memos::Syriac 14 (N)

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu Map, 2[tr], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Syriac16 (P) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture

Jpeg 40 KiB Svaneti, Georgia

Reading Qara. Book4: 2015-12-21 to 2016-02-18 (Lessons 1–5 in 2 months); hiatus (8 months); 2016-10-04 to 2017-05-01 (Lessons 6–21; 16 in 8 mo)

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 21] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 21 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ]: ܝܺܠܰܦ ܠܡܺܐܡܰܪ ܬܰܘܕܝ

2017-04-21

yīlap̄ Impt. ≠ ʾḗlap̄ “I will learn”; lmḗmar Inf.

ܛܰܠܝܐ ܚܰܕ ܕܰܥܣܰܪ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ، ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ ܩܶܛܥܐ ܕܚܰܠܘܐ، ܘܫܰܩܠܳܗ̇ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܠܳܗ̇.
A boy, who [was] 10 years old — his mother gave him a piece of {qeṭʕā m.} of ḥalwā {“sweet food” perh. from Arabic**}, and the boy took it {šql G} and began eating it. « mem 2017-06-08 »

2017-06-06 Classical Syr. √ḥly — ḥalyā “sweet”, ḥalyū(ṯā) f. “sweetness”

2017-06-07 ܫܩܰܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܠܚܡܐ (Mt26:26). **ar حَلوَى m. or حَلَاوَة f. — Persian حلوا (/halwaː/ pes /hælvɒː/) — Ottoman Turkish حلوا (/hɐlvɐ/?)

2017-04-22

ܘܠܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܐܡܶܗ ܬܰܘܕܝ.
And he did not say thank you to his mother. « mem 2017-06-09 »
ܘܰܨܒܳܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ ܕܬܶܬܶܠ ܠܶܗ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ.
So the mother wanted to give {nettel, tettel} him a lesson by means of a she-cat {*qaṭṭūṯā}. « mem 2017-06-09 »

2017-04-23

ܘܚܶܛܦܰܬ̥ ܠܚܰܠܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܕܶܗ ܕܛܰܠܝܐ، ܘܰܩܨܳܬ̥ ܡܶܢܳܗ̇ ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ ܘܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܝ ܕܡܶܚܕܐ ܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܢܳܘܝܐ ܘܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܠܳܗ̇.
ܘܚ̣ܛܦܬ݀ ܠܚܠܘܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܝܕܗ ܕܛܠܝܐ܇ ܘܩ̣ܨܬ݀ ܡ̣ܢܗ̇ ܡܢܬܐ ܘܝ̣ܗܒܬ݀ ܠܩܛܘܬܐ ܗ̇ܝ ܕܡܚܕܐ ܫ̇ܪܝܬ݀ ܢ̇ܘܝܐ ܘܐ̇ܟܠܐ ܠܗ̇. ♰
And she snatched the ḥalwā from the boy’s hand, and she broke {qṣā} a fragment {mnāṯā} from it, and gave this that (f.) to a she-cat, who immediately began mewing and eating it. « mem 2017-06-15 »

JPEG
Pistachio Tahini (Sesame) Halva, a kind of halva popular in Turkey and some other countries.

2017-06-14 ܘܰܫܩܰܠ ܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܠܰܚܡܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܢܘܢܝ̈ܢ܉ ܘܚܳܪ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ. ܘܒܰܪܶܟ ܘܰܩܨܐ܂ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܘܗ̱ܝ. ܘܗ̣ܢܘܢ ܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܐ ܣܳܡܘ ܠܟܶܢ̈ܫܐ. (Mt14:19) — ♰ Notice the feminine dot is very low in Serto Kharput, when the letter before the ܬ is ܝ or ܟ — namely ܐܬ݀ ܒܬ݀ ܓܬ݀ ܕܬ݀ but ܝܬ݀ ܟܬ݀ — a bug or intentional? (2017-06-20 hennṓn might mean “the disciples put them for…”; but perhaps it means “these disciples put [them] for…” i.e. it is for ὁι.)

2017-06-15 ܘܟܕ ܣ̣ܠܶܩܘ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܝ̈ܐ܉ ܪܘܚܗ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ ܚ̣ܛܦܬ݀ ܠܦܝܠܝܦܳܘܣ (Ac8:39)

2017-04-24

ܘܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܶܡܶܗ، ܚܘܪ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܒܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܐܺܝܬܶܝܗ̇ ܚܰܝ̣ܘܬ̥ܐ ܠܐ ܡܠܝܠܬ̥ܐ [ܡܠܝܠܬ̊ܐ].
And his mother said to him: “My son, give heed to (OR look at) {ḥār b- √ḥwr impt. ḥūr} this she-cat, who is an animal not able to speak {mlīl -ā -ṯā -tā From mallel ‘to speak’}.” « mem 2017-06-20 »

Jess. says, ḥār l- = “to look at, regard, have regard to, consider” while ḥār b- = “to give heed to”. This distinction is not very clear in Peshitta, where ḥār is almost always used with b-, except l- is used in Acts 27:12 (“a harbor that faces south”) and Luke 9:62 (“looking back”). Possibly, ḥār l- = “to look at … physically”, ḥār b- = “to look at … carefully; to look into”.

2017-06-19 The t of -īCtā is nearly always hard (N §23E), with only a few exceptions such as sīmṯā “treasure” (also tmr סִימְתָא). Indeed the t of mlīltā (Pure Syriac: “eloquent, talkative, rational”) — this is G p.p. in form, while the verb is mallel D (Jess: “Pe. only part. adj.”) — is traditionally hard in Ro12:1, ܒ̇ܥܹܢܐ ܗܳܟܝܠ ܡܢܟܘܢ ܐܰܚ̈ܰܝ ... ܕܰܬܩܝܡܘܼܢ ܦܰܓ̈ܪܰܝܟܘܢ ܕܶܒܚܬܐ ܚܰܝܬ̥ܐ ... ܒܬܶܫܡܶܫܬܐ ܡܠܝܠܬ̊ܐ, although John Wesley Etheridge says Meliltho, in The Apostolical Acts and Epistles, From the Peschito, or Ancient Syriac [Ether-AAE] (1849), p. 244, footnote 5, where he states that “a rational service” in Ro12:1 is like “a speaking or rational spirit” in TgO Gn2:7 (CAL, Mechon Mamre, English Tr. 1 or 2): וַהֲוָת בְּאָדָם לְרוּחַ מְמַלְּלָא = “And she [the breath] became, in Adam, a talking spirit (f).”

ܟܰܕ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܰܠܘܐ، ܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܢܳܘܝܐ ܐܰܟ̥ܡܰܢ ܕܐܳܡܪܐ ܬܰܘܕܝ.
“When I gave her a morsel {qṣāṯā} of the ḥalyā, she began mewing as if {ʾaḵman d-} saying thank you.” « mem 2017-06-21 »
ܘܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ݁ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܗܰܘܢܐ، ܠܐ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܝܺܠܶܦܬ ܕܬܺܐܡܰܪ ܬܰܘܕܝ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܳܟ ܡܶܕܶܡ.
“And you, who is a boy endowed with reason {hwn D, pass. pt. mhawwan, mhaww(ə)nā} (=a wise boy), have not yet {lā ʕ(ə)ḏakkḗl} learned {yīlep̄t ≠ yelpeṯ 1cs} to say thank you to one who {man d-} gives you something.” « mem 2017-06-22 »

2017-06-21 D Part. act/pass: ܓܰܒܪܐ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ. = “A man is selling fruits.” (Qarah 1-16) — ܡܙܰܒܰܢ ܐܢܐ ܠܰܚܛܝܬܐ. = “I have been sold to sin.” (Ro7:14) {pass. part. for the perfect (N §278) = πεπρᾱμένος “having been sold” from πέπρᾱκα, pf. of πέρνημι “to sell”} — The difference exists only in mas. sg.; the other forms are identical, e.g. mzabb(ĕ)nīn = mzabb(ă)nīn.

2017-04-25

ḥwr b- does seem to mean “to look at … figuratively; to consider”

ܘܟܰܕ ܐܰܗܦܟ̥ܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܦܳܫܰܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܠܘܐ، ܣܡܰܩ̈ܝ̱ ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܐܰܪܟܶܢ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ: ܬܰܘܕܝ ܐܶܡܝ̱.
And when she returned — to the boy — the part that remained {pwš} (=the remaining part) of the ḥalwā, his face {ʾappḕ ʾappaw fem. pl.} turned red {smq} and he lowered {rkn C} his head, and said: “Thank you, my mother.” « mem 2017-06-30 »

2017-06-20 ܗ̣ܘ ܕܝܢ ܥ̣ܢܐ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܡ̇ܢ ܕܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ. ܡ̇ܢ ܗ̱ܝ ܐܹܡܝ܁ ܘܡ̇ܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܐܰܚܰܝ̈. (Mt12:48⁎) = ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπε(ν) τῷ λέγοντι αὐτῷ· Τίς ἐστιν ἡ μήτηρ μου, καὶ τίνες εἰσὶν οἱ ἀδελφοί μου;ἀποκρῑ́νω = “to set apart, to choose”: Mid. ἀποκρίνομαι = “to reply,” first aor. ἀπεκρῑνάμην, but in Koine, the same meaning in Pass. ἀπεκρῐ́θην, hence Part. ἀποκριθείς

2017-06-22 ܗ̣ܦܟܬ݀ ܠܒܝܬܗ̇ = “she returned to her house” (Lk1:56) — ܐܰܗ̣ܦܶܟ ܗܠܝܢ ܬܠܬܝܢ ܕܟܶܣܦܐ = “he returned these thirty pieces of silver” (Mt27:4) — Etheridge translated ܘܶܐܙܰܠ ܐܰܗ̣ܦܷ݁ܟ of this verse as and went hastily, and returned in The Syrian Churches: Their Early History, Liturgies, and Literature. With a Literal Translation of the Four Gospels, From the Peschito [Ether-SC] (1846), p. 341; it is unclear where the word “hastily” came from.

2017-06-23 qmt has three meanings [she stood/I stood/you-sg stood]: ܩܳܡܰܬ݀ ܛܠܝܬܐ = “the girl stood up” (Mk5:42); ܩ̇ܡܹܬ ܥܠ ܬܪܥܐ = “I stood at the door” (Rev3:20) {Mingana ܩܵܡܸܬ}‎; ܒܗܰܝܡܳܢܘܬܐ ܩܳܡ̣ܬ̊ = “In faith you stood” (Ro11:20); Similarly, ܦܳܫܰܬ̥: ܦܳܫܶܬ̥: ܦܳܫܬ̊ — or ܦ̣ܫܬ݀: ܦ̇ܫܬ: ܦ̣ܫܬ

2017-06-24 rkn G “to incline; to set (of the sun)”, C “to bend down”: ܦܘܫ ܠܘܬܢ܁ ܡܛܠ ܕܝܘܡܐ ܗܳܫܐ܂ ܪܟܶܢ (Lk24:29) — ܐܶܡܰܪ܂ ܗܐ ܡܫܰܠܡ. ܘܰܐܪܟܶܢ ܪܫܗ܂ ܘܰܐܫܠܶܡ ܪܘܚܗ ܀ (Jn19:30) — šlm G “to be complete”, D “to finish”, C “to bring to completion, achieve; to surrender [i.e. to bring an end]” — 2017-06-29 in P ryšʔ is often written ršʔ.

2017-04-26

ܘܐܳܦ ܡܶܫܬܰܘܕܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܐܶܛܥܶܐ ܠܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܕܝܶܠܦܶܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ܀
“And also I promise {ʾeštawdī Qt} that I will not forget {ʾeṭʕē⁑ Impf 1cs} this lesson which I have learned from the she-cat.” « mem 2017-07-04 »

2017-04-27

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܡܘܢ ܚܶܛܦܰܬ ܐܶܡܐ ܠܚܰܠܘܐ ܡܶܢ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܡܶܛܶܠ ܕܠܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܗ̇ ܬܰܘܕܝ ܟܰܕ ܝܶܗܒܰܬ ܠܶܗ ܚܰܠܘܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ̥ ܒܚܰܠܘܐ ܕܚܶܛܦܰܬ̥؟
ܩܨܳܬ ܡ̣ܢܗ̇ ܡܢܳܬܐ ܘܝܶܗܒܰܬ ܠܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܗܳܝ.
She broke a piece from it and gave this (f.) to the she-cat.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܪܰܬ̥ ܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ ܟܰܕ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܠܚܰܠܘܐ؟
ܡܶܚܕܐ ܫܰܪܝܰܬ ܢܳܘܝܐ ܘܳܐܟܠܐ ܠܗ̇ ܠܚܰܠܘܐ.

ܘܠܐ ܬܰܥܠܰܢ ܠܢܶܣܝܘܿܢܐ܉ ܐܶܠܐ ܦܰܨܳܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܒܝܫܐ. ܡܶܛܠ ܕܕܝܠܳܟ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܰܠܟܘܬܐ܂ ܘܚܰܝܠܐ܁ ܘܬܶܫܒܘܿܚܬܐ܉ ܠܥܳܠܰܡ ܥܳܠܡܝܢ܀

taʕʕel C — nesyṓnā = “temptation, testing” — paṣṣā D impt. “save!” — tešboḥtā = “glory, splendor, beauty” (Mt6:13⁎)

2017-04-28

ܦܰܢܐ (cont.)

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ ܠܰܒܪܳܗ̇؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ ܠܗ: «ܟܰܕ ܝܶܗܒܶܬ ܠܗ̇ ܩܨܳܬܐ ܕܚܰܠܘܐ، ܫܰܪܝܰܬ ܢܳܘܝܐ ܐܰܟܡܰܢ ܕܳܐܡܪܐ ܬܰܘܕܝ. ܘܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܕܐܝܬܰܝܟ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܡܗܰܘܢܐ، ܠܐ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܝܺܠܶܦܬ ܕܬܹܐܡܰܪ ܬܰܘܕܝ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܝ̇ܗܒ ܠܟ ܡܶܕܶܡ.»
5 ܡܘܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ ܠܗ̇: «ܬܘܕܝ ܐܶܡܝ. ܘܳܐܦ ܡܶܫܬܰܘܕܶܐ ܐܢ̱ܐ ܕܠܐ ܐܶܛ‍ܥܶܐ ܠܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܢܐ ܕܝܶܠܦܶܬ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܰܛܘܬܐ.»
6 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܡܰܪ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܕܶܡ؟
ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܹܐܡܪ ܠܗ ܬܘܕܝ.

2017-04-29

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

7 ܚܰܠܘܐ ܩܨܳܬ̥ܐ ܡܠܝܠܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܪܟܶܢ ܛܥܐ ܡܗܰܘܢܐ ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ
ḥalwā; morsel, broken portion; able to speak (f); he lowered; he erred; endowed with reason; part
ܐܰܝܟ: ܚܰܠܘܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܛܰܥܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
Example: Ḥalwā has a sweet taste {ṭaʕmā}.
ܩܨܐ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ ܩܨܳܬܐ ܕܠܰܚܡܐ.
He broke bread and gave me a portion of bread.
ܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܠܐ ܡܠܝܠܬ̥ܐ. ܗܝ ܠܐ ܡܡܰܠܠܐ.
A she-cat is not able to speak. She does not speak.
ܐܰܪܟܶܢ ܪܫܶܗ (ܪܝܫܗ) ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܝ ܬܰܘܕܝ.
He lowered his head and said to me thank you.
ܐܳܕܳܡ ܠܐ ܛܥܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬ̥ܐ ܛܥܳܬ.
Adam did not err, but the wife erred.
ܒܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ ܡܗܰܘܢܐ ܗ̇ܡܣ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ.
A man endowed with reason thinks about himself.
ܝܰܗ̱ܒܘ ܠܗ ܡܢܳܬܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܢܘܢܐ.
They gave him a piece of a fish.

