memos::Syriac 16 (P)

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu Map, 2[TR][SY], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Syriac16 (P) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

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Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 30] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 30 [ܕܰܬܠܳܬܝܢ]: ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܶܕ

2017-10-25

kyānā = “nature”

ܐܶܚܕܰܬ̥ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܢܘܪܐ ܒܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ،
Once fire {nūrā f.} started {ʾḥd} in the den {mærbṓʕīṯā} of a strong lion,
ܘܰܥܪܰܩ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܩܳܡ ܠܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܢܘܪܐ ܕܓܳܕܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܶܗ.
and the lion fled {ʕrq} and stood at a long distance {l-ruḥqā} and he [was] looking at the fire, which [was] rising/burning {gdy} from his den.

2017-11-29

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܕܗܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܕܦܳܪܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܳܗ̇،
And he saw that, behold, a dove flying from her nest
ܘܢܳܚܬܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܦܐ ܘܩܳܒܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܡܰܩܘܙܳܗ̇ ܘܪܳܣܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ.
and descending upon the stream {tappā, from Akkadian atappu} and collecting {QBY, of liquid} water with her beak {#1}, and sprinkling {#2} [it] on the fire.

#1 mæqqūzā ? (CAL mæqūzā with a single q, while it says mæqqṓrā, as in מַקּוֹרָא: LS2 al. ܡܳ, LS3 mæq(q)ūzā, māqṓzā): from √NQZ “to pierce, to strike with the beak”

#2 ܪܰܣ = “to sprinkle” √RSS: act. part. like 2nd-W, but with a doubled consonant instead of a Y: rāʾès (exactly like 2nd-W), rāssā (would be *rāysā if 2nd-W); rāssā is exactly like kāṯbā, except it is written with three letters (though sometimes an extra ܐ is written, as in ʕāllā): ܘܣܳܡܘܗܝ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܠܝܫܘܥ. ܡܛܠ ܕܫܰܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ ܥܳܐܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ܉ ܘܡܛܠ ܕܩܰܪܝܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܩܰܒ̥ܪܐ܀ (Jn19:42⁎)

2017-11-30

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܐܳܦ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܕܐܰܦܶܩ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܠܦܐ ܕܓܘܙܥܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܘܢܳܦܰܚ ܒܢܘܪܐ.
And he saw a snake too, who stuck out {#3} his head from a crack {ṣelpā} of the trunk {guzʕā} of the tree, and [he was] breathing against the fire [to extinguish it] (#4) [to increase it**].

#3 ʾappeq npq C, lit. “to let his head go out” i.e. “to move his head closer.”

#4 ܢܦܰܚ ܒ is “to breathe on,” as in: ܘܟܕ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܗܠܝܢ ܢܦܰܚ ܒܗܘܢ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܩܰܒܶܠܘ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ (Jn20:22⁎) — in this context, it should mean “to blow out (the fire); to extinguish (the fire) by blowing.” This definition is in LS3 929b as “8” (but not in LS2), with an example from Ephrem Hymns on Faith 83:06 (ed. E. Beck, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 154):

ܡܠܟܬܐ ܕܫܒܐ ܢܶܩܝܐ ܕܶܐܬܳܬ:
ܠܐܬܪܐ ܕܕܐܒܐ ܫܪܓ̥ܐ ܕܩܘܫܬܐ:
ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܗ̇ ܫܠܝܡܘܢ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܰܢܦܰܚ ܒܗ:
ܟܕ ܐܰܚܢܶܦ ܗܘܐ ܢܶܗܪܰܬ ܘܶܐܙܠܰܬ:
ܘܶܚܫܰܟܘ ܗܢܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܰܡܥܳܕܝܢ:

“The Queen of Sheba, a sheep who came
to the place of a wolf. The lamp of truth—
Solomon gave it to her; that [man] who blew it out
when he had become a pagan [1Kg11:4]. She shone and went away.
Then those [people: hānṓn, OR poss. hennṓn = they] became dark [again], like they were accustomed (like they used to).”

See also: Project MUSE - The Hymns on Faith.

