memos::Syriac 16 (P)

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu Map, 2[TR][SY], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Syriac16 (P) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

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JPEG 28 KiB
Mount Gerizim (جبل جَرِزيم), near Nablus, West Bank (circa 1895)

Gen 43:1– (Samaritan Targum), based on J (CAL) + Barb.or.1

2018-05-08 (Day 11)

Gn43:1 (P, SamTgJ, TgO)

ܘܟܲܦܢܵܐ ܥܫܸܢ ܒܐܲܪܥܐ.܀
The famine was severe {ʕšn = “to be strong”} in the area.
ࠅࠊࠐࠍࠄ
ࠉࠒࠓ ࠁࠀࠓࠏࠄ࠱
yqr = “to be heavy, troublesome”: CAL explicitly says, “to be severe” Sam. — ࠊࠐࠍࠄ ‎] J, Or1, EdPet, Walton; ࠎࠍࠅࠄ A (senwā?? = Syr. sennū = “hatred”) — ࠉࠒࠓ ‎] ࠉࠒࠉࠓ (yaqqīr Adj, or poss. *yəqīr Pass.pt.) EdPet; ࠉࠈࠌ (yaṭṭam D = “to make dull” Sam) Walton
וְכַפנָא תְקֵיף בארעא׃
תְּקַף,‎ תְּקֵיף = “to seize, hold firmly; to be strong, become powerful; to be heavy”

ʕšn = only once in P-NT: ܗܸܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ܂ ܬܳܟܒܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܡܐ ... ܘܰܥܫܸܢ ܗܘܐ ܩܳܠܗܘܢ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ ܘܰܕܪ̈ܰܒܰܝ ܟܳܗ̈ܢܐ܀ (Lk23:23) — tḵeḇ = “to be pressing”

2018-05-09 (Day 12)

Gn43:2 (P, SamTgJ, TgO)

ܘܟܲܕ ܓܲܡܲܪܘ ܠܡܹܐܟܲܠ ܥܒ݂ܘܼܪܵܐ ܕܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܸܨܪܹܝܢ: ܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܝܲܥܩܘܿܒ݂ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܘܿܢ: ܚܘܿܬ݂ܘ ܡܘܼܪܘ ܠܲܢ ܩܲܠܝܼܠ ܥܒ݂ܘܼܪܵܐ.܀
And when they had finished eating the grain that they brought from Egypt, Jacob, their father, said to them: “Go down [to Egypt] and buy {mwr} us a small amount of grain.”

ne̊ḥeṯ: Impf. neḥḥóṯ, teḥḥóṯ, etc.: Imperat. ḥóṯܒ̇ܥܐ ܗܘܐ ܡܢܗ ܕܢܶܚܘܿܬ̥ = “He was asking him to come down.” ܬܶܚܘܿܬ̥ ܢܘܪܐ ܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ = “Fire will come down from the heaven.” ܚܘܿܬ̥ ܡܢ ܙܩܝܦܐ = “Come down from the cross.”

The following text is based on SamTg Or1; a “fix” in [] is from J, replacing the previous word marked with *.

ࠅࠄࠅࠄ
ࠊࠌࠄ*[ࠊࠌࠃ] ࠃࠇࠎࠋࠅ*[ࠀࠎࠊࠌࠅ] ࠋࠌࠉࠊࠋ
ࠉࠕ ࠌࠉࠓࠄ ࠃࠄࠍࠃࠅ*[ࠃࠀࠍࠃࠅ]
ࠌࠌࠑࠓࠉࠌ࠱
kmd Sam. = kmā d- = “just when” {like Syr. kæḏ} — skm C = “to fnish” Sam. (*ʔaskemu) {ḥsl “to come to an end” Or1} — myārā = “provisions, supplies” Sam, Syr! — ndy C = “to bring” Sam, Syr! *ʔandiw/handiw.
ࠅࠀࠌࠓ ࠋࠅࠍ
ࠀࠁࠅࠅࠍ ࠇࠆࠓࠅ*[ࠏࠆࠓࠅ] ࠅࠌࠅࠓࠅ*[ࠅࠌࠉࠓࠅ]
ࠋࠍࠍ ࠑࠉࠁࠏࠃ*[ࠆࠏࠅࠓ] ࠌࠆࠅࠍ࠱
ḥzr = “to return” Or1 {written ʕzr in J} — instead of zʕor in J, Or1 has *ṣiḇʕaḏ = צִ(י)בְחַד = “a little” — mwr = “to procure food” Sam, Syr! — māzōn(ā) = “food” Com.

Jpeg 7 KiB = ܘܡܽܘܪܘ̱ ܠܰܢ (w-mwrw Or1, w-myrw J)

“h” is missing in lwn (J, Or1) = l-hon (EdPet), ʔbwwn (J, Or1) = ʔby-hon (EdPet): both -hwn and -wn (and -nwn) occur (Nicho 72); also, lnn (*lnan? {prob. *lannā}) = ln (lan). It seems that Samaritans sometimes write ʕ instead of ḥ (ḥzar, ṣiḇḥaḏ).

וַהוָה כַד (כדי#3#) סְפִיקוּ (שֵיצִיאוּ#3#) לְמֵיכַל יָת עִיבוּרָא דְאֵיתִיאוּ מִמִצרָיִם וַאֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲבוּהוֹן תוּבוּ זְבוּנוּ לַנָא זְעֵיר עִיבוּרָא׃
סאֵיק = “to supply; to have enough; to have done” — šyṣy = quad “to finish” — twb = “to return”

2018-05-10 (Day 13)

Gn43:3 (P, SamTgJ, TgO)

ܐܵܡܲܪ ܠܹܗ ܝܼܗܘܼܕܵܐ: ܡܣܲܗܵܕܘܼ ܣܲܗܸܕ ܒܲܢ ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ: ܘܐܸܡܲܪ: ܠܵܐ ܬܸܚܙܘܿܢ ܐܲܦܲܝ̈: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܟܲܕ ܐܲܚܘܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܥܲܡܟ݂ܘܿܢ.܀
Yīhūḏā (N §38) [was] saying: “The man solemnly warned us and said: ‘You guys shall not see my face, except when your brother [is] with you guys.’”

ܣܰܗܶܕ = D “to testify”: Inf. ܠܰܡܣܰܗܳܕܽܘ: the infinitive absolute (an infinitive without l-) works as a general object, giving more emphasis to the verb (N §295, G §113). It seems that Inf. Abs. is often like a cognate object. Also in MT: הָעֵד הֵעִ(י)ד בָּנוּ, where hēʕīḏ is Hiphʕîl Pf. of √ʕwd, hāʕēḏ is Inf. Abs.; furthermore this b+suf. (“warned us”) is mirrored in Syriac. — ܒ̈ܡܶܠܐ ܐ̱ܚܪ̈ܳܢܝܳܬܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܬܐ ܡܣܰܗܶܕ ܗܘܐ ܠܗܘܢ (Ac2:40)

ࠅࠀࠌࠓ
ࠋࠄ ࠉࠄࠅࠃࠄ࠲ࠋࠌࠉࠌࠓ࠲
ࠎࠄࠃࠅ*[ࠎࠏࠃࠅ] ࠀࠎࠉࠃ ࠁࠍࠍ ࠂࠁࠓࠄ
ࠋࠌࠉࠌࠓ࠲ࠋࠀ ࠕࠇࠆࠅࠍ
ࠀࠐࠉ ࠁࠋࠇࠅࠃ*[ࠁࠋࠅࠃ] ࠀࠇࠊࠅࠍ*[ࠀࠇࠅࠊࠅࠍ]
ࠏࠌࠊࠅࠍ࠱
sāhdū(ṯā) [h as ʕ in J] = “testimony” Com.; “proclamation, warning” Sam. — shd C (*ʔasheḏ written like ʔasyeḏ) = “to affirm publicly; to warn” — bæ-l(ə)ḥōḏ = “alone, only” in Syriac: here “but only” or “unless”: again Or1 is a better speller, where ḥ is missing in J.

2018-05-11 (Day 14)

וַאֲמַר לֵיה יְהוּדָה לְמֵימַר אַסהָדָא אַסהֵיד בַנָא גַברָא לְמֵימַר לָא תִחזוֹן אַפַי אֲלָהֵין כִיד אֲחוּכוֹן עִמְכוֹן׃
ʾălāhēn = ܐܠܐ ܐܢ — kīḏ = OR כַּד

Gn43:4 (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܐܸܢ ܡܫܲܕܲܪ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ ܠܐܲܚܘܢ [ܠܐܲܚܘܼܢ] ܥܲܡܲܢ: ܢܸܚܘܿܬ݂ ܘܲܢܡܘܼܪ ܠܲܢ ܥܒ݂ܘܼܪܵܐ:܀
“If you send {me̊šæddæl} our brother {ʾæḥūn (ʾæḥḥūn?)} with us, we will go down and we will buy [some] grain.”

ܫܰܕܰܪ ܐܢܘܢ ܠܒܹܝܬ̥ܠܚܸܡ (Mt2:8)

ܚ̇ܙܐ ܐܢܬ ܐܰܚܘܼܢ܉ ܟܡܐ ܪ̈ܶܒܘܳܢ ܐܝܬ ܒܰܝܗܘܕ (ܒܺܝܗܘܕ) ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܗܰܝܡܸܢܘ (Ac21:20) — ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις or Ἰουδαίων (ethnically, not geographically)

אִם אִיתָך מְשַלַח יָת אֲחוּנָא עִמַנָא נֵיחוֹת וְנִזבוֹן לָך עִיבוּרָא׃
ʾm = ʾn = Syr. ʾēn — ʾim ʾīṯāḵ məšallaḥ= lit. “if you are a sending man”— šlḥ D = “to release, to send” — nēḥoṯ (?) = since a י is written, perhaps it has a lengthened vowel follwed by a single ḥ, instead of *niḥḥoṯ
ࠀࠍࠉࠕࠊ*[ࠀࠌ ࠉࠉࠕࠊ] ࠌࠔࠋࠇ
ࠉࠕ ࠀࠇࠅࠍࠍ ࠏࠌࠍࠍ ࠍࠉࠏࠕ
ࠅࠍࠌࠉࠓ ࠋࠊ ࠌࠆࠅࠍ࠱
yytk = ʔytk EdPet (*ʔīṯāḵ) — šlḥ D (poss. C) — nyʕt = *nyḥt (*nēḥoṯ (?) = Syr. neḥḥóṯ): again the voiceless ḥ is written as a voiced ʕ; “C” in EdPet does have ࠍࠉࠇࠕ

2018-05-12 (Day 15)

māzṓnā: ܣܥܲܪ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܠܥܲܡܹܗ ܠܡܸܬܲܠ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܡܵܙܘܿܢܵܐ (P Ruth1:6) — se̊ʕær = “to visit; to care for” — yhb, Impf. ntl (nettel, tettel, etc.): Inf. l-mettæl (*l-mentæl)
ܘܶܐܢ ܗܟܝܠ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܕܒܝ̈ܫܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ܉ ܝܳܕܥܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܡܵܘܗ̈ܒ̥ܳܬܳܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬܳܐ ܠܡܶܬܰܠ ܠܰܒܢܰܝ̈ܟܘܢ܉ ܟܡܐ ܝܰܬܝܪܳܐܝܬ ܐܰܒܘܟܘܢ ܕܒܰܫܡܝܐ܇ ܢܶܬܶܠ ܛܒ̈ܬܐ ܠܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܫܳܐܠܝܢ ܠܗ. (Mt7:11⁎)

Gn43:5 (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܘܐܸܢ ܠܵܐ ܡܫܲܕܲܪ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁: ܠܵܐ ܢܵܚܬܝܼܢܲܢ: ܡܸܛܠ ܕܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܲܢ: ܕܠܵܐ ܬܸܚܙܘܿܢ ܐܲܦܲܝ̈: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܟܲܕ ܐܲܚܘܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܥܲܡܟ݂ܘܿܢ.
“And if you are not sending [him], we are not going down; because the man said to us: ‘You guys shall not see my face, unless when your brother [is] with you guys.’”
וְאִם לָיְתָך מְשַלַח לָא נֵיחוֹת אֲרֵי גֻברָא אֲמַר לַנָא לָא תִחזוֹן אַפַי אֲלָהֵין כִיד אֲחוּכוֹן עִמְכוֹן׃
ʾărē = JLAtg, PTA, Sam.
ࠅࠀࠍ*[ࠅࠀࠌ]
ࠋࠉࠕࠊ ࠌࠔࠋࠇ ࠋࠀ ࠍࠉࠏࠕ࠱
ࠄࠋࠀ ࠂࠁࠓࠀ*[ࠂࠁࠓࠄ] ࠀࠌࠓ ࠋࠍࠍ
nēʕoṯ ] nēḥoṯ (neḥḥoṯ) C — hălā = “is it not?” = “indeed (it is)” Dan, JLAtg, Sam, etc.
ࠋࠀ ࠕࠇࠆࠅࠍ ࠀࠐࠉ ࠃࠋࠀ*[ࠁࠋࠅࠃ]
ࠀࠇࠅࠊࠅࠍ ࠏࠌࠊࠅࠍ࠹
blwd = blḥwd (*ba-lḥoḏ): again missing ḥ in J; while ࠁࠋࠇࠅࠃ EdPet (also in 43:3)

2018-05-13 (Day 16)

ܐܰܒܐܶܫ = Aph. “to do evil, to hurt, harm,” with l- or ʕæl-. ܐܰܒܶܐܫ ܠܰܐܒܳܗܳܬܰܢ = “He abused our fathers.” (Ac7:19) — ܢܰܒܶܐܫܘܢ ܠܗ ܐܪܒܥܡܐܐ ܫܢܝܢ = “They will abuse him for 400 years.” (Ac7:6) where *næḇʔe̊šūn > *næḇʔešūn > næḇešūn (N §171: the vowel of the ܐ is transferred to the 1st radical, including when that vowel is *e̊ > e).

Gn43:6 (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܘܿܢ: ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܐܲܒ݂ܐܸܫܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܠܝܼ: ܘܚܵܘܝܼܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܠܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܐܸܢ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܐܲܚܵܐ:܀
ʾĪsrāyèl, their father, said to them: “Why did you guys make me suffer, and showed the man whether you guys had a brother?”

Note: In Heb. יִשְׂרָאֵל and שָׂרָה have ś (s2).

וַאֲמַר ישראל לְמָא אַבאֵישתוּן לִי לְחַוָאָה לְגַברָא הְעוֹד† לְכוֹן אַחָא׃
ḥawwāʾā Inf. = ܡܚܰܘܳܝܘ — ʕōḏ = “still, more”: hə- = “whether”? — † There seem to be two #3# readings to replace הְעוֹד:‎ (1) האית = “there exists”; (2) העד כען = the first word may be ʕōḏ, the second may be kəʕan = “now”.
ࠅࠀࠌࠓ ࠉࠔࠓࠀࠋ ࠋࠌࠄ
ࠄࠁࠀࠔࠕࠅࠍ*[ࠀࠁࠏࠔࠕࠅࠍ] ࠋࠉ ࠋࠌࠇࠁࠀࠄ
ࠋࠂࠁࠓࠄ ࠄࠏࠅࠓࠉ*[ࠄࠏࠅࠃ] ࠋࠊࠅࠍ ࠕࠋࠉࠌ*[ࠀࠇࠉ]
yšrʔl = we have š, not s! — *haḇʔešton (*ʔaḇʔ-), also written with ʕ for the 2nd-ʔ: *ʔaḇʕešton J; haḇʕ- EdPet: also, *hawʔešton “Ed.” in EdPet (ʔ kept; w for b). — *la-mḥabbāʔā/ū (?): b for w. Even *la-mhab- with h for ḥ in EdPet. In the apparatus of EdPet: *la-mḥawwāyū A (=Syriac); *la-mḥabbā(y) C; *la-mḥabbāʔ(u) Ed. Apparently, /w/ and /b/ are similar for Samaritans, soft ḇ ~ w like for East Syrians, but also hard b ~ “hard w”. — hʕwry = ?? (maybe *hə-ʕōḏ as in TgO, J, EdPet); I suspect that in Or1 is a “typo” for and is a “parasite”. [Probably this is not a typo. See below.] — *talīm (?), *talaym (?) = “(twin) brother(s?)” PTA, Sam. only in Or1, not in J nor EdPet. If “twin(s)” is meant at all, Joseph and Benjamin would be “twins” in the sense that the two had the same mother (Rachel).

2018-05-14 (Day 17)

Gn43:7a (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܘܐܸܡܲܪܘ: ܡܫܲܐܵܠܘܼ ܫܲܐܸܠ ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܥܠܲܝܢ: ܘܥܲܠ ܫܲܪܒ݁ܬܲܢ: ܘܐܸܡܲܪ: ܥܕܲܟܹܝܠ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܚܲܝ: ܘܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܐܲܚܵܐ: ܘܚܵܘܝܼܢܵܝܗܝ ܡܸܛܠ ܡܸ̈ܠܹܐ ܗܵܠܹܝܢ:
And they said: “The man asked [a lot of] questions {mšæʾʾālū D Inf. Abs.} about us, and about our family {šærbe̊ṯā}; and he said, ‘Is your father still alive {ḥay(yā) Adj.}? And do you guys have brothers?’ And we showed {ḥæwwīn, +āy(hy)} (=reveal the fact to) him, because of these words [of his].”

ܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ ܝܺܕܰܥ ܕܒܳܥܶܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܠܰܡܫܰܐܳܠܘܬܶܗ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ (Jn16:19)

וַאֲמַרוּ שַאָלָא שַאֵיל גֻברָא לַנָא (בלא #3#) וֻליַלָדוּתַנָא (ובילדותנא #3#) לְמֵימַר
הְעַד כְעַן אֲבוּכוֹן קַיָים הֲאִית לְכוֹן אַחָא
וְחַוִינָא לֵיה עַל מֵימַר פִתגָמַיָא הָאִלֵין
yallāḏūṯā = “birth(place), family”: CAL yaldūṯā — kəʕan = “now” — qayyāym = “existing, lasting” — פִּתְגָּמָא pl. פִּתְגָּמַיָּא = “decree”: according to CAL & Jastrow, this g is hard in Jar!
ࠅࠀࠌࠓࠅ࠲ࠔࠉࠀࠋࠄ*[ࠔࠉࠋࠄ] ࠔࠀࠋ
ࠂࠁࠓࠄ ࠋࠍࠍ ࠅࠋࠀࠕࠉࠋࠃࠅࠕࠍ
šayyālā (?) = *šaʔʔālā ] šeylā (?) = šeʔlā = “question” J — ʔtyldwtʔ (ʾatildūṯā ?) = “birth, descendants” Sam.
ࠋࠌࠉࠌࠓ࠲ࠄࠏࠅࠓࠉ*[ࠄࠊࠃࠄ] [ࠃ]ࠀࠁࠅࠊࠅࠍ
ࠒ[ࠏ]ࠉࠌ࠴
hkdh = “while, still” Sam. Or1 (Barb.or.1 41r) has hʕwry here again. Still can’t figure out what it is, though probably this is a translation of Heb. העוד (haʕōḏ). hʕwd EdPet, hlʕwd A. — qayyām ] qaʕyām J EdPet — ATMAAU shows that the preceding is unexpected. Literally, “[Is it] still that your father [is] lasting?!” i.e. “Is your father still alive?!” Thanks to this small punctuation mark [which looks like “:D”], Samaritan Targum (at least Or1) feels vivid here, out-targum’ing TgO and Pesh.
Jpeg 5 KiB
ࠄࠄࠔࠒࠉࠇ*[ࠄࠀࠉࠕ] ࠋࠊࠅࠍ
ࠕࠋࠉࠌ*[ࠀࠇࠉ]࠱
hhšqyḥ = ??] hyšqḥ A; hyt EdPet = h-ʔyt “Ed.” (= J = Walton). If [θ] > [ʃ] is common in Samaritan Aramaic, hhš/hyš might be *ha-ʾīš = *ha-ʾīṯ; even so, the ending q(y)ḥ is a mystery.
ࠅࠄࠇࠅࠉࠍࠍ*[ࠅࠇࠁࠉࠍࠍ] ࠋࠄ ࠏࠋ
ࠌࠉࠌࠓࠓ*[ࠌࠉࠌࠓ] ࠌࠌࠋࠋࠉࠄ*[ࠌࠋࠉࠄ] ࠀࠋࠉࠍ࠱
ḥawwīnan D (w may be written as b): -n(an) just like ܩܰܛܶܠܢ ‎= ܩܰܛܶܠܢܰܢ — mymr = mʾmr (mēmar), possibly pl. — mlyh = mlh (probably pl. *mellē) — ʔ(h)lyn = ʔ(y)lyn אִילֵּין = “these (m. and f.)”: IOW ܗܳܠܝܢ except h- is replaced by ʔ-. — Or1: some words are spelled in a strange way, doubling a letter (mymrr for mymr, mmllyh for mlyh); possibly this works like a seyame.

