃
מִבְעֵא inf. (Impf. *יִבְעוֹן is expected.)
אֱלָהּ constr. (=abs.) of אֱלָהָ֫א: BH אֱלֹהַּ or אֱלוֹהַּ ‎= إِلٰهٌ: Samaritan Aramaic ࠀࠋࠄࠄ (a-l-e-e) [Nicholl, p. 14; Tanakh]
yĕˌhō-ḇĕˈḏūn (< *yĕhaʾ-Bẹ̆ḏūn) Haph. “to make someone perish, to destroy”: Notice the firm ˈMèṯèḡ, explicitly showing that the ḇĕ is soft.

2016-10-10

Daniel (arc) 2:19⁎

אֱדַ֗יִן לְדָנִיֵּ֛אל בְּחֶזְוָ֥א דִֽי־לֵילְיָ֖א רָזָ֣ה גֲלִ֑י אֱדַ֙יִן֙ דָּֽנִיֵּ֔אל בָּרִ֖ךְ לֶאֱלָ֥הּ שְׁמַיָּֽא׃
גֲּלִי (also גֱּלִי) = Peil (Pĕʕīl: internal passive) of [גְּלָא]
בָּרִךְ = Pa. ܒܰܪܶܟ “to bless”: in Aramaic, if the 2nd rad. can’t be doubled, the 1st rad. is lengthened, with the 2nd vowel also possibly altered.

2016-10-12

Daniel (syc) 2:19⁎

ܗܵܝܕܝܹܢ ܠܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܒܚܸܙܪܵܐ ܕܠܸܠܝܵܐ ܐ݇ܪܵܙܵܐ ܐܸܬܓܠܝܼ: ܘܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܒܲܪܸܟ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܕܲܫܡܲܝܵܐ.܀
ܐܶܬ̥ܓܠܝ = passive and reflexive of Peal: “to be uncovered, to uncover itself”
ʾeṯglī, ʾeṯgalyaṯ
ܐܶܬ̥ܓܰܠܝܰܬ̥ ܓܶܝܪ ܛܰܝܒܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܡܰܚـܝܰܬ̥ ܟܠ ܠܰܒ̥ܢܰܝ̈ܢܳܫܐ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ.܀
For the goodness of God, the life-giving thing of all, has been revealed to men — all of them. (Titus 2:11⁎)

2016-10-17

Daniel (arc) 2:22⁎

ה֛וּא גָּלֵ֥א עַמִּיקָתָ֖א וּמְסַתְּרָתָ֑א יָדַע֙ מָ֣ה בַחֲשׁוֹכָ֔א וּנְהִירָא [כ וּנְהוֹרָ֖א ק] עִמֵּ֥הּ שְׁרֵֽא׃
עַמִּיק ‎= ܥܰܡܝܩ “deep, high”: Emph. עַמִּיקָא ‎= ܥܰܡܝܩܐ, f. *עַמִּיקְתָּא ‎= ܥܰܡܝܩܬܐ (T prob. hard), f. pl. עַמִּיקָתָא ‎= ܥܰܡ̈ܝܩܳܬ̥ܐ: tmr fem. often עֲמִ׳
מְסַתַּר fem. מְסַתְּרָה = pass. pt. of Pa. סַתֵּר “to hide”: ‎= ܡܣܰܬܰܪ: Note, √str “to hide” (in Pael) is different from √str “to destroy” (in Peal), e.g. ܣܬܰܪ, which is actually √*śtr: “OfA also śtr, though there may have been scribal confusion with str #2.” (CAL)
ḥăšōˈḵā = “darkness” (syc ḥešš-); nəhōrā = “light” (syc nuhrā); šərē = pass. pt. of šərā “to loosen, abide”;

2017-06-07

The phrase terminated by a Ṭip̄ḥā (עַמִּיקָתָ֖א) is sub-divided by a Təḇīr (ה֛וּא).

Daniel (syc) 2:22⁎

ܘܗ̤ܘ ܓܵܠܹܐ ܥܲܡ̈ܝܼܩܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܟܲܣ̈ܝܵܬ݂ܵܐ:
He [is the one who] reveals deep things and hidden things.
ܘܝܵܕ݂ܲܥ ܡܵܐ ܕܲܒ݂ܚܸܫܘܿܟ݂ܵܐ: ܘܢܲܗܝܼܪܵܐ ܥܲܡܹܗ ܗ݇ܘܼ.܀
And he knows what is in the dark {ḥeššṓḵā}; and the shining {nahhīrā} [light] is with him.

ksē, kasyā = p.p. (or adj.) of ksā: fem. emph. ksīṯā, kasyāṯā — often used with a mystical sense; msattar, on the other hand, is “to hide (physically)” in syc.

2016-10-19

Daniel (arc) 2:23a⁎

לָ֣ךְ ׀ אֱלָ֣הּ אֲבָהָתִ֗י מְהוֹדֵ֤א וּמְשַׁבַּח֙ אֲנָ֔ה דִּ֧י חָכְמְתָ֛א וּגְבוּרְתָ֖א יְהַ֣בְתְּ לִ֑י
In Mūnaḥ—Mūnaḥ—Rĕḇīaʕ, the first Mūnaḥ is followed by a stroke (Pāseq: [\]). Mūnaḥ + Pāsēq (פָּסֵק) is called Lĕḡarˈmēh (לְגַרְמֵ֫הּ: -mèh in G §15f), and is disjunctive.
אֱלָהּ (abs. = constr.): BH אֱלֹהַּ with the Canaanite Shift.
pl. of “father”: ʾăḇāhān (syc. ʾaḇāhē) AND ʾăḇāhāṯā
ydy C = “to give thanks”: ܐܰܘܕܝ pt. ܡܰܘܕܶܐ: Haphel מְהוֹדֵא also מוֹדֵא in Dn 6:10
šbḥ D = “to praise”: pt. like ܡܫܰܒܰܚ instead of *מְשַׁבֵּח [Rosenthal, A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1961), §24].

2016-10-20

Daniel (arc) 2:23b⁎

וּכְעַ֤ן הֽוֹדַעְתַּ֙נִי֙ דִּֽי־בְעֵ֣ינָא מִנָּ֔ךְ דִּֽי־מִלַּ֥ת מַלְכָּ֖א הוֹדַעְתֶּֽנָא׃
kĕʕan = OfA BA “now”
*הוֹדַעְתְּ Haphel 2ms: with suffix -anī “me”, -ènā “us” (Alger F. Johns, A Short Grammar Of Biblical Aramaic, p. 74): syc. ܐܰܘܕܰܥܬ and ܐܰܘܕܰܥܬܳܢܝ̱, etc.
בְעֵינָא ‎1cp: ܒܥܰܝܢ

2017-06-09 -ˈanī = “me”: -ˈènā = “us”

2017-06-10

Daniel (syc) 2:23⁎

ܠܵܟ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܕܐܲܒ݂ܵܗܲܝ̈ ܡܵܘܿܕܹܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܘܲܡܫܲܒܲܚ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ: ܕܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܓܲܢ݇ܒܵܪܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܝܲܗ݇ܒ݂ܬ݁ ܠܝܼ:
To you, O God of my fathers, I give thanks, and I praise [you]; for you gave me wisdom and courage.
ܘܗܵܫܵܐ ܐܵܘܕܲܥܬܵܢܝ ܕܲܒ݂ܥܲܝܢ ܡܸܢܵܟ݂: ܘܡܸܠܲܬ݂ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܐܵܘܕܲܥܬܵܢܝ.
And now you made me know what we asked from you; and you made me {“us” in arc} know the matter of the king.

ܡܵܘܿܕܹܐ (mäwdē) C √ydy written ܡܵܘܕܸ݁ܐ (mäwdë́) in Mosul — ܡܰܘܕܷ̊ܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟ ܐܳܒܝ܂ ܡܳܪܐ ܕܰܫܡܝܐ ܘܕܰܐܪܥܐ܉ ܕܟܰܣܝܬ ܗܠܝܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܚܰܟܝܡ̈ܐ (Mt11:25)

2016-10-21

Daniel (arc) 2:24⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָ֗ה דָּֽנִיֵּאל֙ עַ֣ל עַל־אַרְי֔וֹךְ דִּ֚י מַנִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֔א לְהוֹבָדָ֖ה לְחַכִּימֵ֣י בָבֶ֑ל אֲזַ֣ל ׀ וְכֵ֣ן אֲמַר־לֵ֗הּ לְחַכִּימֵ֤י בָבֶל֙ אַל־תְּהוֹבֵ֔ד הַעֵ֙לְנִי֙ קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֔א וּפִשְׁרָ֖א לְמַלְכָּ֥א אֲחַוֵּֽא׃ ס
mny = “to count, number”, Pa. “to apoint” (not in oar/syc)
Haphel *haʕʕel usually becomes הַנעֵל, but here simply Impt. haʕel (haʕēl). [Alger F. Johns: Lesson XIII, 4 (B), p. 61; Cf. N §178C]: haˈʕelnī is ܐܰܥܶܠܰܝܢܝ (ʾaʕʕelayn N §190B).

Heb-Eng lexicon of OT:

2017-06-12

Daniel (syc) 2:24⁎

ܘܒܵܗ̇ ܒܫܵܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܠܘܵܬ݂ ܐܵܪܝܼܘܼܟ: ܗ̇ܘ ܕܲܦܩܲܕ݂ ܠܹܗ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܠܲܡܩܲܛܵܠܘܼ ܠܚܲܟ̈ܝܼܡܹܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ:
At that time, Daniel went into ʾĀrīyūḵ’s {MOSUL ʾĀrīyṓḵ} place — that guy whom the king ordered {pqaḏ} to massacre {la-mqaṭṭālū D} the wise men of Babylon.
ܘܐܸܙܲܠ ܘܗܵܟܲܢܵܐ ܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܹܗ: ܠܚܲܟ̈ܝܼܡܹܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ ܠܵܐ ܬܵܘܒܸ݁ܕ݂: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܐܲܥܸܠܲܝܢܝ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܵܐ ܠܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܐܹܚܵܘܹܐ.܀
And he went and thus {⁑hāḵanā} said to him: you should not destroy the wise men of Babylon; instead bring me in [and let me go] in front of the king, and I will show the king the interpretation.