** (2017-12-03) The above interpretation is wrong. At the end of the story, the Lion implies that the Snake, being evil by nature, is trying to make the fire bigger. That makes sense, contrasted with a dove, a symbol of peace, a symbol of the Holy Spirit.

2017-12-01

نفخ = “to blow” = ነፍኀ (näfḫä) LLA712

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܠܝܢ: ܐܰܢܝܕ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܓܳܚܶܟ.
And when the lion saw them, he shook {nwd “to be disturbed” C} his head and began laughing.
ܘܰܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܢܶܡܪܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܓܰܕܫܳܟ ܐܳܘ ܡܰܠܟܐ، ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܢܰܝܬ؟
And a leopard saw him and said to him: “What happened to you, O King? Have you become insane {šny}?”
ܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܝܳܩܶܕ ܘܓܳܚܶܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ!
“Your house is burning {yqd}, and you are laughing!”
ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ: ܐܶܢܐ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܝ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܕܝܺܩܶܕ،
The lion answered: “I do not care {#5} for the house of mine that has burned,”
ܒܪܰܡ ܓܳܚܶܟ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܰܦܟ̥ܳܝܐ [ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ؟] ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܝ.
“but I am laughing at the preposterous/absurd/incorrect contrastive {hep̄kāyā √hpk = turned i.e. perverted contrary} action {suʕrānā} of my neighbors {#6}.”

#5 bṭl = “to pay attention”: in pass. part. with l-: ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܗ ܥܠ ܥܳܢܐ = “he [did] not care for the flock” (Jn10:13) — ܪܰܒܰܢ܈ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܟ ܕܳܐܒܕܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܰܢ. = “Our Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?” (Mk4:38)

#6 šḇāḇā — the long ē in the original first syllable was lost in Syriac: Akk. *šēbābi, Jewish Aram. שֵׁיבָבָא

2017-12-02

ܚܙܝ: ܡܶܟܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܡܰܝܬܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܪܳܡܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ.
“Look. From here {mekkā} a dove is bringing {#7} water and throwing {rmy} [it] on the fire.”

#7 Generally, Aphel of 1st-A is ʾaw- with W: ܠܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܗܰܝܡܶܢܘ ܐܰܘܒܶܕ (Jude 1:5). But ܐܶܬܐ becomes ʾay- with Y (N §174E): ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܗ ܡܕܡ ܠܡܶܐܟ̥ܰܠ = “Has anyone brought him something to eat?” — ܡܰܝܬܶܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܶܐܐ = “brings forth much fruit.”

Another form that has a Y like this is Quad ܗܰܝܡܶܢ (and הֵימֵן or הֵימִין). This is from Heb. הֶאֱמִין, which is C (hifʕil) of ʾmn, like Arab. آمَنَ, which is also IV of ʾmn.

2017-12-03

ܘܡܶܟܐ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܢܳܦܰܚ ܒܢܘܪܐ.
“And from here, a snake is blowing on the fire [to make it bigger].”
ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܛܘܦܬܐ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܪܳܣܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܡܕܰܥܟܐ ܠܳܗ̇،
“Although the drop[s] {ṭuppe̊ṯā (?)} of water that the dove is sprinkling {rāssā (see above)} is not extinguishing {#8} it,”
ܐܳܦܠܐ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܕܢܳܦܰܚ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܡܰܘܣܦܐ ܝܰܩܕܳܢܳܗ̇،
“and although the breath {#9} that the snake is blowing is not increasing {ysp C} the burning {yæqdānā} of it,”
ܐܶܠܐ ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܶܕ!
“everyone, however, is acting according to his nature!”

#8 dʕeḵ = “to be extinguished”: dæʕʕeḵ D = “to extinguish”

#9 Originally ܢܫܡܐ is masculine (CAL, LS3: can be attested in Hippocrates Aphorisms), while ܢܫܡܬܐ is obviously feminine. TS/Jess. say both are fem., and perhaps that is WS: here, nešmā is used as fem., as can be seen from the verb form (mæwse̊p̄ā, not mæwsep̄).