2018-05-15 (Day 18)

Gn43:7b (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܡܸܕܲܥ ܝܵܕܥܝܼܢ ܗ̣݇ܘܲܝܢ ܕܐܵܡܲܪ ܠܲܢ ܐܲܚܸܬ݂ܘ ܠܐܲܚܘܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ:܀
“Were we actually knowing that he [would] say to us: ‘Make your brother come down’?”

In G Impf/Inf, ܝܺܕܰܥ and ܝܺܬܶܒ behave like 1st-N: ܗܘ ܕܝܢ ܥܢܐ܂ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ. ܕܰܠܟܘܢ ܗܘ ܝܺܗܝܒ ܠܡܶܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܪܳܙܳܐ ܕܡܰܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ܉ ܠܗܳܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܐ ܝܗܝܒ. (Mt13:11⁎) — The other 1st-Y behave like 1st-A.

הֲמִידָע הְוֵינָא יָדְעִין אֲרֵי יֵימַר אֲחִיתוּ יָת אֲחוּכוֹן׃
miḏāʕ/meḏāʕ (?) = middaʕ (Lambdin 32) — ʔəˈḥitu = *ʔa(ḥ)ˈḥitu = *ʔanˈḥetu; the 1st radical n just dropped.
ࠄࠌࠇࠊࠅࠌ ࠍࠇࠊࠌ*[ࠍࠏࠊࠌ] ࠄࠋࠀ ࠉࠉࠌࠓ
ࠀࠏࠕࠅ ࠉࠕ ࠀࠇ[ࠅ]ࠊࠅࠍ࠳
חֲכַם or חֲכִים: Inf. *miḥkæm = ܚܟܰܡ: Inf. meḥkæm; the Samaritan form is perhaps *meḥkum — the second word seems Impf. *neḥkam (*neḥkum is less likely since, unlike in the first word, is not written here) — The BA-Dan affirmative particle hălā originally implied “Is it not?” (CAL). In Samaritan Aramaic, this word is also used to introduce an object clause (CAL). Pure SA usage! — The final symbol might be SIYYAALAA, Shift+B, a question mark. However in Or1, the mark has only one dot, which is placed before the “c” shape, not above.
Jpeg 10 KiB
As such, perhaps it is BAU, Shift+C, “request, prayer,” showing that the sentence is not a simple question, but a humble petition. This could mean either of the two things. (1) The whole sentence is a rhetorical question begging to differ: “Please understand this. Did we know (=There was no way we could have known) that he was going to say, ‘Bring your brother here’?” (2) What is quoted is a request: “Did we know that he was going to say, ‘Bring your brother here, please’?” Samaritan punctuation marks are colorful and fun!

2018-05-16 (Day 19)

Gn43:8 (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܝܼܗܘܼܕܵܐ ܠܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܝ: ܫܲܕܲܪ ܛܲܠܝܵܐ ܥܲܡܲܢ: ܘܲܢܩܘܼܡ ܘܢܹܐܙܲܠ: ܘܢܸܚܹܐ ܘܠܵܐ ܢܡܘܼܬ݂: ܐܵܦ ܚܢܲܢ: ܐܵܦ ܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁: ܐܵܦ ܝܼܩܲܪܬܲܢ.܀
Then ʾĪhūḏā said to ʾĪsrāyèl, his father: “Send the boy with us, and we will stand up and we will go, and we will live {#1} and will not die {#2} — we too, you too, our dependents {#3} too.

#1 ḥe̊yā: Impf. neḥḥē (as if from a geminate verb: N §183 (7))

#2 In Syriac, mwt (myt) i/u is the only hollow verb that has ī between the 1st and 3rd radicals in G Perfect. ܟܕ ܡܝܬ ܕܝܢ ܗܹܪܘܿܕܸܣ ܡܠܟܐ܉ ܐܬܚܙܝ ܡܰܠܰܐܟܐ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ ܒܚܸܠܡܐ ܠܝܵܘܣܸܦ ܒܡܸܨܪܹܝܢ. (Mt2:19⁎) — Its G Imperfect forms have ū in this position, like other hollow verbs. ܘܐ̇ܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܡܠܦܢܐ܅ ܡܘܼܫܹܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܢ. ܕܐܢ ܐܢܫ ܢܡܘܼܬ܂ ܟܕ ܠܰܝܬ ܠܗ ܒܢ̈ܝܐ܉ ܢܶܣܰܒ ܐܚܘܼܗܝ ܐܢܬܬܗ܂ ܘܰܢܩܝܡ ܙܪܥܐ ܠܐܚܘܗܝ. (Mt22:24⁎) — It has ī also in C and Ct (and in G pass. pt.), but this is just like others.

#3 ʾīqærtā (hard t) = “burden, baggage” hence “encumbrance; (collectively) family members to support; women and children,” Heb. טַףThat human burden rather than simply "baggage" is the original meaning in the Peshitta is rather doubtful. (CAL)

וַאֲמַר יְהוּדָה לישראל אֲבוּהִי שְלַח עוּלֵימָא עִמִי וֻנקוּם וְנֵיזֵיל
וְנֵיחֵי וְלָא נְמוּת אַף אֲנַחנָא אַף אַת אַף טַפלַנָא׃
šlḥ G = “to send” (D = “to release”) — עוּלֵ(י)מָא = “strong, young (man); boy” — ʕimmi — *niḥye > neḥe (neḥē?) — ʾatt — ṭap̄lā = “children”: CAL ṭep̄lā
ࠅࠀࠌࠓ
ࠉࠄࠅࠃࠄ ࠋࠉࠔࠓࠀࠋ
ࠀࠁࠅࠄ*[ࠀࠁࠉࠅ]࠲ࠔࠋࠇ ࠓࠁࠉࠄ ࠏࠌࠉ
A usual Samaritan suffix for “his” is -yw (Nicholls 69). The stem for ʔb is ʔbw/h (Nich 76). The J from ʔbyw could be ʾəḇu(h)i(w). — rāḇyā (raḇyā, riḇyā) = “young man” Jar, Sam, Man. — The suffix for “me” is -(n)y. He says “with me” in MT, TgO, and SamTg, while we have “with us” in P.
ࠅࠍࠒࠅࠌ ࠅࠍࠉࠆࠋ ࠅࠍࠕࠒࠉࠌ*[ࠅࠍࠕࠅࠇࠉ]
ࠅࠋࠀ ࠍࠌࠅࠕ࠲ࠀࠐ ࠀࠍࠇࠍࠍ
ࠀࠐ ࠀࠕࠄ ࠀࠐ ࠈࠐࠋࠍࠍ*[ࠈࠐࠋࠍ]࠱
qwm Gt (*neṯqīm) = “to be erected, to survive” pure Sam. — ḥyy Ct (*neṯʔaḥyī > *neṯwaḥyī, OR *nettaḥyī > *nettaḥḥī > *nettawḥī) = “to be kept/made alive” Syr, Sam. [Aphel ܐܚܝ (ʾæḥḥī); Ettaphal ܐܬܬܚܝ (ʾettæḥḥī); N §184 (7)] In both Syriac and Jewish Aramaic (at least TgO), Ct forms have -ett-/-itt- in general (cf. Lambdin 64). Assuming that Samaritan Aramaic is similar, the vocalization *nettawḥī = *nettaḥḥī seems most likely here.

ḥyy Ct example in Syriac: ܐܬܬܰܚـܝ ܕܝܢ ܒܪܘܚܐ (H 1Petr 3:18), from White, Actuum apostolorum et epistolarum, p. 222 — CAL says 1PetrH? 3:19 [sic].

2018-05-17 (Day 20)

Gn43:9 (P, TgO, SamTgJ)

ܐܸܢܵܐ ܥܵܪܹܒ݂ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܒܹܗ: ܡ̣ܢ ܐܝܼ̈ܕܲܝ ܬܒܲܥܲܝܗܝ: ܐܸܢ ܠܵܐ ܐܲܝܬܹܝܘܗܝ ܠܵܟ: ܘܐܲܩܝܼܡܝܼܘܗܝ ܩܕ݂ܵܡܲܝܟ: ܐܸܚܛܹܐ ܠܐܵܒ݂ܝ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ ܝܵܘ̈ܡܵܬܵܐ.܀
I myself take responsibility {ʕreḇ b-} for him. From my hands {#4}, seek {#5} him (=Hold me personally accountable for his safety, OR perhaps like, he is in my capable hands). If I should not bring him [back] to you and let him stand in front of you, I would sin {ḥṭy G} (=I would be a sinner) before my father every one of days (=for the rest of my life).

#4 ʾīḏæy = pl. w. suf. NOT pl. constr. — in MT/TgO/SamTgJ “from my hand,” not “from my hands”: מִיָּדִי

#5 tbʕ a/a: tḇæʕ = “avenge/seek/claim/require!”: te̊ḇæʕāy(hy) = “seek him!”: ES te̊ḇæʕæy(hy) N §49B — ܒܗܢܐ ܠܠܝܐ ܢܰܦܫܟ܂ ܬܳܒܥܝܢ ܠܗ̇ ܡܢܟ. = “Tonight, as for your soul, they {who?} are claiming it from you.” (Lk12:20)

אֲנָא מְעָרַבנָא בֵיה מִן יְדִי תִבעֵינֵיה אִם לָא אַיתֵינֵיה לָך וַאֲקִימִינֵיה קְדָמָך וְאֵיהֵי חָטֵי לָך כֹל יוֹמַיָא׃
məʕāraḇ = D pass. pt. (2nd-R) “to vouch”: Lambdin 63 — təḇaʕ (?) = “seek!”: so the suffixed form could be *təḇaʕ-hi OR *təḇaʕ-eh > *tiḇʕeh: in reality we are seeing tiḇʕ-enn-eh, where -enn- < *-e-inn- is the element used in the suffixed form of 3rd-Y Impf, as in ʾayte C, ʾayte-nn-eh (cf. ʾăqim C, ʾăqim-inn-eh). It might be that while *təḇaʕ-hi would be the normal form, tiḇʕ-enn-eh is used by false analogy. However, TgO has a similar form here (see below). — אֵיהֵי ‎= ܐܶܗܘܶܐ (I would)?
ࠀࠍࠄ ࠀࠊࠐࠋࠍࠄ*[ࠀࠏࠓࠁࠍࠄ] ࠌࠍ ࠀࠃࠉ
ࠕࠁࠏࠉࠍࠄ࠱ࠀࠍ*[ࠀࠌ] ࠋࠀ ࠀࠍࠓࠉࠍࠄ
ࠋࠉࠃࠊ
*ʔekpɞl-nā (ɞ: unspecified vowel) = “I will double” [poss. “to double-check, to repeat so that it may clear”] Or1; *ʔeʕraḇ-nā = “I will vouch” J, EdPet; both Impf. + enclitic pronoun — *tiḇʕe-n-eh (G Imperative?) like TgO — ndy C = “bring” Sam, Syr.: *ʔande-n-eh (C Impf.), -n- again! {*ʔayte-n-eh (C Impf.) EdPet, *ʔayteh “C”} — lyd = “next to” Syr. (le̊yæḏ-), “to, unto (being next to)” CPA, San,
ࠅࠀࠒࠉࠌࠄ ࠋࠒࠃࠌࠉࠊ࠱
ࠅࠀࠇࠈࠉ*[ࠅࠇࠈࠉࠕ] ࠋࠊ ࠊࠋ ࠉࠅࠌࠉࠄ࠱
*ʔaqim-eh ] *ʔaqim-n-eh (C Impf.) EdPet — *ʔeḥṭē Impf., *ḥṭēṯ Pf. — for which, EdPet uses √ḥwb a/u = “to be guilty” as ʔḥyb (possibly D Impf. *ʔeḥ(ḥ)ayyeḇ), ʔtḥyb (*ʔettḥiḇ Gt Impf.) “C”, ʔtʕybt (*ʔettḥiḇeṯ Gt Pf.) “Ed”

Nicholls 72 observes that the 3. sg. m. suffixes are ࠄ,‎ࠅ,‎ࠍࠄ while the 3. sg. f. suffixes are ࠄ,‎ࠍࠄ. Nicholls 74–75 states: The suffix ࠍࠄ of common gender [they should be *-(ɞn)neh and *-(ɞn)nah respectively], formed by the epenthetic Nun from , is used with verbs; […] it is mostly employed with the future tense [Impf. and perhaps Imperat.], and comparatively speaking, is very seldom found with the preterite [Pf.] This -n- is somewhat like ū-n(ā) in Syriac, as in quṭlū-nā-y, the lengthened form of quṭlūy = “you guys, kill him!” Perhaps it is more like inn found in Jewish Aramaic (see above).

2018-05-18 (Day 21)

Gn43:10 (P)

ܘܐܵܦ ܐܸܠܘܼܠܵܐ ܐܸܫܬܵܘܚܲܪܢ: ܟܒܲܪ ܕܹܝܢ ܗܦܲܟ݂ܢ ܕܬܲܪ̈ܬܹ݁ܝܢ ܙܲܒ݂ܢܝܼ̈ܢ.܀
And also, if we had not delayed ourselves {#6}, perhaps then we would [already] have returned twice {#7}.

#6 šæwḥær (ES šāwḥær) = “to delay (trans./intr.)” is the Shaphel (šæp̄ʕel) of √ʔḥr (N §180 (1), Muraoka §49), that is a causative like Aphel (ʔæp̄ʕel), except it has š instead of ʔ. Its reflexive, ʾeštæwḥær occurs twice in Peshitta (Ac20:16/22:16), and also once in 2Pet3:9.

ܢܸܥܒܪܺܝܗ̇ ܠܐܦܣܘܣ܇ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܢܸܫܬܰܘܚܰܪ ܠܗ ܬܰܡܳܢ = “He will pass by (=he won’t visit) Ephesus {ES ʾæp̄esōs, WS ʾep̄esāws} lest it (=visiting) should not delay him there” (Ac20:16) — This could mean “lest he should not delay himself there” if there were no ܠܗ; the original is μὴ γένηται αὐτῷ χρονοτριβῆσαι = “lest delaying should occur to him”.

Or1 has something that looks similar, ࠀࠔࠕࠇࠉࠍࠍ (*ʔeštaḥinn = ʔešta(w)ḥern ??), except it does not have “r” as the final root. [Perhaps a different root, šhy. See below.]

#7 ܕܬܰܪ̈ܬܹܝܢ ܙܰܒ̈ܢܺܝܢ = “twice; a second time” where ܕ is a part of the idiom (N §209B). Literally, “those of two times”. This ܕ is not a part of the conditional expression ܐܠܘ ܠܐ ܕ‎= ܐܠܘ ܠܐ (N §375C).

In Syriac, there is no sharp distinction between si faceret and si fecisset (N §375A). In other words, ʾellū + Perfect may describe non-perfect conditions. In this case, they are still hesitating, and so the condition may be contrary-to-fact present (“if we were not hesitating”). But it may also mean “if we had not hesitated, we would have returned already.” The point is, there is no sharp distinction between those two. Also, the conclusion may be past (“we might already have returned”) or present (“we might be returning now”).

Technically, though, not hasitating now wouldn’t make it possible for them to have gone and returned twice already; they would have to change the past to make that possible. So translation should be something like “if we hadn’t delayed,” although the difference is not important in Syriac itself. Walton also translates this as contrary-to-fact past: nisi morã [=moram?] traxissem, certè jã reversi essem secundâ vice = “if we had not extended the delay, certainly already we would have returned for the second time.”

2018-05-19 (Day 22)

Gn43:10 (TgO, SamTgJ)

אֲרֵי אִלוּפוֹן [אִלּוּ לָא פּוֹן] בְדָא אִתעַכַבנָא
אֲרֵי כְעַן תַבנָא דְנָן תַרֵין [תַּרְתֵּין] זִמנִין׃
אֲרֵי = “behold”: corresponding to b.h. כִּי, which in this case means: for if we had not delayed, surely — ʾillū lā pōn = “if not, hypothetically”: for some reason CAL has this as אִלוּפוֹן, which pretty much confused me; I guess לָא could be implied. — עֲכַב = “to delay”: Ithpa. ʾiṯʕakkaḇ (Jastrow ʾiṯʕakkeḇ) — kəʕan = “now” — √twb = “to return” — dənān = “this one, there”
ࠀࠋࠅࠋࠉ* ࠋࠀ*[ࠄࠋࠀ ࠀࠋࠅࠋࠉ] ࠀࠔࠕࠇࠉࠍࠍ*[ࠀࠕࠔࠉࠍࠍ]
ࠄࠋࠀ ࠊࠃࠅ ࠇࠆࠓࠍࠍ*[ࠏࠆࠓࠍࠍ] ࠃࠍ
ࠆࠁࠍࠉࠍ*[ࠆࠁࠍࠄࠉࠌ]࠹
lā = (possibly) hălā = “is it not?” — אִילּוּלֵי ‎= ܐܠܘ ܠܐšhy = “to delay” PTA, Sam, LJLA [used also in Syriac G/D/Dt, TS2-4071]: Gt אִשְׁתְּהִי — ʾištəhinā = “we delayed ourselves”: *ʔiṯšəyinan J (no metathesis; y for h) is this one, according to CAL. *ʔištəḥinan Or1 (ḥ for h) could be also this one. But it might be šʕy Dt *ʔištaʕʕi(nan) “to talk, discuss”, because, while ḥ for h seems strange, ḥ (or ʕ) is supported by other sources: EdPet hšḥynn ] ʔštʕhnn “A”; ʔštḥynn “C”; ʔtḥšynn “Ed” — kaddū = “now, this time” Jar, Sam, etc. — ḥzr = “to return (intrans.)” PTA, Sam, etc.: ḥəˈzernā = “we returned” — dēn/den = “this one”: In PTA/Gal/Sam/CPA apparently with a short vowel, which is probably original (CAL) — zaḇnā fem. = “time (as in first time, second time)” Sam, Syr: the form in Or1 is exactly like ܙܰܒ̈ܢܝܢ, while the one in J looks like du. *zabna(y)im = “two times”

EdPet has ࠕࠓࠉࠌ = “two (m.)” [Nich. 25], or ࠕࠓࠉࠍ “A” = Syr. trēn = JBA trē(n), before the final word ࠆࠁࠍࠉࠌ.