2017-04-30

8 ܣܝܡ 5 ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ»

ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܚܰܒܪܶܗ.
Example: A cultivated/civilized boy loves his friend. {rḏē raḏyā rḏīṯā = pass. pt. of rḏā “to chastise, to train”: ⟦ērudītus⟧}
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܠܐ ܩܛܝܪܳܢ.
A cultivated boy is not violent.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܪ̇ܚܡ ܟܬܳܒ̈ܐ.
A cultivated boy loves books.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܛܳܒ ܗ̱ܘ.
A cultivated boy is good.
ܪܳܚܡܝܢ ܚܢܰܢ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ.
We love a cultivated boy.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܬܘܕܝ ܠܡ̣ܢ ܕܝ̇ܗܒ ܠܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ.
A cultivated boy says thanks to the one who gives him something.

2017-05-01

9 ܣܝܡ 5 ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܩܰܛܘܬܐ»

ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ ܒܶܣܪܐ.
Example: A she-cat eats flesh.
ܗܳܕܶܐ ܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ.
ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܩܰܛܘܬܐ.
ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
ܩܰܛܘܬܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ.
ܝܶܗܒܶܬ ܡܝ̈ܐ ܠܩܛܘܬܐ.

2017-07-05

TgO Gn2:7⁎

וֻברָא יוי אֲלֹהִים יָת אָדָם עַפרָא מִן אַרעָא (אדמתא)
And YWY the lord built into Adam dust {ʕap̄rā} from the ground (OR: earth #3),
וֻנפַח בְאַפוֹהִי נִשמְתָא דְחַיֵי
and brew into his nose/face the breath of lives.
וַהֲוָת בְאָדָם לְרוּחַ מְמַלְלָא׃
And it {fem.} became, in Adam, a talking spirit {fem.}.

#3 = variant in Sperber’s apparatus — Alexander Sperber: The Bible in Aramaic (1959; 3rd ed. 2004); 4 vols.; v.1 = The Pentateuch according to Targum Onkelos

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 20] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 20 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ]: ܐܶܡܪܐ ܘܕܺܐܒܐ

2017-04-11

ܐܶܡܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ ܕܢܶܫܬܶܐ.
A lamb {CAL ʾimrā, Jar ʾimmərā} once went to the river to drink. « mem 2017-05-11 »
ܘܰܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܣܳܪܘܚܐ ܘܶܐܬ̥ܐ ܐܳܦ ܗܘ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܢܰܗܪܐ، ܠܰܘ ܕܢܶܫܬܶܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܕܢܶܐܟ̥ܽܘܠ ܠܶܐܡܪܐ.
A wild {sārṓḥā} wolf saw him and he also went toward the river, not to drink water, but to eat the lamb. « mem 2017-05-12 »

2017-05-07 The pf. of √šty is ܐܶܫܬܝ (N §51): ܠܡܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܪܰܒ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܰܒܽܘܢ ܝܰܥܩܘ̇ܒ: ܗ̇ܘ ܕܗ̣ܘ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܰܢ ܒܹܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ: ܘܗ̣ܘ ܡ̣ܢܗ̇ ܐܶܫܬܝ ܘܰܒܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ ܘܥܳܢ̈ܶܗ. (Jn4:12⁎) = μὴ σὺ μείζων εἶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἰακώβ, ὃς ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν τὸ φρέαρ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔπιε(ν) καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ θρέμματα αὐτοῦ; [ܒܐܪܐ and ܒܪܐ (PS *biʾr-) = φρέαρ (ᾰρ?), ᾱτος, τό = “well”; θρέμμα, ατος, τό = “creature”] — in OS ܕܰܠܡܐ “it’s not, is it?” instead of ܠܡܐ, and ܘܐܦ ܗܘ ܡܢܗܿ instead of ܘܗܘ ܡܢܗܿ. In OS-S, ܝܥܩܘܒ ܐܒܘܢ instead of ܐܒܘܢ ܝܥܩܘܒ.

2017-04-12

ܘܩܳܡ ܠܥܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܢܰܗܪܐ، ܘܰܩܪܐ ܠܶܐܡܪܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ: ܗܶܐ، ܐܳܘ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ! ܠܡܳܢܐ ܡܕܰܠܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܫܳܬܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ؟
So he stood above/by {lʕl mn #1} the river, and called the lamb and said: “Hey, you! Why are you disturbing {dlḥ D} the water from which I drink (OR from which I am drinking)?” « mem 2017-05-14 »
ܘܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܡܪܐ: ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܡܕܰܠܰܚ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܗܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܓܰܒܐ ܥܶܠܳܝܐ ܕܢܰܗܪܐ، ܘܐܶܢܐ ܒܓܰܒܐ ܬܰܚܬܳܝܐ!
Then the lamb answered: “How {ʾaykan} am I disturbing the water? And look, you [are] at the upper {ʕellāyā adj. CAL ʕi-} riverside {b-ḡabbā} and I [am at] the lower {taḥtāyā} riverside!” « mem 2017-05-15 »

A Peshitta example (Ac12:7):

2017-05-12 The normal Syriac word for “lo! (now, already)” is hā, and hē⁑ is the name of the letter. However, (1) Neo-Syr has ܗܹܐ “yes” (Maclean 71a: K. Al. narrow [e], or possibly [i~ɪ] in U.). (2) In Jar הָא and הֵא are the same (Jastrow 328a).

2017-05-13 ܗܳܠܝܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܕܰܠܟܠܗ̇ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܕܰܠܰܚܘ. ܘܗܐ ܬܘܒ ܠܗܳܪܟܐ ܐܶܬܰܘ. (Ac17:6) = Οἱ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἀναστατώσαντες οὗτοι καὶ ἐνθάδε πάρεισιν [ἀναστᾰτόω = mainly NT, “to unsettle, upset”: LS (1901) 111a]: Also, plain-text LSJ is here:
https://archive.org/details/Lsj--LiddellScott (April 8, 2017)

2017-05-14 ʾaykannā is much commoner in Peshitta than ʾaykan; possibly ʾaykan is “how (is it that)” whereas ʾaykannā is “in what manner”, as in rab “is great” vs. rabbā “great one” — also ʾaykannā is often used as ʾaykannā d- + impf. “so that it may”. Sometimes it feels like ʾaykannā is “[tell me] how it is” as opposed to “how is it?”. One of a few verses where ʾaykan is indeed used in the abs. st. is ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܠܐ ܐܶܣܬܰܟܰܠܬܘܢ “how is it that you guys did not understand {skl Dt}” (Mt16:11). OS has ܐܰܝܟܘ (=ܐܰܝܟܐ ܗ̱ܘ) ܠܐ ܡܶܣܬܰܟܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ “why is it that you guys do not understand” instead (prob. mestakklīn Dt, poss. mestaḵlīn Gt). An example of ʾaykannā is ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܕܢܶܥܘܿܠ “how can one enter?” (Mt12:29). Both ʾaykan and ʾaykannā in those examples are πῶς in Greek. ʾaykan(nā) is purely Syriac, not Aramaic. [CAL says ʾaykān(ā) with a long ā after k, but probably it’s just a typo.]

2017-04-13

#1 The phrase qām lʕel men literally means “to stand above [away] from”, as in the star over the baby (Mt2:9). It is often used less literally, as “to stand over/by.” CAL explains the second definition of lʕel men as in the presence of (i.e. standing over). Furthermore, lʕel men could mean fig. : beyond, superior to. Similarly, ἐφίστημι intr. = “to stand above” OR “to stand by” — esp. of dreams or visions, appear to (LSJ); ἐφίστημι tr. = “to place above” OR “to place near”.

2017-04-14

ܐܶܡܰܪ ܕܺܐܒܐ: ܟܰܕ ܡܕܰܠܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܝ̈ܳܐ [ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ]، ܐܳܦ ܘܰܡܕܰܓܶܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ!
The wolf said: “While you are (=Not only are you) disturbing [my] water, you are also lying {dgl D} to me!” « mem 2017-05-17 »
ܘܗܐ ܠܐ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܛܰܥܝܐ ܠܝ، ܕܰܒܫܰܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ [ܕܰܒܫܰܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ] ܕܥܶܒܪܰܬ̥ ܡܨܰܚܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ ܠܝ!
“And look, it has not yet {lā ʕ(ə)ḏakkḗl} been forgotten by me (=I still remember) that in the year which passed (=last year?), you were cursing me!” « mem 2017-05-20 »

ܛܥܶܐ and ܛܰܥܝܐ are the passive participles of ܛܥܐ “to err”. It’s not 100% clear to me why the femimine form is used here, even though (1) CAL does say, fem. +. d.o.: to be forgotten by, escape notice of, and (2) a feminine passive participle is used in a similar context in Acts 26:26.

N §254C says, The gender fluctuates also in those Verbal expressions in which a complete sentence with ܕ “that” takes the place of the Subject. So perhaps it’s not like a feminine participle is grammatically required here (i.e. ܛܰܥܝܐ COULD be ܛܥܶܐ). Indeed, Nöldeke points out that both ܟܬܝܒ ܕ and ܟܬܝܒܐ ܕ are acceptable as “it is written that”.

2017-05-17 ܘܰܐܝܠܶܝܢ ܕܩܳܝܡܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܬܰܡܳܢ܁ ܐܳܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܠܟܳܗܢܐ ܕܰܐܠܗܐ ܡܨܰܚܶܐ ܐܢܬ. (Ac23:4⁎)

2017-04-15

ܘܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܡܪܐ: ܕܐܶܢܐ ܠܐ ܐܶܬܝܰܠܕܶܬ̥ ܐܶܠܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
The lamb answered: “I was only born {yld Gt} this year.” « mem 2017-05-20 »
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܕܺܐܒܐ: ܡܳܕܶܝܢ ܐܰܒܘܟ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܗܰܘ ܕܰܡܨܰܚܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܝ!
The wolf said: “In that case {māḏēn⁑} it is your father who was cursing me!” « mem 2017-05-22 »
ܘܐܶܢܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܬܢܰܩܰܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
“And you, I am taking revenge on you.” « mem 2017-05-22 »

meṯnaqqam (nqm Dt) = “to be avenged” but Qara. seems to have used it here as “to avenge”. The word is translated as “He avenges” in the Dictionary section.

2017-04-16

ܐܶܡܰܪ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܘܰܨܦܰܚ ܥܰܠ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܘܚܰܛܦܶܗ ܘܐܶܙܰܠ.
He said this and suddenly attacked {ṣp̄aḥ ʕal #2} the lamb and snatched him {ḥṭap̄} and went away. « mem 2017-06-03 »
ܡܰܘܕܰܥ: ܕܒܝܫܐ ܠܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܒܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܫܪܳܪܐ ܀
The moral of the story {lit. “This lets [us] know that…”}: an evil one does not have pleasure in {ṣāḇē⁑ b-} a word that is truth (=a bad person twists the truth).« mem 2017-06-06 »

#2 2017-05-25 ṣ(ə)p̄aḥ ʕal = “to close suddenly, spring to (as a trap); to fall upon (as lightning); to come suddenly upon, fall upon/overtake/attack suddenly (as death, destruction, wrath, sorrow, evil; an invasion; an army)” (Jess.) ܐܰܝܟ ܨܳܦܰܚܬ̥ܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܢܶܨܦܰܚ܁ ܥܠ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܕܝܳܬܒܝܢ܂ ܥܠ ܐܰܦܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܕܟܠܗ̇ ܐܰܪܥܐ. (Lk21:35⁎), ṣāp̄aḥṯā = “snare”

2017-06-02 ʾemar hāḏḕ = “this” of “he said this” is feminine, probably as in melṯā.

2017-06-04 Jn17:26⁎

2017-04-17

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܐܶܡܪܐ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ (=ܘܰܠܡܳܢ)؟
To where did the lamb go? And why?
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܢܰܗܪܐ ܕܢܶܫܬܶܐ ܡܝ̈ܐ.
He went to the river to drink water.
2 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܘܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܠܘܳܬ ܢܰܗܪܐ؟
ܕܹܐܒܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܠܐܶܡܪܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ؟
What did the wolf say to the lamb about (meṭṭol/meṭṭul) water.
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ: «ܠܡܳܢܐ ܡܕܰܠܰܚ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܝ̈ܐ ܕܫ̇ܬܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡ̣ܢܗܘܢ؟»
He said to him: “Why (For what purpose) are you troubling the water from which I am drinking?”
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܨܘܚܝ̣ܬ̥ܐ؟
What did he say about evil-speaking? {ṣṓḥīṯā N §104: “insult” ⟦contumēlia⟧}
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ: «ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܛܰܥܝܐ ܠܝ، ܕܰܒܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܥܶܒܪܰܬ ܡܨܰܚܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ ܠܝ!»
He said to him: “I still remember that last year you were insulting me!”

2017-04-18

ܦܰܢܐ (cont.)

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܡܪܐ؟
What did the lamb reply?
ܦܰܢܝ: ܕܐܢܐ ܠܐ ܐܶܬܝܰܠܕܶܬ ܐܶܠܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
He replied: “I was only born this year.”
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
What does this lesson inform us?
ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܕܒܝܫܐ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܠܐ ܫܪܳܪܐ.
It informs us that the evil one says something that is not truth.

2017-04-19

ܦܪܘܫ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܫܰܝ̈ܢܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܣܳܪ̈ܘܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ

mšayyan, mšayynā = pass. pt. of šayyen D “to make peace”

7 ܕܺܐܒܐ ܬܰܘܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܶܙܐ ܬܰܥܠܐ ܢܶܡܪܐ
wolf, ox, lion, goat, for {taʕlā}, leopard
ܬܰܘܪܐ، ܘܥܶܙܐ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬܐ ܡܫܰܝ̈ܢܳܬܐ. ܕܐܒܐ، ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܬܰܥܠܐ، ܘܢܶܡܪܐ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬܐ ܣܳܪ̈ܘܿܚܬܐ.
An ox and a goat are domestic animals. A wolf, an lion, a fox, and a leopard are wild animals.
8 ܣܘܣܝܐ ܓܰܡܠܐ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܕܶܒܐ ܐܰܝܠܐ
horse, camel, ass, lamb, bear {debbā}, stag (male deer)
ܣܘܣܝܐ، ܓܰܡܠܐ، ܚܡܳܪܐ، ܘܶܐܡܪܐ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܬܐ ܡܫܰܝ̈ܢܬܐ. ܕܶܒܐ ܘܰܐܝܠܐ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܬܐ ܣܳܪ̈ܘܚܬܐ.
A horse, a camel, an ass, and lamb are domestic animals. A bear and a stag are wild animals.

2017-04-20

ܣܝܡ «ܐܹܝܢ» ܐܰܘ «ܠܐ» ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܶܡܪܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ...ܐܝܢ....