2017-12-04

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܶܦܠܰܬ̥ ܢܘܪܐ؟
Where did the fire break out? {npl = “to fall”: of fire, plagues, etc. : to break out, occur (CAL)}
ܒܡܰܪܒܘܿܥܝܬܐ ܕܰܐܪܝܐ.
2 ܡܘܢ ܥܒܰܕ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܟܰܕ ܝܶܩܕܰܬ̥ ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܥܪܰܩ ܘܩܳܡ ܠܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܗ̇.
He fled and stood at a long distance and was watching it.
3 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܓܚܶܟ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
ܓܳܚܶܟ ܡܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ.
He laughed at the contrastive action[s] of his neighbors.

2017-12-06

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܢܶܡܪܐ؟
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ: ܡܢܐ ܓܰܕܫܳܟ ܐܘ ܡܠܟܐ، ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܢܰܝܬ؟ ܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܝ̇ܩܕ ܘܓ̇ܚܟ ܐܢܬ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ: ܐܢܐ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܝ ܥܠ ܒܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ ܕܝܺܩܶܕ، ܒܪܰܡ ܓ̇ܚܟ ܐܢܐ ܡܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܝ.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܗܪܓܐ ܗܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܕܟܠ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܗ.

ܬܘܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܪܥܐ ܝܺܩܶܕ. ܘܬܘܠܬܐ ܕܐܝ̈ܠܳܢܐ ܝܩܕ. ܘܟܠ ܥܶܣܒ̊ܐ ܕܰܐܪܥܐ ܝܪܕ.

2017-12-07

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ: ܒܰܝܬܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܕܐܰܪܝܐ.

7 ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ
ܐܪܝܐ ܗܦܶܟ ܠܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬܗ ܠܒ̥ܰܝܬ̥ܶܗ.
The lion returned to his lair, to his house.
ܠܳܕܝܐ
ܠܳܕܝܐ: ܒܰܪ ܥܶܙܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
A kid is the son of a goat.

ܘܡ̣ܢ ܡܬ̥ܘܿܡ ܓܰܕ̥ܝܐ ܠܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ̥ܬ ܠܝ ܕܸܐܬܒܰܣܰܡ ܥܰܡ ܪܳܚ̈ܡܰܝ (Lk15:29) — mn mṯṓm = “never”; ʾeṯbæssæm = Dt Impf. 1sg (= Perf. 3sg.m = Perf. 3pl.f)

2017-12-10

ܩܳܒܝܐ
collecting (liquid)
ܐܹܡܝ ܩܳܒܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ ܡܝ̈ܐ ܒܕܰܘܠܐ.
My mother was collecting water with a bucket {dæwlā}.
ܨܶܠܦܐ
crack
ܬܰܪܥܐ ܗܢܐ ܪܥܝܥ: ܐܝܬ ܒܗ ܨܶܠܦܐ ܪܒܐ!
This door is broken {rʕīʕ}. There is a big crack in it.
ܓܘܙܥܐ
trunk, rod, (gram.) base form
ܐܝܠܢܐ ܗܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܓܘܙܥܐ ܪܒܬ̥ܐ.
This tree has a big trunk.

guzʕā = גֶּזַע and جِذْع. The word is feminine in Syriac, rarely masculine (N §84). Indeed BHGr has a phrase, ܓܘܙܥܗ ܗܝ‏ “that is (fem.) its base form”. (LS3 says this expression is a calque of Arabic أَصْل “root”, though it seems that גֶּזַע is also used this way.) However, in Neo-Syr (ecclesiastical, not colloquial), the word is said to be masculine (Maclean 46b).

ܡܢ ܓܘܙܥܗ ܕܐܝܫܝ (Is11:1) = מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 29] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 29 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܬܶܫܥܐ]: ܟܪܘܒܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ

2017-09-13

ܟܪܘܿܒܐ m. (Hebr 9:5) — כְּרוּב m.

ܐܶܡܝ̱ ܠܡܘܢ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡ ܥܝܪܘܬ̥ܝ̱ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܡܢܰܫܩܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܝ
My mother, for what, in the morning with my wakefulness {ʕīrūṯā} (=when I wake up), thus do you kiss {nšq G/D} me?
ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܰܡܫܰܡܠܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܨܠܘܬ̥ܝ̱ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܐܳܡܪܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܝ
And after I have completed {šmly √mly Shaphel=factitive} my prayer, [why do] you say to me, “Cherub, my son”?