2018-05-20 (Day 23)

Gn43:11a (P)

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܐܲܒܘܼܗܘܿܢ: ܐܸܢ ܗܵܟܲܢܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܼ ܗܵܕܹܐ ܥܒܸܕ݂ܘ: ܣܲܒ݂ܘ ܡ̣ܢ ܛܘܼܒ݂ܵܗ̇ ܕܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܒܡܵܐܢܲܝ̈ܟ݁ܘܿܢ: ܘܐܲܚܸܬ݂ܘ ܠܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܩܘܼܪܒܵܢܵܐ:
And ʾĪsrāèl, their father, said to them: “If it is so {hāḵænā (CAL)}, (you guys) do this! Take {√nsb > sæḇ} from the choicest things {sg. collectively} of the area into your bags {mānā}, and bring down {ʾæḥḥeṭ C} to the man the gift {qurbānā} (=bring them to the man as a gift). ”

ܣܰܒ ܕܝܠܟ܂ ܘܙܸܠ. ܨ̇ܒܐ ܐܢܐ ܕܝܢ܁ ܕܰܠܗܢܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝܐ܁ ܐܸܬܸ̊ܠ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܠܟ. (Mt20:14⁎)

ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܐܰܪܡܝܘ ܒܡ̈ܐܢܐ = “they threw good ones into the bags” (Mt13:48)

ܩܰܪܸܒܘ ܠܹܗ ܩܘܪ̈ܒܳܢܹܐ. ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ܁ ܘܡܘܪܐ܂ ܘܰܠܒ̥ܘܼܢ̄ܬ̊ܐ. (Mt2:11) — le̊ḇūntā > le̊ḇūttā N §28

Deut 34:1–7 (Samaritan Targum)

2018-04-27

http://rid.olfo.org/keyboard/
JIM RIDOLFO | Samaritan Keyboard for OSX, Windows, and Linux

This KL (v1.01 @ 2017-02-14) is Hebrew-based, also supporting vowel signs.
Also, Hebrew-Samaritan-New.ttf is a modified version of Hebrew-Samaritan 0.06 from culmus,
which, unlike the original Hebrew-Samaritan, supports vowel signs.
Like the original Hebrew-Samaritan,
the same set of glyphs is doubly supported through the standard Samaritan code points
AND the Hebrew code points (with a “type Hebrew, get Samaritan”-style hack).

2018-05-04 KL and fonts should support U+2E31 [ ⸱ ] WORD SEPARATOR MIDDLE DOT,
like Noto Sans Samaritan and Everson Mono do.  Currently, Hebrew-Samaritan-New.ttf uses the
SPACE character to show this dot, which is convenient but non-standard and incompatible with other fonts.
TUS (v10.0.0) ch. 9, p. 404 states: “Samaritan also uses a smaller dot as a word separator,
which can be represented by U+2E31 word separator middle dot.”
On the KL, one could use the currently-unused key-bind [Shift]+['] for this.
Also, supporting RLM might be handy; at least, if LRO/RLO are supported, PDF should be supported too.
The [AltGr] state may be used to support additional characters.
Having LRO/RLO in the normal [Shift] state is somewhat dangerous, as one could accidentally hit
the keys, unknowingly inserting an invisible letter, which could really mess up the display
(and a normal user probably wouldn’t know what went wrong).  Such a problem would happen
less frequently, if the characters in question are supported via [AltGr].

2018-05-10 The font should not show a dot for SPACE; with that one can not show AFSAAQ + (true) SPACE or ANGED + (true) SPACE.

2018-05-14 Or ATMAAU + SPACE.  Instead, the KL could simply support U+00A0 for a real SPACE, which is already supported by the font.

2018-05-15 In this Samaritan KL, “()” is Shift+8/7, not compatible with the Hebrew/Arabic/Syriac KLs.

2018-05-19 The KL supports the same character doubly when its Hebrew counterpart has two forms (regular and final).
I like this.

2018-04-28 (Day 1)

Dt34:1a (P, MT, TgO, SamTg)

by Jean-Pierre Dalbéra

ܘܲܣܠܸܩ ܡܘܫܹܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܲܪܒ݂ܘ݂ܬ݂ ܡܘܼܐܵܒ݂ ܠܛܘܼܪܵܐ ܕܢܵܒ݂ܘܿ:
And Moses went up from ʕærḇūṯ-Mūʾāḇ (desert-plain of Moab) to the mountain of Nebo {nāḇṓ}.
וַיַּ֨עַל מֹשֶׁ֜ה מֵֽעַרְבֹ֤ת מוֹאָב֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר נְב֔וֹ
עָלָה = “to go up”: impf. יַֽעֲלֶה and וַיַּ֫עַל (G §75r)
וּסְלֵיק מֹשַה (מֹשֶׁה) מִמֵּישְׁרַיָּא דְּמוֹאָב לְטוּרָא דִּנְבוֹ
mēš(ā)rā = “bed, plain”: mēšræyyā pl. emph. Readers should remember that a "plain" in the near east is both flat and dry. (CAL): Heb. מִישׁוֹר {2018-05-03 Bab Voc dosen’t have different marks for a and è}
ࠅࠎࠋࠒ ࠌࠔࠄ ࠌࠍ ࠁࠒࠏࠕ ࠌࠅࠀࠁ ࠀࠋ ࠈࠅࠓ ࠍࠁࠀ
ࠅࠎࠋࠒ ࠌࠔࠄ ࠌࠍ ࠁࠒࠏࠕ ࠌࠅࠀࠁ ࠀࠋ ࠈࠅࠓ ࠍࠁࠀ
וסלק משה מן בקעת מואב אל טור נבא
baqʕaṯ (Jar) = biqʕaṯ (Heb/TgO) = “valley of”: see Dt34:3 MT/TgO

  1. BĀ́ /bɑː/ is basically ו, somewhat like a mirrored ϝ (digamma).
    Notes: (1) One can think as a rotated W. (2) While East Syrians read B as w, Samarians seem to read W sometimes as b.
  2. ˈSINGĀ́T /ˈsin.ɡɑːt/ is basically ס, except it’s rather complicated.
    Note: the dot in the middle is dirt; a clean version of the same letter:
    {2018-05-05 This letter corresponds to Ξ/ξ}
  3. ˈLĀBĀT /ˈlaːbat/ is a ל, somewhat like λ (or simply, like “L”)
  4. QŪF is ק, easy.
    2018-05-08 That said, it can be confusing that “q” and “ρ” are both mirrored, and so the two are swapped in a way. Thinking them as ק and ר instead seems a better way.
  5. MĪM (m) must be memorized; it’s an upside-down m with a y-like tail; somewhat like a mirrored μ.
  6. SHĀN is ש, easy.
  7. ĪY is basically ה, except it has two horizontal strokes instead of the short vertical line in the left of ה. {2018-05-03 a mirrored E, but do not confuse it with a rotated E, as in ; thinking it as ה seems easier.}

Glyphs from Walton Polyglot; cf. Samaritan_script_table.jpg

2018-04-29 (Day 2)

  1. NŪN is נ
  2. BĪT is ב
  3. ĪN is “omicron” as in /ʕ/, or “the eye” (ʕæyn), exactly like the Geez
  4. TĀ́F is ת
  5. ˈĀLĀF is א; this one has two strokes in the right area, while has only one such stroke.
  6. ṬĪT is ט
  7. RĪŠ is a mirrored “rho”, or “the head” (rēš). Just like ב has a baseline while ר doesn’t, (B) has a base line while (R) doesn’t.

ʾl = “to” in OA, sam, (L)JLA: — אֶלNote that in authentic post-Official Aramaic texts ˀl is replaced by l_ or ˁl. (CAL): l-ṭwr (not ʔl ṭwr) both in Codex Barberini Or. 1, and Ed. Petermann (Pentateuchus Samaritanus); also, m-pqʕt Or1, instead of mn pqʕt.

In this version, nbw is written as nbʾ, which may suggest that ā is [ɒː ~ ɔː] for Samaritans, just like for West Syrians.

ܠܪܹܫ ܪܵܡܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܐܝܼܪܝܼܚܘܿ:
To the top of the hill that was in front of Jericho.
רֹ֚אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י יְרֵח֑וֹ
Pisgā(h) = p.n. simply called “hill” in Pesh and TgO.
רֵישׁ רָמְתָא דְּעַל אַפֵּי יְרֵיחוֹ
ࠓࠀࠔ ࠎࠌࠉࠕࠄ [ࠎࠊࠉࠕࠄ] ࠃࠏࠋ ࠀࠐࠉ ࠉࠓࠇࠉࠅ
ࠓࠀࠔ ࠎࠌࠉࠕࠄ [ࠎࠊࠉࠕࠄ] ࠃࠏࠋ ࠀࠐࠉ ࠉࠓࠇࠉࠅ
†smy [sic] = sky f. “summit” Sam. (səḵīṯā(h) ?) — yrḥyw = yryḥw might be better [2018-04-30 Indeed yryḥw in smp (Samaritan, as opposed to sam = Samaritan Aramaic)]

Or1 & EdPet: ryš [Com] instead of rʔš [attested var.]; skyth; yryḥw. סָכוּתָא,‎ סְ׳ = “outlook watchpost”: possibly Sam. סְכִיתָא — this word is used for TgO səḵōṯ in SamTgJ Nm23:14.

  1. We see a MĪM , but read it as a KĀ́F , which itself is a כ with some decoration on the top, or something like a katakana コ.
  2. YŪT must be memorized; it’s like a katakana ヨ.
  3. ˈDĀLĀT is ד, vaguely like a ダ.
  4. is פ. While this one looks like a Hebrew כ, the real K has some decoration on the top. Could be one of the most confusing pairs. One can think as a rotated pi (Π).
  5. ĪT is ח; it looks like “Ḥ”.

The remaining 3 letters of the Samaritan alphabet are: ˈGĀMĀN (that is ג, or a mirrored gamma), ZĒN (that is ז, or a zeta), and ˈṢĀ́DĪY (that is צ, or a rotated ܨ — may be confusable with YŪT ). {2018-05-05‎ is like Greek Sampi Ϡ or San Ϻ or Archaic San Ͳ.}

2018-04-30 (Day 3)

Dt34:1b–3 (P, SamTg)

JPEG 15 KiB

ܘܚܵܘܝܹܗ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܟܠܵܗ̇ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܓܸܠܥܵܕ݁: ܘܲܕ ܓ݂ܵܕ݂: ܘܲܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܕܵܢ.܀
And the Lord showed him all of the land of Gelʕād (Gilʕāḏ), and of Gāḏʾ, and all the way to {ʕɐ̊ḏæmmā l-} Dān. — “Gāḏ” is not in MT.
ܘܟ݂ܠܹܗ ܢܲܦ̮ܬܵܠܝܼ: ܘܟ݂ܠܵܗ̇ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܐܲܦܪܹܝܡ܆ ܘܕܲܡܢܲܫܹܐ: ܘܟ݂ܠܵܗ̇ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܲܝܗܘܼܕ݂ܵܐ: ܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܝܲܡܵܐ ܐ݇ܚܪܵܝܵܐ ܘܲܠܬܲܝܡܢܵܐ:܀
And all of Næp̄tālī {mas.}; and all of the land {fem.} of ʾÆp̄rēm, and of Me̊næššē; and all of the land of Ye̊hūḏā; all the way to the farthest {ḥrāyā, lit. “last”} sea; and the south {tæymnā}. — in MT “the south” belongs to the next verse, not here.
ܘܲܠܟ݂ܵܟ݂ܵܪ ܕܒܲܦܩܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܝܼܪܝܼܚܘܿ ܩܪܝܼܬܼܵܐ ܕܕܸܩ̈ܠܹܐ: ܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܨܵܥܵܪ.܀
And the kāḵār† {Heb. kikkār = “round district”: variant kāḇār?} that is in the valley/flat land {pe̊qæʕṯā; CAL -tā} of Jericho, the town of date-palms {deqlā}; all the way to Ṣāʕār (Zoar).

  1. ḥzy C = “to show” in OfA (informal), JLA, PTA, Sam, etc.: *ʾaḥzī, *haḥzī (cf. Nicholls, A Grammar of the Samaritan Language, p. 42, no 17): w. suf. *haḥzəy-eh (Lambdin, p. 61, d) like ܐܰܪܡܝܹܗ from ܐܰܪܡܝ: “made him see the land” = “showed him the land” ࠅࠇࠆࠉࠀࠄ (*w-aḥzəyeh) Or1: h-less Aphel. This spelling, if genuine, suggests that the suffix -eh had a wide /ɛ/ vowel for Samaritans, just like for (East) Syrians.
  2. yāṯ = accusative particle, like our l-: kl = omnis, yt kl = omnem.

  1. “men nahrā”: possibly “men nahrē” (plural) {#1}
  2. mṣry (miṣrāy) = “Egyptian”: possibly *miṣrāym/*miṣraym is a plural form. {#1}
  3. ʕaḏ = “until”
  4. pe̊rāṯ = “Euphrates” — Both Or1 and EdPet have nhr prt, with the Constr. st., not nhrh prt.
  5. “yammā” — While Or1 also has w-ʕd ymh, EdPet has w-sʕd ymh: sʕd is a Samaritan expression (see Dt34:6)
  6. ḥwrnh = *ḥorānā (?) = Syr. ḥrēnā “other”: perh. for ḥrāyā “last” {#2}
  7. Maybe Samaritans don’t want to list up Jewish tribe names, and so they have changed them into generic geographic names such as Euphrates.

It seems that Samaritans write “h” at the end of a word, when the word ends in the vowel -ā.

In this short paragraph (Deut34:1–3), every single letter of the Samaritan alphabet appears, except we don’t see a “g” here in sam (smp has it, and it just looks like a mirrored gamma).

2018-05-04 (Day 7-2)

The letter “g” will appear in 34:6. Stay tuned!

#1 nhrh is sg. emph.: nhar, nahrā; pl. emph. would be nhryh [nahriyya?] (Nicholls, p. 21, §8). — mṣrym is actually a proper noun (Nicholls, p. 135a), whose form is pl. abs. (Nicholls, p. 19, §4), like “United States” or “Netherlands” so to speak. — So what we have here is “the River Egypt” said not using d- nor the constr. state. ࠌࠍ ࠍࠄࠓࠄ ࠌࠑࠓࠀࠉ Or1: nahrā Emph. + miṣrāy Adj. (now THIS makes sense!); also ࠌࠍࠄࠓ ࠌࠑࠓࠀࠉ EdPet: Abs/Constr. + Adj. (not so wrong). — Jess. 330a has a similar phrase (with d- and with Seyame) in Syriac: ܡܢ ܢܲܗܪܐ ܕܡܸܨܪܹ̈ܝܢ ܘܲܥܕܲܡܐ ܠܢܲܗܪܐ ܪܒܐ = “from the Nile to the Great River i.e. the Euphrates”. — ܡ̣ܢ ܡܸܨܪܹܝܢ ܩܪܹܝܬ ܠܒܹܪܝ (Mt2:15) — מִצְרַ֫יִם this -ayim is said to be the dual termination, perh. referring to Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt (Brown-Driver-Briggs 595a; wikt).

#2 ࠇࠅࠓࠍ = “distant, last” (Nicholls 134a): חוֹרָן and חוֹרָנָה = “another, next; last” (Jastrow 440a) — ḥwrnh also in EdPet; ʔḥrwnh Or1. The Or1 form is like ܐ̱ܚܪܹܢܐ.

Dt34:1b–34:3 (TgO)

See also: Mikraot Gedolot (he.wikisource.org)

וְאַחזִיֵיה (וְאַחְזְיֵיהּ) יוי יָת כֹל (כָּל) אַרְעָא יָת גִּלְעָד עַל דָּן
א֡חז֗י just like in Syriac; but in Syriac, the suffixed form would be *ʾæḥ-zīh. Now in TgO, it’s ʾaḥ-zə-yeh (p. 61, d), and ə is written as i in CAL (Bar Ilan) text [this is an instance of CCC=CCəC]. For the sake of convenience I’m going to write fake Babylonian vowel signs ב֡ב֫ב֞ב֗ב֔ב֨בֿ meaning בַבָבֵבִבֹבֻבְ, abusing cantillation marks and rafe. — yāṯ = also in Sam. ࠉࠕ
וְיָת כֹל נַפתַלִי (נַפתָלִי) וְיָת אֲרַע אַפרַיִם (אֶפ׳) וֻמנַשַה (וּמְנַשֶּׁה)
Heb. Nap̄tālī, Èp̄-ra-yim
וְיָת כֹל אֲרַע יְהוּדָה עַד יַמָא מַעַרבָאָה (מַעְרְבָאָה) [בתראה#3#]׃
maʕrəḇāy(ā) [=Syriac], Jastrow maʕar(ə)ḇāʾā = “western” — CAL bāṯrāy(ā), Jastr. baṯrāʾā = “last”
וְיָת דָרוֹמָא וְיָת מֵישְרָא בִקעַת יְרֵחוֺ קִריַת דִקלַיָא עַד צֹעַר׃
dārōmā = “south” — מֵישָׁרָא or מֵישְׁרָא = “bed, plain, valley” — biqʕaṯ = pl. constr. of biqʕəṯā “valley”: often a vast flat "plain" between distant mountain ranges (CAL): בִּקְעֲתָא or בַּקְעֲתָא, pl. בִּקְעָתָא, so *בִּקְעָת is expected (Lambdin, p. 23), but the actual form is בִּקְעַת, possibly from biqʕā, pl. biqāʕōṯ (this is just a sing. constr. form (ibid, p. 24, 9.3, a), like malkaṯ from malkəṯā) : = Sam. ࠁࠒࠏࠕ ‎(34:1) — דִּקְלָא pl. דִּקְלַיָּא

2018-05-01 (Day 4)

Dt34:4 (P, TgO, SamTg)

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܹܗ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ: ܗܵܕܲܐ ܗ݇ܝܼ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܝܼܡܝܼܬ݂ ܠܐܲܒ݂ܪܵܗܵܡ: ܘܠܐܝܼܣܚܵܩ: ܘܲܠܝܲܥܩܘܿܒ݂:
And the Lord said to him: “This is the land that I swore to A and to I and to J.” {ymy = “to swear”: yīmā OR yīmī, 1. sg. *yīmēṯ OR yīmīṯ}
ࠅࠀࠌࠓ ࠉࠄࠅࠄ ࠀࠋࠄࠅ ࠃࠀࠄ ࠀࠓࠏࠄ ࠃࠀࠔࠕࠁࠏࠕࠉ
ࠋࠀࠁࠄࠀࠊ ࠋࠀࠁࠓࠄࠌ ࠋࠉࠑࠇࠒ ࠅࠋࠉࠏࠒࠁ
ʾl-hw: suffix -hw(ʾ) simply lh in Or1, EdPet — dā = “this (f.)” dh Or1 — šbʕ Gt = JLA, Sam, “to swear”: אִשְׁתְּבַע (ʾištəḇaʕ ʾištəḇáʕiṯ: -iṯi?) ʔštbʕt Or1; ymyt EdPet (like Syriac ver.) — ʾbhʾk = ܐܰܒܳܗܰܝ̈ܟ — ʾysḥq Syc. vs. yṣḥq Sam. (s/ṣ)

2018-05-02 (Day 5)

וַאֲמַר יוי לָיה† (לֵיהּ) דָּא אַרְעָא דְּקַיֵּימִית לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקוֹב
leh (CAL †lāh [sic]) — dā = used both in Sam. and here in TgO! — qayyémiṯ = qwm D (pf. 1. sg.) “to swear” JLAtg, PTA, Sam. — yṣḥq is more correct!
ܘܐܸܡܪܹܬ݂ ܕܲܠܙܲܪܥ݈ܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܐܸܬܠܝܼܗ̇:
“And I said: To your (pl.) offspring I will give it.” {“your (sg.)” in Heb TgO Sam; you = Moses?}
ࠋࠌࠉࠌࠓ ࠋࠆࠓࠏࠊ ࠀࠄࠁࠍࠄ
lmhmr (√ʔmr) = “by saying” (Nicholls, p. 103, no 46, γ) = ܠܡܹܐܡܰܪ — *zarʕāḵ = “your (sg.) offspring” [-āḵ with a long ā also in TgO] ࠋࠍࠅࠐࠊ (*l-nōp̄āḵ) Or1 EdPet, where נוֹפָא = “branches on top of tree” JLAtg, Sam.; but also “offspring” Sam. — *ʔeyhaḇ = “I will give” = impf. of √yhb a/a (formed regularly, without using a different root like ntn/ntl): -nh = suf. fem. [*ʾiyhəḇ-innah (cf. TgO, see below) = *ʾeyhḇ-īh, like ܐܸܩܛܠܝܗ̇] ࠀࠄࠁࠄ (*ʔēhbīh (??)) Or1
לְמֵימַר לִבְנָךְ אִיתְנִינַה (אֶתְּנִנַּהּ)
lə-memar = like Sam., TgO says it with inf. — bənāḵ = “your (sg.) sons” = ܒܢܰܝܟ — √ntn (= Syr. ntl): yitten, ʾitten (Lambdin, p. 57, e): ʾittən-inn-ah [NOT -āh!] (ibid. p. 61, b)

In some fonts, (Z) looks like (B) followed by Λ.

