memos::Syriac 15 (O)

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Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 27] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 27 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܫܰܒܥܐ]: ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ ܒܰܝܬܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ

2017-07-17

ܐܝܣܚܳܩ ܝܳܠܘܦܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܛܳܒܐ ܘܟܰܫܝܪܐ.
ʾĪsḥāq is a student, good and earnest.
ܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܕܚܰܕܒܫܰܒܐ، ܐܰܘ ܕܥܺܐܕܐ، ܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܫܳܡܰܥ ܩܳܠ ܢܳܩܘܫܐ ܕܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ، ܪܳܫܶܡ ܐܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܨܠܝܒܐ ܩܰܕܺܝܫܐ ܥܰܠ ܨܳܠܡܶܗ.
Every morning of a Sunday {ḥaḏ bšabbā} or of a holiday {ʕḗḏā #1}, as soon as he hears the sound of the bell {nāqṓšā} of the church, he makes {ršm} a sign of the holy cross {ṣe̊līḇā} on his image (in front of him?) {#2}.

yālṓpā w > WS -paw: according to Alan 92, this happens only when the word in front of the (h)w has three consonants or less; according to Mingana 30, however, this always happens. Also, in ES, Alan says hārkay (because hrk has only three consonants), while Mingana 452 says hārkāy (keeping the ā), parce que le mot a plus de deux letters.

#1 Loan into Arabic (CAL) عيد — fa عید (pes /ʔejd/), hence English Eid. It seems that in Persian ع is /ʔ/.

#2 ṣalmā = “image”: according to the Syriac-English section, “his picture.” However, “makes a sign of the holy cross on his picture” doesn’t sound very usual to me. I suspect this might be “his face,” “his forehead,” or “himself.” Tentatively I’m going to tranlsate this one as “makes a sign of the holy cross in front of him.”

2017-07-18

ܘܩܳܐܶܡ ܡܫܝܓ̥ ܐܝܕܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܐܰܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܰܡܣܰܪܶܩ ܣܰܥܪܶܗ،
And he gets up and washes {šwg C} his hands and his face, and combs {srq D} his hair {saʕrā},
ܘܠܳܒܶܫ ܢܰܚ̈ܬܐ ܢܰܩ̈ܕܐ ܘܨܳܐܶܒ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ.
and puts on fine {#3} clothes {naḥtā m.} and attends {lit. congregates at} church.

#3 naqdā = “clean; well-ornamented, decorated with needlework”

ܘܟܰܕ ܥܳܐܶܠ ܒܬܰܪܥܐ ܕܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ، ܣܳܓ̥ܶܕ ܘܐܳܡܰܪ:
And when he enters {ʕāʾèl} the door of the church, he kneels {OR bows down} and says:
ܠܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܥܶܠܶܬ̥ ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܒܺܐܡ [ܒܹܝܡ] ܕܝܠܳܟ ܣܶܓ̥ܕܶܬ.
“I have entered {ʕellèṯ} your house, O God, and in front of the throne {#4} of yours I have kneeled.”

#4 bḗm(ā) f. = “elevated stand, pedestal; the judgment seat, ecclesiastic throne” — from βῆμα, βήματος, τό = “raised place or tribune to speak from in a public assembly, etc.” In Syriac often treated as a pure loanword, i.e., using the absolute form (CAL) — ܘܺܝܬܶܒ ܥܠ ܒܹܝܡ = “he sat on the judgment seat” (Jn19:13) = καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ (τοῦ) βήματος

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 26] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 26 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܶܫܬܐ]: ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ

2017-06-28

raḏyā (pass. pt. of rḏā) = “trained, disciplined, cultivated”

ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܠܐ ܨܳܒܶܐ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܒܝܫ، ܐܶܠܐ ܡܰܠܘܢ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܛܳܒ.
A disciplined student does not want to do a thing that is bad, but rather [he wants to do] everything that is good.
ܐܰܘܟܝܬ̥، ܪܳܚܶܡ ܕܰܒܟܽܠ ܙܒܰܢ ܢܶܥܒܶܕ ܟܽܠ ܡܐ ܕܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܡܪܰܥܶܐ، ܘܠܰܒܢܰܝ̈ܢܳܫܳܐ ܡܰܘܬ̥ܰܪ [ܡܰܘܬ̊ܰܪ]، ܘܰܠܬܺܐܪܬܶܗ ܡܢܝ̣ܚ.
That is {ʾäwkḗṯ}, he loves to do all the time everything — that (1) pleases {mraʕʕē D = ⟦plācāvit⟧ LS2} God, (2) and provides benefits {ʾäwtar C of ytr} to people, (3) and gives rest {ʾanīḥ C of nwḥ} to his conscience {tḗrtā Hard T}.

ܐܶܠܘ ܓܝܪ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܿܢ ܐܰܢܝܚ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܢܘܢ܉ ܠܐ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܗܘܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܒܳܬܰܪܟܶܢ ܥܠ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܹܢܐ. = “For if Īšṓʕ bar Nṓn had given rest to them, he would not be (OR not have been) speaking about another day afterwards.” (Heb4:8⁎)

2017-06-29

ܘܟܕ ܚܳܪ ܦܘܠܘܣ ܒܟܶܢܫܗܘܢ܉ ܐ̣ܡܪ. ܓܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܝ܉ ܐܢܐ ܒܟܠ ܬܹܐܪܬܐ ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ ܐܶܬܕܰܒ̊ܪܹܬ ܩܕܳܡ ܐܠܗܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܠܝܰܘܡܳܢܐ. = “And when Päwlṓs (WS Pawlōws) looked into their assembly, he said: ‘Gentlemen, my brothers! I have been led (OR I have conducted myself) {ʾeddabbe̊rèṯ Dt} in all good conscience before God until {ʕåḏammā} today.’ ” (Ac23:1⁎)

ܐܶܢ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܩܰܢܝܐ، ܐܰܘ ܟܬܳܒܐ، ܐܰܘ ܐܰܝܢܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ، ܡܶܚܕܐ ܡܫܰܐܶܠ ܥܰܠ ܡܳܪܶܗ،
If he finds a pen, or a book, or a certain {ʾaynā} other thing (=whatever), at once he asks about its owner,
ܐܰܘ ܐܳܙܶܠ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ [ܛܰܒܠܳܝܬ̊ܐ : ܛܰܒܠܝܬܐ] ܕܰܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܐ.
or he goes and put it on the table of the leader {mḏabbrānā nom.ag.D} (=principal).

🖉 Memo: http://documents.routledge-interactive.s3.amazonaws.com/colloquial/Writing_the_Amharic_Script.pdf

http://www.senamirmir.org/projects/typography/washra.html — Today I re-installed the WashRa Keyboard Layout, with the shortcut [LAlt]+[Shift]+[5]. I had stopped using WashRa when IME (Amharic Input Method 1.0) came out-of-the-box with Win7, but perhaps WashRa is better than IME after all (though I still have the IME too with the shortcut now [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[9]).

http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/EAE/transf.html

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Ethiopic_transliteration

http://www.eki.ee/wgrs/rom1_am.htm

2017-07-04 In Writing_the_Amharic_Script.pdf above, David Appleyard says: There is no one way of forming the characters of letters of the fidäl, and not everyone follows the principles described here in details, especially in rapid handwriting. However, the steps advised here follow the manner of writing in a manuscripts hand, the type of writing you will see in Ethiopian parchment manuscripts, which also forms the basis of the commonest printed typefaces, including computer fonts. […] Each of the letters of the fidäl is formed by a number of strokes, usually from two to eight in number. These are written in downwards direction and follow one another proceeding from right to left. — This “right to left” order of the in-glyph strokes is unexpected for me, as the global glyph order is left-to-right.

2017-07-05 In the same PDF, the author says: The other “orders” of the fidäl are written following the same procedures […]: write with strokes moving from top to bottom and left to right. What the… So it is left-to-right after all!

2017-06-30

ܒܝܘܡܐ ܕܲܬܠܬܝܢ ܕܲܚܙܝܪܵܢ܇ ܒܲܫܢܬ ܬܪ̈ܬܝܢ ܐܠܦ݂ܝ̈ܢ ܘܲܬܠܬܡܐܐ ܘܥܣܪܝܢ ܘܲܬܡܢܐ ܕܝܘܢܵܝ̈ܐ

AG = CE + 311 in Jan–Sept

ܘܐܶܢ ܦܳܓܰܥ ܒܣܳܒܐ ܣܰܡܝܐ ܕܐܰܘܒܶܕ ܐܘܪܚܶܗ، ܐܳܚܶܕ ܒܐܺܝܕܶܗ ܘܰܡܗܰܕܶܐ ܠܶܗ ܠܐܽܘܪܚܐ ܫܘܝܬ̥ܐ.
And if he encounters {pāḡaʕ + b-} a blind {samyā} old man who has lost {ʾawbeḏ C} his way, he takes {ʾāḥèḏ} [him] by his hand and leads/guides {mhaddē⁑ D} him to his flat {**1} (≈safe) way {f.}.

2017-07-12 **1 šwā pass. pt. šwē šawyā — also adj. šwē šawyā, fem. šwīṯā — just like dḵā “to be pure”: dḵē daḵyā, dḵīṯā — [qšā] “to be hard”: qšē qašyā, qšīṯā (N §101): also they are like ṭlē ṭalyā, ṭlīṯā (perh. < *ṭalīṯā < *ṭalye̊ṯā) — Alan 60 Words of the form ܕܲܟܝܵܐ Drop the vowel of the first letter and give the second letter Khwasa, then add ܬ݂ܐ to the end of the mas. word. — glā “to reveal”: glē galyā, glīṯā

2017-07-17 ܛܠܸܐ (Jn21:18, Gal4:1), ܩܫܸܐ (Ac9:4), even ܡܨܲܠܸܐ “he prays” (Mk1:35), at least in P-NY — I think it is reasonable to transliterate (α) Zlāmā Pšīqā + ʾĀlap̄ as ē but (β) Zlāmā Qasyā + ʾĀlap̄/Yṓḏ as ḕ. The problem is, ZP vs. ZQ is not well-defined in general. For example, Mingana says qāṭel, not qāṭèl.