2017-09-14

ܡܰܢܘ ܗܳܢܐ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܐܶܡܝ̱ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܐܰܟ̥ܘܳܬ̥ܝ̱
Who is this Cherub, my mother? Is he sweet just like me?
ܐܰܘ ܠܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܐܶܢܐ ܠܐܰܚܰܝ̣ ܘܐܰܚܘܳܬ̥ܝ̱
Or does he love [his] brothers and friends, just like I [love] my brothers and my sisters?

2017-09-15

ܐܰܘ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܕܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ ܠܐܶܡܶܗ ܢܳܩܶܦ
Or in every morning in a week, [does he] join/follow {nqp} his mother toward the church?
ܘܟܰܕ ܣܳܓ̥ܶܕ ܠܝܶܫܘܥ ܛܳܒܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܟܰܝ ܐܺܝ̈ܕܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܙܳܩܶܦ
And when he worships {sgd} good Jesus, I wonder if he knows/recognizes his hands, raising.

The meaning of the second half of the second line is not clear. It seems that the general structure is like ܝܕܥܐ ܩܠܗ “she knows his voice” (Joh10:5) or ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܒܳܕܰܝ̈ܟ “I know your works” (Ap2:2). If “his hands” are “the hands of Jesus,” this probably means “Does Cherub know his (=Jesus’) hands (=power)?” But is the plural form “hands” usual when it means “power”? If, on the other hand, this means “Cherub raises his own hands,” what is the “knows” doing here? My best guess is, something like: “I wonder if Cherub knows that he should (OR how he is supposed to) raise his own hands,” though it may be a little far-fetched. It could be “I wonder if Jesus knows his (his own OR Cherub’s) hands, raising,” but that doesn’t make much sense. [This “his hands” should be Cherub’s hands. See below 2017-09-16.]

The word Zqāp̄ā (the vowel ā) is from this √zqp “to lift, raise up.” Perhaps it originally implied some kind of “higher-lifted” (strong, clear, possibly long, and surely undeletable) vowel.

2017-09-16

ܘܰܠܡܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܘܠܬܐ ܡܫܝܓ̥ ܐܝܕܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܦܘܡܶܗ ܒܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
And does he, at the time of eating {mēḵultā, hard T}, wash his hands and his mouth with water?
ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܐܰܘ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܡܨܰܠܶܐ « ܐܰܒܘܢ ܕܒܰܫܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ »
and before and after the sleep (=he sleeps), does he pray [saying] “Our Father Who is in Heaven”?

lmā = a general interrogative particle in direct speech — ܐܳܡ̇ܪܝܢ ܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܐ ܒܰܝܢܰܝ̈ܗܘܢ. ܠܡܳܐ܈ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܗ ܡܕܡ ܠܡܶܐܟ̥ܰܠ܉ (Joh4:33⁎)

mšīḡ = Part. of ʾæšīḡ “to wash” √šwg Aph. — ܫܩ̣ܰܠ ܡܝ̈ܐ܁ ܐܰܫܝܓ ܐܝܕܘ̈ܗܝ ܠܥܹܝܢ ܟܶܢܫܐ܂ = “He took water [and] washed his hands, before the eye {ʕæynā, ʕḗn N §49} (=in front) of the crowd.” (Mt27:24)

2017-10-18

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܹܐܡܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
ܐܶܡܹܗ ܕܛܠܝܐ ܩܳܪܝܐ ܠܹܗ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܒܹܪܝ̱.

New fonts: Tagmukay 2.000 (TIFINAGH); Padauk 3.003 (MYANMAR), updated; Awami Nastaliq 1.000.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 28] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 28 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܚܶܟ̥ܡܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ

2017-08-12

ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܒܬܪ ܡ̈ܠܐ ܗܠܝܢ܁ ܐܝܟ ܬܡܳܢܝܐ ܝܘܡܝ̈ܢ܉ ܕܒ̣ܪ ܝܫܘܥ ܠܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܘܰܠܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܘܰܠܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ܂ ܘܰܣ̣ܠܩ ܠܛܘܪܐ ܠܰܡܨܰܠܳܝܘ. (Lc9:28⁎)

ܓܰܒܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܒܘܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܕܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ†،
A stupid {būrā} man, when one day he was sitting in the shade {ṭellāl(ā)} of an oak† tree,
ܚܙܐ ܠܘܰܥܕܶܗ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܕܩܰܪܐܳܐ.
saw, near him {l-wæʕdā}, a new sprout {šrṓrā Qara “A small plant”} of a pumpkin {qærʾā/qærrā, CAL qarrʾā}.