2016-10-22

Daniel (arc) 2:25⁎

אֱדַ֤יִן אַרְיוֹךְ֙ בְּהִתְבְּהָלָ֔ה הַנְעֵ֥ל לְדָנִיֵּ֖אל קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א
bhl = D “to trouble, frighten” (BA): Gt “to be frightened, to hurry” (jar): hiṯ-bĕ-hāˈlā Gt. inf. (*hiṯ-bah-hālā Dt. inf.)
וְכֵ֣ן אֲמַר־לֵ֗הּ דִּֽי־הַשְׁכַּ֤חַת גְּבַר֙ מִן־בְּנֵ֤י גָֽלוּתָא֙ דִּ֣י יְה֔וּד דִּ֥י פִשְׁרָ֖א לְמַלְכָּ֥א יְהוֹדַֽע׃
dī-haš-ˈka-ḥaṯ = “he said: I found” (prefixed to direct narr.)
*haš-kĕ-ḥeṯ: (1) a short vowel becomes a before the final ḥ; (2) also a for e; so haškaḥaṯ [Alger F. Johns, p. 43, 4; p. 44 (C)].
cf. ܐܶܫܟܚܶܬ:‎ ܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܚܹܬ ܠܛܶܛܘܿܣ ܐܳܚܝ̱ I did not find my brother Titus
ˌgālūˈṯā = Com “exile, diaspora (situation)”, syc “exiles (people)”

2016-10-23

Daniel (arc) 2:26⁎

עָנֵ֤ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֣ר לְדָנִיֵּ֔אל דִּ֥י שְׁמֵ֖הּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּ֑ר הַאִיתַיִךְ [כ הַֽאִיתָ֣ךְ ק] כָּהֵ֗ל לְהוֹדָעֻתַ֛נִי חֶלְמָ֥א דִֽי־חֲזֵ֖ית וּפִשְׁרֵֽהּ׃
In Hebrew, at least, interrog. part. הֳ is read הַ before a guttural (incl. א), unless that guttural has a voewl ā or ă. [G §100k–n]
khl = “to be able”
לְהוֹדָעָ֫א inf. = ܠܡܰܘܕܳܥܘ:‎ לְהוֹדָעֻתַ֫נִי ‎= ܠܡܰܘܕܳܥܘܬܰܢܝ̱

Daniel (arc) 2:27⁎

עָנֵ֧ה דָנִיֵּ֛אל קֳדָ֥ם מַלְכָּ֖א וְאָמַ֑ר רָזָה֙ דִּֽי־מַלְכָּ֣א שָׁאֵ֔ל לָ֧א חַכִּימִ֣ין אָֽשְׁפִ֗ין חַרְטֻמִּין֙ גָּזְרִ֔ין יָכְלִ֖ין לְהַֽחֲוָיָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא׃
לָ֧א: Commonly Dargā is placed before Tĕḇīr. However, sometimes Dargā is followed by Mūnaḥ–Rĕḇīaʕ.
gāzar, gazrā = “diviner” (CAL), “nimble” (Jess)

2016-11-10

Daniel (arc) 2:28a⁎

בְּרַ֡ם אִיתַ֞י אֱלָ֤הּ בִּשְׁמַיָּא֙ גָּלֵ֣א רָזִ֔ין
But there is a God in heaven, revealing secrets,
וְהוֹדַ֗ע לְמַלְכָּא֙ נְבֽוּכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶהֱוֵ֖א בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית יוֹמַיָּ֑א
and let King ˌNĕḇū-ḵaḏ-nèṣ-ˈṣar know whatever thing that will be (will come to pass) in the end of the days (in the latter days).

2016-11-18

Daniel (arc) 2:28b⁎

חֶלְמָ֨ךְ וְחֶזְוֵ֥י רֵאשָׁ֛ךְ עַֽל־מִשְׁכְּבָ֖ךְ דְּנָ֥ה הֽוּא׃ פ
Your dream — and the visions of (in) your head upon your bed — is this.

2016-12-01

Daniel (arc) 2:29a⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַ֣נְתְּ ק] מַלְכָּ֗א רַעְיוֹנָךְ֙ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבָ֣ךְ סְלִ֔קוּ מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶהֱוֵ֖א אַחֲרֵ֣י דְנָ֑ה
You, O king — your thoughts came up, upon your bed; what [thing] that shall happen after this.

2016-12-03

Daniel (arc) 2:29b⁎

וְגָלֵ֧א רָזַיָּ֛א הוֹדְעָ֖ךְ מָה־דִ֥ לֶהֱוֵֽא׃
And the one who reveals the secrets let you know what shall be [in the future].

2016-12-07

Daniel (arc) 2:30a⁎

וַאֲנָ֗ה לָ֤א בְחָכְמָה֙ דִּֽי־אִיתַ֥י בִּי֙ מִן־כָּל־חַיַּיָּ֔א רָזָ֥א דְנָ֖ה גֱּלִ֣י לִ֑י
And I — it is not like this secret was revealed to me by wisdom that exists in me more than [in] all living things {pl. emph. of ḥayyā}.

Topic-Subject: 私の場合、知恵によって、この秘密が(私に)明かされたのではない。

Peil (Pĕʕīl) is G Passive. It is like a passive participle ܟܬ̥ܝܒ, but the verb changes its form depending on person/number/gender. For a strong verb, the 3ms form is identical to pass. part. For a 3rd-Y, the two forms are not identical. That is, the Peil conjugation of a 3rd-Y is a qaṭīl type, while its pass. part. is a qaṭal type (Alger F. Johns, A Short Grammar of BA (1963, 1972), p. 64):

2016-12-09

Daniel (arc) 2:30b⁎

לָהֵ֗ן עַל־דִּבְרַת֙ דִּ֤י פִשְׁרָא֙ לְמַלְכָּ֣א יְהוֹדְע֔וּן וְרַעְיוֹנֵ֥י לִבְבָ֖ךְ תִּנְדַּֽע׃
But it was so that people might let the king know the interpretation and you might understand the thoughts (images) in your heart.

2016-12-11

Daniel (arc) 2:31⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַ֣נְתְּ ק] מַלְכָּ֗א חָזֵ֤ה הֲוַ֙יְתָ֙ וַאֲל֨וּ צְלֵ֥ם חַד֙ שַׂגִּ֔יא
You, O king, were seeing [this], and behold, [it was] one large image.

2016-12-12

Daniel (arc) 2:31⁎ (cont.), 2:31⁎ (syc)

שַׂגִּיא is in the abs. st. but works as if it were, in Syriac, in the emph. state (this already happened in 2:6). The Syriac version of 2:31 says ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܚܵܙܹܐ ܗ̣݇ܘܲܝܬ݁: ܘܗܵܐ ܨܲܠܡܵܐ ܚܲܕ ܪܲܒܵܐ: — so, it’s “one big image” (attributive), rather than “the image was big one” (predicative).

צַלְמָ֨א דִּכֵּ֥ן רַ֛ב וְזִיוֵ֥הּ יַתִּ֖יר קָאֵ֣ם לְקָבְלָ֑ךְ וְרֵוֵ֖הּ דְּחִֽיל׃
That image [was] big — and its splendor [was] more-than-normal —, standing in front of you; its form [was] frightening/awe-inspiring.

The rest of 2:31 (syc): ܕܛܵܒ݂ ܙܝܘܹܗ ܝܲܬ݁ܝܼܪ ܘܩܵܐܹܡ ܠܩܘܼܒ݂ܠܵܟ: ܚܸܙܘܹܗ ܕܚܝܼܠ:܀ “[one big image] whose splendor really [was] more-than-normal and [it was] standing in front of you; its sight [was] frightening.” The original repetition (“one large image. That image [was] big.”) is simplified in Syriac.

2016-12-13 The Tĕḇīr is preceded by Qaḏmā + Mērḵā.

2016-12-13

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:32⁎

ה֣וּא צַלְמָ֗א רֵאשֵׁהּ֙ דִּֽי־דְהַ֣ב טָ֔ב חֲד֥וֹהִי וּדְרָע֖וֹהִי דִּ֣י כְסַ֑ף
ܪܹܫܹܗ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ: ܚܲܕ݂ܝܹܗ ܘܲܕ݂ܪ̈ܵܥܵܘܗܝ ܕܣܹܐܡܵܐ:
This image — its head [was] of fine gold, and its breasts and arms [were] of silver.
מְע֥וֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵ֖הּ דִּ֥י נְחָֽשׁ׃
ܟܲܪܣܹܗ ܘܥܲܛܡܵܬܹ̈ܗ ܕܲܢܚܵܫܵܐ.܀
Its loins and thigh[s] [were] of bronze.

2016-12-18

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:33⁎

שָׁק֖וֹהִי דִּ֣י פַרְזֶ֑ל
ܫܵܩܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ:
Its legs [are] of iron;
רַגְל֕וֹהִי מִנְּהוֹן [כ מִנְּהֵין֙ ק] דִּ֣י פַרְזֶ֔ל וּמִנְּהוֹן [כ וּמִנְּהֵ֖ין ק] דִּ֥י חֲסַֽף׃
ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܵܘܗܝ ܡܸܢܗܹܝܢ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ ܘܡܸܢܗܹܝܢ ܕܚܸܨܦܵܐ.܀
Its feet — some of them [were] of iron, and some of them [were] of clay.

2016-12-27

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:34a⁎

חָזֵ֣ה הֲוַ֗יְתָ עַ֠ד דִּ֣י הִתְגְּזֶ֤רֶת אֶ֙בֶן֙ דִּי־לָ֣א בִידַ֔יִן
ܘܲܚܙܲܝܬ ܕܐܸܬ݂ܓܲܙܪܲܬ݀ ܟܹܐܦܵܐ ܕܠܵܐ ܒܐܝܼܕ̈ܝܼܢ:
You (sg.) were seeing while a stone was cut, which was not by the hands (of men).

2017-05-14 Gt pf. 3. fem. = Like syc ʾeṯ-gazraṯ (Ethpeel), the normal form is hiṯ-gazraṯ (Hithpeel). However, the variant form hiṯ-gĕˈzèrèṯ is also found [Johns (1972), SGr p. 39]. Also, ʾiṯ- may be used instead of hiṯ- [ibīdem p. 39].

2016-12-30

Daniel (arc) 2:34b⁎

וּמְחָ֤ת לְצַלְמָא֙ עַל־רַגְל֔וֹהִי דִּ֥י פַרְזְלָ֖א וְחַסְפָּ֑א וְהַדֵּ֖קֶת הִמּֽוֹן׃
Then it [the stone] struck the image on its feet, which [were] of iron and clay, and smashed them.

2016-12-31

Daniel (syc) 2:34b⁎

ܘܲܡܚܵܬܹܗ ܠܨܲܠܡܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܵܘܗܝ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܚܸܨܦܵܐ: ܘܕܲܩܩܲܬ݀ ܐܸܢܹܝܢ ܛܵܒ݂.܀
Then it [the stone] struck it — the image — on its feet, which [were] of iron and clay, and crushed them finely.

2017-01-03, 2017-01-07

Daniel (arc) 2:35a⁎

בֵּאדַ֣יִן דָּ֣קוּ כַחֲדָ֡ה פַּרְזְלָא֩ חַסְפָּ֨א נְחָשָׁ֜א כַּסְפָּ֣א וְדַהֲבָ֗א וַהֲווֹ֙ כְּע֣וּר מִן־אִדְּרֵי־קַ֔יִט
Then, they were at once shattered — the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold. And they became like chaff from a threshing floor of summer.

2017-03-23 Rĕˈḇīaʕ (Shift+[) may have a few different sub-phrases, including Pāˈzēr (Shift+I) and ˈGèrèš (Shift+U) [aka Gērēš, ʾAzˈlā], but not including Gērˈšayim (Shift+Y). A Gereš sub-phrase often has the conjunctive accent(s): middle Qaḏˈmā (Shift+\), sometimes preceded by Tĕlīšā Qĕṭannā(h) (Shift+1).

וּנְשָׂ֤א הִמּוֹן֙ רוּחָ֔א וְכָל־אֲתַ֖ר לָא־הִשְׁתֲּכַ֣ח לְה֑וֹן
And the wind took them away, and any place was not found for them (they were nowhere to be found).