2017-07-01

ܒܝܘܡܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܕܬܵܡܘܼܙ

ܘܐܶܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܕܩܳܐܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܐܽܘܪܚܐ، ܘܨܳܒܶܐ ܕܢܶܥܒܰܪ ܠܓܰܒܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ، ܘܕܳܚܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܪܰܕܳܝ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ،
And if he sees a little boy — who stands upon one side of the street and wants to cross [it] to the other side and is afraid of cars {raddāytā},
ܛܳܥܶܢ ܡܰܥܒܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܠܐܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܡܫܰܝܢܐ.
he lifts him up [and] transfers {“to make to cross over,” C of ʕḇar} him to a safe {#1} place.

#1 mšayyan mšayye̊nā (pass. pt. of šayyen D “to make peace”) = in Classical Syriac “peace-loving; tame (domisticated); gentle, quiet” ⟦mansuētus⟧: here it should mean “peaceful,” “traffic-free,” or “safe.”

ܘܠܐ ܬܶܕܚܠܘܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܩ̇ܛܠܝܢ ܦܰܓܪܐ (Mt10:28)

ܗܹܪܘܕܶܣ ܓܹܝܪ ܕܳܚܶܠ ܗܘܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ (Mk6:20) — this is an interesting verse where P reads ἐποίει instead of ἠπόρει, like the Byzantine text (Robinson–Pierpont) and KJV, and unlike many modern versions. Personally I find the reading of P more natural in this case.

2017-07-02

2017-07-03

2017-07-04

ܘܐܶܢ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܡܶܣܟܺܢܐ ܕܫܳܐܶܠ ܙܶܕܰܩܬ̥ܐ [ܙܶܕܩܬ̥ܐ]، ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ ܐܶܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡܶܗ.
And if he sees a poor man {meskḗnā ES kè WS kī} who is begging alms {zeḏqe̊ṯā}, he gives him some of [his] coins if he has [some] with him.

2017-07-05

ܘܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܡܚܰܘܶܐ ܕܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܘܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ.
Thus {hāḵanā Single N?} he shows that he is a student, disciplined and sweet and loving people (≈ philanthropic) {OR possibly “a man loves [him],” but then perh. there would be lèh #2}.

2017-07-06

#2 nāšā could be “people” (Mk9:31); it could be an object (Jn6:10). From the following example, I’m pretty sure that the above phrase is supposed to mean “is a man lover.” — ܟܠ ܓܝܪ ܕܣ̇ܢܐ ܠܰܐܚܘܗܝ܉ ܩ̇ܛܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܰܐ ܗܘ. = “For everyone who hates his brother is a man killer.” (1Jn3:15)

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܐܳܒܶܕܬܐ [ܒܰܐܒܕܬ̥ܐ] ܕܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
What do you do with an lost object that you find?
ܡܫܰܐܠܳܐ ܢܐ ܥܠ ܡܳܪܗ.
I ask about its owner.

“A lost object” is ʾaḇdṯā, or in ES ʾeḇadṯā (ʾeḇattā?): ܥܲܠ ܟܠ ܐܸܒܲܕܬܵܐ = “upon any lost object” (P Ex22:8, numbered 22:9 in U [0057.jp2] and Mosul). Another expression would be ܐܰܒ̊ܝܕܬܐ, verbal adj. fem. of ܐܶܒܰܕ (N §118, §174F). LS2/LS3 also have ʾabbāḏtā.

2017-07-07

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܬܶܥܒܶܕ ܥܰܡ ܣܰܡܝܐ ܕܐܰܘܒܶܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ؟
What should you do with a blind man {samyā} who has lost {ʾawbeḏ C of ʾeḇaḏ “to perish”} [his] way.
ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܶܐܡܰܠܶܠ ܥܰܡܶܗ ܘܶܐܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܗ.
I should talk {ʾè(m)mallel} to him and help {ʾè(ʕ)ʕaddar} him.

In ʾawbeḏ (or in general in Aphel), pf 3ms = impf 1cs: ܟܠ ܕܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܝ܂ ܠܐ ܐܰܘܒܶܕ ܡ̣ܢܗ. (Jn6:39)

ʾemmallel = ES ʾèmallel ? ܐܹܡܲܠܸܠ (NY-P Lk1:19, cf. Clef)

3 ܐܶܢ ܬܶܚܙܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܕܐܰܒܝܕ؟
If you see a little boy who has been lost? {ʾabbīḏ Verbal adj., like ʾaḇīḏ Pass. pt.}
ܐܹܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܗ (ܐܹܫܰܐܠܝܘܗܝ) ܐܝܟܐ ܨ̇ܒܐ ܕܢܹܐܬܶܐ.
I will ask him where he wants to go.

“I will ask you guys” = ܐܹܫܲܐܸܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ (Mt21:24, Mk11:29, etc.) — “He will ask him” = ܢܫܲܐܠܝܼܘܗܝ (Mk12:34, etc.) — so “I will ask him” would be, from *ʾè(š)-šaʔ-ʔel, *ʾè(š)-šaʔ-ʔe̊-līw (cf. N §189 “Pael and Aphel”).

2017-07-08

Dan (syc) 2:28

2017-07-09

4 ܐܶܢ ܬܶܦܓܰܥ ܒܡܶܣܟܺܢܐ ܕܫܳܐܶܠ ܙܶܕܰܩܬ̥ܐ [ܙܶܕܩܬ̥ܐ]؟
If you encounter {impf.} an poor man {meskḗnā} who begs alms {zeḏqe̊ṯā (see below)}?

2017-07-10

zeḏqe̊ṯā from √zdq “to be due” — cf. tmr צִדַקְתָּא (or צִדְקְתָא) f. “charity” = hbo/he צְדָקָה ‎= صَدَقَة

2017-07-11

ܝܗܒܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܗ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ.
5 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܶܣܟܺܢ̈ܐ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ؟
ܪܚܡܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܡܶܣܟܹܢ̈ܐ ܛܒ̈ܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܛܒܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ. ܪܚܡܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܶܢ ܛܳܒ ܗ̱ܘ، ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢ ܠܝܬ ܠܗ ܟܶܣܦܐ، ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܟܶܣܦܐ. ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܪܚܡܐ ܐܢܐ ܒܝܫܐ، ܐܶܢ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܟܶܣܦܐ ܘܶܐܢ ܠܝܬ ܠܗ ܟܶܣܦܐ.

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

7* ܡܪܰܥܶܐ
to please, reconcile (*Number 6 is missing)
ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܰܠܝܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܡܪܰܥܶܐ ܠܐܰܒܽܘܗ̱ܝ.
Example: A good boy pleases his father.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܡܪܰܥܶܐ ܐܳܦ ܠܶܐܡܶܗ.
A good boy pleases his mother too.
ܡܰܘܬ̥ܰܪ
to provide an advantage (C √ytr)
ܐܢ ܝܠܦܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܩܪܝܐ ܐܢܐ، ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ ܠܐ ܡܕܡ ܡܰܘܬ̥ܰܪ ܠܝ. ܐܠܐ ܗܐ ܐܦ ܟܬܒܐ ܢܐ!
If I study the Syriac language but if I do not read (it), the Syriac language does not provide me any advantage. But look, I even write (it)!
ܡܗܰܕܶܐ
to lead
ܡܠܦܢܐ ܛܒܐ ܡܗܕܐ ܠܬܠܡܝܕ̈ܐ.
A good teacher leads the students.
ܕܳܚܶܠ
to fear
ܐܪܐ ܕ̇ܚܠ ܐܢܬ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܰܠܗܐ؟
Do you fear God?
ܡܰܥܒܰܪ
to make to pass by; to remove; to convert; to translate
ܡܰܥܒܰܪ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܠܝܵܘܢܳܝܳܐ. ܡܰܥܒܪܐ ܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܠܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܐܶܢܓܠܶܣܢܳܝܐ.
He translates from Syriac into Greek. I translate, however, into English {leššānā ʾenglesnāyā (OR ʾenglèsnāyā)}.

“Latin”: syr ܠܫܢܐ ܠܵܬܝܢܵܝܐ syc ܠܫܢܐ ܦܪܰܢܓܳܝܐ (“of a Frank”) — “French”: syr ܦ̮ܪܲܢܣܵܝܵܐ — “German”: syr ܠܲܡܣܵܝܵܐ [Maclean 149]

2017-07-12

8 ܬܺܐܪܬ̥ܐ
conscience
ܐܝܬ ܠܹܟܝ ܬܹܐܪܬܐ ܛܳܒܬܐ.
You (f) have a good conscience.
ܛܶܒܠܝܬ̥ܐ (ܛܰܒܠܳܝܬ̊ܐ)
table
ܣܳܡܶܬ ܠܰܟܬܳܒܐ ܥܠ ܛܰܒܠܳܝܬܐ.
I put the book on the table.
ܫܘܝܬ̥ܐ
adj. fem. flat
ܐܳܙܳܠ̱ܐ ܗ̱ܘܹܝܬ̥ ܥܠ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܫܘܺܝܬܐ.
I was going on a flat road.
ܪ̈ܰܕܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ
cars
ܐܘܪܚܐ ܗܕܐ ܐܝܬ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܪ̈ܰܕܳܝܳܬܳܐ ܣܓܝ̈ܐܬܐ.
There are many cars on this road.
ܙܶܕܰܩܬ̥ܐ (ܙܶܕܩܬ̥ܐ)
alms
ܝܗܒܐ ܙܶܕܩܬ̥ܐ ܠܶܗ.
She gave alms to him.