2018-05-03 (Day 6)

ܚܵܘܝܼܬ݂ܵܗ̇ ܠܵܟ ܒܥܲܝܢܲܝ̈ܟ: ܘܲܠܬܲܡܵܢ ܠܵܐ ܬܸܥܘܿܠ.
“I have let you see it with your eyes; and there, you shall not enter.”
אַחְזִיתָךְ בְּעֵינָךְ וּלְתַמָּן לָא תְעִיבַר (תִעִיבַר / תִּעְבַּר)׃
ʕbr = “to cross over”: təʕiḇar = tiʕbar OR tiʕiḇar (Lambdin, p. 55, c)
ࠄࠇࠆࠄࠕࠊ ࠁࠏࠉࠍࠉࠊ ࠅࠕࠌࠍ ࠋࠀ ࠕࠏࠁࠓ࠱࠷
Vocalization aside, almost like TgO. — U+0831 SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION AFSAAQ (Shift+Z) is like U+05C3 HEBREW PUNCTUATION SOF PASUQ ׃ — U+0837 SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION MELODIC QITSA (Shift+M) indicates the end of a sentence to be read melodically (ref. sam-n3377.pdf), maybe like ♫Lā tiʕī~~~ḇa~~~r♫

2018-05-04 (Day 7-1)

Dt34:5 (P, TgO, SamTg)

ܘܡܝܼܬ݂ ܬܲܡܵܢ ܡܘܫܹܐ [ܡܘܿܫܹܐ] ܥܲܒ݂ܕܹܗ ܕܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܒܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܡܘܼܐܵܒ݂: ܒܡܸܠܲܬ݂ ܦܘܼܡܹܗ ܕܡܵܪܝܵܐ:܀
Then Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there in the land of Mūʾāḇ, with the order (lit. word-of-the-mouth) of the Lord.
וּמִית תַּמָּן מֹשַה (מֹשֶׁה) עַבְדָּא דָּיוי בְּאַרְעָא דְּמוֹאָב עַל מֵימְרָא דַּיוי
ࠅࠌࠉࠕ ࠕࠌࠍ ࠌࠔࠄ ࠏࠁࠃ ࠉࠄࠅࠄ ࠁࠀࠓࠏ ࠌࠅࠀࠁ ࠏࠋ ࠐࠉ ࠉࠄࠅࠄ
*ʕe̊ḇāḏ = Constr. — אֲרַע = Constr. — *pī = Constr. of Heb. pè(h)

This ܥܰܒܕܹܗ is Noun ܥܰܒܕܐ + suffix, but also it could be Verb ܥܒܰܕ + suffix. Example: ܡܫܝܚܐ ܥܰܒܕܹܗ ܐܠܗܐ (Ac2:36)

2018-05-05 (Day 8)

Dt34:6 (P, TgO, SamTg)

ܘܩܲܒ݂ܪܹܗ ܒܢܲܚܠܵܐ ܒܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܡܘܼܐܵܒ݂: ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܒܹܝܬ݂ ܦܥܘܿܪ: ܘܠܵܐ ܝܼܕܲܥ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܩܲܒ݂ܪܹܗ ܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܝܵܘܡܵܢܵܐ.܀
And he buried {qbr} him in a wadi/valley {næḥlā} in the land of Mūʾāḇ, over against Bēṯ Pe̊ʕōr. And no one has known his tomb {qæḇrā} to this day.
וֻקבַר יָתֵיהּ בְחִילְּתָא בארעא דְמוֹאָב לִקבֵיל [לָקְֹבֵיל#3#] בֵית פְעוֹר וְלָא יְדַע אֲנָש יָת קְבוּרְתֵיהּ עַד יוֹמָא הָדֵין׃
ḥilləṯā = “valley” — qəḇūrtā [CAL, Jastrow] = “burial place” [soft -ṯā in some versions] — hāḏēn = “this (m.!)”
ࠅࠒࠁࠓ ࠁࠂࠉࠀ ࠁࠀࠓࠏ ࠌࠅࠀࠁ ࠒࠁࠋ ࠁࠉࠕ ࠐࠏࠅࠓ
גַּיְא (=Heb.) = “valley”
ࠅࠋࠀ ࠇࠊࠌ ࠀࠍࠔ ࠉࠕ ࠒࠁࠓࠕࠄ ࠎࠏࠃ ࠉࠅࠌࠄ ࠄࠃࠍ࠱
חֲכַם = “to be wise, to know” — sʕd = Sam. “because of, to, until, in order to” [səʕaḏ ?? = syc ʕɐ̊ḏæmmā, jpa ʕaḏ]

Dt34:1b (MT)

וַיַּרְאֵ֨הוּ יְהוָ֧ה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָ֖ד עַד־דָּֽן׃
רָאָה = “to see”: Hiphʿîl Impf. יַרְאֶה, w. suf. יַרְאֵ֫הוּ — Several places were/are called Dān. It could be the coastal area (near Jaffa) to be allocated to the Tribe of Dan. It could be the proverbial Dan, as in “from Dan to Beersheba” (Ju20:1, etc.), the northernmost city; the expression “as far as Dan” in Gn14:14 also suggests that it was a remote place. — This half-verse is divided into three parts with Te̊ḇīr and Ṭip̄ḥā; the Te̊ḇīr phrase is decorated with (middle-)Qaḏmā and Dargā.

2018-05-06 (Day 9)

So this was Samaritan Targum “A” not J

http://blog.huc.edu/cal/2016/03/whats-the-matter-with-samaritan/


In light of the above, it stands to reason that
 we should concentrate our lexicographical analysis on the early group of texts,
 written in good Western Aramaic, i.e. Targum J, Marqe book 1, and the liturgical poems.
 Students may now rely on all of that material.

...

A. Tal, “The Samaritan Targum to the Pentateuch, its distinctive characteristics and its metamorphosis”,
JSS 21, 1976, 26-38.

...
the Samaritan Targum, in its two major and distinct types (J and A) as delineated by [Abraham] Tal
 in his The Samaritan Targum of the Pentateuch (Tel-Aviv, 1983)

Samaritan Targum J (ms Or 7562) Samaritan Targum A (ms 3?

Unfortunately, Walton, Nicholls, and Adolf Brülle all used Samaritan Targum “A”. This blows. Fortunately, though, I noticed this on Day 9, and basically, it’s okay because at this point I’m just trying to learn how to read the Samaritan alphabet. Also, checking what Targum A looks like is not entirely useless. I would love to use J, but SamTgJ Dt34 (if it exists at all) is not available on CAL. I’ll just read SamTg-“A” Dt34:7, then maybe I’m going to read SamTgJ Dt27 or SamTgJ Ex20.

Dt34:7 (P, TgO, SamTg-A!)

ܘܡܘܼܫܹܐ ܒܲܪ ܡܵܐܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ ܘܥܸܣܪܝܼܢ ܫܢ̈ܝܼܢ ܟܲܕ ܡܝܼܬ݂: ܠܵܐ ܝܸܩܪܲܬ݀ ܥܲܝܢܹܗ: ܘܠܵܐ ܐܸܬ݂ܩܲܡܲܛܘ ܦܲܟܵܘ̈ܗܝ.܀
And Moses was a son (man) of one hundred and twenty years [old], when he died. His eye {singular!} was not weak {yqr = “to be heavy, troublesome”}, and his cheeks {pækkā} had not become wrinkled {qmṭ D = “to wrinkle”}.

Both (numeral + šnīn) and (šnīn + numeral) are used: ܒܰܪ ܬܪܬܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ = “a boy of two years [old]” (Mt2:16) and ܒܰܪ̱ܬ̥ ܫܢܝܢ ܬܪܬܥܣܪܐ = “a girl of twelve years [old]” (Mk4:32).

It seems that “His eyes were weak” is said more commonly with the plural form. An example from CAL is ܥܝܢ̈ܘܗܝ ܫܪܝ ܝܩܪ̈ܢ (P 1S3:2). However, an expression like “His eye (sg.) is clear” is also attested.

“Cheek” is masculine! If it were feminine, the verb would be ܐܬܩܲܡܲܛ (3. fem. pl. = 3. mas. sg.). Also, the last word of ܐܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܐܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܉ ܕܠܐ ܬܩܘܡܽܘܢ ܠܘܩܒܠ ܒܝܫܐ. ܐܠܐ ܡ̇ܢ ܕܡ̇ܚܐ ܠܟ ܥܠ ܦܰܟܳܟ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ܉ ܐܦܢܐ ܠܗ ܐܦ ܐܚܪܹܢܐ. (Mt5:39⁎) would become ܐܚܪܬܐ.

ࠅࠌࠔࠄ ࠁࠓ ࠌࠀࠄ ࠅࠏࠎࠓࠉࠌ ࠔࠕࠄ ࠁࠌࠅࠕࠄ
ʕsrym = ܥܣܪܝܢ. Nicholls 25 states -m is normal in “twenty” etc. while -n is used for ššyn. — mwt = ܡܝܬ: b-mwt-h = b- + inf. = “when…” (Nich 103, §46, α); -h should be some kind of ending, possibly the suffix -eh, or perhaps just -ā.

2018-05-07 (Day 10)

וֻמֹשַה בַר מְאָה וְעַסרִין שְנִין כַד מִית לָא כְהָת עֵינֵיה וְלָא שְנָא זִיו יְקָרָא דְאַפוֹהִי׃
khy = “(eyes) to grow weak” JLAtg: כְּהָא = “to be dim (of sight, light) — “his eye” is singular! Notice, “his” is written -éyh in jpa (and -h is not silent: עֵינֵיהּ), as opposed to -èh in Syriac. — šny = “to be different, go away” Jar — zyw = “appearance; splendor, beauty” — yqr = “honor, majesty, gloriousness” — ʾappā, pl. ʾappayyā, +suf. ʾappóhi (Lambdin 21): the spelling is identical with one in Syriac, both written ʔpwhy; its vocalization is ʾæppāw/ʾæppæw (-hy is silent) in Syriac, while ʾappōhī (-hy is pronounced) in Jewish Aramaic. Not only that, “face” seems to be masculine in Jar, though that doesn’t matter here.
ࠋࠀ ࠊࠌࠏࠕ ࠏࠉࠍࠄ ࠅࠋࠀ ࠏࠓࠒ ࠓࠈࠅࠁࠄ࠱࠷
kmʕ = Sam. “to be dim, to be weak” (attested in J) — “his eye” is singular in this version too! — ʕrq = Com. “to flee”: עֲרַק — rṭwb = “strength, vigour” (Nich 137a), but dubious: CAL has rṭyb (raṭṭīḇ) = adj. “moist” JLATg, Sam, Syr, etc.: רַטִּיב,‎ רָטִיב,‎ רְ׳,‎ רְטִיבָא = “moist, succulent, fresh, green” (Jastrow 1471b): also Walton Polyglot translates this as ⟦vĭror⟧ = “green color, greenness, verdure (post-class. for viriditas)”: ⟦neque fūgerat viror ejus⟧

Barberini Triglot (Or1), and Ed. Petermann (EdPet)

https://archive.org/details/pentateuchussama00pete
Pentateuchus Samaritanus by Petermann, Julius Heinrich. The title sounds like Samaritan Pentateuch in Samaritan Hebrew, but the inside is Samaritan Targum in Aramaic; this is some kind of better text, though not J, with an apparatus. E.g. “twenty” is written ʕsryn with -n in this version! Also it has sKyth in 34:1, instead of *sMyth. The A in this edition is the infamous “A”. It also has B, C, D things, and one of them is supposed to be J-like. I’ll re-read 34:1−7 with this one later.

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ucm.5329117505;page=root;seq=170;view=image;size=100;orient=0
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ucm.5329117505;view=1up;seq=170;size=300
— An image (hand-traced?) of one leaf from the Barberini Triglot (Barberinischen Triglotte, 1226 CE): Triglotte in 3 Kolumnen, rechts den hebräischen, in der Mitte den arabischen, links den aramäischen Text, aber alles in samaritanischen Buchstaben geschreben. according to Der hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner:
https://archive.org/stream/derhebrischepent01gall#page/n24/mode/1up
After some effort I managed to identify it as text around Num6:1 (176v).
The whole thing [Barb.or.1] is here:
https://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Barb.or.1/0378
https://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Barb.or.1

Or1 seems J-like, and I decided to read Gn43, using both J (in CAL) and Or1. Reading Ex20, etc. using Nichollas’ book would be pointless, as his grammar was based on bad examples of the language, though it was not his fault that Walton’s text was not good. Also, I’m going to re-read Dt34:1–7 with Or1.

Des accents de la phrase (Duval §171)

2018-04-16

(Duval p. 150)

Plus tard, le point sur la ligne après le mot fut réservé pour la grande pause qui suit la fin de la phrase, et reçut le nom de ܦܳܣܘܿܩܐ; il correspond au סִלּוּק ou סוֹף פָּסוּק hébreu. La chute de la voix qui précède la pause, est notée par un point inférieur, le ܣܳܡܟܐ; l’élévation que cette chute suppose a par antithèse le point supérieur, ܪܶܬ̥ܡܐ ou ܙܵܘܥܐ. Ces trois points expriment donc le rythme dans toute sa simplicité : mise en mouvement de la voix, chute, arrêt:
 Matth. 19, 3. ܘܰܡܢܰܣܝܶܢ̇ [ܘܰܡܢܰܣܶܝܢ̇] ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠܶܗ̣ ܘܳܐܡܪܻܝܢ.
{exprimer = “to express” — næssī, mnæssē = “to attempt”}

Dans le cours de la phrase, la chute de la voix se confond souvent avec la pause moins forte qu’à la fin, et celle-ci peut être précédée directement de ܪܶܬ̥ܡܐ sans ܣܳܡܟܐ.
{se confondre = “to mix (itself)”}

2018-04-17

Suivant la logique grecque, les grammairiens divisent la phrase en deux propositions : proposition antérieure, ܝܽܘܕܳܝܳܐ [?] promesse = πρότασις et proposition conséquente, ܦܽܘܪܥܳܢܳܐ rétribution = απόδοσις [ἀπόδοσις]. Si la phrase est courte et simple, la protase renderme le sujet et le verbe et l’apodose, le régime.
{régime = Mot qui dépend d’un autre mot de la phrase. On dit plutôt aujourd’hui complément. (fr.wikitionary.org)}

Dans les longues périodes, l’apodose commence avec la proposition qui est l’objet principal du récit et la protase comprend tout ce qui précède. Ces deux propositions sont donc plus ou moins longues, elles peuvent se diviser en un plus ou moins grand nombre de membres susceptibles de diverses intonations : de là, la grande veriété de l’accentuation.
{période = (Grammaire) Enchaînement logique et ordonné de propositions dont le sens complet demeure en suspens jusqu’à leur point final. — récit = “narrative”}

Observons qu’une phrase rythmée peut être composée de très-longues périodes et n’est pas enfermée dans les limites étroites des versets bibliques ; elle peut enfermée dans les limites quatre de ces versets.
{étroit = “narrow”}

L’apodose, terminant la phrase, a comme accent de pause le påsoqå ; la protase a une pause de moitié moins forte et prend en conséquence le double point ; mais avec cette pause se confond la chute de la voix, comme nous l’avons dit ci-dessus, et le zaugå (no 2) qui est le type primitif du double point est dit inférieur et devient taḥtåyå (no 3). Dans quelques cas, cependant, où le sens exige une pause moins forte, zaugå demeure comme nous le dirons plus loin. Voice un exemple des deux propositions :
 Matth. 19, 3. ܘܰܩܪܶܒܘ ܠܘܳܬܶܗ ܦܪܻ̈ܝܫܶܐ܉ ܘܰܡܢܰܣܶܝܢ̇ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠ̣ܶܗ ܘܳܐܡܪܻܝܢ.
{exiger = “to demand” — devient = 3sg de devenir — demeurer = “to stay” — פְּרוּשִׁים}

Since ܬܰܚܬܳܝܐ܉ is called inférieur, one may think it denotes a minor division. However, from what follows, it seems that the word inférieur refers to the falling tone of the voice, and since the voice falls as if finishing a sentence, this one is a BIGGER division, not minor. Tæḥtāyā (no 3) looks like U+0709 [ ܉ ] SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT, but the actual mark shown in this example (in Duval’s book) is more like U+0706 [ ܆ ] SYRIAC COLON SKEWED LEFT. That said, the mark shown here in P-UK is indeed SUBLINEAR. Either way, in the right-to-left direction, SKEWED LEFT can be interpreted as “DOWN but soon to be UP” i.e. “a falling tone, but not final; this set of sentences is to be continued”. I’d call it ascending (low-)colon.

