memos::Syriac 14 (N)

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu : Map, 2[tr], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti

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Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture

Jpeg 40 KiB Svaneti, Georgia

On Syriac Apocalypse 8:13

2017-03-21

From Rev 8:13 P-UK:

ܘܫܶܡܥܶܬ ܠܢܶܫܪܐ ܚܰܕ ܕܦܳܪܰܚ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ. ܘܳܝ ܘܝ ܘܝ
I heard one eagle that [was] flying in the sky saying: “Alas, alas, alas.”

P-NY is interesting, saying instead:

ܘܲܚܙܹ̇ܝܬ݂ ܘܫܸܡ̇ܥܹܬ݂ ܠܢܸܫܪܵܐ ܚܲܕ ܕܦܵܪܲܚ ܒܲܡܨܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ: ܕܕ݂ܘܼܢܒܵܐ ܕܲܕ݂ܡܵܐ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܹܗ: ܟܲܕ ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܒܩܵܠܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ: ܘܵܝ: ܘܵܝ:
I saw and heard one eagle that [was] flying in the middle — he [had] a tail of blood — , when he [was] saying: “Alas, alas.”

John W. Etheridge says: Here the Syrian translator was at fault. His Greek copy, without separating the words, read, " in the midst of heaven ;" which he appears to have decomposed thus: (" the midst ") + (" a tail ") + (" blood,") so as to produce the singular expression given above. According to him, the original word μεσουρανήματι was treated as if μεσ(ο) + οὐρά(ν) “tail Acc” + αἵματι “blood Dat”.

PS. I found John Gwynn’s The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac version hitherto unknown, ed. from a MS. in the Library of the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres (1897), which says:

S is free also from the still grosser blunder, often noted as the chief blot in Σ, by which the last five syllables of μεσοθρανήματι (viii. 13) are torn from the word and perverted (as if οὐρὰν [ἐν] αἵματι [ἔχοντος]) into ܕܕܘܢܒܐ ܕܕܡܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ “which had a tail of blood.” Of this I shall have more to say farther on (p. lxxxii).

John Gwynn: The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac version, Introductory Dissertation, p. xxxiv

In his book, S means “this version” — Ms. at that time (1897) belonging to the Library of the [25th] Earl of Crawford [Alexander Lindsay], purchased in London by the Earl around 1860; now belonging to the John Rylands Library —, which is the version used in P-UK (1905–1920). Σ, on the other hand, means the version commonly printed at that time, as in P-NY (1886).

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 18] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 18 [ܕܰܬܡܳܢܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܥܘܩܰܒܪܐ

2017-03-17

ʕûqaḇrā or ʕuqqaḇrā = Qara. form for ʕuqb(ə)rā

ܐܰܪܝܐ ܚܰܕ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ، ܟܰܕ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܟܳܪܶܟ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܥܳܒܐ ܒܰܒܥܳܬ̥ ܨܰܝܕܐ، ܢܦܰܠ ܒܦܰܚܐ ܘܰܨܒܐ ܕܢܶܦܠܰܛ ܡܶܢܶܗ.
A strong lion, when once upon a time he was going around {krk} in the forest in the search of {bʕāṯā, const. bʕāṯ} a game (the prey), fell into a trap {paḥḥā} and wished to escape {plaṭ a/a} from it.
ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܙܝܥ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ، ܘܟܽܠ ܟܡܐ ܕܡܶܬܬܙܝܥ ܗ̱ܘܐ، ܝܰܬܝܪ ܚܳܐܶܨ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܚܰܒܠܐ ܕܦܰܚܐ.
And he started to move {zwʕ C part.} his body {gušmā}, and [while] all as much as {kmā d-} [he could] he was agitated {met(t)zīʕ, Ethpe.=Ettafal #1}, the rope {ḥaḇlā} of the trap was holding him [even] more tightly {ḥwṣ}.

2017-03-19 #1 CAL, LS2, LS3 treat this as Ct, while Jess treats it as Gt. Peshitta examples: ܠܡܶܚܙܐ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܕܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܡܶܬܬܙܝܥ “to see a reed that [was] being shaken by the wind” (Mt11:7/Lk7:24) ܫܡܰܥ ܕܶܝܢ ܗܶܪܳܘܕܶܣ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܘܶܐܬܬܙܝܥ ܘܟܽܠܳܗ̇ ܐܘܪܺܫܠܶܡ ܥܰܡܶܗ “Herod the king heard [it] and was disturbed; also all Jerusalem [was disturbed] with him.” (Mt2:3⁎) = ἀκούσᾱς δὲ Ἡρῴδης ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα μετ'αὐτοῦ

2017-03-18

ܘܟܰܕ ܥܳܦ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܗ، ܘܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܕܢܶܦܠܰܛ، ܢܳܚ ܘܰܫܠܝ ܡܶܢ ܙܰܘܥܐ.
When his strength was weakened {ʕwp} (=he was tired) and he was not able to escape, he became quiet {nwḥ} and rested {šly intr. +men} from struggling {zawʕā}.
ܘܗܐ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ [ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬ̊ܐ] ܕܢܳܦܩܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܙܥܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
Then look, [there was] a mouse {ʕuqbartā f.} which went out from a small hole/crack {bezʕā}.
ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ، ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܘܳܝ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܡܰܠܟܐ! ܡܳܢܰܘ ܕܐܰܦܠܳܟ ܒܦܰܚܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
When she saw the lion in this way, she said to him: “Alas, my Load, King! What is it that made you fall {ʾappel, C of npl} into this trap?”

ʾappel, ʾapp(ə)l-āḵ (cf. ʾaqṭel, ʾaqṭ(ə)l-āḵ): as per the vowel deletion rule (Mura §6A).

2017-03-19

ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܬܶܟܪܶܐ ܠܳܟ، ܣܰܝܒܰܪ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܘܐܶܢܐ ܡܦܰܠܛܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ.
“But don’t be sad {kry impers. fem. teḵrē w/ l-}, endure {sybr Quad. imperat.} a little, and I am freeing {plṭ D} you from this rope.”