†send(ə)yānā “oak” should be possibly Neo-Syr, though not found in Maclean; prob. from Ar سِندِيان — syc ܒܰܠܘܼܛܐ

2017-08-14 TS2-460, TS3-970b: ܣܸܕܝܵܢܵܐ,‎ ܣܢܕܝܢܐ n.m. “oak”: perh. < NP sindiyān kind of oak PED 701; also in Syro-hexapla Dn 13:54, 13:58 (Susanna) — TS2-2673: ܣܢܕܝܢܐ nom. arboris, ἀγριοβάλανος, Aq. Jes. xliv. 14 [Aquila of Sinope? Isaiah 44:14] = “evergreen oak” (LSJ)

2017-08-13

ܘܐܶܬܒܰܩܝ [ܒܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ.] ܒܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ† ܗܳܢܐ ܘܪܳܡܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܥܰܒܝܽܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܛܥܝܢ.
And he looked at {bqy Dt +b} this oak and its height {rāmūṯā} and its thickness {ʕæḇyūṯā} and small fruits [that it was] bearing.
ܘܰܫܪܘܪܐ ܥܰܡ ܩܰܛܝܢܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܛܥܝܢ.
And a new sprout, with its fineness (thinness) {qæṭṭīnūṯā} and its weakness {mḥīlūṯā}, [was] bearing huge {ræbbā pl. räwr(ə)ḇḕ} fruits.

ܘܚܰܝ̈ܠܐ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ̥ܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܗܘܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܒܐܝܕܗ ܕܦܵܘܠܘܿܣ܉ (Act19:11⁎)

2017-08-14

ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ: ܡܐ ܗܰܦܟ̥ܳܝ ܥܒܳܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
And he said in his heart (thought to himself): “How perverse {hep̄kāy(ā) OR hæp̄-} this event [is]!”
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ† ܪܰܒܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ. ܘܗܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ [ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ] ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ.
“It would be adequate that this big oak will bear big fruits, and this weak new sprout [will bear] small fruits.”

2017-08-15

ܘܥܰܕܠܐ ܢܫܰܠܶܡ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ، ܗܐ ܒܰܠܘܛܬ̥ܐ ܕܢܳܦܠܐ [ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܕܢܳܦܶܠ] ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܶܗ (ܢܚܝ̈ܪܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱؟)،
And before he finished his word, behold, [there was] an acorn that [was] falling from the tree upon his nostril[s] (nose),
ܘܡܰܪܕܝܐ [ܘܡܰܪܕܶܐ] ܕܡܶܗ.
and [was] making his blood flow {√rdy C}.

ʕæḏ-lā = “before (he finished)” lit. like “when he had not yet finished” — CAL: Generally but not always used in past contexts with an imperfect verb. — More generally, the Impf. is often used after a word that means “until” or “before,” including when the principal clause is in the past (N §267).

bællūṭā = “oak; acorn” — BUT in Qarah. bællūṭā = “oak”, bællūṭtā (perh. read balūtō) = “acorn”

ܘܐܰܙܥܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܫܐ:
So he cried out {zʕq C} in pain (lit. from pain):
ܘܳܝܠܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܫܳܛܝܽܘܬ̥ܝ̱.
“Woe {wāy} to me! This is the reward/punishment {purʕānā} for (lit. of) my foolishness.”

šæṭyūṯā = “foolishness”: √šṭy — an abstruct noun in ūṯ-ā (N §138B), where the ū is kept when suffixed (N §145H).