2017-01-08

Daniel (arc) 2:35b⁎

וְאַבְנָ֣א ׀ דִּֽי־מְחָ֣ת לְצַלְמָ֗א הֲוָ֛ת לְט֥וּר רַ֖ב וּמְלָ֥ת כָּל־אַרְעָֽא׃
And the stone, which hit the image, became a big mountain, and filled the whole land.

2017-01-09 A ˈMèṯèḡ is always added to an open ultima when the word is joined to the next word, if the next word begins with a non-accented vowel including a šĕwā. If it’s a šĕwā, the object of the ˈMèṯèḡ is to prevent the šĕwā from becoming quiescent (G §16d). Hence, dī-mĕḥāṯ and not *dīmḥāṯ.

2017-01-29

Daniel (arc) 2:36⁎

דְּנָ֣ה חֶלְמָ֔א וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ נֵאמַ֥ר קֳדָם־מַלְכָּֽא׃
This is the dream, and we will say its interpretation before the king.

Pe Aleph Verbs: Peal, Impf.: the aleph quiesces, and the vowel of the prefix is lengthened in compensation (ni > nē)

Georgian

2016-12-15

Memo: Georgian KLs “standard” vs. QWERTY

The Georgian Alphabet: A Gallery of Specimens: Georgians typically use QWERTY keyboards with a standard assignment of Georgian letters to Latin keys (when two letters are assigned to the same key, the second is selected by holding down shift).

en.wiki: Keyboard layout also assumes QWERTY without explanation: As with the Armenian, Greek, and phonetic Russian layouts, most Georgian letters are on the same keys as their Latin equivalents. en.wiki: Georgian keyboard layout says: The standard Windows keyboard is essentially that of manual typewriters.

This layout [Georgian “QWERTY”] is available in Windows Vista and above. (Keyboard Layout Charts)

KL shortcuts updated: [LAlt]+[Shift]+[5] = Amharic (was +[6]): +[9] = Greek Polytonic (was +[8]): +[8] = Armenian (East) (was +[7]): +[7] = Georgian (QWERTY) (new). +[3/4/0] = Syriac/Arabic/Hebrew (unchanged). +[6] is unused (reserved for something else, maybe Russian). Now that I can read/type Armenian letters, I’d like to learn something new, Georgian or Amharic.

2016-12-21 updated again: [LAlt]+[Shift]+[8] = Russian Phonetic Student (new): +[7] = Armenian (East) (same as before 2016-12-15): +[6] = Georgian (QWERTY) (was +[7]). +[3/4/5/0/9] = Syriac/Arabic/Amharic/Hebrew/Greek (unchanged).

2016-12-28 Apparently [LAlt]+[Shift]+[0…9] and [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[0…9] are always selectable as a KL shortcut, while [Ctrl]+[0…9] (without [Shift]) is selectable only for non-IME. Since [LAlt]+[Shift]+[0…9] are currently all used, I think I will use [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[6/7/8/9/0] if I need more KL shortcuts.

2017-01-13 Recently I’m using [Ctrl]+[9] as a convenient shortcut. [Ctrl]+[0] might be nicer, but using this combination as a global hot key is a bad idea, since [Ctrl]+[0] is often used by an invidual program as a hot key.

2016-12-21

ფურნე

ფურნე /pʰʊɾnɛ/ = “bakery”

🖉

2016-12-22

მხედრული

მხედრული /mxɛdɾʊlɪ/ = “horseman’s”

2016-12-23, 2016-12-24

ტ and თ

თაგვი /tʰäɡvɪ/ = “mouse”

თურქული /tʰʊɾkʰlɪ/ = “Turkish language”

ტურა /tʼʊɾä/ = “jackal”

აბატი /äbätʼɪ/ = “abbot”

ბიბლიოთეკა /bɪblɪɔtʰɛkʼä/ = “library” — the Georgian o is said to be true-mid: near [ɔ] but narrower.

აგვისტო /äɡvɪstʼɔ/ = “August”

მარტი /mäɾtʼɪ/ = “March”

ოქტომბერი /ɔkʰtʼɔmbɛɾɪ/ = “October” — this one has /kʰ/ + /tʼ/

აფთარი /äpʰtʰäɾɪ/ = “hyena” — this one has /pʰ/ + /tʰ/ — fa کفتار (kaftār)

ზამთარი /zämtʰäɾɪ/ = “winter”

თებერვალი /tʰɛbɛɾvälɪ/ = “February” — /tʰ/ is used for the original /f/ — also note, /l/ for /r/ like Pahlavi.

2016-12-27

წ and ც

ქალწული /kʰält͡sʼʊlɪ/ = “damsel”

არწივი /äɾt͡sʼɪvɪ/ = “eagle”

ცნობა /t͡sʰnɔbä/ = “notice, news”

კვერცხი /kʼvɛɾt͡sʰχɪ/ = “egg”

2016-12-29

პ and ფ

Queen, Leopard

დედოფალი [dɛdɔ̈pʰälɪ] = “queen”

ლეოპარდი [lɛɔ̈pʼäɾdɪ] = “leopard”

The above two clips show the difference between ფა and პა quite nicely. While ფა is an aspirated pa, პა is a “choked” sound.

დედა (dɛdä) means “mother”. In oge it was დედაჲ (dɛdäj). უფალი (ʊpʰälɪ) means “lord”. So “queen” is “mother-lord”.

Japanese, Lynx

იაპონური [jäpʼɔ̈nʊɾɪ] = “Japanese”

ფოცხვერი [pʰɞt͡sʰxwɛɾɪ] = “lynx”

Another set of two examples, where the smooth pʼ and the rough pʰ are contrasted. Again is centralized, especially in the second word, so much so it sounds like a schwa “u”.

April, Spring, Summer

აპრილი [äpʼɾɪlɪ] = “April”

გაზაფხული [ɡäzäpʰχölɪ] = “spring (season)”

ზაფხული [zäpʰχʊlɪ] = “summer”

Conclusion

Although /pʼ/ vs. /pʰ/ is problematic, the difference is noticeable and I can deal with it. On the other hand, it is unexpected and alarming that in Georgian /ʊ/ vs. /ɔ/ is not always very clear; /ɔ/ seems often centralized towards [ɞ ~ ɵ], while /ʊ/ is at least sometimes wider, becoming “o”-ish, near [ɵ].

2016-12-30

Georgian Fonts Memo

What Do They Have as U+10Ax…10Cx (1st Half of the Georgian Block)?

“Native” Georgian fonts tend to ignore the Unicode standard here. Maybe FreeSans/FreeSerif just copy-pasted some free glyphs.

Though U+10C6 is not officially used, there BPG Glaho has the Small Cap version of U+10F6 [ ჶ ] GEORGIAN LETTER FI.

Who Supports Nuskhuri (Georgian Supplement Block)?

This block is poorly supported.

2016-12-31

Two Confusing Unicode Names: -R When It Should be -N

Megrelian and Megrelia

2017-01-01

[t͡ʃʰɪn]

ჩიტი [t͡ʃʰɪtʼɪ] = “(little) bird” (птица, птичка): Middle Armenian չիտ

ჩ (čʰin) = [Shift]+[C]

ჩეხური [t͡ʃʰɛχʊɾɪ] = “Czech”: [ɛ] is narrower (mid); [χ] is not so obviously uvular, but I think this one is uvular.

2017-01-02

[t͡ʃʼɪl]

ბიჭი [bɪt͡ʃʼɪ] = “boy”

(čʼil) = [Shift]+[W]. Like , this letter also has a cute, tiny ribbon thingy.

ჩი in ჩიტი is a normal, vivid “chi” — the word sounds like cheaty. ჭი in ბიჭი is a dark, hollow, limp, suppressed “chi”, somewhat like “ji”. The difference is there, though not very clear and confusing. Also, not only the consonant is hollow when glottalized, but the vowel “i” after such a consonant sounds darker and shorter, as if [t͡ʃʰɪtʼɨ] vs. [bɪt͡ʃʼɨ].

ბიჭიკო [bɪt͡ʃʼɪkʼɔ] = “Bichiko”, “boy”, “John (Doe)”

2017-02-07
commons.wikimedia.org
File:Ar-سوق.ogg
File:Ka-ბიჭიკო.ogg

2017-02-08 e.g. Czech Republic in Arabic

التشيك at-tšīk
ჩეხეთი chexeti

تسخينفالي ts-xīnfālī
ცხინვალი tsxinvali

2017-01-03

[kʼän]

დეკემბერი [de̞kʼe̞mbe̞ɾɪ] = “December”

The Georgian e is quite similar to the Japanese e.

სკამი [skʼämɪ] = “chair”

In [skʼämɪ], a “button”-like click sound accompanying “k” can be heard. A similar click sound is also heard very clearly on “k” in [bɪt͡ʃʼɪkʼɔ]. These click sounds are, basically as if when one is lightly clearing their throat.

2017-01-10

რ ს ტ ჳ უ

Learned five letters: რ ს ტ ჳ უ up to “400”. 23/39, 16 to go.

2017-01-11

ფ ქ ღ ყ

“500, 600, 700, 800”: 27/39, 12 to go.

ძაღლი [d͡zäɣlɪ] = “dog”

ყველი [q͡χʼvɛlɪ] = “cheese”

2017-01-13

ყ (cont.) and შ

qʼar (800) & šin (900) — 28/39 — 11 to go.

წყალი [t͡sʼqʼa̠lɪ] = “water”

ვაშლი [väʃlɪ] = “apple”

შაქარი [ʃäkʰäɾɪ] = “sugar”: fa شکر — hy շաքար

2017-01-14

ჩ, ც, ძ, წ, ჭ

ბერძნული [bɛɾd͡znʊ̽li] = “Greek language” (from brjeni “wise”)

Note 1: (jil) looks like (man), except the former does not have a full head.

Note 2: Unless the style is small-cap, (can) has a descender, and does not have an ascender (see the pic below). The Quivira font v4.1 is not correct about this:
PNG 4 KiB
PNG 4 KiB

2017-01-16

ხ, ჴ, ჯ, ჰ

ხე [xe̞] = “tree”

ბრინჯი [bɾɪnd͡ʒɪ] = “rice”

2017-01-18

The Two Last Letters + Additional Letters

Minˈgrēlian [xmf]

კედელი /kʼɛdɛlɪ/ = “wall”

= Minˈgrēlian კჷდალა /kʼədala/

The ECLING [Endangered Caucasian Languages in Georgia] Project: Svan

Others

🖉 2017-01-20 M. Nikolaishvili, N. Bagration-Davitashvili, Georgian Language (Intensive Course) https://www.tsu.ge/data/image_db_innova/Englisuri-new.pdf

2017-04-11 The above seems very good, IF somehow I could get the audio files. Meri Nikolaishvili С.М. Николаишвили: Грузинский язык (Курс ускоренного изучения)
…Okay, somehow I did find some audio files (64-kbps wma) for the 1999 version (an older, Russian version) of the book:
http://gruzinskij.ru/biblioteka/uchebniki-biblioteka/nikolaishvili.html
64-kbps MP3s are here:
http://www.rulit.me/tag/textbooks/gruzinskij-yazyk-kurs-uskorennogo-izucheniya-download-free-306222.html

2017-01-23

Kuwait

الكوَيْت

ქუვეითი

I can now read/write/type the first 27+1 letters of the Georgian Alphabet (up to შ) decently. The last 9+2 letters are also okay-ish but still not settled. “Chhin, Tshan, Dzil, Tsʔil, Chʔar” feels like a tongue-twister. Need more practice.