9 ܐܶܡܪܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ ܒܐܳܐܰܪ ...ܠܐ....
A lamb flies in the air (false).
10 ܐܶܡܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܡܪܐ ...ܐܝܢ....
A lamb has wool (true).
11 ܐܶܡܪܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗܶܪܓܐ ...ܠܐ....
A lamb writes a lesson (false).
12 ܐܶܡܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܶܣܪܐ ...ܠܐ...
A lamb eats flesh (false).

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 19 (cont.)] — ܪܚܘܡܝ̱ ܬܳܐܘܡܰܐ

2017-04-03

ܫܠܳܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܐ
Sincere {šap̄yā} greetings.
ܩܰܒܠܶܬ̥ ܐܶܓܰܪܬܳܟ ܘܰܚܕܝܬ̥ ܛܳܒ ܕܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ݁ ܒܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ، ܡܰܠܘܢ ܕܠܐ ܛܳܥܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܟ̥ܚܰܕ ܐܰܥܒܰܪܢܰܢ.
I received (D) your letter and I much rejoiced that you are in recovery {ḥulmānā} (in good health), all the more so that you don’t forget (haven’t forgotten) the pleasant days that together we spent.

2017-04-04

ܒܝܘܡ ܒܶܛܠܳܢܐ ܕܢܝܣܳܢ، ܝܰܪܚܐ ܕܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ، ܢܦܰܩܢܰܢ ܠܛܘܝܳܠܐ ܠܐܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ،
In the day of the recess of April, the month of flowers, we went out for walking around {ṭuyyālā v.n.D} to a very beautiful place,
ܒܡܰܪܓܐ ܪܘܝ̣ܚܐ ܕܰܦܪܝܣ ܒܥܶܣܒܐ ܒܘܰܥܕܐ ܕܢܰܗܪܐ ܕܡܰܘܗ̱̈ܝ̱ ܫܦܶܝܢ.
in the wide {rwīḥā} meadow, spreading out {lit. “spreaded out”, pārès and prīs = parts. of pras} with grass, near {b-waʕdā d} the river whose water [was] clear.

2017-04-05

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܥܪܳܝܬܐ ܩܳܡܘ̱ ܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܠܫܶܥܝܐ.
And after the breakfast, all of the students stood up for (?) a game.
ܘܐܰܥܝܪܘ̱ ܪܰܘܒܐ ܕܩ̈ܳܠܐ.
They stirred up {ʾaʕīr Aph. √ʕYR} the tumult of voices.

2017-04-06

ܐܝܬ̥ ܕܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܣܳܠܩܝܢ، ܘܐܝܬ̥ ܕܒܐܶܣܦܝܪܐ [ܕܰܒܐܶܣܦܝܪܐ] ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ، ܘܐܝܬ̥ ܕܡܶܢ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܨܳܝܕܝܢ.
Some [were] climbing trees, and some [were] playing with balls {ʾespḗrā = σφαῖρα cf. სფერო}, and some [were] fishing {ṣwd} in the river.
ܘܐܶܢܐ ܒܰܠܚܘܕ ܠܰܝܬ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܝ ܚܰܒܪܐ.
And I [was] alone; there was no friend for me;

2017-04-07

ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܢ ܛܶܠܳܢܝܬ̥ܳܟ ܕܐܰܡܝܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܢܳܩܦܐ ܠܝ ܘܪܘܫܡܐ ܕܐܰܦܰܝ̈ܟ݁ ܒܟܽܠܙܒܰܢ ܠܥܰܝ̈ܢܰܝ ܨܝܪ.
except [there was] your shadow {ṭellānīṯā} that [was] constantly accompanying me, and the image {rušmā} of your face [was] all the time depicted (=remembered) in my eyes.

2017-04-08

ܘܟܰܕ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ، ܠܰܫܡܳܟ ܕܝܠܳܟ ܬܳܢܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܘܓܳܚܶܟ.
And when I called one of [my] friends, I was repeating {tny} your name, and he {that friend} was looking around {ḥwr} and laughing {gḥk}.

2017-04-09

🖉 Memo: Pathfinders: Decipherment of the Caucasian Albanian ScriptAzerbaijan International (Magazine), Autumn 2003 (11.3)

ܣܳܟܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܛܳܒ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܠܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܟܽܠܗܘܢ، ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܢܐ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܕܠܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ.
All in all {sākā as adv.}, however, it was a very pleasant day for all of the students; still, I was a stranger {nuḵrāyā} (=I felt alienated) there in it {perh. “on that day”} without you.

2017-06-05 ܕܠܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ is “without you”: LS2 354a says: sine s. pronn. [Cum sequentibus pronōminibus] ܕܠܴܐ ܗܽܘ sine eo […], ܕܠܴܐ ܗܶܢܘܿܢ sine iis […], sed ܕܠܴܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ sine te (a phrase used in a poem by Bar Hebraeus).

2017-04-10

ܕܠܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ may be “without [that which is] from you”, “without [hearing] from you”, “without friendship/kindness from you”, etc. [This is wrong. See above.]

ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܫܳܐܠܝܢ ܒܰܫܠܳܡܳܟ.
The friends [of mine], all of them, are greeting {šālīn, ܐ is not read} you (lit. asking about your welfare).
ܘܩܰܘܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܠܕܝܠܳܟ ܀
And remain {qwy D} pleasant to yours (prob. = continue to be nice to your friends).
ܝܰܘܣܶܦ
Joseph

🖉 Memo: The Shorter Syriac-Armenian Glossary in Ms. Yale Syriac 9. Part 2: Glossary in Transcription/Translation Hidemi Takahashi: Hugoye, Volume 14 Number 1 (Winter 2011)

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 19] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 19 [ܕܰܬܫܳܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܛܰܠܝܐ ܘܥܶܢܕܐ

2017-03-25

èndā = “name of a certain bird”: BB1445
http://dukhrana.com/lexicon/BarBahlul/index.php?p=721
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/CUA/id/124856
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/124201/filename/153076.pdf/mapsto/pdf
TS2-2933: Lex. Adl. اسم طير ما

BB
Vol-1 to ܠ‎ (260 MiB):
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/123954/filename/152829.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Vol-2 from ܡ‎ (294 MiB):
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/124537/filename/153412.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Vol-3 (160 MiB):
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/124855/filename/153730.pdf/mapsto/pdf
ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܐܳܘ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܐܳܘ ܕܪ̈ܶܟܢܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ
BOY: O little èndā, O [bird] of sweet {ḥalyā ḥlayyā N §72} tunes {reknā m.}
ܬܐ ܨܶܐܕܰܝ ܘܰܥܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܓܰܐܝܐ
Come with me {ṣēḏ⁑} and live in the pleasant {gaʾyā} house
ܥܶܢܕܐ: ܡܳܢܐ ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ
BIRD: What do you want, O little boy?
ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܕܰܒܪܐ
Is your house more beautiful than wilderness?

2017-03-28

ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܬܐ ܘܰܥܡܰܪ ܨܶܐܕܰܝ ܒܰܩܠܘܒܝܐ ܦܰܐܝܐ
BOY: Come and live with me in a beautiful {pa(ʾ)yā} cage {qlübyā}.
ܘܐܶܬܶܠ ܠܳܟ ܒܐܺܝ̈ܕܰܝ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܥܰܡ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
And I will give you, with my hands, grains {perdḕ} and water.

2017-03-30

ܥܶܢܕܐ: ܗܰܘ ܩܠܘܒܝܐ ܕܐܳܡܪܰܬ ܒܝܫ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܡܶܢ ܩܰܒܪܐ
BIRD: That cage which you mention {ʾāmrat: t hard N §64} is worse than a tomb {qaḇrā}
ܘܗܰܘ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ ܕܝܳܗܒܰܬ ܡܰܪܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܨܰܒܪܐ
And that food {mēḵlā⁑} which you give is bitterer {marrīr} than aloe

CAL Akkadian ṣibaru, a medicinal plant; ar صبر (ṣabr)

2017-04-02

ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܐܳܘ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܒܰܪܝܐ
BOY: O good bird! O little creature! {bry “to create”: pass. brē, baryā}
ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܥܳܒܐ ܬܺܚܐ ܒܗܰܘ ܥܰܪܝܐ
How [is it] in the forest? You will live in that frost {ʕryā}.
ܥܶܢܕܐ: ܗܰܘ ܡܳܪܐ ܕܝܳܗܶܒ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ܥܰܡ ܢܶܒܪܐ
BIRD: That lord who gives [me] wings and a claw {#1},
ܐܳܦ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ ܡܛܰܝܶܒ ܕܒܶܗ ܬܠܶܐ ܟܽܠ ܣܰܒܪܐ
also provides {ṭyb D} the food; on whom all the hope {saḇrā} depends {tly “to suspend”: p.p. tlē “depending on” with b-}.

#1 neḇrā ⟦ungula⟧: Qara uses this word as “beak”.

🖉 Memo: The 3 fonts I found and installed today: (1) BPG Nateli = four-script Georgian fonts, where Mtavruli (Capital) of Mxedruli is in PUA (U+F400 and later), like in DejaVu Sans. (2) BPG Algeti Comp 2017 = This font has Mtavruli in three places: as AsoMtavruli (a normal hack), in PUA, and also in U+1C90…1CBx (pre-emptively, as in proposed in n4712). U+1C90… is the last unused LTR block in BMP, between Cyrillic Ext C and Sundanese Supplement (Sundanese is the #3 language of Indonesia, #1 and #2 being Indonesian and Javanese, respectively). (3) LateefGR 1.200.

BPG stands for Besarion Paata Gugushvili (ბესარიონ პაატას ძე გუგუშვილი), the author of those Georgian fonts. Dze = “son”; probably, “Paata’s son” but it seems dative, so “For Paata, son”?

On Syriac Apocalypse 8:13

2017-03-21

From Rev 8:13 P-UK:

ܘܫܶܡܥܶܬ ܠܢܶܫܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܕܦܳܪܰܚ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ. ܘܳܝ ܘܝ ܘܝ
I heard one eagle that [was] flying in the sky saying: “Alas, alas, alas.”

P-NY is interesting, saying instead:

ܘܲܚܙܹ̇ܝܬ݂ ܘܫܸܡ̇ܥܹܬ݂ ܠܢܸܫܪܵܐ ܚܲܕ ܕܦܵܪܲܚ ܒܲܡܨܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ: ܕܕ݂ܘܼܢܒܵܐ ܕܲܕ݂ܡܵܐ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܹܗ: ܟܲܕ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܒܩܵܠܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ: ܘܵܝ: ܘܵܝ:
I saw and heard one eagle that [was] flying in the middle — he [had] a tail of blood — , when he [was] saying: “Alas, alas.”

John W. Etheridge says [Ether-AAE, pp. 469–470]:

Here the Syrian translator was at fault. His Greek copy, without separating the words, read, ενμεσουρανηματι, “in the midst of heaven;” which he appears to have decomposed thus: ἐν μέσῳ (“the midst”) ὀυρὰ (“a tail”) αἷμα (“blood,”) so as to produce the singular expression given above.

According to him, the original word μεσουρανήματι was treated as if μεσ(ο) + οὐρά(ν) “tail Acc” + αἵματι “blood Dat”.

PS. I found John Gwynn’s The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac version hitherto unknown, ed. from a MS. in the Library of the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres (1897), which says:

S is free also from the still grosser blunder, often noted as the chief blot in Σ, by which the last five syllables of μεσοθρανήματι (viii. 13) are torn from the word and perverted (as if οὐρὰν [ἐν] αἵματι [ἔχοντος]) into ܕܕܘܢܒܐ ܕܕܡܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ “which had a tail of blood.” Of this I shall have more to say farther on (p. lxxxii).

John Gwynn: The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac version, Introductory Dissertation, p. xxxiv

In his book, S means “this version” — Ms. at that time (1897) belonging to the Library of the [25th] Earl of Crawford [Alexander Lindsay], purchased in London by the Earl around 1860; now belonging to the John Rylands Library —, which is the version used in P-UK (1905–1920). Σ, on the other hand, means the version commonly printed at that time, as in P-NY (1886).

2017-06-26

Murdock, James: The New Testament (1851) [1858], p. 452, footnote. newtestament00murd.djvu

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 18] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18 [ܕܰܬܡܳܢܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܥܘܩܰܒܪܐ

2017-03-17

ʕüqaḇrā or ʕuqqaḇrā = Qara. form for ʕuqb(ə)rā

ܐܰܪܝܐ ܚܰܕ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ، ܟܰܕ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܟܳܪܶܟ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܥܳܒܐ ܒܰܒܥܳܬ̥ ܨܰܝܕܐ، ܢܦܰܠ ܒܦܰܚܐ ܘܰܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܦܠܰܛ ܡܶܢܶܗ.
A strong lion, when once upon a time he was going around {krk} in the forest in search of {bʕāṯā, const. bʕāṯ} a game (the prey), fell into a trap {paḥḥā} and wished to escape {plaṭ a/a} from it. « mem 2017-04-13 »
ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܙܝܥ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ، ܘܟܽܠ ܟܡܐ ܕܡܶܬܬܙܝܥ ܗ̱ܘܐ، ܝܰܬܝܪ ܚܳܐܶܨ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܚܰܒܠܐ ܕܦܰܚܐ.
And he started to move {zwʕ C part.} his body {gušmā}, and [while] all as much as {kmā d-} [he could] he was agitated {met(tə)zīʕ, Ethpe.=Ettafal #1}, the rope {ḥaḇlā} of the trap was holding him [even] more tightly {ḥwṣ = “to hold tight”}. « mem 2017-04-17 »

2017-03-19 #1 CAL, LS2, LS3 treat this as Ct, while Jess treats it as Gt. Peshitta examples: ܠܡܶܚܙܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܕܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܡܶܬܬܙܝܥ “to see a reed that [was] being shaken by the wind” (Mt11:7/Lk7:24) ܫܡܰܥ ܕܶܝܢ ܗܶܪܳܘܕܶܣ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܘܶܐܬܬܙܝܥ ܘܟܽܠܳܗ̇ ܐܘܪܺܫܠܶܡ ܥܰܡܶܗ “Herod the king heard [it] and was disturbed; also all Jerusalem [was disturbed] with him.” (Mt2:3⁎) = ἀκούσᾱς δὲ Ἡρῴδης ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα μετ'αὐτοῦ

2017-04-15 ܡܙܝܥ = “to move somethting, to cause movement of; to disturb”: ܡܰܠܰܐܟ̥ܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܙܒܰܢ ܢܳܚܶܬ ܗ̱ܘܐ ... ܘܰܡܙܝܥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܐ = ἐτάρασσε τὸ ὕδωρ “he used to trouble the water” (Jn5:4)

2017-03-18

ܘܟܰܕ ܥܳܦ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܗ، ܘܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܕܢܶܦܠܰܛ، ܢܳܚ ܘܰܫܠܝ ܡܶܢ ܙܰܘܥܐ.
When his strength was weakened {ʕwp} (=he was tired) and he was not able to escape, he became quiet {nwḥ} and rested {šly intr. +men} from struggling {zawʕā}. « mem 2017-04-20 »
ܘܗܐ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ [ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬ̊ܐ] ܕܢܳܦܩܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܙܥܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
Then look, [there was] a she-mouse {ʕuqbartā f.} that [was] coming out from a small hole/crack {bezʕā}. « mem 2017-04-21 »
ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ، ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܘܳܝ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܡܰܠܟܐ! ܡܳܢܰܘ ܕܐܰܦܠܳܟ ܒܦܰܚܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
When she saw the lion in this way, she said to him: “Alas, my Load, King! What is it that made you fall {ʾappel, C of npl} into this trap?” « mem 2017-04-23 »

ʾappel, ʾapp(ə)l-āḵ (cf. ʾaqṭel, ʾaqṭ(ə)l-āḵ): as per the vowel deletion rule (Mura §6A).