2017-07-13

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ

saqquḇlāytā = f. “opposite”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܡܰܠܶܠ - ܫܬܶܩ.
Ex: he spoke - he was quiet
9 ܡܰܠܶܠ ܦܬܰܚ ܒܢܐ ܒܰܕܰܪ ܐܰܘܒܶܕ
spoke - opened - built - scattered - lost
10 ܟܰܢܶܫ ܫܬܶܩ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܣܟ̥ܰܪ ܣܚܰܦ
gathered (D v.t.) - was quiet - found - shut up - threw down/overthrew
ܡܰܠܶܠ - ܫܬܶܩ : ܦܬܰܚ - ܣܟ̥ܰܪ : ܒܢܐ - ܣܚܰܦ : ܒܰܕܰܪ - ܟܰܢܫ : ܐܰܘܒܶܕ - ܐܶܫܟܰܚ

Semitic Languages

2017-06-12

🖉 Memo: Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identifies an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East

                 +--[Old South Arabian?] (See below)
                 |
                 |   +---North Ethiosemitic (Geez & Tigrinya/Tigre)
          Ethio------|
          |          +---South Ethiosemitic (Amharic, Sebat Bet Gurage*, Siltʼe**)
      S---|
      |   +-----Modern South Arabian
   W--|
   |  |   +--- - - - - Arabic?
   |  |   |
   |  |   |   +-Ugaritic
   |  C---|   |
PS-|      |   |    +-[Phoenician?]
   |      NW--|    |
   |          |  +---Hebrew
   |          +--|
   |             +---Aramaic
   | 
   E----Akkadian

* as Chaha
** as Walani

2017-06-17

Old South Arabian

While everyone agrees that Modern South Arabian (MSA), with Ethiopian, belongs to South Semitic, Old South Arabian (Ṣayhadic) is sometimes said South, sometimes said Central. The following diagram is based on glottolog, where OSA is Central:

               +---Tigre-Tigrinya
               |
               +---S. Ethiopic (Amharic, etc.)
      Ethio----|
      |        +---Geez
      |
      +---------Modern South Arabian
   W--|
   |  |   +--Old South Arabian (Ṣayhadic)
   |  |   |
   |  |   +--- - - - - Arabic?
   |  |   |
   |  |   |   +-Ugaritic
   |  C---|   |
PS-|      |   |    +-Phoenician
   |      NW--|    |
   |          +------Hebrew
   |          |
   |          +------Aramaic
   | 
   E----Akkadian

SIL also puts OSA within Central Semitic, except it thinks that Canaanite is more closely related to Arabic, than to Aramaic. SIL’s idea of Central Semitic:

  +--Old South Arabian
  |
  +--Aramaic
C-|
  |  +--Arabic
  +--|
     +--Hebrew/Samaritan

OSA, or Ṣayhadic, includes four languages, which were used around Ṣayhad (صيهد) — Ṣayhad is a desert in northwestern Yemen, perhaps better known as Ramlat-as-Sabʿatayn رَمْلَة السَبْعَتَيْن.

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The following image shows the rough positions of several ancient kingdoms (ref. The Kingdoms of Ancient Arabia) where OSA was spoken — Ṣanʿāʾ (the capital of Yemen) is also shown:

PNG 4 KiB

2017-07-07

Modern South Arabian Languages

http://llacan.vjf.cnrs.fr/PDF/Publications/Senelle/SAMLanguages.pdf Quoted as «»

http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/download/1851/orthographic_characters Quoted as “” http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/info/125219/modern_south_arabian_languages/2371/orthographic_characters

Shehri [shv] is called «Jibbāli» or “Śḥerɛ̄t”: its Arabic name is شحرية (šaḥarī(tun)?)

https://www.salford.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/173010/MSALProjectInformation.pdf

Table of the Syriac Written-Character

2017-07-17

Taken from N (English), Appendix.

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Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 25] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 25 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܫܐ]: ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܐ

2017-06-11

ܣܥܰܪ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܡܰܠܦܰܢܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ.
Once upon a time a certain {noun + nāš} foreign guest/unfamiliar {nuḵrāyā**1} teacher visted {sʕar} the school of ours.
ܘܟܰܕ ܥܰܠ̣ ܠܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ، ܩܳܡܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܠܐܺܝܩܳܪܶܗ.
And when he entered one of the classes, the students stood up for his honor {ʾīqārā cf. Ro9:21}.
ܘܟܰܕ ܝܺܬ̥ܶܒܘ̱، ܫܰܐܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ: ܠܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܠܰܦ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝ̣ܳܝ̣ܐ؟
And when they sat down, he asked them: “Why is it proper that we study {nḗlap̄ #1 **2} the Syriac {sūryāyā} language?”

#1 ʾallep̄ D “to teach”, but yīlep̄ G “to learn” (N § 174F) — CAL: originally with initial aleph, but that regularly alternates with yodh in almost all forms in Eastern Aramaic [syc/tmr/myz as opposed to jpa/syc-PS/sam; but according to DCPA, syc-PS also has y- in Peal].

Generally a 1st-weak verb takes ḕ in Impf. (when the thematic vowel is a or when it is 3rd-y), which usually becomes ḗ (e.g. nḗmar, nḗṯḕ — hence nḗlap̄). However, (1) when the thematic vowel is ó, the ḕ is kept (e.g. nḕḵól) — this difference is only about how they are pronounced in WS, not essential in Classicas Syriac proper; (2) neddaʕ “he will know” & netteḇ “he will sit” are exceptional, behaving like 1st-n verbs.

ܕܟܠܢܳܫ ܢܹܐܠܳܦ “so that everyone may learn” (1Co14:31)

2017-06-16 **1 nuḵrāyā may mean “someone from a different nation” (Lk17:18), “a visitor” (Lk24:18), or “an outsider” (Jn10:5). Here, mallp̄ānā nuḵrāyā should be “an unfamiliar teacher,” and not “a foreign teacher,” as in “a foreign language.” He is from a different school or somewhere else, but he belongs to the same ethnic group (probably West Syrian — they’re talking about “our church”); he speaks Syriac, refers to the children and himself as “we,” calls the children “my sons,” and talks about “our God.” (Random thought: ʾallep̄ looks like alley-oop.)

2017-06-18 **2 nḗlap̄ could also mean “he will learn” or “one will learn”; it is more likely that this means “we will learn,” especially in the answer of the fourth student below. An unambiguous way to say this would be ܙ̇ܕܩ ܠܢ ܕܢܐܠܦ (cf. 1John 3:16). (2017-06-20 Also the teacher himself says ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܢܶܣܬܰܟܰܠ ܡܳܢܐ ܢܨܰܠܶܐ ܠܰܐܠܗܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ, which is more likely to be 1st person plural than 3rd person singular.)

2017-06-12

ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܙܩܰܦܘ̱ ܨܶܒܥܐ ܒܳܥܶܝܢ ܕܢܶܬܠܘܢ ܦܘܢܳܝܐ.
And at once all of the schoolboys raised {zqap̄} a finger {ṣeḇʕā}, asking to give {nettlūn < *nentəlūn} an answer {punnāyā v.n.D}.
ܚܰܕ ܡܰܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܚܰܕ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܶܢ ܠܶܫܳܢ̈ܐ ܩܰܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܶܬܺܝܕܰܥ [ܕܶܐܬܺܝܕܰܥܘ̱ ؟] ܥܰܠ ܐܰܦ̈ܰܝ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
One [student], on the one hand, said: “Because it is one of the earliest languages {mas.} that are known {#2} on (the surface of the) earth.”

#2 In the original sentence, this verb ܐܶܬܝܕܰܥ agrees with “one”, not with “languages”. While this may be a typo, it kind of makes sense if the sentence is understood as: “It is one language known on earth, amongst the oldest”. Still, the plural form ܐܶܬܝܕܰܥܘ̱ would be more natural.

ܟ̣ܠ ܡܸܠܵܐ ... ܕܢܹܐܡܪܘܼܢ ܒܢܲܝ̈ܢܵܫܵܐ: ܢܸܬ݁ܠܘܼܢ ܦܸܬ݂ܓ݂ܵܡܵܗ̇ “Every word men will say — they will give a response to it (=they will be held responsible for it)” (Mt12:36)

2017-06-13

ܘܰܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܶܗ ܡܰܠܶܠ ܡܳܪܰܢ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܟܰܕ ܒܐܰܪܥܐ ܡܕܰܝܰܪ ܗ̱ܘܐ، ܘܐܳܦ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܒܰܪܘ̱ ܫܠܝܼܚ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ.
The second one said: “Because, in it, Lord Jesus spoke {mll D} when he was spending time {dwr D mḏayyar} on earth, and also in it, the apostles {šlīḥā} of his preached {sbr D}.”

Syriac has two kinds of √SBR:

  1. “to expect, to think” (from √śbr): ܘܟܰܕ ܐܶܬܰܘ ܩܰܕܡܳܝ̈ܐ܉ ܣܒܰܪܘ܂ ܕܝܰܬܝܪ ܫܳܩܠܝܢ. “When the first ones came, they expected that they [were] receiving more.” (Mt10:20) — D “to hope” ܡܐ ܕܐ̇ܙܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܰܐܣܦܰܢܺܝܰܐ܇ ܡܣܰܒܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܐܹܬܹܐ ܘܐܸܚܙܹܝܟܘܢ܇ “When I am going to Spain, I hope that I will come and see you guys.” (Ro15:24) — ܐܰܣܦܰܢܺܝܰܐ = more commonly ܐܶܣܦܰܢܺܝܰܐ ES ܐܸܣܦܵܢܝܼܵܐ = Ἱσπᾱνία (Ἱσπᾱνίᾱ?): the corresponding word in the Greek NT is Σπανία.
  2. D “to announce, bring news; to preach the gospel” — pure Syriac from šbarṯā “message”, also pure Syriac, from √bsr (bśr) with metathesis: ܡܣܰܒܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܚܰܕܘܬܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ. “I am announcing, to you guys, great joy {ḥaddūṯā} (=great news).” (Lk2:10)

2017-06-14

ܘܰܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܕܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ، ܘܒܶܗ ܣܝܡܝܢ ܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܛܶܟܣ̈ܐ ܕܰܨܠܰܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
The third one said: “Because it was the language of the church of ours; and, in it, all of the rituals {#3} of prayers {ṣlṓṯā pl. ṣlawwāṯā} [were?] put (=given).