2017-08-16

ܘܐܶܠܘ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܒܰܠܘܛܬ̥ܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܩܰܪܐܳܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܗܢܐ ܒܠܘܛܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܩܪܐܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ]،
“And if this small acorn were a pumpkin…”
ܕܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܡܫܰܚܩܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܡܫܰܚܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ] ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ (ܢܚܝ̈ܪܐ؟) ܕܝܠܝ̱، ܘܰܟܒܰܪ ܩܳܛܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܩܳܛܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ] ܠܝ!
“[It’s true,] isn’t it, that perhaps it would have crushed {šaḥḥeq} the nose of mine, and perhaps {kḇar} (≈even) would have killed me?!”

d-lā dæ-lmā = lit. “that not that, right?” or “that not lest” or “that not perhaps”: I think the meaning here is, “[I’m glad] that it is not, as otherwise this would have happened.” or “Perish the thought, lest this happen.” He thought that, since an oak was a tall tree, an acorn should be proportionally big. Then he changed his mind, as he wouldn’t like it if a huge acorn, falling from a tree, hit him on the head.

2017-08-20

ܡܰܠܶܦ: ܕܠܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܣܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܥܰܠ ܥܒ̈ܳܕܐ ܬܡܝܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܗܰܘ ܕܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܒܚܶܟ̥ܡܬ̥ܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܀
This is teaching [you] (=The moral of the story is): that it is not right that one will rashly attack {sʕy ʕl} the wonderful {tmīhā} works of God, he who made everything with wisdom.

ܝܘܚܢܵܢ ܐܲܠܸܦ ܠܬܠܡܝ̈ܕܵܘܗܝ (Lc11:1)

tmah = “to be speechless”: tmīh AND tammīh = “surprised; amazing” — CAL p.p. but modern NT texts more commonly vocalized as ܬܲܡܼܝܗ

ܘܟܲܕ ܚܙܵܐܘܼܗܝ ܬܡܲܗܘ: ܘܐܸܡܪܲܬ ܠܹܗ ܐܸܡܹܗ: ܒܹܪܝ: ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܥܒܲܕܬ ܠܲܢ ܗܵܟܲܢܵܐ (Lc2:48) = καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐξεπλάγησαν, καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ εἶπε(ν)· (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ) Τέκνον, τί ἐποίησας ἡμῖν οὕτως; πλήσσω (√plēk-) = “to strike (esp. of a direct blow)” ⟦plangō⟧ (as in “plague”): with ek-, Pass. 1st aor. ἐξεπλήχθην, but commonly in 2nd aor. ἐξεπλάγην [ᾰ] = “to be driven out of one’s senses by a sudden shock; be amazed, astounded”

2017-08-22

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܺܝܒ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒ؟] ܗ̱ܘܐ ܗܰܘ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܒܘܪܐ؟
ܝܰܬܝܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ.

CAL on ytyb: LS2 assigns many other examples of what are surely just G p.p. forms to this adjective; without justification in our opinion. — but if it is yattīḇ (as opposed to *yīṯīḇ), it is not a p.p. At least P Prov 20:08 variant has #ܝܬܿܝܒ#3 in CAL itself. See Book 4, Lesson 16. In the dialect of Qara, this T seems always soft.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܒܩܘܪܒܶܗ؟
What did he see near {b-qürbā} him?
ܚܙܐ ܠܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܘܩܰܪܐܳܐ.

2017-08-26

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ؟
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ: ܙ̇ܕܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ. ܘܗܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܿܪܐ ܡܚـܝܠܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ.

ṭʕen/neṭʕæn: ܛܥܶܢܬ ܡܛܠ ܫܶܡܝ = “you endured (labored) because of my name” (Ap2:3) — ܟܘܪܗܳܢܰܝ̈ܢ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ = “he will bear our diseases {kurhānā}” (Mt8:17 cf. Js53:4)

räwrḇḕ: ܣܰܬܘ̈ܐ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ̥ܐ ܢܶܗܘܘܿܢ = “Big (severe) winters/tempests will be [there].” (Lc21:11) — Only in Pesh. and OS-C, not in usual Greek versions nor in OS-S.

4 ܡܘܢ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܶܗ؟ ܘܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ؟
ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܥܠ ܢܚܝ̈ܪܵܘܗܝ. ܘܐܡܪ: ܘܳܝܠܝ ܗܢܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܫܳܛܝܘܬ̥ܝ̱.