2017-04-19 ܘܗܐ ܙܰܘܥܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܝܰܡܐ (Mt8:24) = καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισμὸς μέγας ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ

2017-04-21 ܘܡ̇ܢ ܕܢܶܦܶܠ ܥܠ ܟܐܦܐ ܗܕܐ (Mt21:44) = καὶ ὁ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον τοῦτον [ πίπτω = “to fall”, aor. ἔπεσον ]

2017-03-19

ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܬܶܟܪܶܐ ܠܳܟ، ܣܰܝܒܰܪ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܘܐܶܢܐ ܡܦܰܠܛܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ.
“But don’t be sad {kry impers. fem. teḵrē⁑ w/ l-}, endure {sybr Quad. imperat.} a little, and I am freeing {plṭ D} you from this rope.” « mem 2017-04-25 »

2017-04-23 ܗ̣ܘ ܕܝܢ ܟܕ ܫܡܰܥ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ܂ ܟܶܪܝܰܬ ܠܶܗ. = “But when he heard these, it was sad for him (=he was sad).” (Lk18:23) = ὁ δὲ ἀκούσᾱς ταῦτα περίλῡπος ἐγένετο (ἐγενήθη)ܥܳܠܡܐ ܢܶܚܕܶܐ܂ ܘܰܠܟܘܢ ܬܶܟܪܶܐ. = “The world will rejoice, and for you guys it will be sad.” (Jn16:20)

2017-03-20

ܘܰܓܚܶܟ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇: ܟܽܠܶܗ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܝ̱ ܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܕܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱، ܘܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡܳܢܰܘ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܕܢܶܫܟܰܚ ܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ!
Then the lion laughed {gḥeḵ e/a} and said to her: “All of it — my strength — was not able to liberate me {ghy C naḡhē⁑}, and you, O little girl, what is your strength that (=there’s no way your strength) would be able to liberate me from this rope!” « mem 2017-04-27 »
ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܝ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܠܚܰܒܠܐ، ܘܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܒܳܪܡܐ ܠܶܗ ܒܫܶܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܐܶܬܦܣܶܩ.
But this female mouse approached {qreḇ e/ó} the rope, and started {šarryaṯ} gnawing {bram} it with her teeth {šennā, pl. -ḕ} until {ʕ(ă)ḏammā d-} it (the rope) was cut off {psaq Gt 3ms ʾeṯp(ə)seq}. « mem 2017-05-01 »

2017-04-25 ghy G “to escape, flee; to live apart” ܒܚܘܪܒܐ ܐܝܬܰܘܗ̱ܝ ܗ̱ܘܐ “he was living in the wasteland” (Lk1:80 P) = ܒܡܰܕܒܪܐ ܓܳܗܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ “he was living apart in the desert” (OS-S) — ghy C “to (let) escape, to be free of” ܘܐܠܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܐܢܐ ܠܟ܆ ܕܗ̣ܢܘܢ ܠܘ̇ܝܢ ܠܟ. ܘܥܡܟ̣ ܐܙܠ̇ܝܢ. ܘܐܬܪܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܝܠܢ܂ ܡܢܗܘܢ ܢܓ̇ܗܐ ܀ “And yet I am doing (=forcing) [this] to you: that they {hennṓn = ḥaršayk “your magic arts”} accompany {lāwḕn √lwy} you and with you they go {ʾāzzīn < *ʾāzlīn: N §183, Mura p. 14}, and our country {ʾaṯrā} will escape {naḡhē⁑} from (will be free of) them.” (ActsThom 328:19–21 ܫܟܚ)

2017-04-26 The Imperfect of ܐܶܫܟܰܚ (that is ܢܶܫܟܰܚ etc.) is sometimes followed by another Imperfect without a connecting d-. Peshitta has about 10 such examples, including: ܠܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܢܶܫܟܰܚ ܢܶܥܒܰܪ ܒܗܳܝ ܐܘܪܚܐ “No one could pass (over by) that way.” (Mt8:28) — ܠܐ ... ܬܶܫܟܰܚ ܬܶܦܪܫܰܢܝ̱ ܡܢ ܚܘܒܶܗ “She will not able to separate me from his love” (Ro8:39) — Also, ܐܶܫܟܰܚ in Part. + Impf. occurs in James 3:2.

2017-04-26 The suffix of the 2nd sg. fem. is -èḵ(y): ܐܶܡܰܪܘ ܠܒܰܪ̱ܬ ܨܶܗܝܘܢ܇ ܗܐ ܡܰܠܟܹܟܝ ܐ̇ܬܐ ܠܹܟܝ (Mt21:5) = Εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών, ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι [Heb/Jar צִיּוֹן while somehow Syr/Ar have -hy- instead of -yy-] — ܫܐܠܝܢ ܫܠܳܡܹܟܝ܉ ܒܢ̈ܝܐ ܕܚܳܬܹܟܝ “The sons of your (sg. f.) sister are asking (wishing) your peace.” (2John 1:13)

2017-04-29 ܫܡܰܥܬܘܢ ܕܶܐܬܶܐܡܰܪ܉ ܕܥܰܝܢܐ ܚܠܳܦ ܥܝܢܐ܂ ܘܫܶܢܐ ܚܠܦ ܫܢܐ. (Mt5:38) = Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη, Ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος. [ἐρρέθην = newer form of ἐρρήθην, aor. pass.]

2017-05-01 ܐܶܬܦܣܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܗ “[the hope] had been cut off” or “cut itself” (Ac27:20) = περιῃρεῖτο “was being cut off” [αἱρέω “to take (away)”, Impf. ᾑρέετο, ᾑρεῖτο]

2017-05-01 ܘܬܰܡܳܢ ܗ̣ܘܰܘ܂ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܳܦܩܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ (Mt10:11) = ܘܬܲܡ̇ܢ ܗܘ̤ܵܘ ܥܕܲܡܐ ܕܢܵܦ̇ܩܝܼܢ ܐܢ݇ܬܘܿܢ = κἀκεῖ μείνατε, ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε ⟦et ibi manēte exeātis⟧ — ܩܶܪܒܰܬ ܠܗ ܐܶܡܗܘܢ ܕܰܒܢ̈ܝ ܙܰܒܕܰܝ “The mother of the sons of Zaḇ(ə)ḏai {Ζεβεδαῖος: זַבְדִּי “my gift” or זְבַדְיָה “Ya has given”} came to him”(Mt20:20)

2017-03-21

ܘܟܰܕ ܦܠܰܛ ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܚܳܪ ܒܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ:
And when the lion escaped (=was freed), he looked at the female mouse, and said within himself: « mem 2017-05-03 »
ܒܰܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܣܰܓܝ ܕܙܥܘܪܐ [ܕܰܙܥܘܪܐ] ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܰܥܒܳܕܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܓܰܢ̱ܒܳܪܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܠܶܗ ܀
“Truly (=Admittedly) {šrārā=“truth”} there is often [such a situation] that a small and weak {mḥīlā} one takes care of {qwm b- lit. “stand in” i.e. “withstands”} a great job {ʕḇāḏā} which a hero {gabbārā, intensive form of gaḇrā (Jess); N §28} is not able to do {d- lèh = “whom, quem”}.” « mem 2017-05-07 »

2017-05-05 ܡܨܶܐ often takes Inf. in Peshitta: ܠܐ ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ: ܘܳܐܦܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܠܡܶܚܙܝܶܗ “one has not seen him, and one is not even able to see him” (1Ti6:16) = ES ܠܐ ܚܙܵܝ̣ܗܝ: ܐܵܦܠܐ ܡܨܸܐ ܠܡܸܚ݇ܙܝܹܗ

2017-03-22

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What happened {gdaš w. b-/l-} to the lion?
ܢܦܰܠ ܒܦܰܚܐ.
He fell into a trap.
2 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܳܝ [ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱] ܒܦܰܚܐ؟
Who saw him {ḥzā ḥzāy(hy)} in the trap?
ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܚܙܳܬܶܗ.
A female mouse saw him. {ḥzāṯ ḥzāṯèh}
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What did the female mouse say to the lion?
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: «ܐܶܢܐ ܡܦܰܠܛܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܡܢ ܗܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ.»
She said to him: “I am going to free you from this rope.”
4 ܡܘܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What did the lion reply to her? {mṓn = a variant of mān‏, presumably based on its western pronunciation (CAL)}
ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܠܗ̇: «ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡܳܢܰܘ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܟܝ̱ ܕܢܶܫܟܰܚ ܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱ ܡܢ ܗܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ!»
The lion replied to her: “Hey, little girl, what is your power that would be able to free me from this rope!”
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ؟
What did the female mouse do?
ܒܶܪܡܰܬ ܠܚܰܒܠܐ ܒܫܶܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܶܐܬܦܣܶܩ.
She gnawed the rope with her teeth until it was cut off.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܟܰܕ ܦܠܰܛ؟
What did the lion say within himself when he escaped?
«ܒܰܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܣܰܓܝ ܕܰܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܰܥܒܳܕܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܓܰܢ̱ܒܳܪܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܠܶܗ.»
“Truly, there is many a situation where a small, weak one takes care of a great job which a hero can’t achieve.”

2017-03-23

ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ

ܝܳܗܶܒ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ܕܳܒܰܪ ܛܳܥܶܝ ܡܩܰܕܶܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ

7 ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ [ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ] ܒܕܶܪܬܐ.
Students are playing {ʾeštʕī meštʕḕn Gt ≠ meštaʕʕḕn Dt “to narrate”} in the courtyard (=school ground).
ܟܰܫܝܪܐ [ܡܩܰܕܶܐ] ܪܝܫܳܝܘܬ̥ܐ.
The diligent [one] (=the hard worker) retains {qaddī D} the top position {rḗšāyūṯā ⟦principātus⟧}.
8 ܐܝܠܳܢܐ [ܝܳܗܶܒ] ܦܻܐܪ̈ܐ.
The tree gives fruits. {YHB works this way: Matthew 13:8}
ܫܶܡܫܐ [ܡܰܢܗܰܪ] ܒܐܺܝܡܳܡܐ.
The sun illuminates [things] {nhr C} in the daytime {ʾīmāmā}.
9 ܬܰܘܪܐ [ܕܳܒܰܪ] ܦܰܕܳܢܐ.
An ox plows (lit. lead a yoke). {paddānā = “a yoke, a plow”: with dḇar “to yoke, to plow” (Jess); cf. Luke 17:7}
ܓܰܡܠܐ [ܛܳܥܶܢ] ܡܰܘܒ̈ܠܐ.
A camel carries cargos {mawblḕ “bardens”}.

A random thing to say: ܬܐܢܐ ܗܕܐ ܛܒܐ!

2017-03-24

ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ ܕܶܟ̥ܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܢܶܩܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥

deḵrāʾīṯ = “in a masculine way”; neqbāʾīṯ = “in a feminine way”

ܐܰܪܝܐ ܟܳܪܶܟ: ܐܰܪܝܘܬ̥ܐ ܟܳܪܟ̥ܐ
a lion goes around (krk): a lioness goes around
10 ܕܺܐܒܐ ܪܳܗܶܛ: ܕܺܐܒܬܐ [ܪܳܗܛܐ]
a wolf runs: a she-wolf (dḗḇṯā) runs
11 ܟܘܢܐ ܣܳܚܶܐ: ܢܘܢܬܐ [ܣܳܚܝ̣ܐ]
a fish swims: a she-fish swims {nūnTā = not in dict.}
12 ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ: ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ ܩܳܪܝܐ
a student calls: a female students calls {yālṓp̄Tā = not in dict.}

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 17] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 17 [ܕܰܫܒܳܬܱܥܣܰܪ]: ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ

2017-03-02

pulḥānā = “work”; taqnā = “proper, firm, lasting”

ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ، ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܦܳܠܰܚ ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ، ܘܰܚܙܐ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ] ܕܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
One spring day {lit. in one of spring days}, Little Elijah {ʾÈlīyā} went down {nḥeṯ} to the garden in which his father {ʾaḇūy} [was] working, and saw a beehive {kâwwārā N §84} of bees {debbṓrīṯā, pl. debbṓryāṯā}. « mem 2017-03-15 »

ES/LS2 teḏā (also: teḏʾā), TS (PSm) taḏā (taḏʾā) = “grass, spring” [Cf. Book 3 Lesson 19]: pure Syriac by metathesis; diṯʾā in BA/jar/etc.

2017-03-13 wikt: taḏʾā, teḏʾā; TS2-4390/Jess 605a: taḏā, [taḏʾā,] taʾdā, taḏā, ES teḏʾā — Also note, ܟܘܪܐ can be read in several different ways, including: kūrā “furnace”; kōrā “land” (Greek); kawwārā/kwārā “beehive”.

2017-03-07 Bienenstock /-ʃt-/: the BB form (10th cent.) is kwārā (881:15), like Qara; also Maclean kwârâ “in OS”. ar كَوَّارَة [Note: a SHADDA has a higher Canonical_Combining_Class than the Arabic vowel marks, even though it is written lower than a FATHA] — Also Jess. kwārā OR kawwārā.

2017-03-04

ܘܩܳܡ ܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܗܶܝܢ ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܕܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ]،
So he stood from afar {ruḥqā}; and began looking {ʾeṯbaqqī Dt √bqy: with b-} at them {f. “bees”} and seeing how bees [were] going out from the beehive, « mem 2017-03-16 »
ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ ܘܝܳܬ̥ܒ̈ܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ،
flying and sitting on the flowers, « mem 2017-03-22 »
ܘܡܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ ܕܡܶܢܶܗ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܟܰܟܳܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
and sucking {mtq} dew {ṭallā m. “nectar”?}, from which they [were going to] making a honeycomb {kakkārīṯā}. « mem 2017-03-22 »

2017-03-12 The ܗ̄ܘܳܐ does not require to be repeated, when it refers to several participles: it may be altogether omitted, when the connection clearly attests the sphere of the past (N §277). Thus, “He saw that the bees [were] going out.”

2017-03-13 Also, “He went down to the garden where his father [was] working.”

2017-03-16 ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢ — In Peshitta, at least, the emphatic state ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ is used, as in: ܐܶܫܬܰܥܝܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܗܳܢܘܢ ܕܰܚܙܰܘ܉ ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ ܗ̣ܘܐ ܠܗܰܘ “Those who saw [it] told {šʕy} them how it happened to him” (Mark 5:16), = διηγήσαντο αὐτοῖς οἱ ἰδόντες πῶς ἐγένετο τῷ. [See 2017-05-14.]

2017-03-21 In Peshitta, while D ܦܰܪܰܚ “to waste” is used in Luke, G ܦܪܰܚ “to fly, flee” is only used in (non-Peshitta) Revelation. See On Syriac Apocalypse 8:13.

2017-05-19 kakkārīṯā is prob. related to kakkərā f. “talent (weight)” as in “loaf” (Jastrow 638b).