2017-03-20

ܘܰܓܚܶܟ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇: ܟܽܠܶܗ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܝ̱ ܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܕܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱، ܘܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡܳܢܰܘ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܕܢܶܫܟܰܚ ܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ!
Then the lion laughed {gḥeḵ e/a} and said to her: “All of it — my strength — was not able to let me escape {ghy C naḡhē}, and you, O little girl, what is your strength that (=there’s no way your strength) would be able to let me escape from this rope!”
ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܝ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܩܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܠܚܰܒܠܐ، ܘܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܒܳܪܡܐ ܠܶܗ ܒܫܶܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܐܶܬܦܣܶܩ.
But this female mouse approached {qreḇ e/ó} the rope, and started {šarryaṯ} gnawing {bram} it with her teeth {šennā, pl. -ē} until {ʕ(ə)ḏammā d-} it (the rope) was cut off {psaq Gt 3ms ʾeṯp(ə)seq}.

2017-03-21

ܘܟܰܕ ܦܠܰܛ ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܚܳܪ ܒܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ:
And when the lion escaped (=was freed), he looked at the female mouse, and said within himself:
ܒܰܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܣܰܓܝ ܕܙܥܘܪܐ [ܕܰܙܥܘܪܐ] ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܰܥܒܳܕܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܓܰܢ̱ܒܳܪܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܠܶܗ ܀
“Truly (=Admittedly) {šrārā=“truth”} there is often [such a situation] that a small and weak {mḥīlā} one takes care of {qwm b- lit. “stand in” i.e. “withstands”} a great job {ʕḇāḏā} which a hero {gabbārā, intensive form of gaḇrā (Jess); N §28} is not able to do {d- lèh = “whom, quem”}.”

2017-03-22

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What happened {gdaš w. b-/l-} to the lion?
ܢܦܰܠ ܒܦܰܚܐ.
He fell into a trap.
2 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܳܝ [ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱] ܒܦܰܚܐ؟
Who saw him {ḥzā ḥzāy(hy)} in the trap?
ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܚܙܳܬܶܗ.
A female mouse saw him {ḥzāṯ ḥzāṯèh}
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ ܠܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What did the female mouse say to the lion?
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: «ܐܶܢܐ ܡܦܰܠܛܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܡܢ ܗܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ.»
She said to him: “I am going to free you from this rope.”
4 ܡܘܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
What did the lion reply to her? {mṓn = a variant of mān‏, presumably based on its western pronunciation (CAL)}
ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܠܗ̇: «ܐܳܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡܳܢܰܘ ܚܰܝ̣ܠܶܟܝ̱ ܕܢܶܫܟܰܚ ܢܰܓܗܶܝܢܝ̱ ܡܢ ܗܢܐ ܚܰܒܠܐ!»
The lion replied to her: “Hey, little girl, what is your power that would be able to free me from this rope!”
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ ܥܘܩܒܰܪܬܐ؟
What did the female mouse do?
ܒܶܪܡܰܬ ܠܚܰܒܠܐ ܒܫܶܢܶܝ̈ܗ̇ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܶܐܬܦܣܶܩ.
She gnawed the rope with her teeth until it was cut off.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܟܰܕ ܦܠܰܛ؟
What did the lion say within himself when he escaped?
«ܒܰܫܪܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܣܰܓܝ ܕܰܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܰܥܒܳܕܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܓܰܢ̱ܒܳܪܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܠܶܗ.»
“Truly, there is many a situation where a small, weak one takes care of a great job which a hero can’t achieve.”

2017-03-23

ܣܝܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ

ܝܳܗܶܒ ܡܰܢܗܰܪ ܕܳܒܰܪ ܛܳܥܶܝ ܡܩܰܕܶܐ ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ

7 ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ [ܡܶܫܬܥܶܝܢ] ܒܕܶܪܬܐ.
Students are playing {ʾeštʕī meštʕēn Gt ≠ meštaʕʕēn Dt “to narrate”} in the courtyard (=school ground).
ܟܰܫܝܪܐ [ܡܩܰܕܶܐ] ܪܝܫܳܝܘܬ̥ܐ.
The diligent [one] (=the hard worker) retains {qaddī D} the top position {rḗšāyūṯā ⟦principātus⟧}.
8 ܐܝܠܳܢܐ [ܝܳܗܶܒ] ܦܻܐܪ̈ܐ.
The tree gives fruits. {YHB works this way: Matthew 13:8}
ܫܶܡܫܐ [ܡܰܢܗܰܪ] ܒܐܺܝܡܳܡܐ.
The sun illuminates [things] {nhr C} in the daytime {ʾīmāmā}.
9 ܬܰܘܪܐ [ܕܳܒܰܪ] ܦܰܕܳܢܐ.
An ox plows (lit. lead a yoke). {paddānā = “a yoke, a plow”: with dḇar “to yoke, to plow” (Jess); cf. Luke 17:7}
ܓܰܡܠܐ [ܛܳܥܶܢ] ܡܰܘܒ̈ܠܐ.
A camel carries cargos {mawblē “bardens”}.

A random thing to say: ܬܐܢܐ ܗܕܐ ܛܒܐ!

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 17] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 17 [ܕܰܫܒܳܬܱܥܣܰܪ]: ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ

2017-03-02

pulḥānā = “work”; taqnā = “proper, firm, lasting”

ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ، ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܦܳܠܰܚ ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ، ܘܰܚܙܐ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ] ܕܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
One spring day {lit. in one of spring days}, Little Elijah {ʾÈlīyā} went down {nḥeṯ} to the garden in which his father {ʾaḇûy} [was] working, and saw a beehive {kâwwārā N §84} of bees {debbṓrīṯā, pl. debbṓryāṯā}. « mem 2017-03-15 »

ES/LS2 teḏā (also: teḏʾā), TS (PSm) taḏā (taḏʾā) = “grass, spring” [Cf. Book 3 Lesson 19]: pure Syriac by metathesis; diṯʾā in BA/jar/etc.

2017-03-13 wikt: taḏʾā, teḏʾā; TS2-4390/Jess 605a: taḏā, [taḏʾā,] taʾdā, taḏā, ES teḏʾā — Also note, ܟܘܪܐ can be read in several different ways, including: kūrā “furnace”; kōrā “land” (Greek); kawwārā/kwārā “beehive”.

2017-03-07 Bienenstock /-ʃt-/: the BB form (10th cent.) is kwārā (881:15), like Qara; also Maclean kwârâ “in OS”. ar كَوَّارَة [Note: a SHADDA has a higher Canonical_Combining_Class than the Arabic vowel marks, even though it is written lower than a FATHA] — Also Jess. kwārā OR kawwārā.