#3 ṭekk(ə)sā (< τάξις “arrangement, order”) = “rite, custom, practice”

ܘܗܰܝܡܶܢܘ܁ ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܕܣܝܡܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܰܠܥܳܠܰܡ. “And they belived — those who had been placed to (=chosen for) the lives of eternity.” (Ac13:48)

2017-06-15

ܘܰܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܒܶܗ ܣܳܡܘ̱ ܐܰܒܳܗ̈ܳܬ̥ܰܢ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܺܝ̈ܶܐܐ ܕܬܰܘܕܝܬ̥ܐ ܘܰܕܡܰܪܕܘܬ̥ܐ، ܘܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܠܰܦ ܐܶܢܘܢ.
And the forth one said: “Because, in it, our fathers {ʾaḇāhayn = ʾaḇāhāṯan (esp. in Acts)} composed (“put”) many books of religion {tawdīṯā} and education {mardūṯā}, and it is proper that we will learn them.”

ܗܠܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܟܠܗܶܝܢ ܕܰܓ̣ܕܰܫ ܠܗܘܢ܂ ܠܛܘܦܣܰܢ ܗ̣ܘܱ̈ܝ. ܘܐܬܟܬܒ ܡܛܠ ܡܰܪܕܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܢ܇ “But all of these that happened {gḏaš 3fs} to them, became {hway 3fs: P-NY way ‘were’} our example {τύπος ṭupsā LS2/3: P-UK ṭup̄}; and were written {3fs: H ܐܶܬܟܬܶܒܶܝ̈ܢ} for the education of ours.” (1Co10:11)

2017-06-16

ܘܰܚܕܝ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܦܘܢܳܝ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܝܢ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ، ܘܐܳܦ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܢܶܣܬܰܟܰܠ ܡܳܢܐ ܢܨܰܠܶܐ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܛܳܒܐ ܀
The guest [teacher] was glad at {#4} these answers, and said: “Yes, my sons. And also, [we learn it] so that we may understand {sakkel ‘to teach’ Dt} what we will pray {ṣallī} to our good God.”

This might mean that, while the children know some prayers in Classical Syriac, they may not know exactly what those ancient words mean. But the third child has already said a similar thing. Perhaps the teacher simply mean that, as (in his opinion) God speaks Syriac, one will have to pray in this language.

#4 ḥḏī b- in Peshitta, not ḥḏī men: e.g. ܘܐܢ ܢܶܫܟܚܶܗ܂ ܐܡܹܝܢ ܐ̇ܡܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܉ ܕܚ̇ܕܐ ܒܗ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡ̣ܢ ܬܫܥܝܢ ܘܬܫܥܐ ܕܠܐ ܛ̣ܥܰܘ ܀ (Mt18:13⁎)

Lk23:8⁎

ܗܹܪܘܕܶܣ ܕܝܢ ܟܕ ܚ̣ܙܳܝܗܝ ܠܝܫܘܥ܁ ܚܕܝ ܛܳܒ. ܨ̇ܒܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܓܝܪ ܠܡܶܚܙܝܶܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܣܰܓܝܐܐ. ܡܛܠ ܕܫ̇ܡܥ ܗܘܐ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܳܐܬܐ. ܘܡܰܣܒܰܪ ܗܘܐ܂ ܕܡܕܡ ܐܳܬܐ ܢܶܚܙܶܐ ܡ̣ܢܗ.

masbar C ≈ msabbar D = “hopes” (the difference is not visible unless pointed); seems D in the Harklean version:

ܐܝܪܘܕܝܣ ܕܝܢ ܟܕ ܚ̣ܙܝܗܝ ܠܝܫܘܥ܆ ܚ̣ܕܝ ܣ̇ܓܝ.
Herodes autem quum vidiſſet Jeſum, gāvīſus eſt valdē:
ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܗܘܐ ܓܝܪ ܕܨ̇ܒܐ ܡܢ ܙܒܢܐ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܠܡܚ̣ܙܝܗ܆
erat enim cupiens ex tempore multo videre eum;
ܡܛܠ ܕܫ̇ܡܥ ܗܘܐ ܣܓܝ̈ܐܬܐ ܡܶܛܽܠܳܬܶܗ܆
quia audiebat multa de eo,
ܘܡܣܲܟܪ ܗܘܐ ܕܡܕܡ ܐܬ̇ܐ ܢܚ̣ܙܐ ܡܢܗ ܕܗ̇ܘܝܐ.
et ſperabat aliquod ſignum videre ab eo fierī [faciō pass.inf ὑπ’αὐτοῦ γινόμενον].

OS-S/C are very similar to P, except OS-S has a curious form ܠܡܚܙܝܗܝ with an extra Yodh (Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe, vol. 2, p. 56).

2017-06-18

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܠܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ؟
ܫܰܐܠ ܐܢܘܢ: ܠܡ̇ܢܐ ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܐܠܦ ܠܸܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ؟
He asked them: “Why is it right that we study the Syriac language?” {At least in P, šaʾʾel ʾennṓn is commonly used, not *šaʾʾel lhṓn}
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕܘ̱ ܟܰܕ ܣܰܐܶܠ ܐܶܢܘܢ؟
ܡܶܚܕܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܙ̣ܩܦܘ ܨܶܒܥܐ ܒ̇ܥܶܝܢ ܕܢܶܬܠܘܼܢ ܦܘܢܳܝܐ.

2017-06-20

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ؟
ܗ̇ܘ ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܡܛܠ ܕܚܰܕ ܗ̱ܘ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܶܐܬܺܝܕܰܥܘ̱ ܥܠ ܐܰܦ̈ܰܝ ܐܰܪܥܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܬܪܰܝܢܐ؟ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ؟ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ؟
ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܡܛܠ ܕܒܗ ܡܰܠܠ ܡܳܪܰܢ ܝܫܘܥ. ܘܰܬܠܝܬܝܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܡܛܠ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܥܕ̱ܬܐ ܕܝܠܢ. ܘܰܪܒܝܥܝܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܡܛܠ ܕܒܗ ܣ̣ܡܘ̱ ܐܰܒܳܗ̈ܳܬܰܢ ܟܬܒ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܶܐܐ.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܥܠܰܝܗܘܢ؟
ܗ̇ܘ ܦ̇ܢܝ: «ܐܝܢ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ، ܘܐܳܦ ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܕܢܶܣܬܰܟܰܠ ܡܳܢܐ ܢܨܰܠܶܐ ܠܰܐܠܗܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܛܳܒܐ.»
6 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܦܘܢܳܝܐ ܕܰܫܦܰܪ ܠܳܟ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ؟
Which is the answer {punnāyā} that is most satisfactory for you among all?
ܪ̇ܚܡܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܦܘܢܳܝܐ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ. ܐܝܬ ܠܢ ܟܬܒ̈ܐ ܣܓܝ̈ܐܐ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ.

2017-06-21

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ [ܟܬܝܒܬ̊ܳܢܐܝܬ] ܣܘܟܳܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ

ܢܘܟܪܳܝܐ: ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܢܘܟ̥ܪܳܝܐ ܠܒܰܝܬܰܢ.
Foreign (example): A foreign man came to our house.
7 ܐܝܩܳܪܐ: ܢ̣ܣܒ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܠܗܐ ܐܝܩܳܪܐ.
Honor: He received honor from God.
8 ܙܩܰܦ: ܙ̣ܩܦ ܐܠܗܐ ܛܘܪ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܐܪܥܐ.
To raise: God raised (set up) mountains on the earth.
9 ܦܘܢܳܝܐ: ܚܕܝ ܡܰܠܦܢܐ ܒܦܘܢܳܝܗ ܕܛܠܝܐ.
Reply: The teacher was happy with the answer of the boy.

2017-06-22

10 ܡܰܠܶܠ: ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܠ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ ܘܶܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ.
To talk: The teacher talked with them and said to them.
11 ܫܠܝ̣ܚ̈ܐ: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܚܕ ܡ̣ܢ ܬܪܶܥܣܰܪ ܫܠܝܚ̈ܐ.
Apostles: Šemʕṓn was one of the twelve apostles.

2017-06-23

ܗܰܒ 2 [ܬܪܝܢ] ܫܘܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܟܽܠ ܫܡܐ

šummāhā = “attributive (adjective)” [Alan 56]; saqqūḇlāy(ā) = “opposite”

12 ܛܘܪܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܦܺܐܪܐ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ
naḥtā = m.! “outer garment, coat” (Hard T)
ܐܰܝܟ: ܛܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ - ܪܟܝܢܐ
Example: High/Low mountain
ܢܰܚܬܐ ܚܰܕܬܐ - ܥܰܬܝܩܐ.
[Example:] New {ḥaṯā}/Old {ʕattīqā} coat
ܛܘܪܐ ܪܒܐ - ܙܥܘܪܐ
Big/Small mountain
ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܚܰܕܬ̥ܐ - ܥܰܬܝܩܐ
New/Old tree
ܦܐܪܐ ܒܰܣܢܡܐ - ܡܰܪܝܪܐ
Sweet/Bitter {marrīrā} fruit
ܢܰܚܬܐ ܕܰܟ̥ܝܐ - ܛܰܡܳܐܐ
Clean/Unclean coat
ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܛܳܒܐ - ܒܝܫܐ
Good/Bad student

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 24] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 24 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܛܰܠܝܐ ܘܰܥܢܳܢܐ

2017-06-01

ʕnānā = “cloud” is fem. in Syriac (N §84); Heb עָנָן is masculine (prob. also Jar עֲנָנָא); masculine in jpa too (Schulthess 149a).

ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܥܢܳܢܐ، ܐܰܝܡܶܟܐ ܐܶܬ̥ܰܝܬܝ̱ ܘܥܰܠ ܚܰܨܰܝܟ̈ܝ̱ ܡܳܢܐ ܛܥܺܝܢܰܬ̥ܝ̱ [ܛܥܝܢܰܬ̊ܝ̱]
BOY: O cloud, from where did you come; and on your back(s) {ḥaṣṣā -ḕ pl. “loins”} what are you carrying {#1}?
ܘܗܳܟ̥ܰܢ ܒܐܰܦ̈ܐ ܟܡܝܪ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܠܡܘܢ ܒܐܳܐܰܪ ܗܳܢܐ ܟܳܪܟ̥ܰܬ̥ܝ̱ [ܟܳܪܟ̊ܰܬ̊ܝ̱]
And like that, with your dark {#2} face(s); for what, in this air (≈in the sky), are you going round {#3}?

7+7 syllables / line

#1 ṭʕīnā p.p. fem. + ʾa(n)t(y) = ṭʕīnat(y): a is short, t is hard (N §64)

#2 kmīr, kmīrā p.p. “gloomy, dark (as in cloud)” 顔を曇らせた雲(笑): fem. kmīrTā, pl. kmīrāṯā — ʾappḕ is fem. pl.

#3 krāḵ = “to go round”: part. kārèḵ, kārkā: +ʾa(n)t(y) = kārkat(y) — freely translated as “Looking for” in the Dictionary section of Book 4, probably because the literal translation is “going around with your face”.

2017-06-02

ܥܢܳܢܐ: ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܡܐ ܩܳܕܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ܇ ܘܥܘܬ̥ܪܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
CLOUD: My son, I am proceeding from the sea; and I am carrying great wealth {ʕuṯrā}.
ܒܛܘܦ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ܇ ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ
With these tiny drops {ṭuppḕ #4}, I am giving lives to the world.

#4 ṭupp(ə)ṯā, pl. ṭuppḕ (CAL) = “a drop” √ nṭp (N §105)

2017-06-03

ܥܢܳܢܐ: ܒܝ ܫܳܦܥܝܢ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܢܶܒܥܐ܇ ܒܝ ܪܳܘܶܐ ܘܫܳܘܰܚ ܙܰܪܥܐ
CLOUD: By me, the water of a fountain {neḇʕā} is overflowing {šp̄aʕ}; by me, a seed quenches its thirst {#5} and sprouts {#6}.
ܒܝ ܬܠܶܝܢ ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܕܒܶܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ܇ ܕܠܐ ܐܶܢܐ ܐܳܒܕܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ
The lives of creatures depend on me; without me, the earth [would] perish.

#5 rwā = “to be sated with drink; to be drunk” ⟦pōtū satiātus est; inēbriātus est⟧

#6 šwaḥ = “to sprout”: consonantal waw (CAL); originally šmḥ, cf. ṣmaḥ “to shine; sprout” (LS2)

#7 tlā = “to suspend, to hang”: tlēn pass. part. pl. “depend on” +b- (e.g. Mt22:40) — cf. act. tālḕn

#8 brīṯā = “creature”, pl. beryāṯā = “creatures, the word”

#9 ʾeḇaḏ = “to perish” usually intr. Possibly “I am not wasting the ground” (where ʾāḇdā is tr.), but not very likely. Perh. this is like N §312B “when I [was] a little boy”. i.e. “I am not the perishing ground” ? [Wrong; see below]

2017-06-05

2017-06-04

ܛܰܠܝܐ: ܐܝܘ ܐܶܡܐ ܕܥܘܕܪ̈ܳܢܐ܇ ܩܰܘܳܝ ܒܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܝܘܬ̥ܪ̈ܳܢܐ
BOY: Well done {#10}, O mother of benefit {#11} (=beneficial mother)! Remain {qawwā D} in these advantages {yuṯrānā}.
ܟܽܠ ܓܶܝܪ ܣܳܥܰܪ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ܇ ܡܩܰܒܶܠ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܦܘܪ̈ܥܳܢܐ
For all is doing {sʕar} good things {ṭāḇṯā}; receiving good rewards {purʕānā}.

#10 ḗw = εὖ = “well done!”: in this case, prob. a disyllable like ʾī-u.

#11 ʕuḏrānā = “aid, benefit, relief”

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܺܐܡܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܕܰܠܥܶܠ.
Explain {paššeq} the above poem {mḗmrā}.

2017-06-06

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܐܳܬ̥ܝܐ ܥܢܳܢܐ؟
ܐܳܬܝܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܝܡܐ.
It is coming from the sea.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܛܥܝܢܐ ܥܢܳܢܐ؟
ܛܥܝܢܐ ܡܝ̈ܐ: ܐܝܬ ܒܗ̇ ܛܘܦ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܝܳܬܐ.
It carries water: there are small drops in it.
3 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܝܘܬ̥ܪ̈ܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ؟
ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܠܐ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܠܡܶܚܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܝ̈ܐ، ܘܰܥܢܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܗ ܡܝ̈ܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܡܛܪܐ.
A man is not able to live {l-meḥḥā} without water, and a cloud gives him water with rain.
4 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܝܘܬ̥ܪܳܢܐ ܝܳܗܒܐ ܠܙܰܪ̈ܥܐ؟
ܙܰܪ̈ܥܐ ܡܩܰܒܠܝܢ ܠܡܝ̈ܐ ܘܫܳܘܚܝܢ.
Seeds receive water and sprout. {√šwḥ: šāwḥīn, not *šāyḥīn; as in P Ps 92:8}

2017-06-07

ܬܪܶܥܣܰܪ ܝܰܪ̈ܚܐ ܕܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ

5 ܝܰܪ̈ܚܐ ܕܬܰܕܐܳܐ: ܐܳܕܳܪ + ܢܝܣܳܢ + ܐܺܝܳܪ
The months of spring: ʾĀḏār {P Esth3:7}, Nīsān, ʾĪyār
6 ܝܰܪ̈ܚܐ ܕܩܰܝܛܐ: ܚܙܺܝܪܳܢ + ܬܳܡܘܙ + ܐܳܒ
The months of summer: Ḥzīrān {P Esth8:9}, Tāmūz, ʾĀḇ

2017-06-08

7 ܝܰܪ̈ܚܐ ܕܬܶܫܪ̈ܳܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ [ܕܬܶܫܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ]: ܐܝܠܘܠ + ܬܶܫܪܝ ܩܕܶܡ (ܩܕܝܡ) + ܬܶܫܪܝ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝ
The months of autumn {tešryāṯā LS2 LS3 TS2-4514}: ʾĪlö́l {Neh6:15 #1, Alan}, Tešrī Qḏem (Qḏīm), Tešrī Ḥrāy
8 ܝܰܪ̈ܚܶܐ ܕܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ: ܟܳܢܘܢ ܩܕܝܡ[/ܩܕܶܡ] + ܟܳܢܘܢ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝ + ܫܒܳܛ
The months of winter: Kānṓn Qḏem/Qḏīm, Kānṓn Ḥrāy {P Esth2:16}, Šḇāṭ {ES Šḇaṭ P Ze1:7}

#1 P-OT, London (1913) = Urmia (1852), also Mosul (1887) — but possibly ʾĪlÜl, ʾḖlÜl (Mura 3*); WS ʾīlül, ʾaylül (TS1-152)

ܣܰܒ ܕܝܠܟ܂ ܘܙܶܠ. ܨ̇ܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܝܢ܁ ܕܰܠܗܢܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝܐ܁ ܐܶܬܶܠ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܳܟ. (Mt20:14⁎)

2017-06-09

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܢܳܩܦܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

nqep̄ = “to adhere to; to be connected with; (gram.) to agree with” — ܡܰܢ ܕܢ̇ܩܦ ܕܝܢ ܠܡܳܪܰܢ܉ ܗ̇ܘܐ ܥܰܡܗ ܚܕܐ ܪܘܚ. (1Co6:17⁎)

9 ܒܣܰܬ̥ܘܐ ... ܥܳܐܶܙ ܩܘܪܐ ܘܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܘܬܰܠܓܐ.
In winter, coldness becomes intense {√ʾzz}, and rain and snow fall.
10 ܒܬܰܕܐܳܐ ... ܡܶܙܕܰܗܝܐ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܒܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
In spring, the ground is made shining {√zhy Dt #2} with roses and flowers.

#2 ʾezdahhī part. mezdahhē⁑, mezdah(hə)yā — when the 1st rad. is z, Gt/Dt is -ezd- < *-eḏz- < *-eṯz- (N §26A)

2017-06-10

11 ܒܩܰܝܛܐ ... ܬܳܩܶܦ ܚܘܡܐ ܘܡܶܬܚܨܶܕ ܙܰܪܥܐ.
In summer, heat is strong and seed (grain) is reaped {ḥṣaḏ Gt}.
12 ܒܬܶܫܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ .... ܟܝܳܢܐ ܩܳܐܰܪ ܘܛܰܪ̈ܦܐ ܕܐܺܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܢܳܬ̥ܪܝܢ.
In autumn, the nature (world) {kyānā} is cold {qar √qrr} and the leaves of trees fall.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 23] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 23 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬܠܳܬܐ]: ܬܰܥܠܐ ܘܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ

2017-05-18

ʾarne̊ḇā (jpa/tmr אַרְנְבָא): usually feminine, though it could be masculine (N §85); the B is soft, following two consonants.

ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ، ܢܶܦܩܰܬ̥ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܠܒܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܢܶܩܥܳܗ̇.
One spring {#1} day {lit. “in one of the days of spring”}, a little hare went outside {lḇar} from her den/cave {neqʕā}. « mem 2017-07-05 »

#1 ܬܕܐܐ “herb, grass; spring”: generally (LS2 LS3 Jess) vocalized as taḏā ES teḏā (CAL tēḏā). However, one version of P Deut32:2 makes it teḏʾā as in ܐܲܝܟ ܪ̈ܘܼܚܹܐ ܕܥܲܠ ܬܸܕܐܵܐ “like winds (vapour? spirits?) on the grass” (p. 130b of OT London 1913, a reprint of U = Urmia 1852); and the word is probably taḏʾā (taḏʾō) for Qara. [The original word for “winds” is שְׂעִירִם, of uncertain origin, said to mean “droplets, mist”, possibly from שָׂעִר “hairy, ghost”. The translation may have been based on “ghosts”.]

2017-05-30 Mosul OT (1887) vol. 1, p. 283a (ܪܦܓ) also has the same: ܐܲܝܟ ܪ̈ܘܼܚܹܐ ܕܥܲܠ ܬܸܕ݂ܐܵܐ

2017-07-05 ܠܬܰܥ̈ܠܐ ܢܶܩܥ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ (Mt8:20/Lk9:58)

2017-05-19

ܘܰܚܙܳܬ̥ ܠܐܳܐܰܪ ܪܘܝ̣ܚܐ، ܘܫܶܡܫܐ ܢܰܗܝܪܐ، ܘܡܰܫܒ̈ܐ ܦܰܝܽܘܚ̈ܐ.
And she saw the vast air (open-air space) {pass. pt. of rwaḥ “to be spacious”, which has a consonantal waw}, the bright sun {nahhīrā adj. √nhr}, and cool {payyūḥḕ, lit. “airy, spacious, breathable”} breezes {mašš(ə)ḇḕ}. « mem 2017-07-10 »
ܘܒܶܣܡܰܬ̥ ܢܰܦܫܳܗ̇ ܘܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܪܳܗܛܐ ܘܰܡܩܰܝܙܐ ܥܰܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܝܰܪܘܩܐ [ܝܳܪܘܿܩܐ].
Her soul {nap̄šā fem!} [was] merry, and she began running {rhṭ} and jumping [mqayyzā √qwz] on the pale/yellow-green {yārṓqā #2} grass {ʕesbā: hard B in sg.} « mem 2017-07-17 »

#2 yārṓqā (CAL, LS2, Jess), not ya-; perh. confused with yarqā “vegetable” and yarqṓnā “herb”, both having a short a?

2017-07-05 ܡܰܫܒ̥ܐ ܕܥܰܠܥܳܠܐ = “blowing of the storm” (Ac27:14): מִשְּׁבָא = “bellows” (cf. TgJ Jer6:29): √nšb *manše̊ḇā

2017-07-06 ܪܘܺܝܚܳܐ ܐܘܪܚܐ = “broad way” (Mt7:13, P-NY/OS-C) — ܐܰܪܘܺܝܚܳܐ ܐܘܪܚܐ (P-UK)

2017-07-12 ܒܣܶܡܬܘܿܢ ܓܝܪ ܥܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ (Jm5:5)

2017-05-20

ܘܒܳܬܰܪ ܡܶܬܚܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ، ܦܓܰܥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܬܰܥܠܐ ܨܢܝܥܐ، ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܠܘܳܬ̥ܳܗ̇ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ:
And after a little while {meṯḥā}, a shrewd {ṣnīʕā} fox encountered {pḡaʕ b-} her, and came near her and said: « mem 2017-07-18 »
ܫܠܳܡ ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܫܒܳܒܬܐ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܬ̥ܐ [ܪܚܝ̣ܡܬ̊ܐ؟]، ܛܳܒ ܕܰܢܦܰܩܬܝ̱ ܒܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܠܛܘܝܳܠܐ.
“Peace to you, dear neighbor {šḇāḇtā f.}, [it is] good that you have gone out, in this morning, for a walk {ṭuyyālā **1}.”
ܚܘܪܝ̱ ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܘܰܟܡܐ ܪܓ̥ܝܓ̥ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܥܶܣܒܐ ܪܰܓ̥ܝܐ.
“Look how beautiful this morning [is], and how desirable (pleasant) {rḡīḡ} the appearance of green {raḡyā} grass [is].”

The t is soft in rḥūmṯā “beloved” (N §23E); not sure about rḥīmTā.

2017-07-18 ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܣܳܦܪܐ ܚܕ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ. ܪܰܒܻܝ܉ ܐܹܬܹܐ ܒܳܬܪܳܟ ܠܰܐܬܰܪ ܕܐ̇ܙܠ ܐܢܬ. (Mt8:19⁎) — ʾaṯar (CAL ʾåṯar) abs! — P-NY rabb, C malle̊p̄ānā

2017-07-18 **1 A nōmen actiōnis from Pael, with ū after the 1st and ā after the 2nd rad. (N §117): ṭayyel “to walk to and fro” √ṭwl.

2017-05-21

ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ: ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܟܰܝ ܕܐܶܡܝ̱ ܠܐ ܨܳܒܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܕܐܶܦܘܩ ܡܶܢ ܢܶܩܥܐ؟
The hare said: “Do you know by any chance {kay} that my mother did not want me to go out {ʾeppóq} from the den/cave?”
ܦܰܢܝ ܬܰܥܠܐ: ܫܰܦܝܪ ܥܒܰܪܬܝ̱ ܕܠܐ ܫܡܰܥܬܝ̱ ܒܡܶܠܬ̥ܳܗ̇، ܘܐܶܠܐ ܦܳܐܶܫ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܝܰܘܡܳܢ ܕܠܐ ܥܪܳܝܬܐ.
The fox replied: “Wonderfully you’ve passed by, as {#3} you did not listen to {b + thing, l + person} her word; otherwise {w-ellā N §374D} I would {wḗṯ #4} remain today {yawmān} without {dlā} breakfast.”

#3 ܕ is also employed very often in a loose causal connection = “since”, “while” (N §366B). This d-lā is simply d- + lā; later, dlā is used as “without”.

#4 Part. + ܗܘܐ (Perf.) may stand hypothetically (N §277). When the condition is set forth as impossible: In the principal clause the Part. with ܗܘܐ is very generally found. There is no sharp distinction between what is represented, by way of Condition, as still unfinished (si faceret), and what is represented as completed (si fecisset). (N §375A, e.g. Mt24:22)

2017-07-10 si faceret = “if he were doing”; si fecisset = “if he had done”

2017-05-22

ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܣܥܳܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܘܚܰܛܦܳܗ̇ ܘܐܶܙܰܠ.
Then at once he rashly attacked {sʕy ʕl} her, and snatched her, and went away.

2017-05-23

ܘܟܰܕ ܝܶܕܥܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܳܗ̇ ܒܗܰܘ ܡܐ ܕܰܓܕܰܫ ܠܒܰܪܬ̥ܳܗ̇، ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܒܠܶܒܐ ܟܡܝܪܐ:
And when her mother learned — on that [day] {? #6} — what (had) happened to her daughter, she said with a sad {kmīrā pass. pt. of kmar} heart:
ܡܐ ܬܥܝܫܝܢ ܐܰܒܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ ܠܐ ܡܶܫܬܰܡܥܳܢ̈ܐ!
“How distressed {tʕīš pass. pt. of tʕaš} fathers (=parents) are, who have sons (=children) not willing to listen {#5}!”

#5 šmaʕ “to hear”, Gt ʾešt(ə)maʕ “to be heard” — syc “to listen (for oneself)”, BA-Dan/Qumran/tgOJ/syc/tmr “to obey”: Gt part. mešt(ə)maʕ, meštamʕā syc “obedient” ≈ Adj. meštamʕān(ā) syc/myz — fem. meštamʕānyā, -ʕānīṯā < *-ʕānyṯā (N §71-1) e.g. James 3:17.

2017-05-24

#6 What does ܝܶܕܥܰܬ ܒܗܰܘ ܡܐ ܕܰܓܕܰܫ mean? Although ܗܰܘ ܡܐ “that which” should be possible, ܝܺܕܰܥ does not take ܒ this way, and so I think this should be understood as ܝܶܕܥܰܬ — ܒܗܰܘ — ܡܐ ܕܰܓܕܰܫ “she knew […] what had happened”, just like ܕܝܶܕܥܰܬ ܡܐ ܕܰܗܘܐ ܠܗ̇ “as she knew what had happened to her[self]” (Mk5:33). Then what is ܒܗܰܘ? Perhaps it means “on that [day]” or “in that [event]”; it could also mean “by him (the fox)”, but that would be unnatural in this case. I’m actually guessing that

might be a typo for this:

2017-05-25

2Thessalonians 2:6⁎ has this: ܘܗܳܫܐ ܝܳܕܥܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ܉ ܡܐ ܕܰܐܚܝܕ ܕܢܶܬܓܠܶܐ ܗ̣ܘ ܒܙܰܒܢܶܗ. “And now you guys know what is holding [him] (OR: what is in charge) so that he may be revealed [only] in his time.” — ʾaḥīḏ “holding” is G p.p. in active meaning (N §280); or adj. ʾaḥḥīḏ (CAL) with ḥ doubled, like bassīm. At this point it is clear that ܝܺܕܰܥ ܡܐ ܕ is an idiomatic expression meaning “to know what…” (also in Ephesians 6:22, Colossians 4:8).