2017-01-24

Palestine, Qatar, Turkey

فِلَسطين

პალესტინა

قطر

კატარი

تُركِيّا

თურქეთი

2017-01-25

Tehran, Beirut, Muscat

تهران [t̪ʰeh(ĕ)ˈrɒ(ː)n]

طهران (ṭahrān)

თეირანი (tʰeirani)

بَيروت (bayrutʰ)

ბეირუთი (beirutʰi)

مسقط (masqaṭ)

მასკატი (masḳaṭi)

2017-01-26

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan

كازاخستان (kāzāḫstān)

ყაზახეთი (qʼazaxetʰi)

Қазақстан /qɑzaqstɑn/

قيرغيزستان (qīrġīzstʰān)

ყირგიზეთი (qʼirgizetʰi)

Кыргызстан

2017-01-27

Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

طاجيكِستان (ṭāǧīkʰistʰān /d͡ʒ/)

ტაჯიკეთი (tʼaǰikʼetʰi /d͡ʒ/)

Тоҷикистон

تُركمانِستان (tʰurkʰmānistʰān)

თურქმენეთი (tʰrkʰmenetʰi)

Türkmenistan /tyrkmeniθtan/

أوزبَكِستان (ʾūzbakʰistʰān)

უზბეკეთი (uzbekʼetʰi)

Oʻzbekiston

2017-01-28

Astana, Tashkent

أستانة (ʾastāna)

ასტანა (asṭana)

طشقند (ṭašqand)

ტაშკენტი (ṭašḳenṭi)

2017-01-29

Aronson Lesson 1 Exercises 1

თბილისი Tbilisi: Tbili = “warm”

ბათუმი Batumi: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Batumi.ogg /tʰ/ extremely emphasized [ط!]

ცხინვალი Cxinvali

ჭიათურა Č̣iatura

მცხეთა Mcxeta [ت]

ცხაკაია Cxakaia (pre 1976-name of Senaki)

გეგეჭკორი Gegeč̣ḳori (pre 1990-namse of Martvili)

ქუთაისი Kutaisi

2017-01-30

Exercises 1 (cont.)

ბოლნისი Bolnisi: NOTE ს SAN may look like ხ XAN

სოხუმი Soxumi: the capital-like city of Abkhazia

მახარაძე Maxaraje: the former name (1934–1989) of Ozurgeti; the capital of the western Georgian province of Guria

გორი Gori: the capital of Shida Kartli

რუსთავი Rustavi

ახალციხე Axalcixe

ფოთი Poti: a port city

გაგრა Gagra: a town in Abkhazia

2017-02-01

Exercises 1 (cont.)

ტყიბული Ṭq̇ibuli

დუშეთი Dušeti

თელავი Telavi

ყვარელი Q̇vareli

გარდაბანი Gardabani

გურჯაანი Gurǰaani

ზესტაფონი Zesṭaponi

საჩხერე Sačxere

Misc (Lesson 2 etc.)

ცივი civi “cold”; ზამთარი zamtʰari “winter”: Dat. ცივ ზამთარის civ{-i} zamtʰaris ??

რას აკეთებ? ras akʼetʰeb: ras = Dat. of ra “what”; akʼetʰeb = “you-s do”

ინგლისურ inglisur{-i} წიგნს cʼign-s{-i}

ვკითხულობ v-kʼitʰxulob “I read”

მძულს m-jul-s “to hate”: მიყვარს mi-qvar-s “to love” (“I love”=me mi-qvar-s): Reading Gr. p. 332; also see http://mylanguages.org/georgian_verbs.php and http://naxe.org/load/animaciuri/me_chemi_dzma_saertod_ar_miqvars_onii_chan_no_koto_nanka_zenzen_suki_janaindakara_ne/3-1-0-228 მე არ მიყვარს me ... ar mi-qvar-s

ცივა civ-a “it is cold”

არ ar “not”: მომწონს momcʼons “I like?”

ცივა! tsʰiva ცივა! ზამთარი! zamtʰari მე ზამთარი არ მიყვარს!

مه زامتاري ار ميقڤارس.  ܡܗ ܙܐܡܬܐܪܝ ܐܪ ܡܝܩܒ̥ܐܪܣ.

2017-02-02

სალამი = ܫܠܡܐ

1 რას აკეთებ?
What {ras = Dat. of ra “what”} are you doing? {a-ḳetʰ-eb: a- = preradical vowel (PV), -eb = present/future stem formant (P/FSF)}
ინგლისურ წიგნს
{inglisur-i “English (thing)” Dat. -ZERO: c̣ign-i “book” Dat. -s}
ვკითხულობ
I’m reading. {v-ḳit(ʰ)xulob: v- is the marker for 1st sg.}
2 დავითი რას აკეთებს?
What is David doing? {a-ḳetʰ-eb-s: -s = subject marker for 3rd sg.}
ქართულ წიგნს
{kʰartʰul(-i) “Georgian”}
კითხულობს
He is reading {ḳit(ʰ)xulob-s}
** სირიული ენა
siriuli ena “Syriac language”

2017-02-02, 2017-02-03

ა: გამარჯობა ბეჟო/ბიჟუ (?) ბიჭო. როგორ ხარ?
Hello {gamard͡ʒɔba} Bejo/Biju O boy {literally; bich'o = voc. of bich'i}. How are you (sing.) {rɔgɔr=“HOW” xar=“you-sg are”}?
ბ: ძალიან კარგი ვარ. და შენ? NOT *უენ
I’m very fine {d͡zalian “very” kʼargi=“good” var=“I am”}. And {da} you (sing.) {ʃen}?
ა: მეც. სად მიდიხარ? NOT *მიდიძარ
Me too {met͡sʰ}. Where {sad} are you-sg going {mi-di-xar Learn. Gr. p. 19}?
ბ: სახლში.
Home {saxlʃi}.
https://web.archive.org/web/20101210071628/http://www.armazi.com/georgian/ 

THE GEORGIAN LANGUAGE

An outline grammatical summary

2017-02-07

If the root ends in a vowel, the nominative ending is ZERO; otherwise it is -i.

A bit like the Finnish word, Japani; they don’t want “Japan” to end in a consonant, and they add -i.

The dative ending of a noun is -S.

Now, this is NOT like Finnish, where the -i of Japani would be kept!

If the root of an adjective ends in a consonant, it also has -i in Nom; but it has ZERO in Dat. when it is put before a noun it modifies.

http://www.iu.edu/~celtie/georgian_archive.html has audio for Aronson Reading Gr. [CeLTIE = Center for Language Technology and Instructional Enrichment]

🖉 https://tsu.ge/data/image_db_innova/GEORGIAN-MEGRELIAN-LAZ-SVAN-ENGLISH%20DICTIONARY.pdf

2017-02-08

About http://www.iu.edu/~celtie/Lessons/Georgian/G311/rg02.mp3 (an audio recording of Reading Grammar Lesson 2 Exercises) 1 and 2: While kartul ts'igns sounds clear, inglisur ts'igNs sounds like inglisur ts'igRs, as if affected by the -r of inglisur, or like, a half-baked N. I’m hearing [kʰaɾtʰʊl t͡sʼɨɡns] BUT [ɪŋɡlɪsʊɾ t͡sʼɨɡɹs].

k'itxulobs [kʼɨ.t(ʰ)xʊ.lɔbs] “he is reading”: this u is a centralized version of [ʊ~ɵ] (2017-02-09 OR lowered [ʊ̞]); o is between [o] and [ɔ], and centralized. tx ♪ is a harmonic cluster (R Gr p. 16), with only one release, something like k'i-txü-lobs.

2017-02-13 Both RGr. (Aronson) and Standard Georgian (Shosted, Chikovani) say the Georgian t/tʼ/d are dental (but not ts/tsʼ/dz). That may be true. RGr. also says /n/ is dental, while St. Geo. says it’s alveolar. In the harmonic cluster /tx/ ♪, /t/ sounds like a retroflex, not dental. Aronson calls it “prevelar” (*1). While [fkʼɪ.t̪ʰxʊ.ɫɔb] is difficult to say, something like [fkʼɪ.t̠̚xʊ.ɫɔb] seems easier. French trois also has a /tx/-like element. In practical (or psychological) terms, it might be easier to say the Georgian /tx/ if one thinks it is [tʁ̥]. /ʊ/ is wider: [ʊ̞].

*1 2017-04-18 Perhaps what he means by “prevelar” is “palatal or more fronted”. It could be dental, though generally speaking, your tongue wants to go back quickly to make the /x/ sound (almost) simultaneously, and as such, a clear, sharp [t̪] sound may not be generated, even if it is still dental.

2017-02-09

/v/ of /vkʼi.txu.lob/ is realized as [fkʼɨ.txʊ̞.lɔb]. This phenomenon is described in R Gr. p. 17, (25).

2017-02-13

3. წერილს წერ?
Are you writing a letter {ts'erili Dat. ts'erils}? « mem 2017-02-15 »
არა, არ ვწერ.
No, I’m not writing (it). « mem 2017-02-15 »
4. მასწავლებელს ხედავ?
Do you see {xed-av} the teacher {mas-ts'a-vle-be-li Dat. -ls}? « mem 2017-02-16 »
დიახ, ვხედავ.
Yes {diax}, I see him. « mem 2017-02-16 »
სტატიას წერს.
He is writing an article/a report {st'at'ia-s статья}. « mem 2017-02-17 »

The L of ts'e-riLs is dark and u-ish, making the word sound like ts'e-riWs.

Also mas-ts'a-vle-beLs sounds like -beWs, even -beus (-bös).

vxedav = [fχɛdav]

2017-02-16 In mas-ts'a-vle-bels: the ts' is very light, almost like mas-sa-vle-bels; the 2nd L is dark, before which the e is centralized: [mas.t͡sʼa.vle̞.bë̞ɫs] [-bəɫs]

2017-04-21 статья seems to be from *stati (cf. ἵστημι).

2017-02-14

ɾas akʼɛt̪ʰɛb ɪŋɡlɪsʊɾ t͡sʼɪɡn̞s fkʼɪ.t̠χɵ.ɫɔb (n̞ = like ɹ~ɾ)(2017-04-06 or n̪ = like l̪)

davɪt̪ʰi ɾas akʼɛt̪ʰɛbs kʰaɾt̪ʰʊɫ t͡sʼɪɡns kʼɪ.t̠χɵ.ɫɔbs

2017-02-17 [ʊ] is perhaps a better approximation than [ɵ], except this [ʊ] may be slightly wider: [ʊ̞]. On the other hand, [ʊ] in [ɪŋɡlɪsʊɾ] sounds narrower: [ʊ̝]. [ɛ, ɔ] are shorthands for [e̞, o̞] respectively.

2017-04-05 It is important to note that in Georgian უ “u” is near [o], while ო “o” is near [ɔ]. Perhaps the best way to describe them is [o̝] vs. [ɔ̝]. The Georgian “e” is almost identical to the Japanese “e”. The Ge. “o” may be similar to the Ja. “o”, but perhaps wider. Furthermore, the Ge. “a” may be similar to the Ja. “a” and also to the French “a” (all of them seem to be a slightly fronted [ä]).