2017-03-07

ṭallā ⟦rōs⟧ = Qara 5 says “dew, pollen”

ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟ̥ܳܢ [ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟܳܢ] ܬܘܒ ܠܰܟܘܳܪܐ [ܠܟܰܘܳܪܐ]، ܘܣܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܒܶܗ ܠܕܶܒܫܐ ܘܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ،
Then they [were] returning again {tūḇ} to the beehive, and putting in it honey {deḇšā} and going out, « mem 2017-03-24 »
ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܣܳܟ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܚܕܐ ܒܰܐ̱ܚܪܺܬ̥ܐ ܐܳܦܠܐ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܠܳܗ̇.
while one [bee was] not at all {lā sāḵ} touching {gšp, with b-} another {fem. ḥrḗṯā}, not even {ʾāp̄-lā} impeding {ʕwk D: mʕâww(ə)ḵā, double W!} it (=another bee). « mem 2017-03-29 »

2017-03-22 A Peshitta ex. of ʕwk D: ܘܰܨܒܰܝܢ ܕܢܹܐܬܶܐ ܠܘܳܬܟܘܢ܁ ܐܢܐ ܦܘܠܳܘܣ ܚܕܐ ܙܒܰܢ ܘܬܪ̈ܬܝܢ܉ ܘܥܰܘܟ̥ܰܢܝ̱ ܣܳܛܳܢܐ. “And we wanted to come to you guys; I, Paul, [wanted that] once and twice (=once and again) — then Satan hindered me {ʕâwweḵ: ʕâww(ə)ḵan: Double W!}.” (1Thes2:18⁎)

2017-03-08

ܘܰܫܦܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܗܳܢܐ، ܘܰܗܘܐ ܟܽܠܝܘܡ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ، ܡܶܢ ܩܕܳܡ ܕܢܶܕܢܰܚ ܫܶܡܫܐ، ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ،
And this sight {ḥezwā} pleased him — the boy; and he started going down {nḥt} to the garden every day {kulyṓm} in the morning, (from) before the sun shines {dnḥ: a/a becuase of the 3rd ḥ}, « mem 2017-04-04 »
ܘܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ] ܡܶܬܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܟܶܢ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
and standing in front of the beehive for a long time {lit. “duration from [past] time”} while looking {bqy Dt w. b-} at the bees, then [he was] returning home. « mem 2017-04-05 »

ܡܶܬܚܐ = “length of time, duration”, can be used adverbially. Jess. has: ܡܶܬܚܐ ܕܰܬܡܳܢܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ = “the space of eighty years”, “for eighty years”

ܡܶܢ ܙܰܒܢܐ = lit. “since time”, meaning “since a long time ago”, “for a long time”. Peshitta has two examples:

2017-03-30

started: the exact meaning of this non-enclitic ܗܘܐ is unclear. (Maybe simply “was going down”)

2017-04-02

ܘܫܶܦ̥ܪܰܬ ܠܶܗ ܠܗܹܪܘܿܕܶܣ “she pleased Herod” (Mt14:6)

2017-03-09

ܘܰܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ، ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
Then one day, his father asked him, “What are you learning from bees?” « mem 2017-04-06 »
ܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ: ܕܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ ܘܐܰܡܝܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ ܀
Elijah answered: “Proper {taqnā: reliable, firm, honest} and constant {ʾammīnā} work {pulḥānā}, Father.” « mem 2017-04-07 »

*Probably yālèp̄ + noun (direct object), and d- is simply quoting what he says; and not yālèp̄ + d “learn that”.

2017-03-10 Daniel; Russian; Georgian.

2017-03-11 Memorized a Syriac sentence from the previous lesson; Russian; Georgian.

2017-03-12

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ؟
ʾÈlīyā, nḥt = “to go down” (npq = “to go out”)
ܢܚܶܬ ܐܠܝܐ ܠܓܰܢܬܐ ܘܰܚܙܐ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ ܕܕܶܒܘܿܪ̈ܝܳܬܳܐ.
kâwwārā = “beehive”, debbṓryāṯā = “bees”
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܗ̱̈ܘܳܝ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
What were the bees doing {fem. pl.}?
ܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ ܗ̱̈ܘܳܝ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ، ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ ܘܝܳܬܒ̈ܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ، ܘܡܳܬܩ̈ܳܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ، ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟܳܢ ܬܘܒ ܠܟܰܘܳܪܐ ܘܣܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܒܶܗ ܠܕܶܒܫܐ.
They were going out from the beehive, flying and sitting on flowers, sucking the “dew”, and returning back to the beehive and putting the honey in it.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟
What he was doing every morning?
ܒܟܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܓܰܢܬܐ، ܘܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܳܐ.
Every morning he was going down to the garden and standing in front of the beehive, while looking at bees.

2017-03-13

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܐ؟
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ: ܕܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ ܘܰܐܡܝܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܳܕܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ.
He answered: “I am learning (about) reliable, constant work, Father.”

2017-03-15

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܟܘܳܪܐ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܡܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܢ

ܟܘܳܪܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ.
A beehive is the house of bees.
ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܐ ܪ̈ܚܡܢ ܗܒܒ̈ܐ.
Bees love flowers.
ܐܳܣܝܐ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܛܰܠܝܐ.
The doctor is examining the boy.
ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܡܳܬܩ̈ܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ.
Bees are sucking the “dew”.

7 ܟܰܟܳܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܐܰܡܝܢܐ

ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܟܰܟܪܝܬܐ.
Bees build a honeycomb.
ܐܶܡܐ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܒܛܰܠܝܳܗ̇.
The mother touches his boy.
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܠܝ.
Mary was impeding me.
ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܐܰܡܝܢܐ ܛܳܒ.
Constant work is good.

2017-03-16

ܐܰܝܟܐ ܥܳܡܪܝܢ ܗܳܟܶܝܢ؟

ܩܶܢܐ ܟܘܳܪܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܐܶܣ‍ܛܰܒܠܐ ܢܶܩܥܐ ܒܶܙܥܐ
nest (f?); beehive; house; stabe {BB 219-11/TS1-204: ar إسْطَبْل, fa إصطبل = CAL/LS2 ܐܶܣ‍ܛܰܒܠܝܢ from στάβλοςstabulum⟧}; cave, den; hole, warren;
8 ܒܰܪܢܳܟܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܣܘܣܝܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܐܶܣܛܰܒܠܐ.
A horse {sūsyā} live in a stable.
9 ܬܰܥܠܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ .... ܢܶܩܥܐ.
A fox live in a den.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܥܳܡܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܩܶܢܐ.
A bird lives in a nest.
10 ܚܶܘܝܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܒܶܙܥܐ.
A snake {ḥewyā} lives in a hole.
ܕܶܒܘܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܥܳܡܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܟܘܳܪܐ.
A bee lives in a beehive.

ܠܬܰܥ̈ܠܐ ܢܶܩܥ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ “There are dens for foxes” (Mt8:20) = αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 16] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 16 [ܕܫܶܬܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܢܰܨܪܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ

2017-02-18

mnaṣṣərān-ā, fem. mnaṣṣərānīṯā (N §71) = “pleasant, flattering” maybe “twittering”

ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܠܥܳܒܐ.
At one time, three students went out to the forest. « mem 2017-03-03 »

ܐܳܦ ܢܘܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܐ ܡܰܘܩܕܐ. “Even a small fire {f} burns many forests.” Ja3:5

ܘܟܰܕ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒܝܢ] ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܕ ܪܳܡܐ، ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܕܰܡܢܰܨܪܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.
And when they were sitting in the shade {ṭellāl(ā)} of a high tree, they heard a voice {qāl(ā) m.} of a bird {f.} which was twittering repeatedly {naṣṣar D: mnaṣṣar, mnaṣṣrā} in a sweet voice. « mem 2017-03-04 »

2017-03-03 yattīḇ is a verbal adjectives of type paʕʕīl (N §118), similar to — but different from — the passive participle *yīṯīḇ (Thackston §12.1), sometimes used as a passive or middle perfect participle with active meaning: “having seated (oneself)” = “sitting” (N §118, §280 fn). The plural form is yattīḇīn (TS1-1645; Lexicon Syropalaestinum 88b); the active participle would be yāṯbīn. [Cf. Book 3 Lesson 29; Book 3 Lesson 34]

2017-03-04 ṣepprā da-mnaṣṣrā sounds musical, where ṣ…rā and …ṣrā are like a refrain with the rhythm of CVCCrā CVC CVCCrā.

2017-02-21

ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ، ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇؟
One of them said: “Ah, how sweet the voice of this bird is! Where is she?” « mem 2017-03-05 »
ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܶܐܚܙܶܝܗ̇.
“I need to see her.” « mem 2017-03-05 »
ܘܩܳܡ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ، ܘܰܪܡܰܙ ܒܨܶܒܥܶܗ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܕ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ:
The second [student] stood up, and pointed {rmaz “signaled”} with his finger {ṣeḇʕā} at one tree, and said: « mem 2017-03-06 »

2017-02-22

ܗܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܝ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܩܶܢܐ.
Look, she is sitting on that branch, in [her] nest. « mem 2017-03-06 »
ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܰܚܙܳܗ̇ ܫܩܰܠ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܠܡܶܫܕܐ ܒܳܗ̇.
And as soon as he saw her, he took up a stone from the ground to throw {šdy: inf. lmešdā} it at her. « mem 2017-03-07 »
ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ: ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܐܳܘ ܗܳܢܐ؟
And the third guy said to him: “What do you want to do, O this [boy]?” « mem 2017-03-08 »

2017-03-07 hānḕ is “this [bad boy]” and not “this [bad behavior]”; because if it meant his behavior, the expression would be probably fem. hāḏḕ as in the following line.

2017-02-23

ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܦܨܰܚ ܠܳܟ ܒܩܳܠܶܗ؟
“With this are you repaying/punishing {prʕ} the one who pleases {pṣḥ C} you with his voice?” « mem 2017-03-08 »
ܐܰܘ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܠܳܟ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܐܳܡܰܪ: «ܗܘܰܘ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܡ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.»
“Or [=if that’s not your intention] thus {hāḵan} it teaches {mallep̄ Pa. part. N §174D} you a lesson that says: ‘(You guys) be nice with animals.’” « mem 2017-03-09 »

2017-03-09 ܗܘܰܘ ܒܰܣܝܡܝܢ is expected, but +emph. is possible, though rare, as in ܗܘܰܘ ܡܛܰܝܒ̈ܐ “be prepared [men]” (Lk12:40). If you understand the above sentence as “Be nice [guys]!” and not just "Be nice!", then the emphatic state makes sense.

2017-02-24

ܘܰܒܗܶܬ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܰܒܪܶܗ.
And the student was ashamed {bheṯ} from (=when he heard) the word[s] of his friend. « mem 2017-03-11 »
ܘܐܰܪܡܝ ܠܟܺܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܕܶܗ، ܘܩܳܡ ܨܳܐܶܬ̥ ܠܩܳܠܐ ܕܨܶܦܪܐ܀
He dropped the stone from his hand, and stood listening {ṣwt} to the voice of the bird. « mem 2017-03-12 »

2017-03-12 ṣwt = “to listen”: šmʕ = “to hear, obey, understand”

2017-02-26

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱؟
To where did the students go out and what did they hear?
ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܠܥܳܒܐ ܘܰܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
The students went out to the forest and heard the voice of a bird.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ؟
What did one of them say?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ، ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇؟ ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܶܐܚܙܶܝܗ̇.
He said: “Ah, how sweet the voice of this bird is! Where is she? I need to see her.”
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܗܰܘ ܬܪܳܝܳܢܐ؟
What did the second guy say?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܗܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܝ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܩܶܢܐ.
He said: “Look, she is sitting on that branch, at [her] nest.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟
What did he do when he saw the bird?
ܫܩܰܠ ܟܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܠܡܶܫܕܐ ܒܳܗ̇.
He took up a stone from the ground to throw [it] at her.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪ ܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ؟
What did the third guy say to him?
ܐܶܡܪ ܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ؟ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܦܨܰܚ ܠܳܟ ܒܩܳܠܶܗ؟
He said to him: “What do you want to do? With this are you rewarding the one who gladdens you with his voice?”

2017-02-27

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܒܰܣܝ̈ܡܐ ܫܩܰܠ ܨܒܐ ܢܶܫܕܶܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ
The shadow of the tree is beautiful.
ܝܶܬܒܶܬ ܒܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
I sat in the shadow of the tree.
ܦܣܰܩ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
He cut a branch from a tree.
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܪܶܥܝܳܢ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
These are pleasant thoughts.
ܫܩܳܠ ܫܩܰܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
Jesus took bread.
ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
What do you want?
ܢܶܫܕܶܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܟܐܦܐ.
Let him throw a stone at her.

2017-02-28

Memo: Hugoye

🖉

Armenian Garshuni: An Overview of the Known Material
Garshuni As It Is: Some Observations from Reading East and West Syriac Manuscripts
http://bethmardutho.org/index.php/hugoye/volume-index/591.html

ܦܪܘܫ ܡܶܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ «ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܢܰܨܪܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ»

7 ܚܰܡܫܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ

ܥܳܒܐ، ܛܶܠܴܠܐ، ܐܝܠܳܢܐ، ܩܳܠܐ، ܨܶܦܪܐ

8 ܚܰܡܶܫ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܐܝܟ: ܢܦܰܩܘ̱

ܝܳܬܝܒܝܢ، ܫܡܰܥܘ̱، ܡܢܰܨܪܐ، ܐܶܡܰܪ، ܒܳܥܶܐ

9 ܚܰܡܫܐ ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܟܰܕ

ܗܐ، ܡܶܚܕܐ، ܒܳܗ̇، ܠܶܗ، ܐܳܘ

2017-03-01

ܐܰܪܰܐ ܚܙܰܝܬ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܡܳܕܶܝܢ:

māḏḕn = “therefore, in that case”

10 ܟܡܐ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ̇ ܬܪܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
ܟܡܐ ܡܳܩܘܙ̈ܐ؟
How many beaks {sg. maqūzā OR māqūzā}?
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ̇ ܚܰܕ ܡܳܩܘܙܐ.
ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ؟
What does it eat?
ܐܳܟܠܐ ܙܰܪܥ̈ܐ ܘܛܰܝܪ̈ܐ (ܪ̈ܰܚܫܳܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ).
It eats seeds {zarʕḕ} and insects {ṭayrḕ} (small creeping animal {raḥšā collective}).