2017-03-04

ܘܩܳܡ ܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܗܶܝܢ ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܕܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ]،
So he stood from afar {ruḥqā}; and began looking {ʾeṯbaqqī Dt √bqy: with b-} at them {f. “bees”} and seeing how bees [were] going out from the beehive, « mem 2017-03-16 »
ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ ܘܝܳܬ̥ܒ̈ܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ،
flying and sitting on the flowers, « mem 2017-03-22 »
ܘܡܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ ܕܡܶܢܶܗ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܟܰܟܳܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
and sucking {mtq} dew {ṭallā m. “nectar”?}, from which they [were going to] making a honeycomb {kakkārīṯā}. « mem 2017-03-22 »

2017-03-12 The ܗ̄ܘܳܐ does not require to be repeated, when it refers to several participles: it may be altogether omitted, when the connection clearly attests the sphere of the past (N §277). Thus, “He saw that the bees [were] going out.”

2017-03-13 Also, “He went down to the garden where his father [was] working.”

2017-03-16 ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢ — In Peshitta, at least, the emphatic state ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ is used, as in: ܐܶܫܬܰܥܝܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܗܳܢܘܢ ܕܰܚܙܰܘ܉ ܕܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ ܗ̣ܘܐ ܠܗܰܘ “Those who saw [it] told {šʕy} them how it happened to him” (Mark 5:16), = διηγήσαντο αὐτοῖς οἱ ἰδόντες πῶς ἐγένετο τῷ.

2017-03-21 In Peshitta, while D ܦܰܪܰܚ “to waste” is used in Luke, G ܦܪܰܚ “to fly, flee” is only used in (non-Peshitta) Revelation. See On Syriac Apocalypse 8:13.

2017-03-07

ṭallā ⟦rōs⟧ = Qara 5 says “dew, pollen”

ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟ̥ܳܢ [ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟܳܢ] ܬܘܒ ܠܰܟܘܳܪܐ [ܠܟܰܘܳܪܐ]، ܘܣܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܒܶܗ ܠܕܶܒܫܐ ܘܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ،
Then they [were] returning again {tūḇ} to the beehive, and putting in it honey {deḇšā} and going out,
ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܣܳܟ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܚܕܐ ܒܰܐ̱ܚܪܺܬ̥ܐ ܐܳܦܠܐ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܠܳܗ̇.
while one [bee was] not at all {lā sāḵ} touching {gšp, with b-} another {fem. ḥrḗṯā}, not even {ʾāp̄-lā} impeding {ʕwk D: mʕâww(ə)ḵā, double W!} it (=another bee).

2017-03-22 A Peshitta ex. of ʕwk D: ܘܰܨܒܰܝܢ ܕܢܹܐܬܶܐ ܠܘܳܬܟܘܢ܁ ܐܢܐ ܦܘܠܳܘܣ ܚܕܐ ܙܒܰܢ ܘܬܪ̈ܬܝܢ܉ ܘܥܰܘܟ̥ܰܢܝ̱ ܣܳܛܳܢܐ. “And we wanted to come to you guys; I, Paul, [wanted that] once and twice (=once and again) — then Satan hindered me {ʕâwweḵ: ʕâww(ə)ḵan: Double W!}.” (1Thes2:18⁎)

2017-03-08

ܘܰܫܦܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܗܳܢܐ، ܘܰܗܘܐ ܟܽܠܝܘܡ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ، ܡܶܢ ܩܕܳܡ ܕܢܶܕܢܰܚ ܫܶܡܫܐ، ܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ،
And this sight {ḥezwā} pleased him — the boy, and every day {kulyṓm} in the morning, from before the sun shines {dnḥ: a/a becuase of the 3rd ḥ}, he was going down {nḥt} to the garden,
ܘܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܟܘܳܪܐ [ܟܰܘܳܪܐ] ܡܶܬܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܟܶܢ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
and standing in front of the beehive for a while {lit. “duration from [past] time”}, while looking {bqy Dt w. b-} at the bees, then [he was] returning home.

ܡܶܬܚܐ = “length of time, duration”, can be used adverbially. Jess. has: ܡܶܬܚܐ ܕܰܬܡܳܢܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ = “the space of eighty years”, “for eighty years”

ܡܶܢ ܙܰܒܢܐ = lit. “since time”, meaning “since a long time ago”, “for a long time”. Peshitta has two examples:

2017-03-09

ܘܰܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ، ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ: ܕܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ ܘܐܰܡܝܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ ܀
Then one day, his father asked him, “What are you learning from bees?” Elijah answered: “I’m learning* (about) proper {taqnā: reliable, firm, honest} and constant {ʾamīnā} work {pulḥānā}, Father.”

*Probably yālèp̄ + noun (direct object), and d- is simply quoting what he says; and not yālèp̄ + d “learn that”.

2017-03-10 Daniel; Russian; Georgian.

2017-03-11 Memorized a Syriac sentence from the previous lesson; Russian; Georgian.

2017-03-12

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ؟
ʾÈlīyā, nḥt = “to go down” (npq = “to go out”)
ܢܚܶܬ ܐܠܝܐ ܠܓܰܢܬܐ ܘܰܚܙܐ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ ܕܕܶܒܘܿܪ̈ܝܳܬܳܐ.
kâwwārā = “beehive”, debbṓryāṯā = “bees”
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܗ̱̈ܘܳܝ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
What were the bees doing {fem. pl.}?
ܢܳܦ̈ܩܳܢ ܗ̱̈ܘܳܝ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ، ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ ܘܝܳܬܒ̈ܳܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ، ܘܡܳܬܩ̈ܳܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ، ܘܗܳܦ̈ܟܳܢ ܬܘܒ ܠܟܰܘܳܪܐ ܘܣܳܝ̈ܡܳܢ ܒܶܗ ܠܕܶܒܫܐ.
They were going out from the beehive, flying and sitting on flowers, sucking the “dew”, and returning back to the beehive and putting the honey in it.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟
What he was doing every morning?
ܒܟܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܢܳܚܶܬ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܓܰܢܬܐ، ܘܩܳܐܶܡ ܩܕܳܡ ܟܰܘܳܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܳܐ.
Every morning he was going down to the garden and standing in front of the beehive, while looking at bees.

2017-03-13

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐܰܒܘܗ̱ܝ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܢ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܐ؟
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܶܠܺܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ: ܕܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܬܰܩܢܐ ܘܰܐܡܝܢܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܳܕܝ̱ ܐܰܒܐ.
He answered: “I am learning (about) reliable, constant work, Father.”