2017-02-15

5. რას აკეთებენ დავითი და ელისაბედი?
What are David and Elizabeth doing {a-k'e-te-ben}? « mem 2017-02-22 »
წიგნს კითხულობენ.
They are reading {k'i-txu-lo-ben} a book. « mem 2017-02-22 »

Again, the N of ts'igNs is unclear. This time, a very short [n] is heard just before [s], like [t͡sʼɪɡ(ŋ)ⁿs].

http://www.icgl.org/quiqlessons.html
INTERNATIONAL CENTER OF GEORGIAN LEANGUAGE:
http://www.icgl.org/Quick_Lesson_1.wav

Einführung in die Georgische Sprache (band I & II)
http://lingvist.info/caucasian/einf252hrung_in_die_georgische_sprache/

Online Language Survival Kit:
http://fieldsupport.dliflc.edu/products/georgian/gg_bc_LSK/default.html

2017-02-16

6. რას აკეთებდა შენი მამა გუშინ?
What was your {šeni} father doing {ak'eteb-da} yesterday {gušin}? « mem 2017-02-26 »
გუშინ საინტერესო წიგნს კითხულობდა.
Yesterday he was reading {k'itxulob-da} an interesting {saint'ereso (indeclinable)} book. « mem 2017-02-27 »

2017-02-17

დღეს კი წერილს წერს.
Today {dghes}, however, he is writing a letter. « mem 2017-03-01 »
ხვალ ჩემი ძმა წერილს დაწერს.
Tomorrow {khval}, my {chemi} brother {dzma} will write {da-ts'ers} a letter. « mem 2017-03-02 »

/ʁ/ of /dʁes/ is extremely smooth; it’s not a clear fricative, but an ɹ-like approximant, or a very slight, near-approximant fricative. /dǧ/ ♪ is a harmonic cluster (RGr p. 16).

While Aronson says /v/ becomes [w] after C, /xval/ is [χvaɫ]. Perhaps [w] or [ʋ] after CC, as in potsxVeri “lynx”?

2017-03-01 The L of ts'eriLs is dark, weak (cf. R Gr. p. 17 (27)).

http://digitale-sammlungen.ulb.uni-bonn.de/content/pageview/116903

2017-02-17 Brosset.jpg
Thumbnail 8 KiB (108 KiB)

2017-03-25 Brosset1830.jpg
Thumbnail 8 KiB (173 KiB):
taken from chroniquegorgie00unkngoog_0247.tif / _0248.tif @
https://archive.org/stream/chroniquegorgie00unkngoog#page/n245/mode/2up

2017-02-21

7. ხვალ რას გააკეთებთ?
Tomorrow what will you guys do? {-ebt like -ept} « mem 2017-03-04 »

ga=a-k'et-eb-t

2017-03-04 The k' of gaak'etebt sounds like gʾ (g + hamza): it sounds like voiced but differently from the g at the beginning (it is like “choking”).

ხვალ გაზეთს წავიკითხავთ.
Tomorrow we will read {ts'a=v-i-k'itx-av-t like -aft/apt} newspaper {gazeti, -ts} « mem 2017-03-04 »

2017-02-22 So we have წ [t͡sʼ] and ც [t͡s] and თს [tʼs]…? This is wachy.

2017-03-07 газета [ɡɐˈz̪ʲɛt̪ə] : [ɐ~ʌ] is the semi-reduced /a/ before the accented syllable, after a hard consonant. [ɛ] is a mid vowel between [e~ɛ], perhaps nearer to [ɛ]. [ə] is the reduced /a/.

2017-02-23

დედა წერილს დაწერს,
Mother {deda} will write {da=ts'er-s} a letter {D}; « mem 2017-03-06 »
მარიამი კი რუსულ ლექსს ისწავლის.
Mary {Mariami} however will study {i-sts'avl-i-s: i- preradical} a Russian {rusuli Dat. rusul} poem {leksi Dat. -ss}. « mem 2017-03-06 »

2017-03-05 leksi = λέξις

2017-04-06 cf. λέγω “to tell”; legō “to choose, read”; λόγος

2017-03-03

8. რას სწავლობ?
What are you studying {sts'avlob(-s) pr. of i-sts'avl-i-s}? « mem 2017-03-07 »
ქართულ გრამატიკას ვსწავლობ.
I am studying Georgian grammar {γραμματική}. « mem 2017-03-07 »

2017-03-06 sts'avlOB-s (i-sts'avl-i-s) is like k'itxULOB-s (ts'a=i-k'itx-av-s); both have LOB.

2017-03-07 Like: f-sts'avlob

2017-03-04

9. რას ხედავ? მასწავლებელს ვხედავ.
What do you see? I see the teacher. « mem 2017-03-10 »
მოწაფეს ხედავ? დიახ, ქართულ გაკვეთილს თარგმნის.
Do you see a pupil {mots'ape = mosts'avle}? Yes, he (/she ?) is translating {targmn-i-s} a Georgian lesson {gak'vetili, Dat. -tils}. « mem 2017-03-11 »
ელისაბედი გაკვეთილს ხვალ გადათარგმნის.
Elizabeth will translate {gada=targmn-i-s} the lesson tomorrow. « mem 2017-03-12 (std KL) »

2017-03-11 ო is a narrower [ɔ]; ა is [a], perhaps slightly retracted but not [ä]; ე is a narrower [ɛ], similar to the Japanese e; ი is roughly [ɪ]; უ is roughly [ʊ]. გაკვეთილს may sound like gak'v“a”tils, but if you play back the audio file slowly at the 50% speed, it is obvious that ვ is narrower than ა, and it is a narrower [ɛ]. It’s not a clear “e” and somewhat “a”-like, perhaps because it is centralized, near [ɜ], which is somewhat [ʌ]-like.

mots'ape can mean “schoolboy” (ученик): ref Georgian language Dictionary by Niko Chubinashvili, 1812-1825. It is not clear if it can also mean “schoolgirl” (ученица), though I think the word is probably gender-neutral.

2017-03-12 GEORGIAN-MEGRELIAN-LAZ-SVAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY p. 165 has მოწაფე as “pupil, disciple”; most probably it’s gender-neutral.

2017-04-13 მოწაფე ученик; მოწაფე ქალი ученица (Грузинско-русский словарь by Канкава (2001; 3rd ed.)) — მოწაფე itself is gender-neutral.

Have just installed the Windows Russian KL (JCUKEN) as [Ctrl]+[8], and remembered 6 key positions: у.ч.е.н.и.к. ученик

[GSYW] Notice that the Syriac ܬ = Hebrew ת = Arabic ت is treated as aspirated in Armenian/Georgian.

Ex 10 has been updated in Addenda/Corrigenda (R. Gr. p. 527)!

2017-03-06

статья [s̪t̪ɐˈtʲä]

Remembered FIVE more key positions on the йцукен (JCUKEN): the Russian с is on [C] (easy to remember!), а is on [F] (easiest to type), я is on [Z] (at the left bottom corner); т and ь are at the lower row, typed by the right first finger. Now I can type 11/33 letters of the Russian Alphabet: ученик статья.

2017-03-07

Russian KL, Day 3: Remembered TWO more, г and з, so I can type газета. 13 down, 20 to go.

2017-03-08

10. გუშინ რა ენას სწავლობდი?
Yesterday what language did you study? {ra Dat. ras, BUT ra ena Dat. ra# enas LIKE rusul# enas}{Impf. 1c/2c sg/pl is -di, unlike 3c sg -da} « mem 2017-03-13 (std KL) »
გუშინ რუსულ ენას ვსწავლობდი.
Yesterday I studied the Russian language. « mem 2017-03-13 (std KL) »
ხვალ ინგლისურ გაკვეთილს გადავწერ. [Corrigenda]
ინგისუ გაკვეთის გადავწე ხვა. [Original word order]
Tomorrow I will copy (gada+v-ts'er: no pres.) the English lesson. « mem 2017-03-14 (std KL) »
ახლა ქართულ გაზეთს ვკითხულობ.
Now {axla} I am reading a Georgian newspaper. « mem 2017-03-14 (std KL) »

Russian KL, Day 4: have learned TWO more keys (п:ш) to type пишет, напишет. 15 down, 18 to go.

2017-03-09

Russian KL, Day 5: have learned FOUR more keys (о/л/в/й) to type столовая/столовой. о is at the right 1st position; л is at the right 2nd position like Hebrew ל; в is at the left 2nd. 19 down, 14 to go.

11. მარიამი ქართულ ანბანს სწავლობს.
Mary is studying the Georgian alphabet. « mem 2017-03-15 (std KL) »
სიტყვას გადაწერს და შემდეგ წარმოთქვამს.
She will copy {gada+ts'er-s} a word {sit'q'va-s}, and then {šemdeg} will pronounce it {ts'ar-mo+TKV-am-s: ts'armo “away from the speaker” (higher)}. « mem 2017-03-17 (std KL) »
ქართულ სიტყვას კარგად წარმოთქვამს.
She will pronounce the Georgian word well {k'argad}. « mem 2017-03-19 (std KL) »

/t'q'/ ♪ is a harmonic cluster (RGr p. 17), like [tʼχ]; and +v: ibid. (25). A very short [ʁ]-like sound is heard when [tʼ] is released just before /v/: something like [sɪtʼʁwaz]. (See Ex 12 below)

k'argad is an adverb from k'argi “good”, which is from Arm. կարգ “order”

2017-03-14 The q' of sit'q'vas here is very faint, but at the 50% speed, a “windy noise” is heard somewhere before the v, perhaps at the same time as the release of the t. It is like [sɪtʼ(χ)ʋaz], but the (χ) is faint. Maybe you say χ “behind the scene” exactly when you pop “t”?

2017-03-16 In the second half of rg02.mp3, each word in the vocabulary section (pp. 55–57) is read one by one, clearly and slowly, showing that: when the t' of sit'q'va is released there is a clear [q ~ χ] sound almost at the same time, somewhat like “popping” or in fact like “sucking”. This mp3 is amazingly helpful!

2017-03-17 /tʰkʰ/ ♪ is also a harmonic cluster. However, in the recording, there is a pure [t] sound, followed by a [kʰ], the interval being about 80 milliseconds; not so atomic as /t'q'/.

2017-03-19 In the third line, the χ of [sɪtʼχʋaz] is clearly heard as a throaty noise, somewhat like [sɪtʼʁʋaz].

2017-03-10

Russian KL Day 6: FOUR more (э-р-ы-б), 23 down, only 10 to go (ё-цщхъ-фдж-мю)!

э and р are right-middle, outside and inside; ы is on the home position, left 3rd; б is on [,].

Now I can type this, slowly but blindly: Извините, это рыба?

ы is unrounded; it is said to be /ɨ/, but perhaps more retracted than the typical [ɨ], something between [ɨ] and [ɯ].

2017-03-11

Typing practice

Извините, это рыба?
Нет, это мясо.
А это рис?
Нет, это салат. Сыр и майонез.
Извините, а что это? Сок?
Нет, это компот.

Russian KL Day 7: Today I have only one new letter, м; however, I already know how to type ё/ц/ф/ю, so the score is 28 down, 5 to go (щхъ-дж).