2018-04-19

Ces deux pauses peuvent suffire à une phrase même longue, quand les mots sont étroitement unis et que le sens n’autorise pas de sous-divisions.
{uni = p.p. of unir}

La voix doit être alors soutenue jusqu’à la fin de la proposition, ce que l’on indique par des accents sans pause, tels que rèthmå (no 9), såmkå (no 10) ou gårorå (no 18).
{soutenu = p.p. of soutenir “to support”}

Les ponctuateurs distinguent, dans ce cas, si les mots sont reliés entre eux par le waw de la couple ou non; s’ils ne le sont pas, leur union est indiquée par une intonation spéciale sur la première syllabe du mot et notée par le gårorå que les grammairiens comparent avec le paroxyton grec:
{relié = p.p. of relier “to connect” — union f.}

2018-04-20

ܒܰܡ̇ܣܰܝܶܒܪܳܢܽܘܬܳܐ [ܒܰܡ̇ܣܰܝܒܪܳܢܽܘܬܳܐ] ܣܰܓܝܻܐܬܳܐ ܒܽܐܘ̇ܠܨܳܢ̈ܶܐ ܒܰܐܢ̇ܰܢ̈ܩܰܣ ܒܰܚ̇ܒܽܘܫܝ̈ܶܐ
məsæybərānūṯā = “patience of endurance” — ʾulsānā = “calamity” — ʾænnænqḗ = “hardship”: pl. ʾænnænqæs (NY -os/ōs), ἀνάγκη as in ἐν ἀνάγκαις — ḥəḇūšyā = “captivity”
ܒܢ̇ܶܓܕ̈ܶܐ ܒܰܐܣܽܘܪ̈ܶܐ ܒܰܫܓܽܘܫܝ̈ܶܐ ܒܠ̇ܶܐܽܘܬܳܐ ܒܫܰܗܪܳܐ ܒ̇ܨܰܘܡܳܐ
neḡḏā = “stripe (beating)” — ʾæsūrā = “chain” — šḡūšyā = “disturbance, commotion” — lewṯā, leʾūṯā = “work, labor, toil; fatigue” — šæhrā = “sleeplessness, insomnia” — ṣäwmā = “fast”
ܒ̇ܕܰܟܝܽܘܬܳܐ ܒܻܝ̇ܕܰܥܬܳܐ ܒܢ̇ܰܓܻܝܪܽܘܬ ܪܽܘܚܐ ܒܒ̇ܰܣܻܝܡܽܘܬܳܐ
dæḵyūṯā = “purity” — ʾīḏæʕṯā = “knowledge” — næggīrūṯā = “lengthiness” {of spirit = perh. not hasty; patient; thinking long and hard; etc.} — bæssīmūṯā = “sweetness, kindness” (2 Cor. 6, 4–6.)
cal.huc.edu 45.79.4.112 Dallas, Texas
cal1.cn.huc.edu 198.30.183.7 Cincinnati, Ohio

2018-04-21

Tous ces mots ont gårorå, la phrase continue dans des termes semblables, mais les mots suivants sont reliés par le dålath qui marque le rapport du génitif et reçoivent le någhodhå, conformément au §152.
{semblable = “similar” — relier = “to connect”}

JPG 35 KiB A reddish circle marked as G is probably Gārṓrā, while a forward-slash-like short line marked as N is Nāḡṓḏā (it’s an ES symbol).
ܒܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ. ܒܚܘܒ̊ܐ ܕܠܐ ܢܶܟܠܐ. ܒܡܶܠܬܐ ܕܩܘܫܬܐ. ܒܚܰܝܠܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ.
{neḵlā = “deceit”}
[Image from Dukhrana Biblical Research]

2018-04-24

Si les mots sont joints par le waw de la couple, cette intonation n’a pas lieu, mais on note, à la place de gårorå, rèthmå [no 9] avec élévation de la voix et såmkå [no 10], si la voix incline vers sa chute. Ces deux accents sont alors considérés comme variations de gårorå ܫܽܘܚܠܳܦ ܓܳܪܽܘܪܳܐ (no 19):
{joindr: p.p. join — lieu = m. “place” — šuḥlāp̄(ā) = “variant type”}

ܝܰܘ̈ܡܶܐ܁ ܘܝܰܪ̈ܚܶܐ܁ ܘܙܰܒܢ̈ܶܐ܂ [ܘܙܰܒ̈ܢܶܐ܁ UK] ܘܰܫܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ܂ ܢܳܛܪܻܝܢ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܽܘܢ [ܢܳܛܪܺܝܬܽܘܢ].
{nṭr = “to observe”} Gal. 4. 10.

JPG 15 KiB [Image from Dukhrana Biblical Research]

2018-04-25

Pour les sous-divisions, on se sert du zaugå (no 2); mais à l’apodose, la voix doit être d’autant plus soutenue que la chute est plus grande à la fin de la phrase, le zaugå devient alors ʿélåyå (no 4). C’est donc à la protase que zaugå trouve son application.

{sert p.p. of servir: se servir de = “to use” — d’autant plus = “even more”: this seems to mean, “but in the second half, the voice must be kept even higher since (OR so that?) the fall [of the voice] is greater at the very end, therefore…”; it says even higher probably because the voice should be kept somewhat high at a sub-division point in the first half too. Such a mini-pause in the first half (with the voice kept somewhat high) is denoted by a middle non-skewed colon, while a mini-pause in the second half (with the voice kept even higher) is denoted by a middle right-skewed colon.}

Nous pouvons avec ces points noter le cours ordinaire du rythme, suivant ses divisions et sous-sivisions:

ܩ̇ܕܡܝܐ: ܬܪܝܢܐ܉ ܬ̇ܠܝܬܝܐ܇ ܪ̣ܒܝܥܝܐ.

1o zaugå, précédé d’un ou plusieurs rèthmå (ou såmkå), forme la sous-division de la protase terminée par taḥtåyå avec un ou plusieurs rèthmå (ou såmkå) devant lui. 2o ʿélåyå précédé d’un ou plusieurs accents sans pause, ouvre l’apodose que ferme påsoqå précédé de såmkå:
{ܥܸܠܳܝܐ (ʕellāyā) = ellipt. for ܢܘܩ̈ܙܶܐ ܥܶܠܳܝܷ̈ܐ the points ܇ at the end of a phrase (Jess) }

2018-04-26

ܘܰܗܘܳܐ ܕܟܰܕ ܣܳܠܩܻܝܢ܋ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ܌܁ ܫܶܡܥܽܘܢ ܟܻܐܦܳܐ܁ ܘܝܽܘܚܰܢܳܢ ܐܰܟܚܕܳܐ ܠܗܰܝܟܠܳܐ: ܒܥܶܕܳܢܳܐ ܕܰܨܠܽܘܬܳܐ܁ ܕܰܬܫܰܥ ܫܳܥܻܝܢ܉
ʾæḵḥəḏā
ܘܗܳܐ ܓܰܒܪܳܐ ܚܰܕ ܚܓܻܝܪܳܐ ܕܡܶܢ ܟܪܶܣ ܐܶܡܶܗ܇ ܫܩܻܝܠܻܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܐܢܳܫ̈ܳܐ ܐܱܝܠܷܝܢ ܕܰܡܥܳܕܻܝܢ ܋ܘ܌܍ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܌ܡܰܝܬܶܝܢ ܘܣܳܝܡܻܝܢ ܠܶܗ܇ ܒܬܰܪܥܳܐ ܕܗܰܝܟܠܳܐ ܕܡܶܬܩܪܶܐ ܫܰܦܻܝܪܳܐ.
{Several participles of the form ܦܥܻܝܠ are used with an Active signification (N §280): ܫܩܺܝܠ “carrying” — nāšā (emph.) = often “men”; syāmē seems unusual, though. — mʕāḏ(ā) = “accustomed, used to”, Aph. pass. pt. of ʕwd: ʕæyyeḏ Pa. = “to accustom”, ʾæʕīḏ Aph. = “to accustom oneself”}

2018-04-27

Zaugå à la protase et ʿélåyå à l’apodose sont répétés autant de fois que la phrase comporte de membres simples. Si la phrase s’arrête brusquement, ʿélåyå peut précéder directement påsoqå sans såmkå, quoique ce soit rare.

Si le sens exige, à la protase, une pause plus grande que celle de zaugå, cet accent est remplacé par taḥtåyå qui peut peut être répété plusieurs fois:
 Matth. 7, 5. ܢܳܣܶܒ ܒܰܐܦ̈ܶܐ܉ ܐܰܦܶܩ ܠܽܘܩܕܰܡ܁ ܩܳܪܻܝܬܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܰܝܢܳܟ܉
{luqḏæm — qārīṯā = “beam”}


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Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 31] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 31 [ܕܰܬܠܳܬܝܢ ܘܚܰܕ]: ܒܝ̈ܫܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܝܰܥܢܘܬ̥ܐ

2018-04-06

bīštā, pl. bīšāṯā = fem. adj. as noun — yæʕnūṯā = greed, avarice

ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܫܩܰܠ ܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܩܶܫܬܶܗ ܘܓܶܐܪܶܗ، ܘܰܢܦܰܩ ܠܨܰܝܕܐ.
A certain hunter one day took his bow {qeštā} and his arrow {gērā}, and went hunting.
ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ، ܪܡܐ ܐܰܝܠܐ ܚܰܕ ܘܛܰܥܢܶܗ ܘܰܗܦܰܟ ܠܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܒܰܝܬܶܗ.
And after an hour (an hour later), he got {lit. thorw, make fall} one stag, and carried him, and went back toward his house.

ܓܹܐܪܵܘܗ̈ܝ ܝܲܩܕܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܝܼܫܵܐ = “burning arrows of the evil” (Eph6:16)

2018-04-07

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܒܐܽܘܪܚܶܗ ܚܙܝܪܐ ܕܥܳܒܰܪ ܘܰܫܕܐ ܒܶܗ ܓܶܐܪܐ، ܘܰܥܒܰܪ ܒܓܘܫܡܶܗ.
And he saw, on his way, a pig {ḥzīrā} that [was] passing by, and he threw (released), into it, an arrow, and it went through (penetrated) its body {gušmā}.

2018-04-08

ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܐܰܪܓ̥ܶܫ [ܕܰܐܪܓ̊ܶܫ] ܚܙܝܪܐ ܒܟܺܐܒܐ ܕܓܶܐܪܐ،
And as soon as the pig felt {ʾærgeš C: with b- = “to be aware of”} pain {ḵḗḇā} of the arrow,
ܪܗܶܛ ܥܰܠ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܘܰܡܚܳܝ̣ܗ̱ܝ ܒܢܝܒܶܗ ܡܚܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܦܶܪܚܰܬ ܠܩܶܫܬܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܕܶܗ،
it ran {rheṭ} toward the hunter and gave (lit. struck) him {mḥā-y #1}, with its tusk {nīḇā}, a stroke {mḥṓṯā N §77} that [made] his bow fly {præḥ #2} from his hand.
ܘܰܢܦܰܠܘ̱ ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܢ ܘܡܝܬ̥ܘ̱.
and both (lit. “two of them”) fell and died.

#1 In this sentence, ܡܚܐ not only takes an object as a suffix, but also it seems to take a cognate object ܡܚܘܿܬܐ. An example of double transitive construction from N §290: ܢܶܫܶܐܠܝܘܗ̱ܝ ܒܪܹܗ ܠܰܚܡܐ = “his son will ask him for bread” (*nešʾe̊līw > *nešʾelīw > nešelīw: Nöld. says nešæ- here instead of neše- as in N §189)

#2 Also, ܦܪܰܚ is used transitively here (= ܐܰܦ̥ܪܚܰܬ̥ ?), which seems unusual (possibly intransitive, as in “impact which traveled to the bow [causing it drop] from his hand”).

2018-04-09

ܘܰܥܒܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܕܺܐܒܐ.
And there a wolf passed by {lit. from there #3}.
ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܠܰܫ̈ܠܰܕܳܐ* [ܠܰܫ̈ܠܰܕܶܐ] ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܕܓܰܒܪܐ ܟܝܬ̥ ܘܕܐܰܝܠܐ ܘܕܰܚܙܝܪܐ، ܐܶܡܰܪ:
And when he saw the three corpses {šlæddā f. N §84, from Akkadian #4}, that is {kḗṯ: secundō locō pōnitur #5}, of the man and of the stag and of the pig, he said:
ܡܐ ܒܪܝܟ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ.
“How blessed {#6} this morning [is]!”

* This is a simple typo. The vocab. section has šlæddā, pl. šlæddḕ.

#3 ܘܟܰܕ ܥܒܰܪ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܢ ܬܰܡܳܢ܉ ܚܙܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܕܝ̇ܬܒ ܒܝܬ ܡܳܟܣ̈ܐ ܕܰܫܡܗ ܡܰܬܰܝ. ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܗ܇ ܬܐ ܒܳܬܰܪܝ. ܘܩܳܡ ܐ̣ܙܠ ܒܳܬܪܗ܀ (Mt9:9⁎)

#4 ܘܰܩܪܶܒܘ̱ ܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܘܗܝ܂ ܫܩܰܠܘ̱ ܫܠܰܕܗ ܩܒܰܪܘ̱܉ ܘܶܐܬܰܘ ܚܰܘܝܘ ܠܝܶܫܘܥ.܀ (Mt14:12⁎)

#5 LS2 ܟܹܝܬ LS3 ܟܸܝܬ

#6 ܒܪܝܟ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܳܐܬܹܐ ܒܰܫܡܹܗ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ (Mt21:9)

2018-04-10

ܗܐ ܬܽܘܪܣܳܝ ܝܺܪܰܚ ܝܰܘܡܝ̈ܢ.
“Behold, food {tursāyā} for a full month {lit. month of days}!”
ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܐܶܟ̥ܘܠ ܗܳܢܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܕܩܶܫܬܐ ܘܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܥܪܳܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ،
“But for now, I will eat this string {yæṯrā: possibly some kind of tendon} of the bow and it will be my breakfast of this morning.”
ܟܶܢ ܐܶܚܡܘܠ ܗܳܠܝܢ ܒܢܶܩܥܐ ܠܝܰܘ̈ܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܐܳܬ̥ܶܝܢ.
“Then I will store {ḥmæl} these in [my] lair for the days {N §82} that are coming (=tomorrow, the next day, and so on).”

ܐܸܟܲܠ Impf. ܐܹܟ݂ܘܿܠ ‎— ܟܸܢ

2018-04-11

ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܣܒܰܟ ܫܶܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܒܝܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܕܩܶܫܬܐ ܕܢܶܐܟ̥ܠܺܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱،
And he moved closer and made his teeth touch {sḇæḵ b-} the string of the bow so that he might eat it.
ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܕܐܶܬܦܣܶܩ، ܦܪܰܚ ܫܢܳܢܐ ܕܓܶܐܪܐ ܒܚܺܐܦܐ
And as soon as it was cut {ʾeṯpseq}, the sharp point {šnānā} of the arrow flew with violence {ḥḗp̄ā}
ܘܰܢܩܰܫ ܒܓܰܓܰܪܬܶܗ ܘܡܝܬ̥܀
and hit (lit. knocked at) his throat {N §31}, and he died.

šennā f. (N §84) though sometimes m. ܫܡܰܥܬܘܿܢ ܕܶܐܬܶܐܡܰܪ܉ ܕܥܰܝܢܐ ܚܠܳܦ ܥܰܢܝܐ܂ ܘܫܶܢܐ ܚܠܳܦ ܫܶܢܐ. ܐܶܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܉ ܕܠܐ ܬܩܘܡܽܘܢ ܠܘܩܒ̥ܰܠ ܒܝܫܐ. ܐܠܐ ܡ̇ܢ ܕܡܳܚܶܐ ܠܟ ܥܠ ܦܰܟܳܟ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ܉ ܐܰܦܢܐ ܠܗ ܐܦ ܐ̱ܚܪܢܐ. (Mt5:38–39⁎): luqḇæl = “against” — pækkā mas.
ܚܶܘܳܪ̈ܳܢ ܫܢܘܗܝ = “white teeth” (P-Gn49:12)

2018-04-12

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܕ ܨܰܝܶܕܐ؟
ܐܝܠܐ ܚܰܕ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܒܐܽܘܪܚܶܗ ܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܗ̱ܘܐ؟
ܚܙܝܪܐ. ܚܙܐ ܠܰܚܙܝܪܐ ܕܥ̇ܒܪ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܠܶܗ ܚܙܝܪܐ؟
ܩܰܛܠܗ ܠܨܝܳܕܐ ܒܢܝܒܗ ܚܙܝܪܐ، ܩܕܰܡ ܕܰܢܡܽܘܬ̥.
ܒܗ̇ܘ ܝܵܘܡܐ ܩ̣ܪܒܘ ܙܲܕ̊ܘܩܵܝ̈ܐ܂ ܘܐ̇ܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܠܲܝܬ ܚܲܝܲܬ ܡܝ̈ܬܐ. ܘܫܲܐܠܘܗܝ܂
ḥæyyæṯ fem. cst.
ܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܡܲܠܦܵܢܐ܅ ܡܘܼܫܹܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܢ. ܕܸܐܢ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܢܡܘܼܬ܂ ܟܕ ܠܝܬ ܠܗ ܒ̈ܢܝܐ܉ ܢܸܣܲܒ ܐܲܚܘܼܗܝ ܐܢ݇ܬܬܗ܂ ܘܲܢܩܝܡ ܙܲܪܥܐ ܠܐܚܘܗܝ.
nsæḇ Impf. nessæḇ a/a
ܐܝܬ ܗ̣ܘܵܘ ܕܹܝܢ ܠܘܬܢ ܐܚ̈ܐ ܫܒܥܐ. ܩܲܕܡܵܝܐ ܫܩ̣ܠ [ܢܣ̣ܒ] ܐܢܬܬܐ܂ ܘܡܝܬ. ܘܲܕܠܝܬ ܗ̣ܘܐ ܠܗ ܒ̈ܢܝܐ܉ ܫܲܒܩܗ̇ ܐܢܬܬܗ ܠܐܚܘܗܝ.
(Mt22:23–25⁎) šḇæq = “to leave”: šæḇqāh — nsæb = also in OS-C

2018-04-13

http://www.thearamaicscriptures.com/ TheAramaicScriptures.com (they have audio files, though LQ)

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܠܰܫ̈ܠܰܕܳܐ [ܠܰܫ̈ܠܰܕܶܐ] ܬܠܳܬ̥؟
ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܡܐ ܒܪܝܟ ܗܳܢܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܕܺܐܒܐ؟
ܟܰܕ ܣܒܰܟ ܫܶܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܒܝܰܬ̥ܪܐ، ܦܪܰܚ ܫܢܳܢܐ ܕܓܶܐܪܐ، ܘܩܰܛܠܶܗ.

2018-04-14

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܶܫܬܐ ܘܓܶܐܪܐ ܙܰܝܢܐ ܕܦܳܠܚ̈ܐ ܩܰܕܡ̈ܐ.
zæynā = “weapon(s)” — pālḥā = “high ranking attendant, soldier”
ܚܙܝܬ ܩܶܫܬܐ ܕܰܥܢܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܬܐ.
I saw a beautiful rainbow.
ܓܶܐܪܐ ܩܰܛܠܹܗ.
The arrow killed him.
ܚܙܝܪܐ ܚܰܝܘܬܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܠܹܗ ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܐ ܐܳܟܠܝܢ.
A pig is an animal, which Jews do not eat.

2018-04-15

ܫܢܳܢܐ ܕܚܶܛܬܐ ܐܦ ܡܶܬܩܰܪܝܐ ܫܶܒ̊ܠܐ.
A spike of the wheat is also called ear (of grain) {šebblā}. {generally fem. when used for a "spike of grain" CAL on šnānā; N §87}
ܚܶܪܰܬ ܓܰܓܰܪܬ̊ܝ̱.
My throat has become hoarse. {ḥrr G}

2018-04-18

ܠܡܳܢܐ ܡܶܬܚܰܫܚܝ̣ܢ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ؟

meṯḥæššæḥ = “to be used, to have dealings”: ܐܳܡܪܐ ܠܗ ܗܳܝ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܫܳܡܪܳܝܬܐ. ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܝܺܗܘܕܳܝܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ܇ ܘܡܹܢܝ ܫ̇ܐܠ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܠܡܶܫܬܐ. ܕܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܫܳܡܪܳܝܬܐ. ܠܐ ܓܝܪ ܡܶܬܚܰܫܚܝܢ ܝܺܗܘܕܳܝ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܫܳܡܪܳܝ̈ܐ. (Jn4:9⁎) — For ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܝܐ one may say also ܝܽܗ̱ܘܕܳܝܐ (N §38).