2017-03-15

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܟܘܳܪܐ ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܡܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܢ

ܟܘܳܪܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ.
A beehive is the house of bees.
ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܐ ܪ̈ܚܡܢ ܗܒܒ̈ܐ.
Bees love flowers.
ܐܳܣܝܐ ܡܶܬܒܰܩܶܐ ܒܛܰܠܝܐ.
The doctor is examining the boy.
ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܡܳܬܩ̈ܢ ܠܛܰܠܐ.
Bees are sucking the “dew”.

7 ܟܰܟܳܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܐܰܡܝܢܐ

ܕܶܒܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܕܳܢ ܟܰܟܪܝܬܐ.
Bees build a honeycomb.
ܐܶܡܐ ܓܳܫܦܐ ܒܛܰܠܝܳܗ̇.
The mother touches his boy.
ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܡܥܰܘܟܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܠܝ.
Mary was impeding me.
ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܐܰܡܝܢܐ ܛܳܒ.
Constant work is good.

2017-03-16

ܐܰܝܟܐ ܥܳܡܪܝܢ ܗܳܟܶܝܢ؟

ܩܶܢܐ ܟܘܳܪܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܐܶܣ‍ܛܰܒܠܐ ܢܶܩܥܐ ܒܶܙܥܐ
nest (f?); beehive; house; stabe {BB 219-11/TS1-204: ar إسْطَبْل, fa إصطبل = CAL/LS2 ܐܶܣ‍ܛܰܒܠܝܢ from στάβλοςstabulum⟧}; cave, den; hole, warren;
8 ܒܰܪܢܳܟܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܒܰܝܬܐ.
ܣܘܣܝܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܐܶܣܛܰܒܠܐ.
A horse {sūsyā} live in a stable.
9 ܬܰܥܠܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ .... ܢܶܩܥܐ.
A fox live in a den.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܥܳܡܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܩܶܢܐ.
A bird lives in a nest.
10 ܚܶܘܝܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܒܶܙܥܐ.
A snake {ḥewyā} lives in a hole.
ܕܶܒܘܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܥܳܡܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܟܘܳܪܐ.
A bee lives in a beehive.

ܠܬܰܥ̈ܠܐ ܢܶܩܥ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ “There are dens for foxes” (Mt8:20) = αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 16] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 16 [ܕܫܶܬܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܢܰܨܪܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ

2017-02-18

mnaṣṣərān-ā, fem. mnaṣṣərānīṯā (N §71) = “pleasant, flattering” maybe “twittering”

ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܠܥܳܒܐ.
At one time, three students went out to the forest. « mem 2017-03-03 »

ܐܳܦ ܢܘܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܐ ܡܰܘܩܕܐ. “Even a small fire {f} burns many forests.” Ja3:5

ܘܟܰܕ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒܝܢ] ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܕ ܪܳܡܐ، ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܕܰܡܢܰܨܪܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.
And when they were sitting in the shade {ṭellāl(ā)} of a high tree, they heard a voice {qāl(ā) m.} of a bird {f.} which was twittering repeatedly {naṣṣar D: mnaṣṣar, mnaṣṣrā} in a sweet voice. « mem 2017-03-04 »

2017-03-03 yattīḇ is a verbal adjectives of type paʕʕīl (N §118), similar to — but different from — the passive participle *yīṯīḇ (Thackston §12.1), sometimes used as a passive or middle perfect participle with active meaning: “having seated (oneself)” = “sitting” (N §118, §280 fn). The plural form is yattīḇīn (TS1-1645; Lexicon Syropalaestinum 88b); the active participle would be yāṯbīn. [Cf. Book 3 Lesson 29; Book 3 Lesson 34]

2017-03-04 ṣepprā da-mnaṣṣrā sounds musical, where ṣ…rā and …ṣrā are like a refrain with the rhythm of CVCCrā CVC CVCCrā.

2017-02-21

ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ، ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇؟
One of them said: “Ah, how sweet the voice of this bird is! Where is she?” « mem 2017-03-05 »
ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܶܐܚܙܶܝܗ̇.
“I need to see her.” « mem 2017-03-05 »
ܘܩܳܡ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ، ܘܰܪܡܰܙ ܒܨܶܒܥܶܗ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܕ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ:
The second [student] stood up, and pointed {rmaz “signaled”} with his finger {ṣeḇʕā} at one tree, and said: « mem 2017-03-06 »

2017-02-22

ܗܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܝ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܩܶܢܐ.
Look, she is sitting on that branch, in [her] nest. « mem 2017-03-06 »
ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܰܚܙܳܗ̇ ܫܩܰܠ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܠܡܶܫܕܐ ܒܳܗ̇.
And as soon as he saw her, he took up a stone from the ground to throw {šdy: inf. lmešdā} it at her. « mem 2017-03-07 »
ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ: ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܐܳܘ ܗܳܢܐ؟
And the third guy said to him: “What do you want to do, O this [boy]?” « mem 2017-03-08 »

2017-03-07 hānē is “this [bad boy]” and not “this [bad behavior]”; because if it meant his behavior, the expression would be probably fem. hāḏē as in the following line.

2017-02-23

ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܦܨܰܚ ܠܳܟ ܒܩܳܠܶܗ؟
“With this are you repaying/punishing {prʕ} the one who pleases {pṣḥ C} you with his voice?” « mem 2017-03-08 »
ܐܰܘ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܠܳܟ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܐܳܡܰܪ: «ܗܘܰܘ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܡ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.»
“Or [=if that’s not your intention] thus {hāḵan} it teaches {mallep̄ Pa. part. N §174D} you a lesson that says: ‘(You guys) be nice with animals.’” « mem 2017-03-09 »

2017-03-09 ܗܘܰܘ ܒܰܣܝܡܝܢ is expected, but +emph. is possible, though rare, as in ܗܘܰܘ ܡܛܰܝܒ̈ܐ “be prepared [men]” (Lk12:40). If you understand the above sentence as “Be nice [guys]!” and not just "Be nice!", then the emphatic state makes sense.