2017-03-12

🖉 Memo: Concordance des lettres géorgiennes Avec les Alphabets arménien, arabe, persan, et turk: in Chapter 1, §10 of L’art libéral, ou Grammaire géorgienne by Brosset (1834), page 21. It says ტ = ت or ط while თ = ت, and similarly კ = ك or ق (but no Arabic letters for ქ).

Typing practice (cont.)

А что это? Сыр?
Нет, это творог.
Скажите, а это рис?
Да, это рис.
Дайте, пожалуйста!

Russian KL Day 8: Today I learned д and ж; also I already know how to type щ/х/ъ. So that’s it: 33 down, 0 to go. Shortcuts updated: [Shift]+[Alt]+[8] is no more “Russian Phonetic Student - WinRus.com” but the Russian. [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[6] = Georgian (standard)

Georgian KL seen as Russian KL-mod
17 keys identical (w. some mod): 2 keys “inserted”: 14 keys off-by-one

(йღ) (цჯ) у к е | н г ш (щწ) з х (ъც)
ф (ыძ) в +თ а | п р о л д ж(яჭ) ч +ყ с м | и т (ьქ) б (юჰ) -.

ლ on [L] (easy); თ on [F], ყ on [C]

Jpeg 38 KiB
[image added on 2017-04-06] cc-by-sa-2.0 by Alexander Konchikhin

12. რას აღნიშნავს სიტყვა „მამა“?
What does the word {sit'q'va} “mama” mean {aǧ+NIŠN-av-s: aǧ- = higher pre-verb}? « mem 2017-03-21 [std KL by default] »

/t'q'/ ♪ Here a very strong [q]-like click is heard when the cluster is released.

2017-03-20 It is a “popping” or “sucking” sound, at the time of the release of the [t], just before the ვ. ღ (transl. ǧ) is a simple ḡ [ɣ], shallow and mild, and not a deep, harsh [ʁ]. The ვ of აღნიშნავს is [ɸ~β] and sometimes sounds like “m” since it’s bilabial, unlike [f~v]. The standard quotation marks in Georgian are like that of German.

2017-03-13

„მამა“ აღნიშნავს „father“-ს.
“mama” means “father”. « mem 2017-03-21 »
ქართული სიტყვა „დედა“ აღნიშნავს „mother“-ს.
The Georgian word “deda” means “mother”. « mem 2017-03-21 »

Becoming a little comfortable with the traditional Georgian KL. The off-by-one relationship against the Russian KL is not so confusing as I expected.

2017-03-16

13. ხვალ მარიამს ვნახავ.
Tomorrow I will see Mary. {#=NAX-av-s, pr. XED-av-s} « mem 2017-03-22 »
მარიამი და ელისაბედი საქართველოს აღწერენ.
Mary and Elizabeth will describe (=talk about?) Georgia. {agh+ts'er-s: agh- “up” (higher): gh like a voiceless [χ]} « mem 2017-03-22 »
შემდეგ ქართულ გაკვეთილს წაიკითხავენ.
Afterwards, they will read the Georgian lesson. {(ts'a+)i-K'ITX-av-s, pr. K'ITXULOB-s: x is [x]} « mem 2017-03-23 »

Now I can type half-automatically without thinking much, using this KL, though still slowly. The off-by-one is not a big problem; it could even work positively, not negatively. Basically you can (and probably should) just learn this KL independently, as something unrelated to the Russian KL; but until you memorize everything, the Russian KL also works as a hint, whenever you can’t remember the right key position of some letter. Besides, about 50% of the key positions are identical to Russian ones anyway, which is rather comfortable, just like Syriac (non-phonetic) vs. Arabic.

So now, [Left Alt]+[Shift]+[6] = Georgian; Georgian (QWERTY) = no shortcut. That is, I may not use the QWERTY Georgian KL again. The last time I used it was 2017-03-11, and I switched to the non-QWERTY on 2017-03-12.

One quirk of this KL is, [-] is EN-DASH, while EM-DASH is not supported. These are [AltGr]+[=] (EN) and [AltGr]+[-] (EM) on the QWERTY Georgian.

2017-03-23 U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS is [Shift]+[-].

2017-03-28 Reassigned [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[6]=Georgian (QWERTY); this KL seems rather important, possibly related to Chat Georgian or ASCII Georgian.

2017-03-21 v-NAX-av [ɸnaχav]: this [ɸ~f] is hearable but alarmingly faint. This means that I might confuse “I will see” with “You will see.” The [χ] may be actually [x], but it sounds “deeper” and throaty, more like [χ] to my ears, though not extremely harsh (“lightly uvular” if such an expression makes sense). On the other hand, the /x/ of /xval/ sounds lighter, may be indeed [x]; still it is perhaps post-velar as Aronson says, not the standard [x]. While the difference between [x] and [χ] is usually not important, this could be confusing in Georgian, where ყ is often realized like [χʼ]. Maybe ყ vs. ხ is not [χ] vs. [x], but [χʼ] vs. [χʰ]?

2017-03-22 [sa.kʰaɾ.tʰve̞.ɫo̽] if the word is read alone (in the Vocabulary section); in the above sentence,
roughly [sa.kʰaɾ.tʰwə.ɫɵs]. That is, ვე /ve/ is read like [wə]. A similar thing occurs also in გაკვეთილს [ɡakʼ.wə.tʰɪɫs]. In ts'a+i-k'iTX-av-en, /tx/ ♪ is a harmonic cluster.

2017-03-17

14. კონცერტს ისმენთ?
Are you guys listening to the concert? {mo=i-SMEN-s} « mem 2017-03-25 »
არა, ქართულ სავარჯიშოს ვწერთ.
No, we are writing a Georgian exercise {savarjisho-s: sg. Dat. though Key to the Ex. treats this as pl.; pl. Dat. seems to be -ebs}. « mem 2017-03-25 »
საღამოს კინოფილმს ვნახავთ,
In the evening {saghamo-s}, we will see a movie; {k'inopiɫmi}{v-NAX-av-t from #=NAX-av-s (fut.)} « mem 2017-03-29 »
შემდეგ კი გაკვეთილს ვისწავლით.
after that, however, we will study a lesson. {#=i-STSAVL-i-s (fut.)} « mem 2017-04-03 »

1:51–2:03.5

2017-03-23 savarjišo sounds like [sa.vaɾ.d͡ʒɪ.ʃˑɵ], as if there were 2 (or 1.5) consonants before the o. The 3rd + 4th syllabales, though having fewer phonemes, are slower than the 1st + 2nd. Something to do with the two consecutive open syllables?
2017-03-28 Georgian is what linguists call a syllable-timed language, meaning that every syllable is given about equal time
https://georgiasomethingyouknowwhatever.wordpress.com/2013/02/25/teaching-english-the-nwa-way/

2017-03-25 sa-varjišo is from Persian ورزش (värzìš) “sport, exercise”: ì is [e̞] in pes.

2017-04-02 vis-t͡sav-lit sounds like vis-sav-lit.

2017-03-19

15. მასწავლებელს ხედავთ?
Do you guys see the teacher? « mem 2017-04-04 »
ახლა წერილს წერს.
Now he/she is writing a letter. « mem 2017-04-05 »
გუშინ საინტერესო სტატიას კითხულობდა.
Yesterday he/she was reading an interesting report. « mem 2017-04-05 »

–2:11

At this point, the Georgian KL works for me about as well as the Hebrew KL. Although phonetical layouts may be easier to use, it’s practically the same difference for me because I can’t type fast language-wise anyway. Besides, you can type თ by just hitting one key [F], instead of [Shift]+[T]. Like that, a few letters are easier to type on the traditional KL than on the QWERTY. One thing I really like about this KL is, the layout is roughly identical to that of the standard Russian KL. A few years ago I switched from Syriac (phonetic) to Syriac (non-phonetic) because of a similar reason (that way Syriac/Arabic can be input similarly), and from that experience I know this is more convenient and painless in the long run.

2017-03-21

16. რას აკეთებდით გუშინ?
What were you guys doing yesterday? {ga=a-K'ET-eb-s, a-K'ET-eb-di-t} « mem 2017-04-06 »
ქართულ ლექსს ვიხილავდით.
We were discussing {gan^=i-XIL-av-s, v-i-XIL-av-di-t: gan^ is elevated form of ga} a Georgian poem {leksi}. « mem 2017-04-06 »

The ss of lekss might be longer than a single s, but basically it sounds like a single s (also in Ex 7).

2017-03-24

17 გუშინ წითელ წიგნს ვკითხულობდი.
Yesterday I was reading a red {ts'iteli} book. « mem 2017-04-07 »
ვანო კი თეთრს კითხულობდა.
Vano, however, was reading a white one {tetri tetrs}. « mem 2017-04-07 »

2017-04-06 წიგნს may be [t͡sʼɪɡn̪s]; it also sounds like [t͡sʼɪɡls]. The /n/ is not a typical [n], perhaps dental.

2017-03-29

Typing Practice

город, друг, музей, учитель
-тель m.

2017-04-02

18 რას ისმენთ?
What are you guys listening to? {mo=i-SMEN-s} « mem 2017-04-08 »
ახლა ქართულ ოპერას ვისმენთ.
Now we are listening to a Georgian opera. « mem 2017-04-09 »
ხვალ რუსულს მოვისმენთ.
Tomorrow we will listen to a Russian one. « mem 2017-04-10 »

2017-04-05

19. ზურაბი რადიოგადაცემას ისმენს?
Zurabi {PN mas.} is listening to {mo=i-smen-s} the radio broadcast {gadat͡sʰema}? « mem 2017-04-11 »
არა, ჟურნალს კითხულობს.
No, he is reading a magazine {ʒurnali from Fr. un journal}. « mem 2017-04-11 »
შოთა და შალვა ისმენენ რადიოგადაცემას.
Šota (m) and Šalva (m) are listening to the radio broadcast. « mem 2017-04-13 »

2:39

On the typewriter ჟ is placed at the [ж]+1 position, that is [э] or (on the US KL) [']. Note that ჟ is [ ʒ ] (French j), while ж is [ ʐ ].

2017-04-10 ჟურნალი is prob. via Ru. журнал.

2017-04-11 In the third sentence, the object comes after the verb. In normal word order, the verb is in the final position (R-Gr. 2.4).

2017-04-13 Maybe the above word order is like, “Shota and Shalva are listening to the radio broadcast.” i.e. they are indeed listening and not reading.

2017-04-07

20. მასწავლებელი სავარჯიშოს იხილავს?
Is the teacher discussing the exercise? {i-XIL-av-s} « mem 2017-04-15 »
დიახ, სავარჯიშოს იხილავს.
Yes, he is discussing the exercise. « mem 2017-04-15 »
ხვალ ახალ სავარჯიშოს განიხილავს.
Tomorrow, he will discuss {gan^} a new {axali axal} exercise. « mem 2017-04-15 »
21. დღეს ქართულ ზმნას სწავლობენ,
Today, THEY study {sts'avlob-EN} the Georgian verb {zmna}; « mem 2017-04-17 »
ხვალ კი დიდ ქართულ ლექსს წაიკითხავენ.
tomorrow, however, THEY will read {ts'a+i-K'ITX-av-EN} a great {didi did} Georgian poem. « mem 2017-04-18 »

2:56

2017-04-08

22. გუშინ ქართულ გრამატიკას სწავლობდით?
Yesterday were you guys studying Georgian grammar? « mem 2017-04-19 »
არა, ქართულ გრამატიკას არ ვსწავლობდით.
No, we were not studying Georgian grammar. « mem 2017-04-19 »
რუსულ პიესას ვთარგმნიდით.
We were translating a Russian drama (play). {p'iesa = пьеса = Fr. une pièce} « mem 2017-04-19 »

3:06

While пе is /pʲe/, пье is /pʲje/ with an extra /j/, almost like /pʲie/ (hence პიე): пьеса [ˈpʲje̝.s̪ə].