ܐܰܝܟ: ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ܦܳܬܰܚ ܠܬܰܪܥܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܩܠܝܕܐ.
Example: Joseph opens the door with a key.
ܣܰܟܝܢܐ
sækkīnā = “knife” fem. (N §84, §71 (4))
ܩܰܢܝܐ ܡܚܰܛܐ
pen, needle
ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ
spoon
ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ
hour
7 ܦܳܣܶܩ ܠܒܶܣܪܐ ܒܝܶܕ ... ܣܰܟܝܢܐ.
He cuts meat with a knife.
8 ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܒܘܫܳܠܐ ܒܝܰܕ ... ܬܰܪܘܳܕܐ.
He eats cooked food (OR stew) {buššālā v.n.D (type N §117) from bæššel D “to cook”} with a spoon.
https://tenet.dl.sourceforge.net/project/culmus/culmus/0.132/culmus-0.132.tar.gz
2018-01-19

2018-04-19

9 ܝܳܕܰܥ ܠܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ... ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ (ܒܶܝܬ ܫܳܥ̈ܐ ؟).
He knows time with a clock (?).
10 ܚܳܐܶܛ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܒܝܰܕ ... ܡܚܰܛܐ.
He sews an outer garment with a needle.
11 ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܒܝܰܕ ... ܩܰܢܝܐ.
He writes a letter with a pen.

Judges 3:10, etc.

2018-04-10

On Waw Consec.

In forming the impf. consecutive, the ending -è(h) of 3rd-H verbs is usually shortened (G §75k). Especially, for הָיָה, while the full form of Impf. (3rd mas. and fem.) are יִהְיֶה and תִּהְיֶה, the forms after Waw Consec. are often יְהִי and תְהִי respectively (G §75s). Thus וַתְּהִי עָלָין רוּחַ אֱלֹהִֽים (Numbers 24:2), וַתְּהִי עָלָין רֽוּחַ־יהוה (Judges 3:10). P-OT has ܘܰܗܘܳܬ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܪܘܚܹܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ but, unexpectedly, ܘܰܗܘܳܬ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܐܝܕܗ ܕܡܳܪܝܐ (hand instead of spirit).
TgO-Nm וֻשרָת עֲלוֹהִי רוּחַ נְבוּאָה מִן קֳדָם יוי {šry G = “to inhabit”: ne̊ḇūʾā(h) = prophecy} TgJ-Ju וֻשרָת עְלוֹהִי רוּחַ נְבוּאָה [גבוּרא #3#] מִן קֳדָם יְיָ {#3#=Sperber's apparatus}

2018-04-15

yæṯrā

Judges 16:7⁎ (Pe̊šīttā)

ܐܵܡܲܪ ܠܵܗ̇ ܫܸܡܫܘܿܢ: ܐܸܢ ܢܹܐܣܪܘܼܢܵܢܝ ܒܫܲܒ݂ܥܵܐ ܝܲܬ݂ܪܹ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܲܛܝܼܒܹܐ ܕܠܵܐ ܫܪܸܒ݂ܘ:
ʾesær = “to bind”: nēsór, nēsrūn — rættīḇā = “moist” — šreḇ = “to be dry”
ܡܸܫܬܲܦܲܠ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܘܗܵܘܹܐ ܐܢܵܐ [ܐ݇ܢܵܐ] ܐܲܝܟ ܚܲܕ݂ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ.
šæppel D = “to humble (through strength)”

2018-04-16

Judges 16:7⁎ (Heb.)

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ שִׁמְשׁ֔וֹן
yōˈmær Impf. (G §68b): wæy-ˈyō-mèr (G §68d): CCC SHEVA < Vowel Points < DAGESH < METEG < SHIN/SIN DOT (a DAGESH comes later than a vowel point, even if that vowel point is placed above)
אִם־יַאַסְרֻ֗נִי בְּשִׁבְעָ֛ה יְתָרִ֥ים לַחִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־חֹרָ֑בוּ
ʾāsær: Impf. yèʾsōr, *yèʾsərū: +suf. *yèʾsəˈrūnī > yæʾæsˈrūnī — ˈyèṯèr — læḥ = “moist, fresh, new” — *ḥārēḇ = “to be dry”: Puʕæl (passive) *ḥuræḇ, *ḥurbū: in pause, *ḥurāḇ, etc.
וְחָלִ֥יתִי וְהָיִ֖יתִי כְּאַחַ֥ד הָאָדָֽם׃
ḥālā, ḥāˈlīṯī = “to be weak”

2018-04-17

Judges 16:7⁎ (TgJ)

וַאְמַר לַה שִמשוֹן
In Targum, “her” is -æh, and not -āh
אִם יֵיסְרוּנַנִי בְשִבעָה יַתרִין [אטונין] רַטִיבִין דְלָא יְבִישוּ
yēsrun? -unˈnani — ʾæṭwānā = “twisted strap”: “rein” in syc ܐܰܛܘܳܝ̈ܐ (corrected as ܐܰܛܘܳܢ̈ܐ in CAL) — yəḇeš, yəˈḇišu = intr. “to dry up”
וְאַחלוּש וְאַהְוֵי כְחַד מִבְנֵי אְנָשָא׃
ḥəlæš (חֲלַשׁ) = “to be weak”: Impf. *ʾiḥluš (*ʾiḥloš?) > SOMEHOW ʾæḥluš perh. because of the 1st-ḥ (the Impf. of ʕəḇæḏ also takes yæ- instead of yi-), or perh. because of *wə-(ʾ)i- > wə-(ʾ)æ-? — similarly, ʾæhwē for ʾihwē? — חַד מִו בְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא = lit. “one of the sons of man”: min bənē is written as mi(b)b(ə)nē

2018-04-21/22

1 Samuel 6:19⁎ (Pesh.)

2018-04-21

ܘܲܡܚܐ ܡܵܪܝܐ ܠܐ݇ܢܵܫܐ ܕܒܹܝܬ ܫܡܸܫ:
And the lord struck the people {sg. collective N §146} of Bēṯ Šəmeš {בֵֽית־שֶׁ֫מֶשׁ}
ܥܲܠ ܕܲܕܚܸܠܘ ܒܐܵܪܘܿܢܹܗ ܕܡܵܪܝܐ:
on account of [the fact] that they feared [sic! possibly “worshiped”?] the ark {ʾārōnā} of the lord.
ܘܲܡܚܐ ܡܪܝܐ ܒܥܲܡܐ: ܚܲܡܫܐ ܐܲܠܦ̈ܝܢ ܘܫܲܒܥܝܢ ܓܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܝܢ:
And the lord struck the group (OR people): 5070 men.

2018-04-22

ܘܐܸܬ݂ܐ݈ܒܸܠܘ ܥܲܡܵܐ ܥܲܠ ܕܲܡܚܵܐ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܒܥܲܡܵܐ ܡܚܘܿܬ݂ܵܐ ܪܲܒ݁ܬ݂ܵܐ.܀
“And the people mourned about that the lord struck the people [with] a great force.” {ʾeḇæl = “to mourn”: Gt ʾeṯeḇel (< *ʾeṯʾeḇel < * ʾeṯʾəḇel), esp. for the dead, bewail, make lamentation. (Jess); see N §34 for the ES notation with Məhæggəyānā: Mosul ܐܸܬ݂̱ܐܒܸܠܘ — məḥṓṯā = “force, blow”}

1 Samuel 6:19⁎ (TgJ)

2018-04-21

וֻקטַל [ומחא #3#] בְגֻברֵי בִית שַמַש
And he killed [struck] the men of Bīṯ Šæmæš, {guḇrā = gæḇrā: pl. גּוּבְרַיָּא, constr. גּוּבְרֵי}
עַל דַחדִיאוּ דַחְזוֹ אְרוֹנָא דַיְיָ
because they enjoyed {ḥdy = “to rejoice” intr. (“stative”): ḥəḏi pl. ḥəˈḏiʾu} to see {ḥəzā pl. ḥəzo} the ark of G-D
כָד גְלֵי [גְלוֹ / גְלִי #3#] וֻקטַל בְסָבֵי עַמָא שִבעִין גְברָא
when he revealed (?) / it disappeared (?) {glē, glā} and he killed elders {סָבַיָּא cst. סָבֵי } of the people, 70 men;
וְבִקהָלָא חַמשִין אַלפִין גְברָא
and, in the congregation {qəhālā (?) = porb. qəhīlā = qæhlā}, 50,000 men.
[דאינון בקלא כחמשין אַלפִין גֻברָא #3#]
who were {ʾinnōn/ʾinnun pron. as copula} in voice {qālā} like 50,000 men.
וְאִתאַבַלוּ עַמָא אְרֵי מְחָא יְיָ בְעַמָא מָחָא סַגִיאָה׃
and the people mourned {ʾbl Dt =JLAtg, LJLA: ʾiṯæbˈbælu ?}, because {ʾərē JLAtg, PTA, Sam, LJLA} G-D struck many people.

2018-04-22

[על דחדיאו בתבריהון דישראל ובזו ית ארונא דיי כד גלא #4#]
“because they rejoiced in the breaking of Israel, and despoiled the ark of G-D when it revealed [itself]” (?) tḇār(ā) = “fracture, breaking”: -(ē)hōn 3.m.pl. — ˈbæzzu (ˈbāzu) = “to despoil” 3.m.pl.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 30] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 30 [ܕܰܬܠܳܬܝܢ]: ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܶܕ

2017-10-25

kyānā = “nature”

ܐܶܚܕܰܬ̥ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܢܘܪܐ ܒܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܐܰܪܝܐ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ،
Once fire {nūrā f.} started {ʾḥd} in the den {mærbṓʕīṯā} of a strong lion,
ܘܰܥܪܰܩ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܘܩܳܡ ܠܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܢܘܪܐ ܕܓܳܕܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܶܗ.
and the lion fled {ʕrq} and stood at a long distance {l-ruḥqā} and he [was] looking at the fire, which [was] rising/burning {gdy} from his den.

2017-11-29

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܕܗܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܕܦܳܪܚܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܳܗ̇،
And he saw that, behold, a dove flying from her nest
ܘܢܳܚܬܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܦܐ ܘܩܳܒܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܡܰܩܘܙܳܗ̇ ܘܪܳܣܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ.
and descending upon the stream {tappā, from Akkadian atappu} and collecting {QBY, of liquid} water with her beak {#1}, and sprinkling {#2} [it] on the fire.

#1 mæqqūzā ? (CAL mæqūzā with a single q, while it says mæqqṓrā, as in מַקּוֹרָא: LS2 al. ܡܳ, LS3 mæq(q)ūzā, māqṓzā): from √NQZ “to pierce, to strike with the beak”

#2 ܪܰܣ = “to sprinkle” √RSS: act. part. like 2nd-W, but with a doubled consonant instead of a Y: rāʾès (exactly like 2nd-W), rāssā (would be *rāysā if 2nd-W); rāssā is exactly like kāṯbā, except it is written with three letters (though sometimes an extra ܐ is written, as in ʕāllā): ܘܣܳܡܘܗܝ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܠܝܫܘܥ. ܡܛܠ ܕܫܰܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ ܥܳܐܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ܉ ܘܡܛܠ ܕܩܰܪܝܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܩܰܒ̥ܪܐ܀ (Jn19:42⁎)

2017-11-30

ܘܰܚܙܐ ܐܳܦ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܕܐܰܦܶܩ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܠܦܐ ܕܓܘܙܥܐ ܕܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܘܢܳܦܰܚ ܒܢܘܪܐ.
And he saw a snake too, who stuck out {#3} his head from a crack {ṣelpā} of the trunk {guzʕā} of the tree, and [he was] breathing against the fire [to extinguish it] (#4) [to increase it**].

#3 ʾappeq npq C, lit. “to let his head go out” i.e. “to move his head closer.”

#4 ܢܦܰܚ ܒ is “to breathe on,” as in: ܘܟܕ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܗܠܝܢ ܢܦܰܚ ܒܗܘܢ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܩܰܒܶܠܘ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ (Jn20:22⁎) — in this context, it should mean “to blow out (the fire); to extinguish (the fire) by blowing.” This definition is in LS3 929b as “8” (but not in LS2), with an example from Ephrem Hymns on Faith 83:06 (ed. E. Beck, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 154):

ܡܠܟܬܐ ܕܫܒܐ ܢܶܩܝܐ ܕܶܐܬܳܬ:
ܠܐܬܪܐ ܕܕܐܒܐ ܫܪܓ̥ܐ ܕܩܘܫܬܐ:
ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܗ̇ ܫܠܝܡܘܢ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܰܢܦܰܚ ܒܗ:
ܟܕ ܐܰܚܢܶܦ ܗܘܐ ܢܶܗܪܰܬ ܘܶܐܙܠܰܬ:
ܘܶܚܫܰܟܘ ܗܢܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܰܡܥܳܕܝܢ:

“The Queen of Sheba, a sheep who came
to the place of a wolf. The lamp of truth—
Solomon gave it to her; that [man] who blew it out
when he had become a pagan [1Kg11:4]. She shone and went away.
Then those [people: hānṓn, OR poss. hennṓn = they] became dark [again], like they were accustomed (like they used to).”

See also: Project MUSE - The Hymns on Faith.

** (2017-12-03) The above interpretation is wrong. At the end of the story, the Lion implies that the Snake, being evil by nature, is trying to make the fire bigger. That makes sense, contrasted with a dove, a symbol of peace, a symbol of the Holy Spirit.

2017-12-01

نفخ = “to blow” = ነፍኀ (näfḫä) LLA712

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܐ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܗܳܠܝܢ: ܐܰܢܝܕ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܓܳܚܶܟ.
And when the lion saw them, he shook {nwd “to be disturbed” C} his head and began laughing.
ܘܰܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ ܢܶܡܪܐ ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܓܰܕܫܳܟ ܐܳܘ ܡܰܠܟܐ، ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܢܰܝܬ؟
And a leopard saw him and said to him: “What happened to you, O King? Have you become insane {šny}?”
ܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܝܳܩܶܕ ܘܓܳܚܶܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ!
“Your house is burning {yqd}, and you are laughing!”
ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ: ܐܶܢܐ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܝ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܕܝܺܩܶܕ،
The lion answered: “I do not care {#5} for the house of mine that has burned,”
ܒܪܰܡ ܓܳܚܶܟ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܰܦܟ̥ܳܝܐ [ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ؟] ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܝ.
“but I am laughing at the preposterous/absurd/incorrect contrastive {hep̄kāyā √hpk = turned i.e. perverted contrary} action {suʕrānā} of my neighbors {#6}.”

#5 bṭl = “to pay attention”: in pass. part. with l-: ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܗ ܥܠ ܥܳܢܐ = “he [did] not care for the flock” (Jn10:13) — ܪܰܒܰܢ܈ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܟ ܕܳܐܒܕܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܰܢ. = “Our Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?” (Mk4:38)

#6 šḇāḇā — the long ē in the original first syllable was lost in Syriac: Akk. *šēbābi, Jewish Aram. שֵׁיבָבָא

2017-12-02

ܚܙܝ: ܡܶܟܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܡܰܝܬܝܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܪܳܡܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܘܪܐ.
“Look. From here {mekkā} a dove is bringing {#7} water and throwing {rmy} [it] on the fire.”

#7 Generally, Aphel of 1st-A is ʾaw- with W: ܠܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܗܰܝܡܶܢܘ ܐܰܘܒܶܕ (Jude 1:5). But ܐܶܬܐ becomes ʾay- with Y (N §174E): ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܗ ܡܕܡ ܠܡܶܐܟ̥ܰܠ = “Has anyone brought him something to eat?” — ܡܰܝܬܶܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܶܐܐ = “brings forth much fruit.”

Another form that has a Y like this is Quad ܗܰܝܡܶܢ (and הֵימֵן or הֵימִין). This is from Heb. הֶאֱמִין, which is C (hifʕil) of ʾmn, like Arab. آمَنَ, which is also IV of ʾmn.

2017-12-03

ܘܡܶܟܐ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܢܳܦܰܚ ܒܢܘܪܐ.
“And from here, a snake is blowing on the fire [to make it bigger].”
ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܛܘܦܬܐ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܪܳܣܐ ܝܰܘܢܐ ܡܕܰܥܟܐ ܠܳܗ̇،
“Although the drop[s] {ṭuppe̊ṯā (?)} of water that the dove is sprinkling {rāssā (see above)} is not extinguishing {#8} it,”
ܐܳܦܠܐ ܢܶܫܡܐ ܕܢܳܦܰܚ ܚܶܘܝܐ ܡܰܘܣܦܐ ܝܰܩܕܳܢܳܗ̇،
“and although the breath {#9} that the snake is blowing is not increasing {ysp C} the burning {yæqdānā} of it,”
ܐܶܠܐ ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܶܗ ܥܳܒܶܕ!
“everyone, however, is acting according to his nature!”

#8 dʕeḵ = “to be extinguished”: dæʕʕeḵ D = “to extinguish”

#9 Originally ܢܫܡܐ is masculine (CAL, LS3: can be attested in Hippocrates Aphorisms), while ܢܫܡܬܐ is obviously feminine. TS/Jess. say both are fem., and perhaps that is WS: here, nešmā is used as fem., as can be seen from the verb form (mæwse̊p̄ā, not mæwsep̄).

2017-12-04

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܢܶܦܠܰܬ̥ ܢܘܪܐ؟
Where did the fire break out? {npl = “to fall”: of fire, plagues, etc. : to break out, occur (CAL)}
ܒܡܰܪܒܘܿܥܝܬܐ ܕܰܐܪܝܐ.
2 ܡܘܢ ܥܒܰܕ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܟܰܕ ܝܶܩܕܰܬ̥ ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܶܗ؟
ܥܪܰܩ ܘܩܳܡ ܠܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܗ̇.
He fled and stood at a long distance and was watching it.
3 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܓܚܶܟ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
ܓܳܚܶܟ ܡܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ.
He laughed at the contrastive action[s] of his neighbors.

2017-12-06

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܢܶܡܪܐ؟
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ: ܡܢܐ ܓܰܕܫܳܟ ܐܘ ܡܠܟܐ، ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܢܰܝܬ؟ ܒܰܝܬܳܟ ܝ̇ܩܕ ܘܓ̇ܚܟ ܐܢܬ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܐܰܪܝܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ: ܐܢܐ ܠܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܠܝ ܥܠ ܒܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ ܕܝܺܩܶܕ، ܒܪܰܡ ܓ̇ܚܟ ܐܢܐ ܡܢ ܣܘܥܪܳܢܐ ܗܶܦܟܳܝܐ ܕܰܫܒܳܒ̈ܰܝ.
6 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܗܪܓܐ ܗܢܐ ܡܰܘܕܰܥ ܠܰܢ ܕܟܠ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܗ.

ܬܘܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܪܥܐ ܝܺܩܶܕ. ܘܬܘܠܬܐ ܕܐܝ̈ܠܳܢܐ ܝܩܕ. ܘܟܠ ܥܶܣܒ̊ܐ ܕܰܐܪܥܐ ܝܪܕ.