2017-05-26

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܘܢ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܠܒܰܪ؟
What did the little hare see outside?
ܚܙܳܬ ܠܳܐܐܰܪ ܪܘܺܝܚܐ، ܘܫܶܡܫܐ ܢܰܗܝܪܐ، ܘܡܰܫܒ̥̈ܐ ܦܰܝܘܚ̈ܐ.
She saw a wide space, the bright sun, and cool breeze.
2 ܡܰܢ ܦܓܰܥ ܒܰܐܪܢܒܐ ܙܥܘܪܬ̥ܐ [ܙܥܘܪܬ̊ܐ]؟
Who encountered the little hare?
ܦܓ̣ܥ ܒܗ̇ ܬܰܥܠܐ ܨܢܝܥܐ.
A cunning fox encountered her.

ṣnīʕā = “clever” but often “shrewd, sly” ⟦astūtus⟧ — ṣannaʕ D “to plot, scheme”; ʾeṣṭannaʕ Dt “to plot cleverly”, in a bad sense (Ac7:19, Eph4:14).

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇ ܬܰܥܠܐ؟
ܐܡ̣ܪ ܠܗ̇: «ܫܠܳܡ ܠܹܟܝ ܫܒܳܒܬܐ ܪܚܝܡܬܐ، ܛܳܒ ܕܰܢܦܰܩܬܝ ܒܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܠܛܘܝܳܠܐ.»
He said to her: “Peace to you, dear neighbor. It is good that you have gone out in this morning for a walk.”

2017-05-27

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܐ̇ܡܪܐ: «ܝ̇ܕܥ ܐܢܬ ܟܰܝ ܕܶܐܡܝ̱ ܠܐ ܨ̇ܒܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܕܶܐܦ̊ܘܩ ܡ̣ܢ ܢܶܩܥܐ؟»
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܚܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܙܥܘܪܬ̥ܐ [ܙܥܘܪܬ̊ܐ]؟
What was the end {har(rə)ṯā} of the little hare?
ܬܰܥܠܐ ܣܥܐ ܥܐܝܗ̇ ܘܚܰܛܦܗ̇ ܘܐ̣ܙܠ.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܝܳܠܦܝܢܰܢ ܡܶܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܫܡܰܥ ܠܐܰܒܳܗܰܝ̈ܢ ܘܶܐܡ̈ܗܳܬܰܢ.
ܐܸܡ̈ܗܵܬ݂ܢ [ܐܸܡ̈ܗܵܬܲܢ] (P Lam 5:3 — ʾṓlyāṯā)

2017-05-28

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

7 ܡܩܰܝܙܐ ܪܓ̥ܝܓ̥ ܣܥܐ ܟܡܝܪܐ ܡܶܫܬܰܡܥܳܢ̈ܐ
she is jumping, desirable (abs.), he attacked, sad, obedient (pl.)
ܐܰܝܟ: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܩܰܝܙܐ ܥܰܠ ܣܰܘܟܐ.
Ex: A bird is jumping on the branch.

ܩܵܠܹܗ ܕܕܵܕܝܼ [ܕܕܵܕ݂ܝ؟] ܗܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܕܐܵܬܹܐ [ܐܵܬܹܐ؟]: ܡܫܵܘܲܪ ܥܲܠ ܛܘܼܪܹ̈ܐ: ܡܩܲܝܸܙ ܥܲܠ ܪ̈ܵܡܵܬ݂ܵܐ. = “The voice of my beloved! Look, this [guy] is coming, leaping on the mountains, jumping on the hills.” (P Song 2:8⁎) — dāḏā = Palmyrene Nabatean (Qumran) syc “paternal uncle, beloved” — šwar, mšäwwar = “to jump around” (consonantal w)

ܐܰܪܢܒܐ ܡܩܰܝܙܐ ܥܠ ܪܳܡܬ̥ܐ.
The hare is jumping on a hill. {rāmṯā T is soft (N §23E); also as a proper name in Mt2:18}

2017-05-29

rḡīḡ is p.p. of raḡ √rgg, like kṯīḇ. It means “desired, desirable; agreeable, pleasant; fair, precious”, but it also means “desiring” in active sense (e.g. Philippians 1:23).

ܪܓܝܓ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܗܢܐ ܠܡܶܚܙܐ.
This tree is pleasant to see.
ܬܰܥܠܐ ܣܥܐ ܥܠ ܐܰܪܢܒܐ.
The fox attacked the hare.
ܐܶܡܪܶܬ ܒܠܶܒܐ ܟܡܝܪܐ.
I said with a sad heart.
ܒܢܰܘ̈ܗܝ ܡܶܫܬܰܡܥܳܢ̈ܐ.
His sons are willing to listen (obedient).

2017-05-30

ܣܥܐ is used only once in Peshitta: ܒܰܕܣܳܥܶܐ ܥܰܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܠܐ ܚܙܐ = “in that he is [brazenly] attacking the thing which he did not see” i.e. “while he is belittling what he didn’t see” (Colossians 2:18). This is ἃ μὴ ἑώρακεν ἐμβατεύων, where ἑώρακε(ν) [ᾱ?] = ἑόρᾱκε(ν) is pf. of ὁράω, and ἐμβᾰτεύω = “to step in or on, frequent, haunt”; but this μὴ is often omitted and the phrase is reinterpreted as “one who is dwelling on what he saw (=his illusion)” instead of “one who is trampling on what he didn’t see”. Anyway, Peshitta is based on a μὴ-type text (such as Byzantine Majority Text and Greek Orthodox Church 1904), just like Vulgate (“quae nōn vīdit ambulāns”) and KJV (“intruding into those things which he hath not seen”). Ḥarqel: ܟܕ ܗ̇ܢܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܚ̣ܙܐ ܒ̇ܨܐ = “while he is exploring those which he didn’t see”.

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܠܰܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܕܰܠܬܰܚܬ

lṯaḥt = adv. “below” — ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ. ܐܢܬܘܢ܂ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܰܠܬ̥ܰܚܬ̊ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ. (Jn8:23)

ܐܰܝܟ: ܕܰܗܒܐ ܫܥܘܬ̥ܐ.
Ex. yellow {šʕṓṯā #7} gold {dahḇā w. soft B}.

#7 šʕṓṯā — the T is of course soft in Syriac (e.g. in P Je 8:22). CAL says šˁōtā with hard T, somewhat like tmr שַׁעַוְתָּא “wax”. Also note that CAL only says “waxen”, while LS2 says “adj. colōre cērae, flāvus” and LS3 “adj. [with the] color of wax, yellow”, Costaz “yellow”. While usually the initial š is vowelless, Jess and wikt have an alternative form šāʕṓṯā, and Qara sometimes uses šaʕṓṯā. This is a feminine noun, but apparently it can be used as if it were a common-gender adjective.

8 ܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܫܥܘܬ̥ܐ ܝܰܪܘܩܐ [ܝܳܪܘܿܩܐ] ܐܘܟܳܡܐ
red {summāqā}, white, yellow, bluish/green {yārṓqā #8}, black
9 ܕܰܗܒܐ ܦܰܚܡܐ ܚܰܠܒܐ ܕܡܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ
gold {dahVā}, coal, milk (ḥalVā), blood, grass {ʕesBā, ʕes(å)Vḕ N §93}
ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ ܫܥܘܬ̥ܐ
yellow gold
ܦܰܚܡܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ
black coal
ܚܰܠܒ̥ܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ
white milk
ܕܡܐ ܣܘܡܳܩܐ
red blood
ܥܶܣܒ̊ܐ ܝܳܪܘܿܩܐ
(yellow-)green herb

#8 yārṓqā “yellow-green, green-blue” (CAL), “bluish, livid” (LS3), “pale, ashy, livid” (Jess), also Neo-Syr/Qara “green” (Maclean 118b s.v. ܝܘܼܪܵܩܵܐ ); Qara reads it as ya-. Cf. yarqā “vegetable”

2017-07-04

Deuteronomy 32:2⁎ (syc)

ܢܸܪܣܲܡ ܐܲܝܟ ܡܸܛܪܵܐ ܝܘܼܠܦܵܢܝ: ܘܢܸܚܘܿܬ݂ ܐܲܝܟ ܛܲܠܵܐ ܡܹܐܡܲܪܝ:
It will drip {rsm a/a} like rain — my instruction {yülp̄ānā: perh. Soft P (LS3) CAL yulləp̄-}. It will descend {ne̊ḥeṯ neḥḥóṯ} like a dew — my speech (mḗmar mḗmrā).
ܐܲܝܟ ܪ̈ܘܚܹܐ ܕܥܲܠ ܬܸܕܐܵܐ: ܘܐܲܝܟ ܪ̈ܣܝܼܣܹܐ (ܐܲܪ̈ܣܝܼܣܹܐ) ܕܥܲܠ ܥܸܣܒܵܐ:܀
Like winds that [are] on herb, and like drops {(ʾa)rsīsḕ: with ʾa- in the Leiden critical ed.} that [are] on grass.

Mosul OT

2017-05-31/2017-06-01

Unlike Urmia OT, Mosul OT includes the deuterocanonical books (incl. Susanna, Bel/Dragon), plus 2 Baruch†:

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 22] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 22 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬܪܶܝܢ]: ܐܝܬ̥ܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ

2017-05-09

ʾīṯūṯā

ܫܰܐܶܠ ܓܶܘܰܪܓܝ ܠܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ، ܡܳܪܝ̱ ܣܳܒܐ: ܐܶܢܗܘ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܫܟܝ̣ܚܐ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܒܟܽܠ ܕܘܟ݁، ܠܡܳܢܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܝܢܰܢ ܠܶܗ؟
George asked his grandfather {#1}: “Grandfather, sir: if it is that God is a found one {#2} in every place {#3} (=an omnipresent being), then why don’t we see him {#4}?”