2017-04-10

23. ხვალ რას გავაკეთებთ?
Tomorrow what will we do? {ga=a-K'ET-eb-s: ga=v-a-K'ET-eb-t}{NOTE: in MP3 ga=a- “will you guys do”} « mem 2017-04-20 »
ქართულ სტატიას წავიკითხავთ,
A Georgian article — we will read it; {ts'a+i-K'ITX-av-s: ts'a+v-i-K'ITX-av-t} « mem 2017-04-21 »
შემდეგ კი განვიხილავთ.
after that, however, we will discuss it. {gan^=i-XIL-av-s: gan^=v-i-XIL-av-t} « mem 2017-04-23 »
თბილისს აღვწერთ.
Tbilisi — we will describe it. {aɣ^+C'ER-s: aɣ^+v-C'ER-t} « mem 2017-04-25 »

PNG 20 KiB

2017-04-16

24. რას აკეთებდნენ შოთა და შალვა?
What were Shota and Shalva doing {a-k'et-eb-DNEN}? « mem 2017-04-25 »
შოთა ინგლისურ წიგნს კითხულობდა, შალვა კი ქართულს.
Shota was reading an English book; Shalva, however, [was reading] a Georgian one. « mem 2017-04-27 »

3:23.5

Asomtavruli ႣႨႠႾ = დიახ “yes”

2017-04-17

25. რას იხილავდი გუშინ?
What were you discussing yesterday? « mem 2017-05-01 »
„ანა კარენინას“ ვიხილავდი.
I was discussing “Anna Karenina” {А́нна Каре́нина}. « mem 2017-05-01 »

2017-04-18

26. მასწავლებელი დაიწყებს თარგმნას,
The teacher will start {da=i-C'Q'-eb-s} translating {verbal noun Dat.}; « mem 2017-05-05 »
მოწაფე კი გააგრძელებს.
the student, however, will continue it. {ga=a-grd͡zel-eb-s} « mem 2017-05-05 »

3:34

gada=targmn-i-s: to form the verbal noun, the P/FSF (present/future stem format) -i is dropped (R Gr 2.5), then -a is added. From the future form, gada=targmn-a; From the present form, targmn-a.

c'q' [t͡sʼqʼ] ♪ is a harmonic cluster (R Gr 1.3).

[] is on [ы], which is [S].

Asomtavruli ႾႥႠႪ = ხვალ “tomorrow”

Typing Practice

лампа лампа лампа
подруга подруга подруга
семья семья семья
дверь дверь дверь

2017-04-21

27. ხვალ ელისაბედი და შალვა მნიშვნელოვან სტატიას გადათარგმნიან.
Tomorrow Elizabeth and Shalva will translate {gada=targmn-i-AN} an important {mnišvnelovan(i)} article. « mem 2017-05-11 »
შემდეგ ქართულ ენას განიხილავენ.
After that they will discuss {gan^=i-xil-av-EN} the Georgian language. « mem 2017-05-12 »

3:42

2017-05-10 Something like [mnɪʃ.w̥nɜ.ɫɔ.va.nɪ], where w̥ is a w-like approximant but voiceless, ɜ(~ɘ) is a mid /e/ centralized significantly, possibly over-centralized toward [ɤ].

2017-05-11 tʰa-r-g-m-n- is five-consonant, while the Aramaic root is quad trgm. The final -n is visible in Syriac as ܬܰܪܓܡܳܢܐ and Arabic تُرجُمان, both meaning “translator”. It seems that the Armenians used tʿargmaN-el as a verb, whence this Georgian verb. Originally (in Semitic languages) this is not “to translate” but “a translator”!

2017-04-25

28. ქართულ სტატიას კითხულობდი?
Were you reading a Georgian article? « mem 2017-05-14 »
არა, ინგლისურს ვკითხულობდი.
No, I was reading an English one. « mem 2017-05-14 »

3:48

Typing Practice

окно́ окно окно со́лнце солнце солнце вре́мя время время

The л of солнце is not pronounced. [ˈs̪o̞nt̪͡s̪ɘ]

Asomtʰavruli (uppercase xucʰuri/Хуцури) ႵႠႰႧႭჃႪ or ႵႠႰႧႳႪ (12c ?) = ქართულ

2017-04-26

29. ხვალ რუსულ სავარჯიშოს გადაწერთ?
Tomorrow will you guys copy {da “down” vs. gada “across”} the Russian exercise? « mem 2017-05-15 »
არა, ქართულს გადავწერთ.
Nope, we will copy the Georgian one. « mem 2017-05-15 »

3:54

2017-04-27

30. რას აკეთებდნენ შოთა და შალვა გუშინ?
What were Shota and Shalva doing yesterday? « mem 2017-05-16 »
შოთა და შალვა ქართულ გაზეთს კითხულობდნენ.
Shota and Shalva were reading a Georgian newspaper. « mem 2017-05-16 »
ზურაბი და მარიამი კი ლინგვისტიკას სწავლობდნენ.
Zurabi and Mariami, however, were studying linguistics. {lin-gvis-t'i-k'a Rus. линг-ви́с-ти-ка} « mem 2017-05-17 »
ხვალ სულიკო ქართულ ანბანს გადაწერს.
Tomorrow Sulik'o {com.gen.} will copy the Georgian alphabet. « mem 2017-05-18 »

4:10

lin-gvis-t'i-k'a [lɪŋ.ɡwɪs.t̪ʼɪ.kʼa] (RGr p. 17) is prob. from Russian линг-ви́с-ти-ка. The Russian version, however, is said to be [lʲɪn̪ɡ-], not *[lʲɪŋ.ɡ-], and perhaps from French lin-guis-tique, which is also /lɛ̃.ɡ-/ ([lɛ̃.ɡ-] or [læ̃.ɡ-]). Georgian is like English about this one, where ng/ნგ is [ŋ.ɡ] {#1} — while in Russian/French the н/n is not [ŋ] before г/g.

2017-05-16 #1 Or possibly [ŋ.ŋ].

2017-04-28

31. როცა ქართულ ენას ვსწავლობთ, მასწავლებელი სიტყვას დაწერს ხოლმე, ვანო და მარიკო კი გადაწერენ.
When {roca} we study the Georgian language, the teacher always {xolme Indicates a habitual action: RGr p. 50 note 3} writes (will write) {da=c'er-s, Future in form} a word; Vano and Marik'o {dim. of Mariami}, on the other hand, (will) copy it. « mem 2017-05-26 »
მასწავლებელი სიტყვას წარმოთქვამს, და შემდეგ ვანო გაიმეორებს.
The teacher will pronounce {c'ar^mo+ “away for you” tkv-am-s} the word {“a word” or “the word” depending on the context}, and then Vano will repeat it {ga= “out” i-meor-eb-s}.
ხვალ ვანო და მარიკო განიხილავენ ქართულ რომანს.
Tomorrow Vano and Mari'ko will discuss {gan^=i-xil-av-en} a Georgian novel {romani: Ru рома́н Fr un roman [ʁɔ.mɑ̃]}.

2017-04-29

In the MP3 file, ენას ვსწავლობთ sounds like enas-s-(ɸ?)sc'avlobt, that is I hear “enas-s-(ɸ?)sc'a”. This may be actually enas-ვ-სწა, where the second s is ვ. Or it may be enas-s-ვსწა, where the second s is a “noise” produced while going from ს to ვ.

The difficulty of sit'q'va is that q' appears as the cluster t'q'v when q' alone is difficult. While the -v is not a big problem, the t' and q' in t'q' are pronounced almost simultaneously. It sounds like si-T-va, where T is a funny t with a VERY strong pop/click. It’s vaguly similar to the tr of French trois: especially it’s like [t͡ʁʼ] in the first სიტყვას of 31. It’s more like [t͡χʼ] in the second სიტყვას. I’ll tackle this one after I become more comfortable with the standalone /qʼ/.

32. ვიქტორი ლექსს ისმენს.
Vikt'ori is listening to a poem.
შემდეგ სავარჯიშოს გადაწერს.
Afterwards he will copy the exercise.

2017-04-30

33. როცა მამა წერას დაიწყებს, დედა კითხვას დაიწყებს, მარიკო კი გაზეთს წაიკითხავს.
When the father begins {lit. will begin} writing {da=c'er-s: (da)c'er-a}, the mother will begin (finishing) to read {(c'a)i-k'itx-av-s fut.: k'itx-v-sa: -av- loses the a}, and Marik'o will read the newspaper.

4:45

The c'q' of daic'q'-eb-s is not pronounced simultaneously, and so relatively easy: almost like [daɪt͡sʼ.ʁʼe̞b̥s]. On the other hand, tsʰ vs. tsʼ is not very easy.

2017-05-02

34. ვიქტორი კლასიკურ მუსიკას ისმენდა ხოლმე.
Vikt'ori used to listen to classical music.
ახლა კი, როცა ქართულ გრამატიკას სწავლობს, ქართულ ხალხურ მუსიკას ისმენს.
Now, however, when he studies Georgian grammar, he listens to Georgian folk music.

4:57

Vikt'ori k'lasik'ur: kʰ then kʼ, both followed by a consonant. In both cases, there is a brief pause between the two consonants. In kt' there is a breath sound between k and t', while in k'l the pause between k' and l is very silent. The k' ends abruptly, as if choked.

roca: the r is perhaps rolled here, [r] not [ɾ].

kartul gramat'ik'as: kʰ tʰ then tʼ kʼ.

2017-05-08

35. როცა ქართულ გრამატიკას ვსწავლობდით, მასწავლებელი ხშირად აღწერდა ხოლმე ქართულ წარმოთქმას.
When we were studying Georgian grammar, the teacher often {xširad} used to describe the Georgian pronunciation.
ყოველ ახალ ქართულ სიტყვას წარმოთქვამდა ხოლმე.
He/She used to pronounce {c'armo+TKV-am-da} every {q'ovel(i)} new {axal(i)} Georgian word.
შემდეგ სიტყვას გადავწერდი ხოლმე.
Then I used to copy the word.
ვიმეორებდი ხოლმე, როცა ვკითხულობდი ქართულ გრამატიკას.
I used to repeat it {ga=i-MEOR-eb-s}, when I was reading a Georgian grammar {book}.