2017-02-24

ܘܰܒܗܶܬ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܚܰܒܪܶܗ.
And the student was ashamed {bheṯ} from (=when he heard) the word[s] of his friend. « mem 2017-03-11 »
ܘܐܰܪܡܝ ܠܟܺܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܕܶܗ، ܘܩܳܡ ܨܳܐܶܬ̥ ܠܩܳܠܐ ܕܨܶܦܪܐ܀
He dropped the stone from his hand, and stood listening {ṣwt} to the voice of the bird. « mem 2017-03-12 »

2017-03-12 ṣwt = “to listen”: šmʕ = “to hear, obey, understand”

2017-02-26

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱؟
To where did the students go out and what did they hear?
ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܠܥܳܒܐ ܘܰܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
The students went out to the forest and heard the voice of a bird.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ؟
What did one of them say?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܗ ܡܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܩܳܠ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ، ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇؟ ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܶܐܚܙܶܝܗ̇.
He said: “Ah, how sweet the voice of this bird is! Where is she? I need to see her.”
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܗܰܘ ܬܪܳܝܳܢܐ؟
What did the second guy say?
ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܗܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܝ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܩܶܢܐ.
He said: “Look, she is sitting on that branch, at [her] nest.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟
What did he do when he saw the bird?
ܫܩܰܠ ܟܐܦܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܠܡܶܫܕܐ ܒܳܗ̇.
He took up a stone from the ground to throw [it] at her.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪ ܠܶܗ ܗܰܘ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ؟
What did the third guy say to him?
ܐܶܡܪ ܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ؟ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܦܳܪܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܦܨܰܚ ܠܳܟ ܒܩܳܠܶܗ؟
He said to him: “What do you want to do? With this are you rewarding the one who gladdens you with his voice?”

2017-02-27

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܒܰܣܝ̈ܡܐ ܫܩܰܠ ܨܒܐ ܢܶܫܕܶܐ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ
The shadow of the tree is beautiful.
ܝܶܬܒܶܬ ܒܛܶܠܴܠܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
I sat in the shadow of the tree.
ܦܣܰܩ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
He cut a branch from a tree.
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܪܶܥܝܳܢ̈ܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ.
These are pleasant thoughts.
ܫܩܳܠ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
Jesus took bread.
ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
What do you want?
ܢܶܫܕܶܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܟܐܦܐ.
Let him throw a stone at her.

2017-02-28

Memo: Hugoye

Armenian Garshuni: An Overview of the Known Material
Garshuni As It Is: Some Observations from Reading East and West Syriac Manuscripts
http://bethmardutho.org/index.php/hugoye/volume-index/591.html

ܦܪܘܫ ܡܶܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ «ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܢܰܨܪܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ»

7 ܚܰܡܫܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ

ܥܳܒܐ، ܛܶܠܴܠܐ، ܐܝܠܳܢܐ، ܩܳܠܐ، ܨܶܦܪܐ

8 ܚܰܡܶܫ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܐܝܟ: ܢܦܰܩܘ̱

ܝܳܬܝܒܝܢ، ܫܡܰܥܘ̱، ܡܢܰܨܪܐ، ܐܶܡܰܪ، ܒܳܥܶܐ

9 ܚܰܡܫܐ ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܐ ܐܝܟ: ܟܰܕ

ܗܐ، ܡܶܚܕܐ، ܒܳܗ̇، ܠܶܗ، ܐܳܘ

2017-03-01

ܐܰܪܰܐ ܚܙܰܝܬ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟ ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܡܳܕܶܝܢ:

māḏēn = “therefore, in that case”

10 ܟܡܐ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ̇ ܬܪܝܢ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ.
ܟܡܐ ܡܳܩܘܙ̈ܐ؟
How many beaks {sg. maqūzā OR māqūzā}?
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ̇ ܚܰܕ ܡܳܩܘܙܐ.
ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܠܐ؟
What does it eat?
ܐܳܟܠܐ ܙܰܪܥ̈ܐ ܘܛܰܝܪ̈ܐ (ܪ̈ܰܚܫܳܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ).
It eats seeds {zarʕē} and insects {ṭayrē} (small creeping animal {raḥšā collective}).

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 15] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 15 [ܕܚܰܡܶܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܫܦܰܝ̈ܳܐ

2017-01-30

2017-01-31

ܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܬܡܳܢܶܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ، ܥܰܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܣܶܕܪܐ، ܘܰܩܪܐ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܡܛܰܝܒ̈ܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܗܰܘ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܟܰܫܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܡܛܰܝܰܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܗܰܘ ܝܰܘܡܐ.
At eight o’clock in the morning, the teacher entered (m) the classroom, and called (m) the names of the present students, but Jacob, the diligent student, was not present on that day. « mem 2017-02-10? »

2017-02-01

ܘܫܰܐܶܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱. ܘܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒܶܗ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܕܠܰܡ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱!
And the teacher asked about him. One of the students, who was his neighbor, said: “I heard: ‘Jacob is sick!’” « mem 2017-02-13 »
ܘܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠܝ̱ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ ܐܳܣܝܐ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܡ̱ܡܳܢ̈ܐ.
“‘And yesterday in the evening, a physician visited him and gave him some medicines.’” « mem 2017-02-14 »

2017-02-02

ܘܟܰܕ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱، ܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱: ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܙܰܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ. ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܰܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܐܶܙܰܠܘ̱ ܐܰܟ̥ܚܰܕ ܠܫܘܩܐ،
And when four of his scoolmates heard [this], they said: “It is proper that we will go to his place (=We should visit his place).” And as soon as they got out of school, they went together to the market, « mem 2017-02-15 »
ܘܰܙܒܰܢܘ̱ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܡܘ̈ܙܐ، ܘܐܶܓܳܨ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ.
and bought a few frutis such as bananas and pears and apples. « mem 2017-02-17 »

2017-02-03

ܘܟܰܢܶܫܘ̱ ܐܳܦ ܟܰܦܐ ܕܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ ܘܐܶܙܰܠܘ̱ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ.
And they also gathered a bundle of beautiful roses and went to his place. « mem 2017-02-18 »
ܘܰܚܙܰܘܽܘܗ̱ܝ ܕܕܰܡܝܟ ܒܥܰܪܣܐ ܘܐܶܡܶܗ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܰܡܦܝ̣ܚܐ ܠܶܗ ܒܫܘܫܶܦܐ.
And they saw him lying in [his] bed, and his mother sitting by his head and cooling him (=trying to reduce his fever) with a towel. « mem 2017-02-22 »

2017-02-04

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ، ܒܣܶܡ ܠܶܒܶܗ ܘܰܢܗܰܪ̈ܝ̱ ܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܳܗ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܰܝ̣.
And when Jacob saw them, his heart rejoiced and his face shone, and he said: “Ah, welcome (b-šainā), my brother-friends (=dear friends).” « mem 2017-02-26 »

2017-02-06

ܟܶܢ ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܗܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܚ̈ܰܕܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܰܘܡܐ ܗܰܘ.
Then he sat and started asking them about the new lessons of that day. « mem 2017-02-27 »