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 15] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 15 [ܕܚܰܡܶܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܫܦܰܝ̈ܳܐ

2017-01-30

2017-01-31

ܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܬܡܳܢܶܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ، ܥܰܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ، ܘܰܩܪܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܡܛܰܝܒ̈ܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܗܰܘ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܡܛܰܝܰܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܗܰܘ ܝܰܘܡܐ.
At eight o’clock in the morning, the teacher entered (m) the classroom, and called (m) the names of the present students, but Jacob, the diligent student, was not present on that day. « mem 2017-02-10? »

2017-02-01

ܘܫܰܐܶܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱. ܘܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒܶܗ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܕܠܰܡ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱!
And the teacher asked about him. One of the students, who was his neighbor, said: “I heard: ‘Jacob is sick!’” « mem 2017-02-13 »
ܘܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠܝ̱ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ ܐܳܣܝܐ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܡ̱ܡܳܢ̈ܐ.
“‘And yesterday in the evening, a physician visited him and gave him some medicines.’” « mem 2017-02-14 »

2017-02-02

ܘܟܰܕ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱، ܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱: ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ. ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܰܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܐܶܙܰܠܘ̱ ܐܰܟ̥ܚܰܕ ܠܫܘܩܐ،
And when four of his scoolmates heard [this], they said: “It is proper that we will go to his place (=We should visit his place).” And as soon as they got out of school, they went together to the market, « mem 2017-02-15 »
ܘܰܙܒܰܢܘ̱ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܡܘ̈ܙܐ، ܘܐܶܓܳܨ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
and bought a few frutis such as bananas and pears and apples. « mem 2017-02-17 »

2017-02-03

ܘܟܰܢܶܫܘ̱ ܐܳܦ ܟܰܦܐ ܕܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ ܘܐܶܙܰܠܘ̱ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ.
And they also gathered a bundle of beautiful roses and went to his place. « mem 2017-02-18 »
ܘܰܚܙܰܘܽܘܗ̱ܝ ܕܕܰܡܝܟ ܒܥܰܪܣܐ ܘܐܶܡܶܗ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܰܡܦܝ̣ܚܐ ܠܶܗ ܒܫܘܫܶܦܐ.
And they saw him lying in [his] bed, and his mother sitting by his head and cooling him (=trying to reduce his fever) with a towel. « mem 2017-02-22 »

2017-02-04

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ، ܒܣܶܡ ܠܶܒܶܗ ܘܰܢܗܰܪ̈ܝ̱ ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܳܗ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܰܝ̣.
And when Jacob saw them, his heart rejoiced and his face shone, and he said: “Ah, welcome (b-šainā), my brother-friends (=dear friends).” « mem 2017-02-26 »

2017-02-06

ܟܶܢ ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܗܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܚ̈ܰܕܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܰܘܡܐ ܗܰܘ.
Then he sat and started asking them about the new lessons of that day. « mem 2017-02-27 »

2017-02-07

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܡܘ̱ ܘܰܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ ܘܰܢܦܰܩܘ̱܀
And one hour later, they stood up and wished him [quick] recovery and left. « mem 2017-03-01 »

ܫܘܩܐ is سوق, and շուկա (šuKa, K unaspirated), from which შუკა (dated, dialectal) “narrow street”

2017-02-08

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܐܶܬܛܰܝܰܒ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ؟
Why didn’t Jacob prepare himself (=Why wasn’t Jacob present) in the class?
ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ.
Jacob was sick.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܶܗ؟
What had happened {gḏaš} to him?
ܐܳܣܝܐ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܡ̱ܡܳܢ̈ܐ.
A doctor visited him and gave him some medicines.
3 ܡܰܢ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܣܳܥܘܪܘܬ̥ܐ؟
Who went to his place for visitation {sāʕōrūṯā}?
ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱.
Four of his school mates [did].
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܰܘܒܶܠܘ̱ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ؟
What did they bring {√ybl C} to him with them?
ܩܰܠܝܠ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ.
A few fruits and roses.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ؟
What did Jacob say to them?
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ: «ܐܳܗ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܰܝ.»
Jacob said: “Ah, welcome, my brother-friends.”
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܟܰܕ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
What did they wish when they went out from his place?
ܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ.
They wished him recovery.

2017-02-09

ܟܢܳܬ̥ܝ̱ ܝܰܩܝܪܐ ܫܶܡܥܘܢ
My dear {yīqar “to be heavy, precious”} colleague {knāṯā m./f. N §87}, Simon {šemʕṓn}:
ܫܠܳܡܐ ܣܒܝܣܐ!
Intimate {sḇīsā} greetings!
ܗܐ ܝܺܪܰܚ ܝܰܩܡܝ̈ܢ ܘܠܐ ܫܰܕܪܶܬ̥ ܓܝܳܒܐ ܕܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܳܟ.
Look, a (full) month {Jess 197a, LS2 309: this (y)īraḥ is the con. st. of yarḥā} [passed], and I did not send {šaddar D} a reply to your letter {ʾeggarṯā}.

ܓܝܳܒܐ (gyāḇā) is probably not a Classical word, but may be related to Ar جواب (ǧawāb) or Ar إجابة (ʾiǧāba), both mean “reply, response, answer”. Modern syr has ܓ̰ܘܼܘܵܒ݁ (ǧūwāb), Maclean 46a, ota جواب (cevāb c=/d͡ʒ/), ku جەواب (cèwab: Maclean “jô-wâb, jewâb, juâb”: in Latin, cewab, cuwab, ciwab, etc.).

However, ܓܘܼܝܳܒܐ (guyyāḇā) “response” is v.n.D of √gwb. Bar Bahlul (10th cent.; fl. 963) 463:16 has ܓܘܼܝܵܒܐ as ܡܓܝܒܢܘܬܐ جواب اجابة, where ܡܓܝܒܳܢܘܼܬܐ (mḡīḇāyūṯā, CAL mḡīb-, Jess. mgayb-) is “an answer”. Moreover, BB has ܓܝܒܐ in 482. TS1-670 says, ܓܘܝܳܒܐ BA [Bar Ali: †890] BB [Bar Bahlul: fl. 963] K [Karmsaddani/Carmeniensis (Maronite) 1619], ܓܝܒܐ BB, vox dubia. So the word like ܓܝܳܒܐ did exist at least in the 9th century (post-Classical).

JPG
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/123688/filename/152563.pdf/mapsto/pdf/type/compoundobject/cpdtype/monograph/show/123688
ܨ stands for ܨܚܳܚܐ “book, codex, (another) copy, manuscript”; ܚ is ܚܕ ???

2017-02-14

[ܒܰ]ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝܬܐ ܟܒܰܪ ܪܳܢܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܰܛܥܝܬ̥ܳܟ، ܐܰܘ ܩܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܒܝ̱ ܕܰܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܟ.
[In] the end {ḥrāytā = “last part”}, perhaps {kḇar} you are thinking that I forgot you {ṭʕā, ṭʕḗt 1sg, ṭʕḗṯāḵ}, or [that] my love {ḥubbā} (which is) toward you has just† cooled {√qrr} down.

2017-02-15

ܐܶܠܐ ܟܰܕ ܬܶܕܰܥ ܕܰܥܡܝܠ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܒܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܩܪܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ،
But when you know that I was very busy {Pass. pt. of ʕmal “to labor”} with study (pl.) because the test {buḥrānā} of the beginning of the year had approached,
ܕܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܬܶܫܒܘܩ ܠܝ ܒܘܨܳܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ!
I doubt {dalmā = “I guess it’s unlikely”} that you won’t forgive {šḇaq} me for this omission {buṣṣārā} (=my slow reply)!

Romans 10:18 has ܕܰܠܡܐ ܠܐ ܫܡܰܥܘ “Have they not heard? (Yes, they have!)” — here, similarly ܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܬܶܫܒܘܿܩ “Will you not forgive? (Yes, you will!)”

2017-02-16

ܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠܝ̱ ܫܠܶܡ ܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ، ܘܗܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܐܶܣܰܒܪܳܟ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܚܳܡ̈ܐ ܕܩܰܕܝܬ̥ ܒܕܰܪܓ̥ܐ «ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪ» ܥܰܡ ܕܳܫܢܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܕܩܰܪܶܒ ܠܝ ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
Yesterday the test ends {šlm “to be whole/complete”} and look, I’m writing so that I may bring news {sabbar = “to bring news”: ʾessabbar} to you, about the grades {puḥḥāmā vnD “comparison”} that I have acquired {qaddī = “to enjoy the possession of”} in the rank {dargā “step”} «very good» with a gift {dāšnā} which, then, the principal {mḏabbrāna = “leader”} of the school offered {qarreb = “to bring near”} to me.

The G of dargā is hard in CAL, Jastrow (tmr), wikt; but darḡā in both P-NY and P-UK (in pl. dargḕ in P-UK).

ܐܳܦ ܐܰܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܫܰܟܶܢ ܠܝ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܝܰܩܝܪܬܐ ܕܣܺܐܡܐ!
Also, my father gave (as a gift) {šakken} to me an expensive {yaqqīr} ‘hour’ (timepiece, watch, clock) made of silver {sḗmā}!

2017-02-17

ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܝ ܢܰܗܝܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܝܠܳܟ، ܡܰܠܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܚܳܡ̈ܐ ܕܰܡܩܰܕܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
Write me clearly {nahhīrāʾīṯ} about the things (daily life etc.) of yours, if possible about the grades that you are acquiring {qdy D see above} in the test of the beginning of the year.
ܘܐܶܢ ܡܰܨܝܐ ܠܳܟ، ܓܢܘܒ ܐܰܦܬ̥ܐ ܘܬܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܰܢ ܒܒܶܛܠܳܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ،
And if it is possible {fem.: for ʾap̄ṯā?} for you, find {lit. “steal”} an opportunity {ʾap̄ṯā f.} and come to our place in this vacation {beṭlānā},
ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܢܰܥܒܰܪ ܥܰܡ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܥܺܐܕܐ ܘܰܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
in such a way that we may spend {ʾaʕbar C lit. “make pass by”}, with each others, the days of the festival/holiday {ʕḗḏā} and of the new year.
ܘܩܰܘܐ ܚܠܝܡ
And “remain {qawwā = imperat. of qawwī D} healthy” {like “say hello”}
ܠܐܰܚܘܟ ܕܳܢܺܝܶܐܠ
To your brother {ʾa(ḥ)ḥūḵ} Daniel

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 14] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 14 [ܕܰܐܪܒܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܬܘܪܬܐ ܒܳܥܝܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ

2017-01-17

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܰܢ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܐ
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܛܰܒ [ܛܳܒ ؟] ܒܰܣܝܡܐ
We have a cow, much loved;
she gives us milk, very delicious.
ܢܳܦܩܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܘܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܫܰܠܒܐ
ܘܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ [ܘܗܳܦܟ̊ܐ] ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܘܥܰܡܳܗ̇ ܚܰܠܒܐ
She goes out in the morning, and grazes in the valley;
and returns in the evening, and with her, milk [also comes home].

2017-01-18

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܒܨܳܦܪܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ
ܠܡܐ ܝܳܕܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܳܢܐ ܒܳܥܝܐ
The cow lows every day in the morning.
Do you know what she is asking?
ܐܳܡܪܐ ܗܰܒ ܠܝ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܘܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
ܘܬܶܣܰܒ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
She is saying: “Give me grass and water;
and you will take milk without watery thing (thick milk) price (priceless milk).”
ܘܐܶܢ ܬܰܘܣܶܦ ܠܝ ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܒܟܶܣܬܐ
ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܦ ܓܘܒܢ̈ܐ ܘܡܰܣܬܐ
“And if you add for me barley grains into the fodder (if you add barley to my fodder),
you are gaining cheeses and yogurt.”

2017-01-24

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

1 ܫܰܠܒܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ
valley, to low (fem. part.), without, price, fodder, to gain (part.)
ܐܰܝܟ: ܫܰܠܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܢܰܗܪܐ.
Like: The valley has a river in it.
ܟܠ ܝܘܿܡ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܫܰܠܒܐ.
Every day the cow grazes in the valley.
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ.
A cow lows.
ܚܕܳܐ ܡܶܢܗܶܝܢ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܒܘܟܘܢ ܠܐ ܢܳܦܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
None of them falls on the ground without your father(’s will). Mt10:29
ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܣܰܓܝ.
The price is high.
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ ܠܬܘܪܬܐ.
I gives fodder to a cow.
ܐܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ.
If you do these, you will gain.

2017-01-26

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ؟
Where does a farmer live?
ܒܚܰܩܠܐ.
In the field.
3 ܒܐܰܝܢܐ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܥܢܶܐ؟
In which (=what sort of) work is engaged?
ܟܳܪܶܒ ܠܳܗ̇ ܘܒܳܕܰܪ ܠܙܰܪܥܐ.
He plows it and spreads seed[s].
4 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܳܕܫ̈ܐ ܕܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ؟
Which (pl.) sorts of grains does he sow?
ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
Barley grains and wheat grains.
5 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܙܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܩܳܢܶܐ؟
What kind of animals does he acquire (have)?
ܬܰܘܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܘܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ، ܘܘܰܙ̈ܐ.
Cows and cattle and geese.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ؟
What does he gain from these animals?
ܚܰܠܒ̥ܐ.
Milk.
7 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ؟
What does he gain from these birds?
ܒ̈ܥܐ.
Eggs.
8 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ؟
Do you love a city? And why?
ܠܐ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܰܩܪܝܬܐ. ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܫܰܠܝܽܘܬܐ.
I do not love a city. I love quietness.

2017-01-29

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܕܶܟ̥ܪܐ ܘܢܶܩܒܐ ܘܝܰܠܕܐ ܕܟܽܠ ܓܶܢܣܐ

deḵrā = “male”; neqbā = “female”; yaldā = “child”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܰܒܫܐ [ܟܶܒܫܐ] - ܢܶܩܝܐ - ܐܶܡܪܐ.
wether {keḇšā from كبش (kabš): cf. כֶּבֶשׂ “sheep”} - ewe {neqyā} - lamb
ܕܶܟ̥ܪܐ ܟܰܒܫܐ [ܟܶܒܫܐ] ܬܰܘܪܐ ܣܘܣܝܐ ܬܰܝܫܐ ܚܡܳܪܐ
Male: wether ox horse {sūsyā} he-goat {tayšā} ass
ܢܶܩܒܐ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܣܘܣܬܐ ܐܰܬܳܢܐ ܥܶܙܐ ܢܶܩܝܐ
Female: cow mare {sūstā} she-ass {ʾattānā: أتان (ʾatān)} goat ewe
ܝܰܠܕܐ ܥܶܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܓܰܕܝܐ ܥܝܠܐ ܡܘܗܪܐ
Child: calf {ʕeḡlā} lamb kid {gaḏyā} colt/any young equid {ʕīlā} horse’s foal {mührā CAL muwhrā: مهر (muhr)}
ܟܶܒܫܐ، ܢܶܩܝܐ، ܐܶܡܪܐ
wether, ewe, lamb
ܬܰܘܪܐ، ܬܘܪܬܐ، ܥܶܓ̥ܠܐ
ox, cow, calf
ܣܘܣܝܐ، ܣܘܣܬܐ، ܡܘܗܪܐ
horse, mare, horse’s foal
ܬܰܝܫܐ، ܥܶܙܐ، ܓܰܕܝܐ
he-goat, she-goat, kid
ܚܡܳܪܐ، ܐܰܬ̊ܳܢܐ، ܥܝܠܐ
ass, she-ass, foal

Biblical Aramaic (Daniel 2:37–2:49) [with the Syriac Version]

Daniel 2:1–16, 2:20–21 are in SyriacL.php.

Daniel 2:17–19, 2:22–36 are in SyriacM.php.

2017-02-15

Daniel (arc) 2:37⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַ֣נְתְּ ק] מַלְכָּ֔א מֶ֖לֶךְ מַלְכַיָּ֑א דִּ֚י אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א מַלְכוּתָ֥א חִסְנָ֛א וְתָקְפָּ֥א וִֽיקָרָ֖א יְהַב־לָֽךְ׃
You, O King,
[are] the king of kings;
To whom… God of heaven
has given:
a kingdom, power… and strength and glory.