#1 sāḇā “old man” > syc jpa/tmr “grandfather”: also syr (Al K).

#2 šḵīḥ, šḵīḥā “found” pass. pt. of ʾeškaḥ: here in the emphatic state.

#3 dük(k) abs. like rab(b), N §23H, Lk9:6 — though CAL dūḵ.

#4 ḥāzḕ(n) (ḥ)nan = ḥāzḕnan.

2017-05-10

ܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ، ܫܡܰܥ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܗܳܢܐ ܡܰܬ̥ܠܐ: ܐܶܢ ܣܳܐܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܩܶܛܥܐ ܕܫܰܟܰܪ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܟܳܣܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܫܰܟܰܪ ܕܢܳܚܶܬ̥ ܠܥܘܡܩܐ.
The grandfather replied: “My son, listen to this parable {maṯlā}. If you put a piece {qeṭʕā} of white sugar {syc tmr myz} into a cup {kāsā} full of {#5} water, you see the piece that goes down to the depth {ʕumqā} (=bottom).”

#5 mlē = pass. pt. of √mly: Passive with Object (N §291). Examples: ܡܠܶܐ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܫܐ (Lk4:1), ܡܰܠ̈ܝܳܢ ܚܘܒ̊ܐ “they (f.) are full of love {ḥubbā}” (1Pe1:22).

ܒܪܰܡ ܐܶܢ ܡܚܰܠܶܛ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ، ܠܐ ܥܘܕ ܡܶܬܚܙܶܐ ܫܰܟܰܪ. ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ؟
But {bram} if you mix {ḥlṭ D syc} the water with a spoon {tarwāḏā syc tmr}, the sugar is not now {ʕṓḏ, enclitic} seen. Where did it go?

ʕṓḏ is not found in Peshitta, but OS has it, e.g. Lk16:11 (OS-C/S) and Lk23:3 (OS-S). CAL says In early Syriac [this word was] used where later texts would regularly use ܕܝܢ.

2017-05-11

ܪܳܒ ܘܶܐܬܚܰܠܰܛ ܥܰܡ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܰܒܟܳܣܐ.
It melted {dwb} and was mixed with the water of the cup.
ܐܳܦܶܢ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܫܰܟܰܪ، ܒܪܰܡ ܡܰܪܓ̥ܶܫ [ܡܰܪܓܶܫ] ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܶܗ، ܟܰܕ ܛܳܥܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܗܳܢܘܢ.
Even if you do not see the sugar, you however are aware of it {rgš C +b-} when you taste {ṭʕm} a little from that water.

2017-05-12

ܗܳܟ̥ܘܳܬ̥ ܗܘ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ، ܐܳܦܶܢ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܝܢܰܢ ܠܶܗ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱، ܐܶܠܐ ܫܟܝ̣ܚ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܟܽܠ ܕܘܟ݁.
God is likewise {hāḵwāṯ adv.}: even though we do not see him because he is a spirit, he however is present in every place;
ܘܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܗܘ̈ܰܝܳܐ، ܕܰܥܒܰܕ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܡܶܢ ܠܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ، ܣܳܗܕܝܢ ܥܰܠ ܐܝܬ̥ܘܬ̥ܶܗ.
and these created things {hwayyā n.pl. (Jess.); CAL “essence”}, which he has made not from anything (=from nothing), testify {shd} about his existence.

2017-05-13

ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܕܰܥ ܕܰܐܠܗܐ [ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ] ܫܟܝ̣ܚ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܟܽܠ ܕܘܟ݁ ܘܰܒܟܽܠ ܙܒܰܢ.
It is right that one should know that God is found in every place and in every time.
ܘܚܳܙܶܐ ܠܰܢ ܒܠܺܠܝܐ ܘܒܐܺܝܡܳܡܐ، ܘܫܳܡܰܥ ܟܽܠ ܡܐ ܕܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ ܐܶܢ ܒܓܶܠܝܐ ܐܰܘ ܒܟܶܣܝܐ ܀
And he is seeing us in the night {lḗlyā} and in the daytime, and he hears everything that we say (whether it be) openly or in hiding.

2017-05-14

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܓܶܘܰܪܓܝ ܠܣܳܒܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ؟
ܫܰܐܶܠ ܠܗ: ܐܶܢܗܘ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܫܟܝܚܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܟܠ ܕܘܟ، ܠܡܳܢܐ ܗܳܟܝܠ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܝܢܰܢ ܠܗ؟
2 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܡܰܬ̥ܠܐ ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܶܗ ܣܳܒܐ؟
What parable did the grandfather bring to him (=tell him)? {ʾaytī = C of ʾeṯā (N §174E), where the 1st rad. becomes Y, not W}
ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܗ ܡܰܬܠܐ ܕܫܰܟܰܪ ܒܡܰܝ̈ܐ، ܐ̇ܡܪ ܕܶܐܢ ܣ̇ܐܡ ܐܢܬ ܩܶܛܥܐ ܕܫܰܟܰܪ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܒܓܰܘ ܟܳܣܐ ܡܠܶܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܐ، ܘܐܢ ܡܚܰܠܶܛ ܐܢܬ ܠܡܝ̈ܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ، ܟܶܢ ܐܳܦܶܢ ܐܝܬ ܒܗܘܢ ܫܰܟܰܪ، ܐܶܠܐ ܠܐ ܚ̇ܙܐ ܐܢܬ ܠܗ.
He brought to him a parable of sugar in water, saying that if you put a piece of white sugar in a cup full of water, and if you mix the water with a spoon, then even though the sugar is in the water, you do not see it.

2017-05-15

3 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܝܢܰܢ ܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ؟
ܡܶܛܠ ܕܐܠܗܐ ܛܳܒ ܪܰܒ.
4 ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܝܳܕܥܝܢܰܢ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܫܟܝ̣ܚ ܒܟܽܠ ܕܘܟ݁؟
ܠܐ ܡܶܫܟܚܝܢ ܚܢܰܢ ܠܡܶܕܰܥ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܫܟܝܚ ܒܟܠ ܕܘܟ، ܡܛܠ ܕܛܳܒ ܙܥܘܪܝܢ ܚܢܢ.
5 ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܪ̈ܝܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ؟
Mention {dkr C ʾaḏkar} something from (=one of) the Creation/world {beryāṯā} of God?
ܣܰܗܪܐ.

2017-05-16

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܩܶܛܥܐ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ ܐܶܬܚܰܠܰܛ ܡܰܪܓ̥ܶܫ [ܡܰܪܓܶܫ] ܗܘ̈ܰܝܳܐ ܓܶܠܝܐ
ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܘܫܳܠܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ.
Ex. I eat stew with a spoon.
ܣ̇ܐܡ ܐܢܬ ܩܶܛܥܐ ܕܫܰܟܰܪ ܒܩܰܗܘܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ؟
Do you put a piece of sugar in your coffee?
ܐܳܟܠܐ ܐܢܐ ܕܶܒܫܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ.
I eat honey with a spoon.
ܡܝ̈ܐ ܒܓܰܘ ܟܳܣܐ ܐܶܬܚܰܠܰܛ ܒܝܰܕ ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ.
The water in the cup was mixed with a spoon.
ܛܰܠܝܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܪܓܶܫ ܕܰܡܕܰܓܶܠ ܐܢܬ ܠܗ.
The boy is not aware that you are lying to him.
ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܗ̈ܘܰܝܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܝܢ.
These beings are beautiful.
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܒܓܶܠܝܐ ܕܪ̇ܚܡܐ ܠܗ.
I said openly that I loved him.

2017-05-17

ܡܢܝ ܡܶܢ ܩܰܓܡܳܝܐ ܠܰܥܣܝܪܳܝܐ:

7 ܕܶܟ̥ܪܳܐܝܺܬ̥: ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ، ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ، ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ، ܘܫܰܪܟܐ......
ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ، ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ، ܬܠܝܬܳܝܐ، ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ، ܚܡܝܫܳܝܐ، ܫܬܝܬܳܝܐ، ܫܒܝܥܳܝܐ، ܬܡܝܢܳܝܐ، ܬܫܝܥܳܝܐ، ܥܣܝܪܳܝܐ
8 ܢܶܩܒܳܐܒܺܬ̥ (sic) [ܢܶܩܒܳܐܺܝܬ̥]: ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܰܕܡܳܝܬܐ، ܬܪܰܝܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ، ܘܫܰܪܟܐ......
ܩܰܕܡܳܝܬܐ، ܬܪܰܝܳܢܝܬܐ، ܬܠܝܬܳܝܬܐ، ܪܒܝܥܳܝܬܐ، ܚܡܝܫܳܝܬܐ، ܫܬ̊ܝܬ̥ܳܝܬܐ، ܫܒܝܥܳܝܬܐ، ܬܡܝܢܳܝܬܐ، ܬܫܝܥܳܝܬܐ، ܥܣܝܪܳܝܬܐ

The fem. form of “sixth” looks a little strange with three Ts, but this is attested in P Ex 26:9 — ܝܳܪܝܥܬ̊ܐ ܫܬ̊ܝܬ̥ܳܝܬܐ “the sixth curtain”: ES ܝܵܪܝܼܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܫܬ݁ܝܼܬ݂ܵܝܬܵܐ with a soft T (yārīʕṯā); P Lv 25:21 ܒܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ ܫܬܝܬܝܬܐ “in the sixth year”; P Ez 8:1 (Peshitta Ezekiel); 1Esdras(3 Ezra) 7:4, 7:5; etc.

Clef §§535-538, Alan Lv4 L11.

2017-06-28 However, given that in WS “sixteen” is ܫܬܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ (N §148; Ac12:4 P-UK), “sixth” might be ܫܬ̥ܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ, etc. (Cf. N §20)

2017-07-01 Right! N §153 does say: WS ܫܬ̥ܺܝܬܴܝܳܐ

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