2017-12-07

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ: ܒܰܝܬܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܕܐܰܪܝܐ.

2018-03-02: [ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬܐ] ܒܰܝܬܐ ܗ̱ܝ — the verb is ܗ̱ܝ because the subject is feminine, and not because ܒܰܝܬܐ is feminine.

7 ܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ
ܐܪܝܐ ܗܦܶܟ ܠܡܰܪܒܘܥܝܬܗ ܠܒ̥ܰܝܬ̥ܶܗ.
The lion returned to his lair, to his house.
ܠܳܕܝܐ ܓܳܕܝܐ [sic] ܓܰܕܝܐ
ܠܳܕܝܐ ܓܰܕܝܐ: ܒܰܪ ܥܶܙܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
A kid is the son of a goat.

ܘܡ̣ܢ ܡܬ̥ܘܿܡ ܓܰܕ̥ܝܐ ܠܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ̥ܬ ܠܝ ܕܸܐܬܒܰܣܰܡ ܥܰܡ ܪܳܚ̈ܡܰܝ (Lk15:29) — mn mṯṓm = “never”; ʾeṯbæssæm = Dt Impf. 1sg (= Perf. 3sg.m = Perf. 3pl.f)

2017-12-10

ܩܳܒܝܐ
collecting (liquid)
ܐܹܡܝ ܩܳܒܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ ܡܝ̈ܐ ܒܕܰܘܠܐ.
My mother was collecting water with a bucket {dæwlā}.
ܨܶܠܦܐ
crack
ܬܰܪܥܐ ܗܢܐ ܪܥܝܥ: ܐܝܬ ܒܗ ܨܶܠܦܐ ܪܒܐ!
This door is broken {rʕīʕ}. There is a big crack in it.
ܓܘܙܥܐ
trunk, rod, (gram.) base form
ܐܝܠܢܐ ܗܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܓܘܙܥܐ ܪܒܬ̥ܐ.
This tree has a big trunk.

guzʕā = גֶּזַע and جِذْع. The word is feminine in Syriac, rarely masculine (N §84). Indeed BHGr has a phrase, ܓܘܙܥܗ ܗܝ‏ “that is (fem.) its base form”. (LS3 says this expression is a calque of Arabic أَصْل “root”, though it seems that גֶּזַע is also used this way.) However, in Neo-Syr (ecclesiastical, not colloquial), the word is said to be masculine (Maclean 46b).

ܡܢ ܓܘܙܥܗ ܕܐܝܫܝ (Is11:1) = מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי

2018-03-02

ܘܢܸܦܘܿܩ ܚܘܼܛܪܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܓܘܼܙܥܹܗ ܕܐܝܼܫܲܝ. (Is11:1a⁎) — ḥuṭrā = “stick, staff”

šæḥḥīnā = “hot”

2018-03-03

ܘܢܲܦܪܲܥ ܢܘܼܪܒܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܸܩܵܪܹܗ. (Is11:1b⁎) — præʕ = “to put forth leaves or fruit” C “to germinate, start to sprout” — nurbā = “shoot” (MasJs nOrbā) — ʕeqqārā = “root”

2018-03-13

ܒ: ܘܬܸܬ݁ܢܝܼܚ ܘܬܸܫܪܸܐ ܥܠܵܘܗܝ ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ:
ܐܶܬܬ̊ܢܺܝܚ = Ct (Ettafal=Etpeel) of ܢܳܚ (√nwḥ): “to be at rest, to be placed” — ܫܪܐ = “to loosen, untie; to encamp; to dwell, to stay (at/near)”: Impf. 2. sg. fem. ܬܶܫܪܶܐ is here written as ܬܶܫܪܸܐ
ܘܶܐܢ ܐܝܬ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܒܰܪ ܫܠܳܡܐ܉ ܢܶܬ݁ܬ݁ܢܺܝܚ ܥܠܘܗ̱ܝ ܫܠܳܡܟ̥ܘܢ. ܐܶܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܐ܉ ܥܠܰܝܟ݁ܘܢ ܢܶܗܦܘܿܟ.
(Lk10:6⁎) NY: šlāmḵṓn is repeated, as ܫܠܵܡܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܥܠܲܝܟ݁ܘܿܢ ܢܸܗܦܘܿܟ — also a maRHṬānā is written, as ܢܸܬ݇ܬܢܝܼܚ.

2018-03-14

The word šlāmḵṓn is not repeated in OS-S (above) nor in OS-C, nor in Greek:

ܐܢ ܐܝܬ ܬܡܢ ܒܪ ܫܠܡܐ ܢܬܢܝܚ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܫܠܡܟܘܢ ܐܢ ܕܠܐ ܐܝܬ ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܢܗܦܘܟ
Only one T is written in nettənīḥ
ܘܐܢ ܐܝܬ ܬܡܢ ܒܪ ܫܠܡܐ ܢܬܢܝܚ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܫܠܡܟܘܢ. ܘܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܐ ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܢܗܦܘܟ.
καὶ ἐὰν ᾖ ἐκεῖ υἱὸς εἰρήνης, ἐπαναπαύσεται ἐπ' αὐτὸν ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ἐφ' ὑμᾶς ἀνακάμψει (ἐπανακάμψει).
ἐπαναπαύομαι “to rest upon” from παύω “to stop”; παύσεται fut. but later ἐπανα-παήσομαιἀνακάμπτω = “to return”

2018-03-15

ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܣܘܼܟܵܠܵܐ: ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܬܲܪܥܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܓܲܢ݇ܒܵܪܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ:
tærʕīṯā = “thought, idea, knowledge” — gæbbārūṯā = from ܓܰܢ̄ܒܳܪܐ ‪“strong man”: cf. جَبَّار and גִּבּוֹר “mighty”

2018-03-17

ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܝܕܲܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݁ܕܸܚ̱ܠܬܹܗ [ܘܕܚܠܬܗ] ܕܡܵܪܝܵܐ.
deḥləṯā (dḥelṯā) = “fear”: wa-ddeḥ(e)lṯèh (?) should be wæ-ḏə-ḏeḥ(e)l(ə)ṯèh (P Is 11:2⁎)
ܘܒ݂ܵܥܹ̇ܝܢ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܘ ܡܸܢܹܗ ܟܠܹܗ ܟܸܢܫܵܐ ܕܓܸܕ̈ܪܵܝܹܐ ܕܢܹܐܙܲܠ ܠܹܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܘܵܬ݂ܗܘܿܢ: ܡܸܛܠ ܕܕܸܚ݈ܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܪܲܒ݁ܬ݂ܵܐ ܐܸܚܕܲܬ݀ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ. ܗ̤ܘ ܕܹܝܢ ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܣܠܸܩ̣ ܠܲܣܦܝܼܢ݇ܬܵܐ ܘܲܗ̣ܦܲܟ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܘܵܬ݂ܗܘܿܢ.܀
ʾeḥdæṯ = “to hold, to overwhelm” — sp̄īttā = “ship” (Lk8:37⁎)

8 ܟܬܘܒ 3 ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ «ܢܘܪܐ»

ܐܰܝܟ: ܢܘܪܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܫܰܚܝ̣ܢܐ.

šæḥḥīn = “hot” (nūrā is feminine)

ܐܰܘܚܶܕ ܢܘܪܐ.
He lit (ʾḥd C) fire.
ܝ̇ܬܒ ܗܘܐ ܠܘܬ ܢܘܪܐ. (ܝ̇ܬܒ ܗܘܝܬ ܠܘܬ ܢܘܪܐ. ܝ̇ܬܒܐ ܗܘܝܬ ܠܘܬ ܢܘܪܐ.)
He was sitting by the fire. (I was sitting by the fire.)
ܐܳܦ ܢܘܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬ݁ܐ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܐ ܡܰܘܩܕܐ.
Even a small fire makes many forests burn (yqd C: mæwqèḏ, mæwqe̊ḏā).

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 29] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 29 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܬܶܫܥܐ]: ܟܪܘܒܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ

2017-09-13

ܟܪܘܿܒܐ m. (Hebr 9:5) — כְּרוּב m.

ܐܶܡܝ̱ ܠܡܘܢ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡ ܥܝܪܘܬ̥ܝ̱ ܗܳܟ̥ܰܢܐ ܡܢܰܫܩܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܝ
My mother, for what, in the morning with my wakefulness {ʕīrūṯā} (=when I wake up), thus do you kiss {nšq G/D} me?
ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܰܡܫܰܡܠܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܨܠܘܬ̥ܝ̱ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܐܳܡܪܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܠܝ
And after I have completed {šmly √mly Shaphel=factitive} my prayer, [why do] you say to me, “Cherub, my son”?

2017-09-14

ܡܰܢܘ ܗܳܢܐ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܐܶܡܝ̱ ܐܰܪܰܐ ܒܰܣܝܡ ܗ̱ܽܘ ܐܰܟ̥ܘܳܬ̥ܝ̱
Who is this Cherub, my mother? Is he sweet just like me?
ܐܰܘ ܠܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܘܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܐܶܢܐ ܠܐܰܚܰܝ̣ ܘܐܰܚܘܳܬ̥ܝ̱
Or does he love [his] brothers and friends, just like I [love] my brothers and my sisters?

2017-09-15

ܐܰܘ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ ܕܚܰܕ ܒܫܰܒܐ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܥܺܕ̱ܬܐ ܠܐܶܡܶܗ ܢܳܩܶܦ
Or on every morning in a week of Sunday {d-ḥæḏ b-šæbbā: abs. st. sing. of šæbbe̊ṯā}, [does he] join/follow {nqp} his mother toward the church?
ܘܟܰܕ ܣܳܓ̥ܶܕ ܠܝܶܫܘܥ ܛܳܒܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܟܰܝ ܐܺܝ̈ܕܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܙܳܩܶܦ
And when he worships {sgd} good Jesus, I wonder if he knows/recognizes his hands, raising.

The meaning of the second half of the second line is not clear. It seems that the general structure is like ܝܕܥܐ ܩܠܗ “she knows his voice” (Jn10:5) or ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܥܒܳܕܰܝ̈ܟ “I know your works” (Ap2:2). If “his hands” are “the hands of Jesus,” this probably means “Does Cherub know his (=Jesus’) hands (=power)?” But is the plural form “hands” usual when it means “power”? If, on the other hand, this means “Cherub raises his own hands,” what is the “knows” doing here? My best guess is, something like: “I wonder if Cherub knows that he should (OR how he is supposed to) raise his own hands,” though it may be a little far-fetched. It could be “I wonder if Jesus knows his (his own OR Cherub’s) hands, raising,” but that doesn’t make much sense. [This “his hands” should be Cherub’s hands. See below 2017-09-16.]

The word Zqāp̄ā (the vowel ā) is from this √zqp “to lift, raise up.” Perhaps it originally implied some kind of “higher-lifted” (strong, clear, possibly long, and surely undeletable) vowel.

2017-09-16

ܘܰܠܡܐ ܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܘܠܬܐ ܡܫܝܓ̥ ܐܝܕܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܦܘܡܶܗ ܒܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ
And does he, at the time of eating {mēḵultā, hard T}, wash his hands and his mouth with water?
ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܐܰܘ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܡܨܰܠܶܐ « ܐܰܒܘܢ ܕܒܰܫܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ »
and before and after the sleep (=he sleeps), does he pray [saying] “Our Father Who is in Heaven”?

lmā = a general interrogative particle in direct speech — ܐܳܡ̇ܪܝܢ ܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܐ ܒܰܝܢܰܝ̈ܗܘܢ. ܠܡܳܐ܈ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܰܝܬܝ ܠܗ ܡܕܡ ܠܡܶܐܟ̥ܰܠ܉ (Jn4:33⁎)

mšīḡ = Part. of ʾæšīḡ “to wash” √šwg Aph. — ܫܩ̣ܰܠ ܡܝ̈ܐ܁ ܐܰܫܝܓ ܐܝܕܘ̈ܗܝ ܠܥܹܝܢ ܟܶܢܫܐ܂ = “He took water [and] washed his hands, before the eye {ʕæynā, ʕḗn N §49} (=in front) of the crowd.” (Mt27:24)

2017-10-18

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܹܐܡܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
ܐܶܡܹܗ ܕܛܠܝܐ ܩܳܪܝܐ ܠܹܗ ܟܪܘܒܐ ܒܹܪܝ̱.

New fonts: Tagmukay 2.000 (TIFINAGH); Padauk 3.003 (MYANMAR), updated; Awami Nastaliq 1.000.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 28] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 28 [ܕܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܰܬܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܚܶܟ̥ܡܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ

2017-08-12

ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܒܬܪ ܡ̈ܠܐ ܗܠܝܢ܁ ܐܝܟ ܬܡܳܢܝܐ ܝܘܡܝ̈ܢ܉ ܕܒ̣ܪ ܝܫܘܥ ܠܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܘܰܠܝܰܥܩܘܒ ܘܰܠܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ܂ ܘܰܣ̣ܠܩ ܠܛܘܪܐ ܠܰܡܨܰܠܳܝܘ. (Lk9:28⁎)

ܓܰܒܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܒܘܪܐ، ܟܰܕ ܒܰܙܒܰܢ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܕܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ،
A certain stupid {būrā} man, when one day he was sitting in the shade {ṭellāl(ā)} of an oak tree, (mem 2018-04-18)
ܚܙܐ ܠܘܰܥܕܶܗ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܕܩܰܪܐܳܐ.
saw, near him {l-wæʕdā}, a new sprout {šrṓrā Qara “A small plant”} of a pumpkin {qærʾā/qærrā, CAL qarrʾā}. (mem 2018-04-19)

send(ə)yānā “oak” should be possibly Neo-Syr, though not found in Maclean; prob. from Ar سِندِيان — syc ܒܰܠܘܼܛܐ

2017-08-14 LS2-460, LS3-970b: ܣܸܕܝܵܢܵܐ,‎ ܣܢܕܝܢܐ n.m. “oak”: perh. < NP sindiyān kind of oak PED 701; also in Syro-hexapla Dn 13:54, 13:58 (Susanna) — not in Susanna Hex itself {LS3: BugatusDn 167:28; 167:30 [sic for 159; gl to SusHex 13:54; 58]}! Also, the word appears in the apparatus of Is Hex 44:14 [Middeldorpf], [Ceriani] — TS2-2673: ܣܢܕܝܢܐ nom. arboris, ἀγριοβάλανος, Aq. Jes. xliv. 14 [Aquila of Sinope? Isaiah 44:14] = “evergreen oak” (LSJ) [2018-04-16 CAL s.v. sdyn]

2018-04-18 ܩܰܪܐܐ also ܩܰܪܥܐ = Arab. قرعة — P Jonah4:6 ܘܲܦܩܲܕ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܠܲܫܪܘܼܪܵܐ ܕܩܲܪܵܐܐ {commanded; here šrūrā instead of šrṓrā}: Mosul ܘܲܦ݂ܩܲܕ݂ ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܠܲܫܪܘܿܪܵܐ ܕܩܲܪܐܵܐ

2017-08-13

ܘܐܶܬܒܰܩܝ ܒܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ܋.܌ ܗܳܢܐ ܘܪܳܡܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܥܰܒܝܽܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܛܥܝܢ.
And he looked at {bqy Dt +b} this oak and its height {rāmūṯā} and its thickness {ʕæḇyūṯā}, and it bore small fruits {ṭʕīn pass. pt. sg. w. act. meaning}. (mem 2018-04-20)
ܘܰܫܪܘܪܐ ܥܰܡ ܩܰܛܝܢܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܘܰܡܚܝ̣ܠܘܬ̥ܶܗ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܛܥܝܢ.
And the new sprout, with its fineness (thinness) {qæṭṭīnūṯā} and its weakness {mḥīlūṯā}, bore huge {ræbbā pl. räwr(ə)ḇḕ} fruits. (mem 2018-04-22)

ܘܚܰܝ̈ܠܐ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ̥ܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܗܘܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܒܐܝܕܗ ܕܦܵܘܠܘܿܣ܉ (Ac19:11⁎) — ḥæylā = “might, power, a mighty work i.e. a miracle” ≠ √mḥl “to be weakened”

2018-04-19 bqy = “to examine, to test”: Dt w. b- “to consider, to look at”

2018-04-20 ܗܳܕܶܐ ܕܝܢ ܐ̣ܡܪ܉ ܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܥܠ ܡܶܣܟܹܢ̈ܐ ܒܛܝܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܗ. ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܓܰܢܳܒܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ. ܘܰܓܠܘܣܩܡܐ܂ ܠܘܳܬܶܗ ܗ̱ܘܐ. ܘܡܕܡ ܕܢ̇ܦܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܗ܂ ܗܘ ܛܥܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܐ܀ (Jn12:6⁎) — bṭīl l-èh ʕæl = impers. “he is concerned of” — meskènā = meskēnā = “poor” — gænnāḇā = “thief” — glusqəmā = “chest, box, case” from γλωσσόκομον

2017-08-14

ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ: ܡܐ ܋ܗܰܦܟ̥ܳܝ܌ ܍ܗܶܦܟ̊ܳܝ܌ ܥܒܳܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ.
And he said in his heart (thought to himself): “How perverse {hep̄kāy(ā)} this event [is]!” (mem 2018-04-22)
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ. ܘܗܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܡܚܝ̣ܠܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ [ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ] ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ.
“It would be adequate that this big oak will bear big fruits, and this weak new sprout [will bear] small fruits.” (mem 2018-04-24)

2018-04-22 ܗܰܦܟܳܝܳܐ sic BA. et K., it. B.O. ii. 77, Ephr. ii. 521, semper alias ܗܶܦܟܳܝܳܐ,‎ 1) perversus… (TS1-1041): Manna, Toma Audo also have hæ-. — ܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ ܝܺܕܰܥ܂ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ. ܡܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܐܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܠܗ̇ ܠܰܐܢܬܬܐ. ܥܒܳܕܐ ܫܦܝܪܐ ܥܒܕܬ ܠܘܬܝ. (Mt26:10⁎) — ܠܻܐܝ or ܠܐܐ √lʾy = “to grow tired” (N §179D): Aph. ܐܰܠܺܐܝ < *ʾælʾī; Part. ܡܰܠܹܐܐ < *mælʾē, ܡܰܠܶܐܝܐ < *mælʾəyā also written ܡܲܠ݈ܐܝܵܐ (P-NY Lk18:5), ܡܰܠܹܐܝܢ < *mælʾēn, etc.