2017-07-29

Jastrow תָקְפָא v. תּוּקְפָא (tū-qe̊-p̄ā) = “strength, power”

Daniel (syc) 2:37⁎

ܐܲܢ݇ܬ ܡܲܠܟܐ ܡܠܸܟ ܡܲܠܟ̈ܐ: ܐܲܠܵܗܐ ܡܪܲܝܡܐ: ܡܲܠܟܘܬܐ ܚܲܣܝܢܬܐ ܘܐܝܩܵܪܐ ܝܲܗ݇ܒ ܠܟ.܀
You, O King, [are] the king of kings. God Most High {me̊rayye̊mā} gave you the kingdom, strength {fem. emph. of adj. ḥassīn “strong”}, and glory.

2017-02-16

Daniel (arc) 2:38a⁎

וּבְכָל־דִּ֣י דָאֲרִין [כ דָֽיְרִ֣ין ק] בְּֽנֵי־אֲ֠נָשָׁא חֵיוַ֨ת בָּרָ֤א וְעוֹף־שְׁמַיָּא֙ יְהַ֣ב בִּידָ֔ךְ וְהַשְׁלְטָ֖ךְ בְּכָלְּה֑וֹן
And in all that live in all [places] which they inhabit — children of man, «TG» beast[s] of field and bird[s] of sky: «Paš»
he has given [them] into your hand; «ZQ»
And he has let you rule
in all of them.

2017-02-22

Daniel (arc) 2:38b⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַנְתְּ־ה֔וּא ק] רֵאשָׁ֖ה דִּ֥י דַהֲבָֽא׃
You are [this] head of gold.

2017-07-30

Daniel (syc) 2:38⁎

ܘܟܠ ܐܲܬܲܪ ܕܥܵܡܪܝܢ ܒܹܗ ܒܢܲܝ̈ܢܵܫܵܐ: ܘܦܵܪܲܚܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܲܫܡܲܝܐ ܘܚܲܝܘ݇ܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܕܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܝܲܗ݇ܒ݂ ܒܐܝܼܕܲܝ̈ܟ:
And every place {ʾæṯar} in which they live — humans, and bird[s] of the sky, and animal[s] of the field {dæḇrā}: He gave [it] into your hands.
ܘܐܲܫܠ݈ܛܵܟ ܥܲܠ ܟܠܗܘܢ: ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܼ ܪܹܫܐ ܕܕܲܗܒܐ.܀
He has given you authority over all of them. You are the head of gold.

pāræḥṯā has a soft T in Syriac (N §54); also, פַּרְחֲתָא in TgProv1:17/26:2 (Late Jewish Literary Aramaic): ܚܘܪܘ ܒܦܳܪܰܚܬ̥ܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ܉ ܕܠܐ ܙܪܥܝܢ܂ (Mt6:26)

šlæṭ nešlæṭ = “to rule”: C ʾašleṭ

dæhḇā (N §94C), soft B also in TgO Gn2:11 דַּהֲבָא, though in some version it is דַּהְבָּא.

2017-02-25

Daniel (arc) 2:39a⁎

וּבָתְרָ֗ךְ תְּק֛וּם מַלְכ֥וּ אָחֳרִ֖י אֲרַ֣עא מִנָּ֑ךְ
And after you, another {f. ʾoḥŏrī ? ʾāḥŏrī ?} kingdom {abs.} shall stand {f}, [more] earthy than you[rs].

2017-02-27

CAL ˀoḥŏrī

Daniel (arc) 2:39b⁎

וּמַלְכ֨וּ תְלִיתָיָא [כ תְלִיתָאָ֤ה ק] אָחֳרִי֙ דִּ֣י נְחָשָׁ֔א דִּ֥י תִשְׁלַ֖ט בְּכָל־אַרְעָֽא׃
And another third kingdom of bronze/copper [shall stand], which shall rule the whole earth.

שְׁלַט (hbo שָׁלַט ) impf. יִשׁלַט “he will rule”, the theme vowel is a: also in Syriac, ܫܠܰܛ and ܢܶܫܠܰܛ

According to some, the Book of Daniel was written around 165 BCE. Technically, Official Aramaic is a language from 700–300 BCE, while Jewish Babylonian Aramaic is a language from ca. 200–1200 CE. So I have to wonder, exactly what language am I reading here? If it was written in 165 BCE, it is slightly (by ~ 135 years) too new to be Official Aramaic, but too old (by more than 300 years) to be Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.

2017-07-31

Daniel (syc) 2:39⁎

ܘܒ݂ܵܬ݂ܪܵܟ ܬܩܘܼܡ ܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܼܵܐ ܐ݇ܚܪܹܬܵܐ ܕܡܲܟ݁ܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ ܡܸܢܵܟ:
And after you another kingdom will rise, which [will be] lower {mækkīḵā} than you[rs].
ܘܡܲܠܟܘܬܐ ܐ݇ܚܪܹܬܐ ܕܲܬ݁ܠܵܬ ܕܐܝܼܬܹܝܗ̇ ܢܚܵܫܐ: ܬܸܫܠܲܛ ܒܟ̣ܠܵܗ̇ ܐܲܪܥܐ.܀
And another kingdom which is third, which is bronze, will rule in (on) the whole earth.

2017-03-10

Daniel (arc) 2:40a⁎

וּמַלְכוּ֙ רְבִיעָיָה [כ רְבִ֣יעָאָ֔ה ק] תֶּהֱוֵ֥א תַקִּיפָ֖ה כְּפַרְזְלָ֑א
And the fourth kingdom {malḵū: syc malkū w. hard k} will be {she-form has t- i.e. l- is for the ordinary y-} strong {taqqīp̄ā(h) fem. abs.} like iron {parze̊lā};

2017-08-08

Daniel (syc) 2:40a⁎

ܘܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܵܐ ܪܒ݂ܝܼܥܵܝܬܵܐ ܬܸܗܘܹܐ ܚܲܣܝܼܢܵܐ ܐܲܝܟ ܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ:
And the fourth kingdom will be strong {ḥassīnā fem.abs.} like iron. (ܬܸܗܘܹܐ = M ܬܸܗܘܸܐ)

ḥassīn(ā): ܗܰܘ ܕܝܢ ܕܒܳܬܰܪܝ ܐ̇ܬܐ܂ ܚܰܣܝܢ ܗ̱ܘ ܡ̣ܢܝ. (Mt3:20) — Arabic حَسَن has different meanings = “good, fine, pleasant, beautiful” (might also mean “strong”); also Hassan (a given name). حَسَّان = “doer of good“ — BUT حِصْن = “fortress”

taqqīp̄(ā) [in arc]: ܐܶܢܐ ܝ̇ܕܥ ܐܢܐ܉ ܕܡܶܢ ܒܳܬܰܪ ܕܐ̇ܙܠ ܐܢܐ܉ ܢܶܥܠܘܼܢ ܥܰܡܟܘܢ ܕܐܒ̈ܐ ܬܰܩܝܦ̈ܐ܇ (Ac20:29)

2017-03-19

Daniel (arc) 2:40b⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּ֤י פַרְזְלָא֙ מְהַדֵּ֤ק וְחָשֵׁל֙ כֹּ֔לָּא
because {kolqŏˈḇal dī} (=inasmuch as) iron pounds {dqq a/u C part. *mhadqeq > mhaddeq} and hammer {ḥšl} everything;
וּֽכְפַרְזְלָ֛א דִּֽי־מְרָעַ֥ע כָּל־אִלֵּ֖ין תַּדִּ֥ק וְתֵרֹֽעַ׃
and like iron that thoroughly crushes {rʕʕ D part. *mraʕʕaʕ > mrāʕaʕ} everything {lit. all-these}, it (that kingdom) will pound {G impf. *tidquq (?) > taddiq C impf. *t(h)adqeq > t(h)addiq} and crush {G impf. *tirʕoʕ (?) > *tir-roʕ > të-roăʕ} [everything].

כָּל־אִלֵּין might be the object of the following verbs (CAL seems to think that way): “Like iron that thoroughly crushes, it will pound and crush everything.” This interpretation is possible if we can ignore the cantillation marks, and it sounds more vivid and dramatic, the emphasis being put on everything: “Everything, yes, everything shall be destroyed by it!” However, if the cantillation marks should be respected, כָּל־אִלֵּין must go with the preceding verb: “Like iron that thoroughly crushes everything, it will…” Both interpretations are essentially the same.

2017-08-09

Daniel (syc) 2:40b⁎

ܘܐܲܝܟ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ ܐܵܪܹܫ ܘܲܡܕܲܩܸܩ (ܘܡܲܕܸܩ) ܟܠ: ܗܵܟܲܢܵܐ ܐܵܦ ܗ̤ܝ ܬܸܫܚܘܿܩ ܬܸܟ݂ܒ݁ܘܿܫ ܟܠ.܀
And like [the fact] that iron beats {ʾrš} and pounds {mḏaqeq D, maddeq C} everything, thus {hāḵanā} that [kingdom] will oppress {šḥq} and subjugate {kbš} everyone.

2017-03-23

Daniel (arc) 2:41a⁎

וְדִֽי־חֲזַ֜יְתָה רַגְלַיָּ֣א וְאֶצְבְּעָתָ֗א מִנְּהֹון [כ מִנְּהֵ֞ן ק] חֲסַ֤ף דִּֽי־פֶחָר֙ וּמִנְּהֹון [כ וּמִנְּהֵ֣ין ק] פַּרְזֶ֔ל
And [as for the fact] that you saw the feet {dual. emph.?} and toes — some of them [being] the clay of potter[s], some of them [being] iron:
מַלְכ֤וּ פְלִיגָה֙ תֶּהֱוֵ֔ה
the kingdom shall be divided,
וּמִן־נִצְבְּתָ֥א דִ֥י פַרְזְלָ֖א לֶֽהֱוֵא־בַ֑הּ
and [something {mas!}] of the firmness {niṣbĕṯā fem.} of the iron shall be {mas!} in it (the kingdom);

2017-03-24

Daniel (arc) 2:41b⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵל֙ דִּ֣י חֲזַ֔יְתָה פַּ֨רְזְלָ֔א מְעָרַ֖ב בַּחֲסַ֥ף טִינָֽא׃
because (=just like) you saw the iron, mixed {D pass. part. *məʕarreḇ > məʕāraḇ} with clay {const?; “fired ceramic”} of mud.

2017-08-11

Daniel (syc) 2:41⁎

ܘܕܲܚܙܲܝܬ݁ ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܹܐ ܘܨܸܒ݂̈ܥܵܬ݂ܵܐ: ܕܡܸܢܗܹܝܢ ܕܚܸܨܦܵܐ ܕܦܲܚܵܪܵܐ: ܘܡܸܢܗܹܝܢ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ:
And [given] that you saw the feet and toes, part of which [was] of baked clay of potter {pæḥḥārā} and part of which [was] of iron;
ܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܼܵܐ ܬܸܗܘܹܐ (ܬܸܗܘܸܐ) ܦܠܝܼܓ݂ܵܐ:
the kingdom will be divided,
ܘܡ̣ܢ ܥܸܩܵܪܵܐ ܕܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ ܢܸܗܘܹܐ (ܢܸܗܘܸܐ) ܒܵܗ̇:
and [something] from the essence {ʕeqqārā “root”} of iron will be in her,
ܐܲܝܟܲܢܵܐ ܕܲܚܙܲܝܬ݁ ܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ ܕܲܡܚܲܠܲܛ ܒܚܸܨܦܵܐ ܕܛܝܼܢܵܐ.܀
in such a way that (=just like) you saw the iron that [was] mixed {ḥlṭ D p.p.} with baked clay of mud {ṭīnā}.

2017-04-02

Daniel (arc) 2:42a⁎

וְאֶצְבְּעָת֙ רַגְלַיָּ֔א מִנְּהֹון [כ מִנְּהֵ֥ין ק] פַּרְזֶ֖ל וּמִנְּהֹון [כ וּמִנְּהֵ֣ין ק] חֲסַ֑ף
And as for the fingers (toes) of the two feet, part of them is iron, and part of them is baked clay:

2017-04-11

Daniel (arc) 2:42b⁎

מִן־קְצָ֤ת מַלְכוּתָא֙ תֶּהֱוֵ֣ה תַקִּיפָ֔ה וּמִנַּ֖הּ תֶּהֱוֵ֥ה תְבִירָֽה׃
some part {qĕṣāṯ f. Constr?} of the kingdom shall be strong {taqqīpā(h) f. abs.}, and some part of it shall be fragile {tĕḇīrā(h) f. abs.}.

2017-04-17

Daniel (arc) 2:43a⁎

דִי [כ וְדִ֣י ק] חֲזַ֗יְתָ פַּרְזְלָא֙ מְעָרַב֙ בַּחֲסַ֣ף טִינָ֔א
That you saw {ḥăzayṯā: T soft!} the iron mixed {ʕrb D pass. pt. *mʕarraḇ > mʕāraḇ} with ceramic {ḥăṣap̄} of (?) mud {ṭīnā};
מִתְעָרְבִ֤ין לֶהֱוֹן֙ בִּזְרַ֣ע אֲנָשָׁ֔א
[like that] they shall be mixing themselves {Dt pt. *miṯʕarrĕḇīn > miṯʕārĕḇīn} in/with the seed of man (=they will intermarry),
וְלָֽא־לֶהֱוֹ֥ן דָּבְקִ֖ין דְּנָ֣ה עִם־דְּנָ֑ה
and they shall not be clinging {dbq G pt.} this with this (=they will not be clinging together; they will be people without solidarity).

2017-04-28

Daniel (arc) 2:43b⁎

הֵֽא־כְדִ֣י פַרְזְלָ֔א לָ֥א מִתְעָרַ֖ב עִם־חַסְפָּֽא׃
Just like the iron, not mixing itself {Dt. *miṯʕarraḇ}, with the ceramic.

When two words are combined with a Maqqēp̄ and the first word ends in an open syllable (e.g. hē), that syllable always takes a ˈMèṯèḡ, if the second word starts with Consonant + ĕ + Tone (e.g. ḵĕˈḏī); so that the ĕ may not be deleted (e.g. hē-ḵĕˈḏī NOT *hēḵ-ˈḏī).

2017-05-04

Daniel (arc) 2:44a⁎

וּֽבְיוֹמֵיה֞וֹן דִּ֧י מַלְכַיָּ֣א אִנּ֗וּן
יְקִים֩ אֱלָ֨הּ שְׁמַיָּ֤א מַלְכוּ֙
דִּ֤י לְעָלְמִין֙
לָ֣א תִתְחַבַּ֔ל
And in the days of those kings,
God {const.} of the sky will establish a kingdom {abs.},
which, forever,
shall not be destroyed.
וּמַ֨לְכוּתָ֔ה
And the kingdom {emph.}…
לְעַ֥ם אָחֳרָ֖ן
לָ֣א תִשְׁתְּבִ֑ק
…shall not be left (handed over) {šĕbaq hištĕḇeq -iq?} to other people {ʕam}.

The ˈMèṯèḡ in וּֽבְ׳ is perhaps showing this is ū-ḇĕ- as opposed to ūḇ-.

In Syriac, ܝܰܘܡܐ, pl. ܝܰܘ̈ܡܳܬܐ, +suf. ܝܰܘ̈ܡܳܬܗܘܢ (yâwm-āṯhṓn). In BA, יוֹמָא pl. יוֹמַיָּא, and יוֹמֵיה֫וֹן (yōm-ēhōn). Like in Syriac, it is said “their days of the kings” instead of “the days of the kings”.