2017-08-27

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܠܰܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܕܠܐ ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܶܣܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܫ ܥܠ ܥܒܳܕ̈ܐ ܬܡܝܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ.

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܢܫܰܠܶܡ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܐ
ܐܰܝܟ: ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ.
ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ.
An acorn falls from an oak.
ܫܪܘܿܪܐ ܡܢܳܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܘܝܰܪܘܩܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܢܶܨܒܬ̥ܐ. ܒܬܰܪܐܳܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܐܳܬܶܐ ܡܢ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܐܰܘ ܡܢ ܣܰܘܟܐ.
A sprout is a small and green part of the plant {neṣbe̊ṯā}. In spring, a sprout comes from a seed or from a branch.

2017-09-01

ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܟܠ ܡܕܡ ܢܫܰܠܡ.
It is proper to complete everything.
ܦܐܪܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܥܠ ܢܚܝܪܐ ܕܝܠܝ.
A fruit fell from a tree onto the nose of mine.
ܛܠܝܐ ܥ̣ܒܕ ܡܕܡ ܛܒܐ ܘܩܰܒܠ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܐ ܛܒܐ.
The boy did a good thing, and received a good reward.

ܘܛܘܒܰܝ̈ܟ܁ ܕܠܰܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܢܶܦܪܥܘܢܳܟ. = “Blessed are ye, as there is nothing for them to give you back.” (Lc14:14) — ṭūḇā = “goodness”; pl. with suf. = “blessed” — præʕ, nep̄róʕ = “to give back”, pl. nep̄r(ə)ʕūn

2017-09-02

ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ

7 ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܶܒܪ̈ܐ ܟܘܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܡܪܐ ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܒܰܥܘܐ
hair, limb/wing, thorn/prick, wool, bark/scale/shell (sg. qlāp̄tā), camel hair
ܐܰܝܟ: ܓܰܡܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ܒܰܥܘܐ.
Ex: A camel covers his body [with] camel hair {bæʕwā}.

2017-09-03

ܩܘܦܕܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܟܘܒ̈ܐ.
A hedgehog {qóppḏā f. (N §84); quppəḏā m. CAL} covers his body [with] pricks.
ܐܶܡܪܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܥܰܡܪܐ.
ܬܰܘܪܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܣܰܥܪܐ.
ܢܘܢܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ.
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܙܫܡܶܗ ... ܐܶܒܪ̈ܐ.

ES qupdḕ (Hard D)?

CAL At P Zeph 2:14 the original meaning (i.e., either "hedgehog" or bird) is somewhat unclear, although the parallelism suggests the latter. However, presumably based on the LXX ἐχῖνος, as well as the verbal root qpd , later tradition understood it as the former. In Kalilah wDimnah context suggests a bird, identified by 19th century scholars with NENA quptā "owl" (see Maclean, Dictionary 274) and PSm. At TgIs and P Is 34:15 context again suggests a bird.

Kalilah wDimnah = cf. The book of Kalīlah and Dimnah, translated from Arabic into Syriac, ed. William Wright (1884) [KwDW in LS2], p. lii

Zeph 2:14

2017-09-03

ܘܢܸܪܒ݁ܥܘܼܢ ܒܓܵܘܵܗ̇ ܓܙܵܪܹ̈ܐ: ܘܟ݂ܠܗܹܝܢ ܚܲܝ̈ܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܥܲܡܡܹ̈ܐ: ܐܵܦ ܩܵܩܹ̈ܐ ܘܩܘܼܦ̈ܕܹܐ ܒܒ݂ܵܬܹ̈ܝܗ̇ ܢܒܘܼܬ݂ܘܼܢ: (P Zeph 2:14a⁎) = “And flocks {gzārā} shall lie down {rbʕ} in her [Nineveh]; and all of the animals of nations; also pelicans {qāqā} and QUPDḔ shall spend the night {bwt} in her houses.”