5:17

Verbal Noun (vn) of c'armo+TKV-am-s (α) = *c'armo+TKV-m-a (am loses a) > c'armo+TK-m-a (β) (V-loss before/after b/p/p'/m: RGr 1.11.1). (α) means I/P [either imperfective or perfective aspect] “enounces, articulates sth; says sth (out loud, e.g. Amen)”. (β) = vn “uttering, saying out loud; ling. pronunciation; expressing (opinion)” [Rayfield et al. A Comprehensive Georgian-English Dictionary (draft, 2006) 1585a]

Similarly, (γ) gamo+TKV-am-s = “will express sth (e.g. thought), will utter sth; will pronounce sth (word)” and (δ) gamo+TK-ma = vn “expressing (e.g. thought), expression (e.g. phrase); pronouncing, pronunciation, declaiming” [Rayfield 318b]

Note, the example of RGr 48 (Lesson 2) is γ/δ, while in this lesson, α/β is actually used. Possibly, an error.

2017-05-09 ყოველ is [χʼɔ.ʋɜɫ] here, while in the Vocabulary section, [qʼɔ.vɛ.lɪ].

2017-05-10

36. დღეს ვიქტორი სიმფონიას ისმენს.
Today Vikt'ori is listening to a symphony.
გუშინ კვარტეტს ისმენდა.
Yesterday he was listening to a quartet {kvart'et'(i)}.

5:23

თს vs. ტს vs. ც

tʰs is sharp, fast, strong, breathy, and it only has a “ts”-part; tʼs is weak, slow, and it has a tʼ-part followed by a s-part.

2017-05-16 For example tʰs of გაზეთს is like that. cʰ of როცა, on the other hand, is even sharper, having a strong t(ʰ) part followed by a very strong sʰ part.

2017-05-12

37. როცა ვანო და თამარი რუსულ ენას სწავლობდნენ, რუსულ ლექსს ხშირად თარგმნიდნენ ხოლმე.
When Vano and Tamari were studying the Russian language, they would often translate a Russian poem.

5:32

2017-05-14

38. ფიზიკას როდის ისწავლით?
Physics {pʰizik'a} — when {rodis} will you guys study it?
ფიზიკას ხვალ საღამოს ვისწავლით.
Physics — we will study it tomorrow in the evening {saǧamo-s}.

5:38

φυσική, Lat. physica, Fr. physique /fi.zik/, фи́зика: In French, “s” is /z/ between two vowels (not incl. a nasal vowel + s + C). Note, Georgian does not have /f/ — though /v/ may be realized as [ɸ].

2017-05-16

39. შენს ქართულ ლექსს როდის დაწერ?
Your {šeni D šen-s with -s before a noun in D} Georgian poem — when will you write it?
ჩემს ქართულ ლექსს საღამოს დავწერ.
My {čʰemi čʰem-s} Georgian poem — I will write it in the evening.

In the MP3, however, the -s of šen-s is not heard, while the -s of čʰem-s is audible.

Also, practically there is only one S in lekʰS-S, though this S may be slightly longer than a real, single S.

Surprisingly, DA-čʼer is read as if DAS.čʼer, where the open syllable DA is closed with a non-existing but clearly heard S. This is like savar-JI-šo = savar-JIŠ-šo (Ex14, 2017-03-23), but more striking.

The R of kʰaR-tʰuɫ: [ɾ] in the first sentence; a lightly rolled [r] in the second sentence.

saǧamos: this ǧ is a typical, sweet velar [ɣ], not a guttural, uvular [ʁ]; unlike its voiceless counterpart, which is often a uvular [χ].

Slavic languages with many speakers

2017-04-09

The #1 and #2 languages of the East/West/South groups:

#3 languages:

2017-04-10 The above data is from Ethnologue (2017), where it is not clear why Czech and Slovak have so many L2 speakers. The obvious explanation would be that many Slovaks can speak Czech, and vice versa, but this is not documented. Ethnologue is always a bit iffy, anyway.

Ukrainian KL

Like Russian, except: (1) U+0457 [ ї ] CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YI instead of ъ; (2) U+0456 [ і ] CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I instead of ы; (3) U+0454 [ є ] CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER UKRAINIAN IE instead of э; (4) U+0491 [ ґ ] CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN as VK_OEM_102 or [AltGr]+г; (5) ё is supported but unused. So the Ukrainian alphabet has 33 letters, like the Russian Alphabet.

2017-04-26 In the Ukrainian (Enhanced) KL (Windows Vista+), ё is no more supported. Instead, [`]=U+0027 [ ' ] APOSTROPHE, [Shift]+[`]=U+20B4 [ ₴ ] HRYVNIA SIGN. It was a big problem that one could not type an apostrophe via the Ukrainian KL.

2017-04-14

South Slavic: Cyrillic or Not

The South Slavic languages are written with the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Generally, the Eastern South Slavic ones (Bulgarian, Macedonian) use the Cyrillic script, while the Western South Slavic ones (Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian) use the Latin script, except Serbian is written with both.

  1. sr-Cyrl and sr-Latn (mk is Suppress-Script: Cyrl.)
  2. hr and bs are Suppress-Script: Latn.
  3. No lang codes for Montenegrin: sr-ME or sh-ME may be used instead?

Serbian б

There are some glyph differences in Cyrillic alphabets used in some languages, when compared with the Russian version. It seems that in Serbian and Macedonian, (1) б is written like δ, and (2) when italicized, д is like ɡ and гпт are like īūɯ̄, respectively. When italicized, пт are written upside down in a way (rotated 180 degrees, when compared with the Russian version), and д is also upside down in a different way (vertically mirrored).

2017-04-16

c ć č

Both Polish and Czech use the letter “c” to mean /t͡s/. “ć” in Polish is /t͡ɕ/ (Russian/Japanese ch). “č” is Czech is /t͡ʃ/ (English ch).

Similarly, Polish has “ś” and “ź” while Czech has “š” and “ž”.

2017-04-20

Four Polish Retroflexs

/ʈ͡ʂ/ written “cz”, and /ɖ͡ʐ/ “dż”; /ʂ/ written “sz”, and /ʐ/ “ż” or “rz”.

In some languages (e.g. Slovak, Serbian), č /t͡ʃ/ may be [ʈ͡ʂ]. Polish, on the other hand, has three flavors of affricates: c/ć/cz (≈c/ć/č) and dz/dź/dż.

2017-04-21

Ukrainian Alphabet

When compared with Russian, it has 4 new letters, while it does not use 4 letters (ё ы ъ э):

(1) In Russian е, э = /jɛ, ɛ/ — In Ukrainian:

So basically, in Ukrainian, the Russian е, э are swapped AND the letter э is mirrored.

(2) и = seems /ɪ~e/, not Russian /i/, which is written as ії = /ji/.

In a way, it has і, и instead of the Russian и, ы, and the Ukrainian “ы” (written и) is near [e~ɪ~ɘ].

(3) г = /ɦ/ in general, not Russian /ɡ/, which may be written ґ.

Other minor differences include:

2017-04-22

Ukrainian Samples

Сім’я велика.
“The family is big.” http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENUK/ENUK004.HTM http://www.book2.nl/book2/UK/SOUND/0040.mp3
і is [i].
е is not a clear [ɛ], but near [ɜ], possibly narrower. This may be a special case, followed by a dark L.
и is near [ɪ], maybe wider.
An apostrophe works like a hard sign (ъ). Compare https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:Ru-семья.ogg and https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:Uk-сім'я.ogg
Привіт!
“Hi!” http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENUK/ENUK005.HTM
и is near [e], maybe [ɪ̞]
Бувайте!
“Bye!”
e is perhaps [e̞]
Ми в школі.
“We are at school.” http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENUK/ENUK006.HTM http://www.book2.nl/book2/UK/SOUND/0064.mp3
и is basically [ɪ], but after м, it sounds like “ui”.
ш doesn’t sound so different from the Russian ш. I think it’s [ʂ] rather than [ʃ] or [ʃʲ], though not very sure (audio quality is not very good either). The realization of ш may not be phonemic.
о is [ɔ].

Wheelocks 39

2017-02-02

1. Caesar eōs cōtīdiē ōrābat nē fāta adversa metuerent.
Caesar told them every day not to fear the unfavorable fate.
2. Etsī hoc fīat, illī mīlitēs urbem oppugnātum fortasse accēdant et multī cīvēs obeant.
Even if this should happen, those soldiers {mīles mīlitis} would perhaps approach to attack {oppugnō Spine acc.} the city and many citizens would die.
3. Sī licēbit, septem diēbus domum ībimus ad nostrōs amīcōs videndōs.
If possible, we will go home in (within) seven days to see our friends.

2017-02-07

4. Amīcus līberālissimus noster, quōcum pernoctābāmus, dīs vīnum ante cēnam lībāvit, et deinde mēnsam ōrnāvit.
Our very liberal friend, with whom we were spending a night, poured wine for gods before dinner, and then set the table.
5. Cōnsul, vir maximae dignitātis, ōtium cōnsūmpsit in operibus sublīmibus scrībendīs.
The consul, a man of the greatest dignity, spent his free time (in) writing a noble work.
6. Sunt autem quī dolōrum vītandōrum cansā, ut āiunt, semper levia opera faciant, labōrem contemnant, et dē officiīs querantur.
On the other hand, there are people who, to avoid pain, as they say, always (would) do small works, despise labor, and complain about their duties.

2017-02-21

7. In rē pūblicā gerendā istī nōn dubitant praemia grāta sibi requīrere, officia suspendere, atque honōrem suum vēndere.
In managing the republic, those guys do not hesitate to ask rewards to be given to themselves, to suspend [their] duties, and to sell their own honor.
8. Lēctrīx doctissima mox surget ad tria carmina recitanda, quae omnēs audītōrēs oblectābunt atque animōs serēnābunt.
A highly-learned female reader soon arises to recite three songs, which will please all the audience and soothe [their] minds.

2017-04-26

9. Nēmō est cui iniūria placeat, ut nōs omnēs recognōscimus.
There is no one for whom injustice is pleasant, as we all recognize.
10. Nisi vincula patī ac sub pedibus tyrannōrum humī contundī volumus, lībertātī semper studeāmus et eam numquam impediāmus.
If we do not want to suffer from the chains and be crushed on the ground {humus humī f.! Loc.!} under the feet of tyrants, let us always pursue freedom and let us never impede it.

2017-04-30

11. Pauca opera mihi sedendō fīunt, multa agendō et experiendō.
The way I see it, few works are done {fīō} by being held (=doing nothing); many [are done] by acting and trying.

Passive because “work” is not sitting/acting/trying, but being held/acted/tried. Passive future, probably because Passive presdent doesn’t exist in Latin (Passive perfect may be acceptable too, but it may not sound natural, as “trying” etc. is imperfective).

2017-06-10

12. Illa mulier mīrābilis frūctūs amōris libenter carpsit et virō grātissimō nūpsit.
That amazing woman willingly/gladly harvested the fruits of love and married {nūbō ere nūpsī +D} a very pleasant man. {mulier from mollior comp. of mollis “mild”}
13. They are going to Rome to talk about conquering the Greeks.
Romam eunt ad loquendum {loquor uī: fut.pass.(Gerundive) = loquendus} dē Graecīs vincendīs.
[A: dē vincendō {vinco ere vincendus} Graecōs]
SĪVE: Romam eunt ut dē Graecīs vincendīs loquantur.

loquendus = “to be said” (≠ locūtus “having been said”) — passive form with passive meaning like a normal verb, even though it’s a deponent verb. Now loquendum, if used to mean “saying Acc”, has an passive form with active meaning — this is also like a normal verb, but in other words, normal verbs are like deponent verbs when it comes to the GERUND. lĭbet = “it is pleasing”

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