2017-02-07

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܡܘ̱ ܘܰܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ ܘܰܢܦܰܩܘ̱܀
And one hour later, they stood up and wished him [quick] recovery and left. « mem 2017-03-01 »

ܫܘܩܐ is سوق, and շուկա (šuKa, K unaspirated), from which შუკა (dated, dialectal) “narrow street”

2017-02-08

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܐܶܬܛܰܝܰܒ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ؟
Why didn’t Jacob prepare himself (=Why wasn’t Jacob present) in the class?
ܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ.
Jacob was sick.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܶܗ؟
What had happened {gḏaš} to him?
ܐܳܣܝܐ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܡ̱ܡܳܢ̈ܐ.
A doctor visited him and gave him some medicines.
3 ܡܰܢ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܣܳܥܘܪܘܬ̥ܐ؟
Who went to his place for visitation {sāʕōrūṯā}?
ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱.
Four of his school mates [did].
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܰܘܒܶܠܘ̱ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ؟
What did they bring {√ybl C} to him with them?
ܩܰܠܝܠ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ.
A few fruits and roses.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ؟
What did Jacob say to them?
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܝܰܥܩܘܒ: «ܐܳܗ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܰܝ.»
Jacob said: “Ah, welcome, my brother-friends.”
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܟܰܕ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܶܗ؟
What did they wish when they went out from his place?
ܒܥܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܠܡܳܢܐ.
They wished him recovery.

2017-02-09

ܟܢܳܬ̥ܝ̱ ܝܰܩܝܪܐ ܫܶܡܥܘܢ
My dear {yīqar “to be heavy, precious”} colleague {knāṯā m./f. N §87}, Simon {šemʕṓn}:
ܫܠܳܡܐ ܣܒܝܣܐ!
Intimate {sḇīsā} greetings!
ܗܐ ܝܺܪܰܚ ܝܰܩܡܝ̈ܢ ܘܠܐ ܫܰܕܪܶܬ̥ ܓܝܳܒܐ ܕܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܳܟ.
Look, a (full) month {Jess 197a, LS2 309: this (y)īraḥ is the con. st. of yarḥā} [passed], and I did not send {šaddar D} a reply to your letter {ʾeggarṯā}.

ܓܝܳܒܐ (gyāḇā) is probably not a Classical word, but may be related to Ar جواب (ǧawāb) or Ar إجابة (ʾiǧāba), both mean “reply, response, answer”. Modern syr has ܓ̰ܘܼܘܵܒ݁ (ǧūwāb), Maclean 46a, ota جواب (cevāb c=/d͡ʒ/), ku جەواب (cèwab: Maclean “jô-wâb, jewâb, juâb”: in Latin, cewab, cuwab, ciwab, etc.).

However, ܓܘܼܝܳܒܐ (guyyāḇā) “response” is v.n.D of √gwb. Bar Bahlul (10th cent.; fl. 963) 463:16 has ܓܘܼܝܵܒܐ as ܡܓܝܒܢܘܬܐ جواب اجابة, where ܡܓܝܒܳܢܘܼܬܐ (mḡīḇāyūṯā, CAL mḡīb-, Jess. mgayb-) is “an answer”. Moreover, BB has ܓܝܒܐ in 482. TS1-670 says, ܓܘܝܳܒܐ BA [Bar Ali: †890] BB [Bar Bahlul: fl. 963] K [Karmsaddani/Carmeniensis (Maronite) 1619], ܓܝܒܐ BB, vox dubia. So the word like ܓܝܳܒܐ did exist at least in the 9th century (post-Classical).

JPG
http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/CUA/id/123688/filename/152563.pdf/mapsto/pdf/type/compoundobject/cpdtype/monograph/show/123688
ܨ stands for ܨܚܳܚܐ “book, codex, (another) copy, manuscript”; ܚ is ܚܕ ???

2017-02-14

[ܒܰ]ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝܬܐ ܟܒܰܪ ܪܳܢܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܰܛܥܝܬ̥ܳܟ، ܐܰܘ ܩܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܚܘܒܝ̱ ܕܰܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܟ.
[In] the end {ḥrāytā = “last part”}, perhaps {kḇar} you are thinking that I forgot you {ṭʕā, ṭʕḗt 1sg, ṭʕḗṯāḵ}, or [that] my love {ḥubbā} (which is) toward you has just† cooled {√qrr} down.

2017-02-15

ܐܶܠܐ ܟܰܕ ܬܶܕܰܥ ܕܰܥܡܝܠ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܒܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܩܪܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ،
But when you know that I was very busy {Pass. pt. of ʕmal “to labor”} with study (pl.) because the test {buḥrānā} of the beginning of the year had approached,
ܕܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܬܶܫܒܘܩ ܠܝ ܒܘܨܳܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ!
I doubt {dalmā = “I guess it’s unlikely”} that you won’t forgive {šḇaq} me for this omission {buṣṣārā} (=my slow reply)!

Romans 10:18 has ܕܰܠܡܐ ܠܐ ܫܡܰܥܘ “Have they not heard? (Yes, they have!)” — here, similarly ܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܬܶܫܒܘܿܩ “Will you not forgive? (Yes, you will!)”

2017-02-16

ܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠܝ̱ ܫܠܶܡ ܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ، ܘܗܐ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܐܶܣܰܒܪܳܟ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܚܳܡ̈ܐ ܕܩܰܕܝܬ̥ ܒܕܰܪܓ̥ܐ «ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪ» ܥܰܡ ܕܳܫܢܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܕܩܰܪܶܒ ܠܝ ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܐ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
Yesterday the test ends {šlm “to be whole/complete”} and look, I’m writing so that I may bring news {sabbar = “to bring news”: ʾessabbar} to you, about the grades {puḥḥāmā vnD “comparison”} that I have acquired {qaddī = “to enjoy the possession of”} in the rank {dargā “step”} «very good» with a gift {dāšnā} which, then, the principal {mḏabbrāna = “leader”} of the school offered {qarreb = “to bring near”} to me.

The G of dargā is hard in CAL, Jastrow (tmr), wikt; but darḡā in both P-NY and P-UK (in pl. dargē in P-UK).

ܐܳܦ ܐܰܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܫܰܟܶܢ ܠܝ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܝܰܩܝܪܬܐ ܕܣܺܐܡܐ!
Also, my father gave (as a gift) {šakken} to me an expensive {yaqqīr} ‘hour’ (timepiece, watch, clock) made of silver {sḗmā}!