ʾinnōn = syc. ʾennṓn BUT used as a plural far demonstrative.

yĕqīm (Aphel) = yĕhāqēm (Haphel) [Johns, A Short Gr. of BA, p. 55 (C)] = syc. nəqīm (e.g. Mt22:24)

ʕālmā and ʕālmīn (pl. abs.): BA = syc.

tiṯḥabbal = Dt of √ḥbl “to destroy”

2017-05-10

Daniel (arc) 2:44b⁎

תַּדִּ֤ק וְתָסֵיף֙ כָּל־אִלֵּ֣ין מַלְכְוָתָ֔א וְהִ֖יא תְּק֥וּם לְעָלְמַיָּֽא׃
It (f.) will crush {√dqq C see 2:40} and destroy {√swp C impf #1} all of these kingdoms. And it (f.) — will stand forever and ever.

2017-05-14

Daniel (arc) 2:45a⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דִּֽי־חֲזַ֡יְתָ דִּ֣י מִטּוּרָא֩ אִתְגְּזֶ֨רֶת אֶ֜בֶן דִּי־לָ֣א בִידַ֗יִן
וְ֠הַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָ֨א נְחָשָׁ֤א חַסְפָּא֙ כַּסְפָּ֣א וְדַהֲבָ֔א
Because (=In such a way that #1) you saw that from the mountain {min ṭūrā > miṭṭūrā} a stone {ˈʾèḇèn, fem. in abs!} was cut out {ʾiṯgĕˈzèrèṯ} (which [was]) not by [human] hands, and crushed {dqq C: *hadqĕqaṯ > hadˈdēqèṯ (2:34, SGr p. 59) or hadˈdèqèṯ} the iron, the bronze, the baked clay, …the silver, and the gold;
אֱלָ֥הּ רַב֙ הוֹדַ֣ע לְמַלְכָּ֔א מָ֛ה דִּ֥י לֶהֱוֵ֖א אַחֲרֵ֣י דְנָ֑ה
a great God {abs+abs} informed {hōḏaʕ = syc. ʾâwḏaʕ} the king of what will happen after {ʾaḥărē CAL ʾaḥŏrē} this (=in the future).

#1 ܐܲܝܟܲܢܵܐ ܕܲܚܙܲܝܬ݁ etc. in Syriac: i.e. “God let you know what will happen, in such a way that you saw [in your dream] that…”

2017-05-15

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:45b⁎

וְיַצִּ֥יב חֶלְמָ֖א וּמְהֵימַ֥ן פִּשְׁרֵֽהּ׃ פ
ܫܲܪܝܼܪ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܘܲܡܗܲܝܡܲܢ ܦܫܵܪܹܗ.
The dream is certain {yaṣṣīḇ / syc šarrīr} and its interpretation {pišrā -rēh / syc -rḕh} is trustworthy {mĕhēman}.

2017-05-17

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:46a⁎

בֵּ֠אדַיִן מַלְכָּ֤א נְבֽוּכַדְנֶצַּר֙ נְפַ֣ל עַל־אַנְפּ֔וֹהִי וּלְדָנִיֵּ֖אל סְגִ֑ד
ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕܢܵܨܲܪ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܢܦܲܠ ܥܲܠ ܐܲܦܵܘ̈ܗܝ: ܠܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܣܓܸܕ݂:
Then King Nĕˌḇū-ḵaḏ-nèṣ-ˈṣar fell on his face {ʾanp pl.(du.?) + ˈōhī} and bowed down {sgd} in respect for Dānīʾēl (syc Dānīʾḕl).

sĕḡiḏ = i or e is used in the stative verbs (SGr p. 20).

2017-05-19

Daniel (arc/syc) 2:46b⁎

וּמִנְחָה֙ וְנִ֣יחֹחִ֔ין אֲמַ֖ר לְנַסָּ֥כָה לֵֽהּ׃
ܘܒܸܣܡ̈ܝܼܢ ܘܩܘܼܪ̈ܒܵܢܝܼܢ ܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܲܡܩܲܪܵܒ݂ܘܼ ܠܹܗ.܀
And an offering {minḥā} and a pleasant-smelling incense {pl. nīḥōḥīn: Hebraism, Heb. nīˈḥōaḥ} — he ordered to present/libate {nəsaḵ D inf. nassāḵā} [them] to him.

besmā = “smell, spice”; qurbānā = “sacrifice, gift”; la-mqarrāḇū = D inf. of qarreḇ “to bring, offer”.

2017-05-20

Daniel (arc) 2:47a⁎

עָנֵה֩ מַלְכָּ֨א לְדָנִיֵּ֜אל וְאָמַ֗ר מִן־קְשֹׁט֙ דִּ֣י אֱלָהֲכ֗וֹן ה֣וּא אֱלָ֧הּ אֱלָהִ֛ין וּמָרֵ֥א מַלְכִ֖ין וְגָלֵ֣ה רָזִ֑ין
The king [was] responding to Daniel, saying: / [it is] of a truth {qĕšö́ṭ CAL qŭšoṭ} / that you guy’s god / is the god of gods / and the lord of kings //
and he is revealing (OR and the revealer of) secrets.

mr(y)ʾ = Originally absolute and construct māreˀ ( > mārē), emphatic māryā, but already in OfA the construct can appear simply as mār_. (CAL)

This half-verse is strange in that it has a Ṭip̄ḥā but it does not have a Mūnaḥ + Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn; and yet, the would-be Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn section has Rĕḇīaʕ - Pašṭā as if everything was normal, while the Ṭip̄ḥā section has Rĕḇīaʕ - Tĕḇīr normally, except there is an extra Mūnaḥ in front of Dargā. That is, instead of (α) below, we have (β) here:

The first Rb is further sub-divided by a ˈGèrèš (not ˈGērēš as in WP: [Gensius 1910][Gensius 1909][Helmut Richter][he.wikt]) in לְדָנִיֵּ֜אל, [Shift]+[U], which is preceded by Tĕlīšā Qĕṭannā + Qaḏmā.

NOTE: When normalized, SHIN DOT comes after a vowel point; which is not obvious in שֹׁ, where the vowel point is HOLAM. The vowel points are stronger than any other marks and SHIN/SIN DOT is rather weak — weaker than anything but cantillation marks:

Canonical_Combining_Class of Hebrew (Unicode: ucd/extracted/DerivedCombiningClass.txt):
Vowel points = CCC10…20
DAGESH       = CCC21
METEG        = CCC22
RAFE         = CCC23
SHIN DOT     = CCC24
SIN DOT      = CCC25
Cantillation = CCC220+

So, also, if Śin + HOLAM שֹׂ is ever used, logically HOLAM comes first, then SIN DOT (physically, I think that the right point is SIN DOT and the left point is HOLAM, because HOLAM shouldn’t come inside).

2017-05-29

Daniel (arc) 2:47b⁎

דִּ֣י יְכֵ֔לְתָּ לְמִגְלֵ֖א רָזָ֥ה דְנָֽה׃
Because {dī} you were able to reveal this secret.

2017-05-31

Daniel (syc) 2:47a⁎

ܥܢ̣ܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ: ܒܩܘܼܫܬܵܐ ܐܲܠܵܗܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܗ̤ܘܝܘܼ ܐܲܠܵܗ ܐܲܠܵܗ̈ܝܼܢ: ܘܡܵܪܹܐ ܡܲܠܟ݁ܝܼ̈ܢ: ܘܓ݂ܵܠܹܐ ܐ݇ܪ̈ܵܙܝܼܢ:
The king responded and said to Daniel: “Truly {b-quštā = lit. in truth} you guy’s god indeed is {lit. he is} the god of gods, and the lord of kings, and uncovers secrets;”

CAL on עָנֵהIn BA past tense narrative this verb (when introducting אמר) is pointed as an active participle wherever possible, but when it is not possible to do so it is pointed as a perfect, which is thus clearly the original form. The Syriac version witnesses the original form: ܥ̣ܢܵܐ not ܥܵܢܹ̇ܐ.

ܐ̱ܪܳܙܐ ‎= ܪܐܙܐ from Old Persian [peo] *rāza (LS3): Middle Persian [pal] rāz: fa راز “secret, mystery”: possibly xcl երազ (eraz) “dream” is related.

2017-06-01

A Peshitta example of b-quštā: ܗܳܫܐ ܝܶܕܥܶܬ ܒܩܘܫܬܐ܁ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ ܫܰܕܰܪ ܡܰܠܰܐܟ̥ܗ ܘܦܰܠܛܰܢܝ̱ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܝܕܗ ܕܗܶܪܳܘܕܶܣ ܡ̇ܠܟܐ܇ (Ac12:11) — plaṭ G “(intr.) to escape” vs. palleṭ D “to free, rescue”: pall(ə)ṭanẙ “he freed me” — when the 2nd radical is not a Bḡaḏ Kp̄aṯ, the suffixed forms of G and D are generally similar, though there are a few exceptions such as qṭal-ḵṓn vs. qaṭṭel-ḵṓn.

Daniel (syc) 2:47b⁎

ܕܐܸܫܟܲܚܬ݁ ܠܡܸܓ݂ܠܵܐ ܐ݇ܪܵܙܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ.܀
“as you were able to uncover this secret.”

2017-06-02

Daniel (arc) 2:48a⁎

אֱדַ֨יִן מַלְכָּ֜א לְדָנִיֵּ֣אל רַבִּ֗י וּמַתְּנָ֨ן רַבְרְבָ֤ן שַׂגִּיאָן֙ יְהַב־לֵ֔הּ וְהַ֨שְׁלְטֵ֔הּ עַ֖ל כָּל־מְדִינַ֣ת בָּבֶ֑ל
Then the king promoted {rabbī D √rby} Daniel, and gave him many great gifts {mattənā f. -ān pl.}; and made him rule {hašlēṭ C √šlṭ: + -ēh} over the whole province {məḏīnā, məḏīntā, cs. -naṯ} of Babylon;

2017-06-03

Daniel (arc) 2:48b⁎

וְרַב־סִגְנִ֔ין עַ֖ל כָּל־חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל׃
and [made him rule, as] the chief of the prefects {*saḡnā}, over all the sages of Babylon.

Daniel (syc) 2:48⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܐܵܘܪܸܒ݂ ܠܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ: ܘܡܵܘ̈ܗܒ݂ܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼܵܐ̈ܬ݂ܵܐ ܝܲܗ݇ܒ݂ ܠܸܗ:
Then the king promoted Daniel {yīreḇ C ʾâwreḇ}, and gave him many gifts {mawhaḇtā: mawh(ə)ḇāṯā},
ܘܐܲܫܠ݈ـܛܹܗ ܥܲܠ ܟܠܵܗ̇ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ:
and made him rule over {#1} the whole land of Babylon;
ܘܐܲܩܝܼܡܹܗ ܪܹܫܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ ܪ̈ܲܒܲܝ ܚܲܝ̈ܠܹܐ: ܘܥܲܠ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ ܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ.܀
and appointed him as chief reigning over all the generals {#2}, and all the sages of Babylon.

#1 šlaṭ = “to have power”: C ʾašleṭ “to empower” ʾašl(ə)ṭèh: the middle of CCC (šlṭ) is a sonorant (l), and we have a mhag(g)yānā: ʾa-šḙl-ṭèh instead of ʾaš-l(ə)ṭèh (from *ʾaš-le-ṭèh).

#2 ḥalyā = “power”: raḇ ḥaylā = “a captain, commander” (Jess), “general” (CAL s.v. rbḥyl)

2017-06-05

Daniel (arc) 2:49⁎

וְדָנִיֵּאל֙ בְּעָ֣א מִן־מַלְכָּ֔א וּמַנִּ֗י עַ֤ל עֲבִֽידְתָּא֙ דִּי מְדִינַ֣ת בָּבֶ֔ל לְשַׁדְרַ֥ךְ מֵישַׁ֖ךְ וַעֲבֵ֣ד נְג֑וֹ
And Daniel asked the king, and he appointed — over the public works of the province of Babylon — Šaḏraḵ, Mēšaḵ, and ʕăḇēḏ Nəḡō.
וְדָנִיֵּ֖אל בִּתְרַ֥ע מַלְכָּֽא׃ [פ]
And Daniel [remained] in the royal court {traʕ tarʕā “gate”: +d-malkā = “royal court”}.

The intention of ˈMeṯeḡ in עֲבִֽידְתָּא (fem. sg. emph.) is not very clear. In a simpler case, it could mean *ʕăḇī-ḏəṯā as opposed to *ʕăḇīḏ-tā, but in reality the T is hard and *ʕăḇī-ḏətā wouldn’t work. So perhaps this means ʕăḇī-(t)tā — if so, this Meṯeḡ is essentially the “Drop the next consonant” mark. A confusing fact is, Ezra 5:8 has וַעֲבִ֥ידְתָּא — as if the tone is not ʕăḇī-(t)ˈtā but ʕăˈḇī-(t)tā; but if that is true, עֲבִ֙ידְתָּא֙ (?) would be expected here.

2017-06-06

Daniel (syc) 2:49⁎

ܘܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܒܥܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܘܐܲܫܠܸܛ ܥܲܠ ܥ̇ܒ݂ܵܕܵܐ ܕܲܡܕ݂ܝܼܢܲܬ݂ ܒܵܒܹܠ: ܠܫܸܕܪܵܟ: ܘܡܝܼܫܵܟ: ܘܲܥܒܸܕܢܵܓ݂ܘܿ:
And Daniel asked the king, and he gave authority {šlaṭ C} over the work of the province of Babylon, to Šeḏrāḵ and Mīšāḵ and ʕḇeḏnāḡṓ.
ܘܕ݂ܵܢܝ̣ܐܹܝܠ ܗ̤ܘܵܐ ܒܬܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ.
And Daniel was in the royal court.

ܥܒ̇ܕܐ ‎= ܥܒܳܕܐ as opposed to ܥܒ̣ܕܐ ‎= ܥܰܒܕܐ

ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ (mḏīttā: tt in CAL/wikt) but ܡܕܝܢܰܬ̥ (Mt4:5): مدينة

CCC220
ܬܱܬܴܬܷܬܸܬܹܬܻܘܼܬܾܬ݂ܬ݄ܬ݆ܬ݈ ܬ̣ܬ̤ܬ̥ܬ̭ܦ̮ܬ̰ܬ̱
CCC230
ܬܰܬܲܬܳܬܵܬܶܬܺܬܽܘܿܬ݀ ܬ݁ܬ݃ܬ݅ܬ݇ܬ݉ܬ݊ ܬ̃ܬ̄ܬ̇ܬ̈ܬ̊

North Caucasian Languages

2017-04-27

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Based on https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caucasic_languages.svg by kwami (cc by-sa 3.0)

2017-04-28

The Northwest Caucasian languages has three groups: (1) Circassian (yellow), incl. Kabardian [kbd] and Adyghe [ady]; (2) Abkhaz-Abazin (aqua), and (3) Ubyx.

2017-04-29

Kabardians (60%), Balkars (10%), and Russians (20%) live in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, where the official languages are Russian, Kabardian, and Balkar. Its captal is Nalchik.

2017-05-04

The Kabardino-Balkar Republic: Kabardians (60%), BalkarsTurkic (10%), Russians (20%); Кабарди́но-черке́сский язы́к

The Karachay-Cherkess Republic: KarachaysTurkic (40%), Cherkess [=the Circassians living in northern Karachay-Cherkessia] (10%), Abazins (10%), Russians (30%); черкесский

Jpeg 26 KiB cf. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goryanka.jpg

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