ܘܚܲܝ̈ܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܢܸܢܗ̈ܡܵܢ ܒܓܵܘܵܗ̇: ܘܚܲܪܒܵܐ ܒܬܲܪ̈ܥܹܝܗ̇: ܡܸܛܠ ܕܥܸܩܵܪܵܗ̇ ܐܸܬ݂ܦܲܪܣܝ݂.܀ (P Zeph 2:14b⁎) = “And the animals shall roar in her; and the destruction {ḥarbā} in her gates; because the root/base {ʕeqqārā} has been uncovered {√prsy}.” — nhem, nenhæm, Strong Verb, 1st-N but 2nd-H (N §173A).

2017-09-06

וְרָבְצ֨וּ בְתוֹכָ֤הּ עֲדָרִים֙
Flocks shall lie down within her {b-ṯōḵ-āh}.

2017-09-08

כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־ג֔וֹי
Every animal of nation.

ḥayṯō- (ḥaye̊ṯō- ?) = ḥayyaṯ-, archaic (G §90o)

Kalīlah and Dimnah

2017-09-09

ܘܩܘܦܝܢ ܠܥܠ ܡܢ ܪܝܫܝ
and QŪP̄ĪN (an owl; owls?) above my head (KwDW 266:5–6)
ܘܐܪܝܡ ܥܝܢ̈ܘܗܝ ܠܥܠ ܨܝܕ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܗ̇ܘ. ܘܗܐ ܩܘܦܝܢ ܚܕܐ ܒܐܝܠܢܐ. ܕܒܥܝܢ ܕܬܚܛܘܦ [ܠܗ].
And he [the mouse] raised his eyes up toward {ṣēḏ} the tree, and behold [there was] an owl looking {ḥāḏē singular!} in the tree, who were wishing {bāʕēn WHY plural?!} to snatch {teḥṭól WHY feminine?!} [him]. (KwDW 264:5–7)

While the general meaning is clear, this sentence is strange grammatically. The owl is first said to be ḥāḏē (“looking,” masculine singular), then bāʕēn (“wishing,” masculine plural), then teḥṭól (“she will snatch,” feminine singular). Maybe the mouse is so terrified he can’t think straight?

2017-09-10

ܗܳܝܕܶܝܢ ܕܚܶܠ ܥܘܩܒܪܐ. ܕܐܢ ܗ̇ܦܟ ܠܒܶܣܬܪܹܗ܂ ܩ̇ܛܠ ܠܗ ܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ.
So then the mouse feared, that if he returns back, the weasel ⟦mustēla⟧ is going to kill him. (KwDW 264:7–8)

2017-09-12

ܘܐܢ ܣ̇ܠܩ ܠܐܝܠܢܐ܂ ܚ̇ܛܦܐ ܠܗ ܩܘܦܝܢ.
And if he goes up the tree, the owl is [going to] snatch {fem. again!} him. (KwDW 264:8–9)

2017-09-13

ܐܡ̇ܪ ܥܘܽܩܒܪܳܐ ܠܩܲܛܘ. ܩܪܘܒ [ܐܶܩܪܘܿܒ] ܩܰܕܡܐܝܰܬ ܕܢܬܠ ܫܠܡܐ ܠܰܚܕܳܕ̈ܐ
The mouse [was] saying to the cat: “I will come near firstly so that we may give greeting[s] to each other,”
ܕܦܣܩ [ܕܢܶܦܣܩܘܽܢ] ܣܰܒܪܶܗ ܡܢܢ ܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ ܘܩܘܽܦܕܝܺ ܘܢܶܗܦܟܘܽܢ ܟܕ ܒܗ̇ܝܬܝܢ [ܒܰܗܝ̈ܬܺܝܢ].
“so that the weasel and the owl may cut (give up) his (their) hope from us and they may return while ashamed (disappointed).” (KwDW 267:17–19)
ܘܟܕ ܚܙܘ ܩܘܦܕܝ ܘܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ. ܬܗ̣ܪ [ܬܗܰܪܘ̱] ܒܗܘܢ ܘܐܬܕܡܪ [ܘܶܐܬܕܰܡܰܪܘ̱].
And when the owl and the weasel saw [it], they wondered about them and surprised. (KwDW 267:24–268:1)

2017-09-14

ܘܩܘܦܕܐ ܥܟ ܥܘܪܒܐ
an owl and a raven {ʕūrḇā N §114} (KwDW 367:17)
[index]