2017-02-17

ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܝ ܢܰܗܝܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܝܠܳܟ، ܡܰܠܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܚܳܡ̈ܐ ܕܰܡܩܰܕܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
Write me clearly {nahhīrāʾīṯ} about the things (daily life etc.) of yours, if possible about the grades that you are acquiring {qdy D see above} in the test of the beginning of the year.
ܘܐܶܢ ܡܰܨܝܐ ܠܳܟ، ܓܢܘܒ ܐܰܦܬ̥ܐ ܘܬܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܰܢ ܒܒܶܛܠܳܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ،
And if it is possible {fem.: for ʾap̄ṯā?} for you, find {lit. “steal”} an opportunity {ʾap̄ṯā f.} and come to our place in this vacation {beṭlānā},
ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܢܰܥܒܰܪ ܥܰܡ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܐ ܕܥܺܐܕܐ ܘܰܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ.
in such a way that we may spend {ʾaʕbar C lit. “make pass by”}, with each others, the days of the festival/holiday {ʕḗḏā} and of the new year.
ܘܩܰܘܐ ܚܠܝܡ
And “remain {qawwā = imperat. of qawwī D} healthy” {like “say hello”}
ܠܐܰܚܘܟ ܕܳܢܺܝܶܐܠ
To your brother {ʾa(ḥ)ḥūḵ} Daniel

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 14] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 14 [ܕܰܐܪܒܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܬܘܪܬܐ ܒܳܥܝܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ

2017-01-17

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܰܢ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܐ
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܛܰܒ [ܛܳܒ ؟] ܒܰܣܝܡܐ
We have a cow, much loved;
she gives us milk, very delicious.
ܢܳܦܩܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܘܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܫܰܠܒܐ
ܘܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ [ܘܗܳܦܟ̊ܐ] ܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܘܥܰܡܳܗ̇ ܚܰܠܒܐ
She goes out in the morning, and grazes in the valley;
and returns in the evening, and with her, milk [also comes home].

2017-01-18

ܬܘܪܬܐ ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܒܨܳܦܪܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ
ܠܡܐ ܝܳܕܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܳܢܐ ܒܳܥܝܐ
The cow lows every day in the morning.
Do you know what she is asking?
ܐܳܡܪܐ ܗܰܒ ܠܝ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܘܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
ܘܬܶܣܰܒ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
She is saying: “Give me grass and water;
and you will take milk without watery thing (thick milk) price (priceless milk).”
ܘܐܶܢ ܬܰܘܣܶܦ ܠܝ ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܒܟܶܣܬܐ
ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܐܳܦ ܓܘܒܢ̈ܐ ܘܡܰܣܬܐ
“And if you add for me barley grains into the fodder (if you add barley to my fodder),
you are gaining cheeses and yogurt.”

2017-01-24

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

1 ܫܰܠܒܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ
valley, to low (fem. part.), without, price, fodder, to gain (part.)
ܐܰܝܟ: ܫܰܠܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܢܰܗܪܐ.
Like: The valley has a river in it.
ܟܠ ܝܘܿܡ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܫܰܠܒܐ.
Every day the cow grazes in the valley.
ܬܘܪܬܐ ܓܳܥܝܐ.
A cow lows.
ܚܕܳܐ ܡܶܢܗܶܝܢ ܒܶܠܥܳܕ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܒܘܟܘܢ ܠܐ ܢܳܦܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
None of them falls on the ground without your father(’s will). Mt10:29
ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܣܰܓܝ.
The price is high.
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܟܶܣܬܐ ܠܬܘܪܬܐ.
I gives fodder to a cow.
ܐܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ.
If you do these, you will gain.

2017-01-26

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

2 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܥܳܡܰܪ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ؟
Where does a farmer live?
ܒܚܰܩܠܐ.
In the field.
3 ܒܐܰܝܢܐ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܥܢܶܐ؟
In which (=what sort of) work is engaged?
ܟܳܪܶܒ ܠܳܗ̇ ܘܒܳܕܰܪ ܠܙܰܪܥܐ.
He plows it and spreads seed[s].
4 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܐܳܕܫ̈ܐ ܕܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ؟
Which (pl.) sorts of grains does he sow?
ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
Barley grains and wheat grains.
5 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܙܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܩܳܢܶܐ؟
What kind of animals does he acquire (have)?
ܬܰܘܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ، ܘܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ، ܘܘܰܙ̈ܐ.
Cows and cattle and geese.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ؟
What does he gain from these animals?
ܚܰܠܒ̥ܐ.
Milk.
7 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ؟
What does he gain from these birds?
ܒ̈ܥܐ.
Eggs.
8 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܰܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ؟
Do you love a city? And why?
ܠܐ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܰܩܪܝܬܐ. ܪܳܚܡܐ ܠܫܰܠܝܽܘܬܐ.
I do not love a city. I love quietness.

2017-01-29

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܕܶܟ̥ܪܐ ܘܢܶܩܒܐ ܘܝܰܠܕܐ ܕܟܽܠ ܓܶܢܣܐ

deḵrā = “male”; neqbā = “female”; yaldā = “child”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܰܒܫܐ [ܟܶܒܫܐ] - ܢܶܩܝܐ - ܐܶܡܪܐ.
wether {keḇšā from كبش (kabš): cf. כֶּבֶשׂ “sheep”} - ewe {neqyā} - lamb
ܕܶܟ̥ܪܐ ܟܰܒܫܐ [ܟܶܒܫܐ] ܬܰܘܪܐ ܣܘܣܝܐ ܬܰܝܫܐ ܚܡܳܪܐ
Male: wether ox horse {sūsyā} he-goat {tayšā} ass
ܢܶܩܒܐ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܣܘܣܬܐ ܐܰܬܳܢܐ ܥܶܙܐ ܢܶܩܝܐ
Female: cow mare {sūstā} she-ass {ʾattānā: أتان (ʾatān)} goat ewe
ܝܰܠܕܐ ܥܶܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܶܡܪܐ ܓܰܕܝܐ ܥܝܠܐ ܡܘܗܪܐ
Child: calf {ʕeḡlā} lamb kid {gaḏyā} colt/any young equid {ʕīlā} horse’s foal {mûhrā CAL muwhrā: مهر (muhr)}
ܟܶܒܫܐ، ܢܶܩܝܐ، ܐܶܡܪܐ
wether, ewe, lamb
ܬܰܘܪܐ، ܬܘܪܬܐ، ܥܶܓ̥ܠܐ
ox, cow, calf
ܣܘܣܝܐ، ܣܘܣܬܐ، ܡܘܗܪܐ
horse, mare, horse’s foal
ܬܰܝܫܐ، ܥܶܙܐ، ܓܰܕܝܐ
he-goat, she-goat, kid
ܚܡܳܪܐ، ܐܰܬ̊ܳܢܐ، ܥܝܠܐ
ass, she-ass, foal

Biblical Aramaic (Daniel 2:37–)

Daniel 2:1–2:16 are in SyriacL.php.

Daniel 2:17–2:36 are in SyriacM.php.

2017-02-15

Daniel (arc) 2:37⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַ֣נְתְּ ק] מַלְכָּ֔א מֶ֖לֶךְ מַלְכַיָּ֑א דִּ֚י אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א מַלְכוּתָ֥א חִסְנָ֛א וְתָקְפָּ֥א וִֽיקָרָ֖א יְהַב־לָֽךְ׃
You, O King,
[are] the king of kings;
To whom… God of heaven
has given:
a kingdom, power… and strength and glory.

2017-02-16

Daniel (arc) 2:38a⁎

וּבְכָל־דִּ֣י דָאֲרִין [כ דָֽיְרִ֣ין ק] בְּֽנֵי־אֲ֠נָשָׁא חֵיוַ֨ת בָּרָ֤א וְעוֹף־שְׁמַיָּא֙ יְהַ֣ב בִּידָ֔ךְ וְהַשְׁלְטָ֖ךְ בְּכָלְּה֑וֹן
And in all that live — children of man, «TG» beast[s] of field and bird[s] of sky: «Paš»
he has given [them] into your hand; «ZQ»
And he has let you rule
in all of them.

2017-02-22

Daniel (arc) 2:38b⁎

אַנְתָּה [כ אַנְתְּ־ה֔וּא ק] רֵאשָׁ֖ה דִּ֥י דַהֲבָֽא׃
You are [this] head of gold.

2017-02-25

Daniel (arc) 2:39a⁎

וּבָתְרָ֗ךְ תְּק֛וּם מַלְכ֥וּ אָחֳרִ֖י אֲרַ֣עא מִנָּ֑ךְ
And after you, another {f. ʾoḥŏrī ? ʾāḥŏrī ?} kingdom {abs.} shall stand {f}, [more] earthy than you[rs].

2017-02-27

CAL ˀoḥŏrī

Daniel (arc) 2:39b⁎

וּמַלְכ֨וּ תְלִיתָיָא [כ תְלִיתָאָ֤ה ק] אָחֳרִי֙ דִּ֣י נְחָשָׁ֔א דִּ֥י תִשְׁלַ֖ט בְּכָל־אַרְעָֽא׃
And another third kingdom of bronze/copper [shall stand], which shall rule the whole earth.

שְׁלַט (hbo שָׁלַט ) impf. יִשׁלַט “he will rule”, the theme vowel is a: also in Syriac, ܫܠܰܛ and ܢܶܫܠܰܛ

According to some, the Book of Daniel was written around 165 BCE. Technically, Official Aramaic is a language from 700–300 BCE, while Jewish Babylonian Aramaic is a language from ca. 200–1200 CE. So I have to wonder, exactly what language am I reading here? If it was written in 165 BCE, it is slightly (by ~ 135 years) too new to be Official Aramaic, but too old (by more than 300 years) to be Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.

2017-03-10

Daniel (arc) 2:40a⁎

וּמַלְכוּ֙ רְבִיעָיָה [כ רְבִ֣יעָאָ֔ה ק] תֶּהֱוֵ֥א תַקִּיפָ֖ה כְּפַרְזְלָ֑א
And the fourth kingdom {malḵū: syc malkū w. hard k} will be {she-form has t- i.e. l- is for the ordinary y-} strong {tappīqā(h) fem. abs.} like iron {parzlā}.

2017-03-19

Daniel (arc) 2:40b⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּ֤י פַרְזְלָא֙ מְהַדֵּ֤ק וְחָשֵׁל֙ כֹּ֔לָּא
[I say this] because {kolqŏˈḇal dī} (=inasmuch as) iron pounds {dqq a/u C part. *mhadqeq > mhaddeq} and hammer {ḥšl} everything;
וּֽכְפַרְזְלָ֛א דִּֽי־מְרָעַ֥ע כָּל־אִלֵּ֖ין תַּדִּ֥ק וְתֵרֹֽעַ׃
and like iron that thoroughly crushes {rʕʕ D part. *mraʕʕaʕ > mrāʕaʕ} everything {lit. all-these}, it (that kingdom) will pound {G impf. *tidquq (?) > taddiq} and crush {G impf. *tirʕoʕ (?) > *tir-roʕ > tê-roăʕ} [everything].

כָּל־אִלֵּין might be the object of the following verbs (CAL seems to think that way): “Like iron that thoroughly crushes, it will pound and crush everything.” This interpretation is possible if we can ignore the cantillation marks, and it sounds more vivid and dramatic, the emphasis being put on everything: “Everything, yes, everything shall be destroyed by it!” However, if the cantillation marks should be respected, כָּל־אִלֵּין must go with the preceding verb: “Like iron that thoroughly crushes everything, it will…” Both interpretations are essentially the same.

2017-03-23

Daniel (arc) 2:41a⁎

וְדִֽי־חֲזַ֜יְתָה רַגְלַיָּ֣א וְאֶצְבְּעָתָ֗א מִנְּהֹון [כ מִנְּהֵ֞ן ק] חֲסַ֤ף דִּֽי־פֶחָר֙ וּמִנְּהֹון [כ וּמִנְּהֵ֣ין ק] פַּרְזֶ֔ל
And [as for the fact] that you saw the feet {dual. emph.?} and toes — some of them [being] the clay of potter[s], some of them [being] iron:
מַלְכ֤וּ פְלִיגָה֙ תֶּהֱוֵ֔ה
the kingdom shall be divided;
וּמִן־נִצְבְּתָ֥א דִ֥י פַרְזְלָ֖א לֶֽהֱוֵא־בַ֑הּ
and [something {mas!}] of the firmness {niṣbĕṯā fem.} of the iron shall be {mas!} in it (the kingdom).

2017-03-24

Daniel (arc) 2:42a⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵל֙ דִּ֣י חֲזַ֔יְתָה פַּ֨רְזְלָ֔א מְעָרַ֖ב בַּחֲסַ֥ף טִינָֽא׃
Because you saw the iron, mixed {D pass. part. *məʕarreḇ > məʕāraḇ} with clay {const?; “fired ceramic”} of (=with?) mud.
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