2018-04-24 ܛܥܶܢ (e/æ) — ܣܳܡܘ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܙܩܝܦܐ ܕܢܶܛܥܢ ܒܳܬܪܹܗ ܕܝܫܘܥ (Lk23:26): ܒܳܬܪܹܗ ܕܝܰܘܡܐ ‎= ܒܬܪ ܝܘܡܐ

2017-08-15

ܘܥܰܕܠܐ ܢܫܰܠܶܡ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ، ܗܐ ܋ܒܰܠܘܛܬ̥ܐ ܕܢܳܦܠܐ܌ ܍ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܕܢܳܦܶܠ܌ ܡܶܢ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܶܗ،
And before he finished his word, behold, [there was] an acorn that [was] falling from the tree upon his nostril[s] (nose) {#1}, (mem 2018-04-25)
܋ܘܡܰܪܕܝܐ܌ ܍ܘܡܰܪܕܶܐ܌ ܕܡܶܗ.
and [was] making his blood flow {√rdy C}. (mem 2018-04-26)

ʕæḏ-lā = “before (he finished)” lit. like “when he had not yet finished” — CAL: Generally but not always used in past contexts with an imperfect verb. — More generally, the Impf. is often used after a word that means “until” or “before,” including when the principal clause is in the past (N §267).

bællūṭā = “oak; acorn” — BUT in Qarah. bællūṭā = “oak”, bællūṭṯā (sic) = “acorn” {Arabic? see below}

2018-04-22 ܒܲܠܘܼܛܵܐ: ܒܲܠܘܼܛܹ̈ܐ (ܕܟܪ) ܐܝܼܠܵܢܵܐ ܝܑܼܕ݂ܝܼܥܵܐ. ܒܲܠܘܼܛ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ. ܥܸܣܒܵܐ ܗ݇ܘܼ. = “Bællūṭā: Bællūṭē (mas. {deḵrān}) a well-known tree. Bællūṭā of the ground is a grass.” (Toma Audo 77): SYRIAC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALAPH = CCC36 is quite strong [it’s a “semi-letter”, not a normal diacritic], while SYRIAC points = CCC220 or 230 just like generic COMBINING DOT BELOW/ABOVE. — ܒܲܠܘܼܛܬܵܐ =‎ بلوطة (bællūṭæt f. “single acorn”) (Manna66)
PNG Image: 2018-04-24
— #1 nəḥīrā: normally in the pl. (originally: dual!), but with some major exceptions, especially in poetry (CAL): as such ܢܚܝ̣ܪܶܗ (instead of ܢܚܝܪ̈ܵܘܗ̱ܝ̱) is not necessarily wrong: e.g. ܐܲܪܡܸܐ ܩܠܵܕܵܐ ܒܲܢܚܝܼܪܵܟ (P 2K19:28) = “I will place (lit. throw) a ring (as in, a ring in a camel’s nose) in your nose.” {ʾærmē = rmy C impf. 1.sg.}

2018-04-25 ܢ̇ܦܠ (mnemonic) “na, fell”: ܟܠ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܕܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܛܒ̈ܐ ܠܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ܉ ܡܶܬܦܣܶܩ ܘܢ̇ܦܠ ܒܢܘܪܐ

2018-04-26 RDY = “to move quickly, to travel, to flow; to set in motion, to plow, to chastise (also in Aphel)” ܐܰܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܕܪܳܕܹܐ ܗܘܐ ܕܡܗ̇ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ ܬܪܬܥܣܪ̈ܐ܉ ܐܸܬܳܬ

ܘܐܰܙܥܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܫܐ:
So he cried out {zʕq C} in pain (lit. from pain): (mem 2018-04-28)
ܘܳܝܠܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܫܳܛܝܽܘܬ̥ܝ̱.
“Woe {wāy} to me! This is the reward/punishment {purʕānā} for (lit. of) my foolishness.” (mem 2018-04-30)

šæṭyūṯā šāṭyūṯā = “foolishness”: √šṭy — an abstruct noun in ūṯ-ā (N §138B), where the ū is kept when suffixed (N §145H).

2018-04-24 ܙܥܰܩ = “to cry out, shout; to sound” while ܐܰܙܥܶܩ = “to cry out (loudly); to call”. ܘܐܝܬ ܗܘܐ ܒܰܟܢܘܫܬܐ܁ ܓܒܪܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܗܘܐ ܒܗ܂ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܫܹܐܕܐ ܛܰܢܦܐ. ܘܰܙܥܰܩ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ܂ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ. ܫܒܘܩܰܝܢܝ. ܡܐ ܠܰܢ ܘܠܳܟ܁ ܝܶܫܙܥ܅ ܢܳܨܪܳܝܐ. ܐܶܬܰܝܬ ܠܡܰܘܒܳܕܘܬܰܢ. ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐܢܐ ܠܟ ܡܰܢ ܐܢܬ܁ ܩܰܕܝܫܗ܅ ܕܐܠܗܐ. (Lk4:33–34⁎) — knuštā — šḗḏā — šḇæq: Imperat. šḇóq + suf. -æyn(y): Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; where the interjection ἔᾱ is taken as ἔαε “leave [us] alone!”, the imperative of ἔαω. Notice, the Greek language, not having /ṣ/, says Ναζαρέτ/Ναζαρέθ, while we say ܢܳܨܪܰܬ directly from נָצְרַת. — ʾæḇeḏ = “to perish”: Aph. ʾæwbeḏ, inf. l-mæwbāḏū + -ṯ-æn(y).

2018-04-28 ܒܪܢܫܐ ܓܝܪ ܕܒܰܢܦ̥ܶܫ ܗ̱ܘ܉ ܠܐ ܡܩܒܠ ܪ̈ܘܚܳܢܝܳܬܳܐ. ܫܳܛܝܽܘܬܐ ܐܶܢܝ̈ܢ ܓܝܪ ܠܗ. (1Co2:14) — Vocalization of the fem. of the Type -ānāy(ā) (cf. N §136) is confusing (or “confused”). That is: [1] -ānāytā VS. -ānīṯā in sg.: ܪܘܚܳܢܳܝܬܐ (Jess 534a) VS. ܪܘܚܳܢܺܝܬܐ (TS2-3853). [2] -ānyāṯā (Saving One Vowel) VS. -ānāyāṯā (Full-Vowel) in pl.: ܪ̈ܘܚܳܢܝܳܬܐ (normal) VS. ܪ̈ܘܚܳܢܳܝܳܬܐ (Jess 534a) and ܫ̈ܡܰܝܳܢܝܳܬܐ (normal) VS. ܫ̈ܡܰܝܳܢܳܝܳܬܐ (both in TS2-4209). Confusion around ܐ̱ܚܪܳܢܝܳܐ (TS1-129) VS. ܐ̱ܚܪܳܢܳܝܳܐ (LS2 13a) is possibly of the same kind. See also N §40E.

2018-04-29 Mingana 383 explains this:

1o Tout adjectif trilitère féminin, retourne à son état primitif du masculin singulier, ex. ܚܣܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ pure ܚܲܣ̈ܝܵܬ݂ܵܐ (de ܚܲܣܝܵܐ‎). […]

2o Tous les autres adjectifs prennent simplement un zaḳaph avant le taw, ex. ܫܲܪܝܼܪܬܵܐ vraie ܫܲܪܝܼܪ̈ܵܬ݂ܵܐ‎. ܒܙܝܼܙܬܵܐ volée [bzīz = “despoiled” p.p. of √bzz] ܒܙܝܼ̈ܙܵܬ݂ܵܐ‎. ܪܘܼܚܵܢܵܝܬܵܐ spirituelle ܪ̈ܘܼܚܵܢܵܝܵܬܵܐ‎. ܪܘܼܚܵܢܝܼܬܵܐ (même sens) ܪ̈ܘܼܚܵܢܝܵܬܵܐ.

2017-08-16

ܘܐܶܠܘ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܒܰܠܘܛܬ̥ܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܩܰܪܐܳܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܗܢܐ ܒܠܘܛܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܩܪܐܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ]،
“And if this small acorn were a pumpkin…” (mem 2018-05-01)
ܕܠܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܡܫܰܚܩܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܡܫܰܚܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ] ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ (ܢܚܝ̈ܪܐ؟) ܕܝܠܝ̱، ܘܰܟܒܰܪ ܩܳܛܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ [ܩܳܛܶܠ ܗ̱ܘܐ] ܠܝ!
“isn’t it that perhaps it would have crushed {šaḥḥeq} the nose of mine, and perhaps {kḇar} (≈even) would have killed me?!” (mem 2018-05-02)

d-lā dæ-lmā = lit. “that not that, right?” or “that not lest” or “that not perhaps”: I think the meaning here is, “[I’m glad] that it is not, as otherwise this would have happened.” or “Perish the thought, lest this happen.” He thought that, since an oak was a tall tree, an acorn should be proportionally big. Then he changed his mind, as he wouldn’t like it if a huge acorn, falling from a tree, hit him on the head.

2018-04-30 dælmā is explained in N §373. In this case, it is obviously introducing a negative rhetorical question (“Isn’t it that…?”). Originally, used after verbs of fearing (Jess). ܚ̣ܙܝ (ܕ)ܠܡܐ ܠܐܢܫ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܐܢܬ = ὅρα [=ὅραε] μηδενὶ εἴπῃς

2018-05-01 še̊ḥæq G = “to burden, trouble”, šæḥḥeq D = “to crush”: ܡܸܛܠ ܗܕܐ ܐܢܐ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܐܢܐ܉ ܕܠܐ ܢܶܗܘܘܿܢ ܫܳܚܩܝܢ ܠܰܐܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܡܢ ܥܰܡ̱ܡ̈ܐ ܡܸܬܦܢܹܝܢ ܠܘܬ ܐܠܗܐ. (Ac15:19⁎) — ܓܪ̈ܳܒܰܝܗܘܢ ܢܫܰܚܩܽܘܢ = “they will crush their jars {grāḇā -ayhṓn}” (P Je48:12)

2017-08-20

ܡܰܠܶܦ: ܕܠܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܣܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܥܰܠ ܥܒ̈ܳܕܐ ܬܡܝܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܗܰܘ ܕܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܒܚܶܟ̥ܡܬ̥ܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܀
This is teaching [you] (=The moral of the story is): that it is not right that one will rashly attack {sʕy ʕl} the wonderful {tmīhā} works of God, he who made everything with wisdom. (mem 2018-05-03)

ܝܘܚܢܵܢ ܐܲܠܸܦ ܠܬܠܡܝ̈ܕܵܘܗܝ (Lk11:1)

tmæh = “to be speechless”: tmīh AND tæmmīh = “surprised; amazing” — CAL p.p. but modern NT texts more commonly vocalized as ܬܲܡܼܝܗ

ܘܟܲܕ ܚܙܵܐܘܼܗܝ ܬܡܲܗܘ: ܘܐܸܡܪܲܬ ܠܹܗ ܐܸܡܹܗ: ܒܹܪܝ: ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܥܒܲܕܬ ܠܲܢ ܗܵܟܲܢܵܐ (Lk2:48) = καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐξεπλάγησαν, καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ εἶπε(ν)· (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ) Τέκνον, τί ἐποίησας ἡμῖν οὕτως; πλήσσω (√plēk-) = “to strike (esp. of a direct blow)” ⟦plangō⟧ (as in “plague”): with ek-, Pass. 1st aor. ἐξεπλήχθην, but commonly in 2nd aor. ἐξεπλάγην [ᾰ] = “to be driven out of one’s senses by a sudden shock; be amazed, astounded”

2018-05-02 ܋ܒܰܕ܌܍ܟܰܕ ܌ܣܳܥܶܐ ܥܠ ܡܕܡ ܕܠܐ ܚ̣ܙܐ (Col2:18): bæḏ P-UK vs. kæḏ P-NY, H. — ἃ (μὴ) ἑώρακεν ἐμβατεύωνἑόρᾱκα, ἑώρᾱκα = pf. of ὁράωἐμβᾰτεύω = “step in or on, frequent, haunt” {With or without μὴ, this could mean “haunting (=repeating endlessly; being obsessed with) what he HAS or HAS NOT seen.” With μὴ, another interpretation is “intruding into (=baselessly criticizing or discussing) what he has never seen.”} — H reads this as “examining {bṣy} things that he did not see”: ܟܕ ܗ̇ܢܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܚ̣ܙܐ ܒ̇ܨܐ

2017-08-22

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܺܝܒ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒ؟] ܗ̱ܘܐ ܗܰܘ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܒܘܪܐ؟
ܝܰܬܝܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܛܶܠܳܠ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ.

CAL on ytyb: LS2 assigns many other examples of what are surely just G p.p. forms to this adjective; without justification in our opinion. — but if it is yattīḇ (as opposed to *yīṯīḇ), it is not a p.p. At least P Prov 20:08 variant has #ܝܬܿܝܒ#3 in CAL itself. See Book 4, Lesson 16. In the dialect of Qara, this T seems always soft.

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܐ ܒܩܘܪܒܶܗ؟
What did he see near {b-qürbā} him?
ܚܙܐ ܠܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܘܩܰܪܐܳܐ.

2017-08-26

3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ؟
ܐ̣ܡܪ ܒܢܰܦܫܶܗ: ܙ̇ܕܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܗܳܢܐ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ. ܘܗܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܿܪܐ ܡܚـܝܠܐ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ.

ṭʕen/neṭʕæn: ܛܥܶܢܬ ܡܛܠ ܫܶܡܝ = “you endured (labored) because of my name” (Ap2:3) — ܟܘܪܗܳܢܰܝ̈ܢ ܢܶܛܥܰܢ = “he will bear our diseases {kurhānā}” (Mt8:17 cf. Js53:4)

räwrḇḕ: ܣܰܬܘ̈ܐ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ̥ܐ ܢܶܗܘܘܿܢ = “Big (severe) winters/tempests will be [there].” (Lk21:11) — Only in Pesh. and OS-C, not in usual Greek versions nor in OS-S.

4 ܡܘܢ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܶܗ؟ ܘܡܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ؟
ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܥܠ ܢܚܝ̈ܪܵܘܗܝ. ܘܐܡܪ: ܘܳܝܠܝ ܗܢܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܫܳܛܝܘܬ̥ܝ̱.

2017-08-27

5 ܡܳܢܐ ܡܰܠܶܦ ܠܰܢ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟
ܕܠܐ ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܶܣܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܫ ܥܠ ܥܒܳܕ̈ܐ ܬܡܝܗ̈ܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ.

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܢܫܰܠܶܡ ܢܚܝ̣ܪܐ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܐ
ܐܰܝܟ: ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܒܰܠܘܛܐ.
ܒܰܠܘܛܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܣܶܢܕܝܳܢܐ.
An acorn falls from an oak.
ܫܪܘܿܪܐ ܡܢܳܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܘܝܰܪܘܩܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܢܶܨܒܬ̥ܐ. ܒܬܰܪܐܳܐ ܫܪܘܪܐ ܐܳܬܶܐ ܡܢ ܙܰܪܥܐ ܐܰܘ ܡܢ ܣܰܘܟܐ.
A sprout is a small and green part of the plant {neṣbe̊ṯā}. In spring, a sprout comes from a seed or from a branch.

2017-09-01

ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܟܠ ܡܕܡ ܢܫܰܠܡ.
It is proper to complete everything.
ܦܐܪܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܡܢ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܥܠ ܢܚܝܪܐ ܕܝܠܝ.
A fruit fell from a tree onto the nose of mine.
ܛܠܝܐ ܥ̣ܒܕ ܡܕܡ ܛܒܐ ܘܩܰܒܠ ܦܘܪܥܳܢܐ ܛܒܐ.
The boy did a good thing, and received a good reward.

ܘܛܘܒܰܝ̈ܟ܁ ܕܠܰܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܢܶܦܪܥܘܢܳܟ. = “Blessed are ye, as there is nothing for them to give you back.” (Lk14:14) — ṭūḇā = “goodness”; pl. with suf. = “blessed” — præʕ, nep̄róʕ = “to give back”, pl. nep̄r(ə)ʕūn

2017-09-02

ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܐ ܕܚܰܝ̣̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ

7 ܣܰܥܪܐ ܐܶܒܪ̈ܐ ܟܘܒ̈ܐ ܥܰܡܪܐ ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܒܰܥܘܐ
hair, limb/wing, thorn/prick, wool, bark/scale/shell (sg. qlāp̄tā), camel hair
ܐܰܝܟ: ܓܰܡܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ܒܰܥܘܐ.
Ex: A camel covers his body [with] camel hair {bæʕwā}.

2017-09-03

ܩܘܦܕܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܟܘܒ̈ܐ.
A hedgehog {qóppḏā f. (N §84); quppəḏā m. CAL} covers his body [with] pricks.
ܐܶܡܪܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܥܰܡܪܐ.
ܬܰܘܪܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܣܰܥܪܐ.
ܢܘܢܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܘܫܡܶܗ ... ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ.
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܟܰܣܶܐ ܓܙܫܡܶܗ ... ܐܶܒܪ̈ܐ.

ES qupdḕ (Hard D)?

CAL At P Zeph 2:14 the original meaning (i.e., either "hedgehog" or bird) is somewhat unclear, although the parallelism suggests the latter. However, presumably based on the LXX ἐχῖνος, as well as the verbal root qpd , later tradition understood it as the former. In Kalilah wDimnah context suggests a bird, identified by 19th century scholars with NENA quptā "owl" (see Maclean, Dictionary 274) and PSm. At TgIs and P Is 34:15 context again suggests a bird.

Kalilah wDimnah = cf. The book of Kalīlah and Dimnah, translated from Arabic into Syriac, ed. William Wright (1884) [KwDW in LS2], p. lii

Zeph 2:14

2017-09-03

ܘܢܸܪܒ݁ܥܘܼܢ ܒܓܵܘܵܗ̇ ܓܙܵܪܹ̈ܐ: ܘܟ݂ܠܗܹܝܢ ܚܲܝ̈ܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܥܲܡܡܹ̈ܐ: ܐܵܦ ܩܵܩܹ̈ܐ ܘܩܘܼܦ̈ܕܹܐ ܒܒ݂ܵܬܹ̈ܝܗ̇ ܢܒܘܼܬ݂ܘܼܢ: (P Zeph 2:14a⁎) = “And flocks {gzārā} shall lie down {rbʕ} in her [Nineveh]; and all of the animals of nations; also pelicans {qāqā} and QUPDḔ shall spend the night {bwt} in her houses.”

ܘܚܲܝ̈ܘܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܢܸܢܗ̈ܡܵܢ ܒܓܵܘܵܗ̇: ܘܚܲܪܒܵܐ ܒܬܲܪ̈ܥܹܝܗ̇: ܡܸܛܠ ܕܥܸܩܵܪܵܗ̇ ܐܸܬ݂ܦܲܪܣܝ݂.܀ (P Zeph 2:14b⁎) = “And the animals shall roar in her; and the destruction {ḥarbā} in her gates; because the root/base {ʕeqqārā} has been uncovered {√prsy}.” — nhem, nenhæm, Strong Verb, 1st-N but 2nd-H (N §173A).

2017-09-06

וְרָבְצ֨וּ בְתוֹכָ֤הּ עֲדָרִים֙
Flocks shall lie down within her {b-ṯōḵ-āh}.

2017-09-08

כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־ג֔וֹי
Every animal of nation.

ḥayṯō- (ḥaye̊ṯō- ?) = ḥayyaṯ-, archaic (G §90o)

Kalīlah and Dimnah

2017-09-09

ܘܩܘܦܝܢ ܠܥܠ ܡܢ ܪܝܫܝ
and QŪP̄ĪN (an owl; owls?) above my head (KwDW 266:5–6)
ܘܐܪܝܡ ܥܝܢ̈ܘܗܝ ܠܥܠ ܨܝܕ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܗ̇ܘ. ܘܗܐ ܩܘܦܝܢ ܚܕܐ ܒܐܝܠܢܐ. ܕܒܥܝܢ ܕܬܚܛܘܦ [ܠܗ].
And he [the mouse] raised his eyes up toward {ṣēḏ} the tree, and behold [there was] an owl looking {ḥāḏē singular!} in the tree, who were wishing {bāʕēn WHY plural?!} to snatch {teḥṭól WHY feminine?!} [him]. (KwDW 264:5–7)

While the general meaning is clear, this sentence is strange grammatically. The owl is first said to be ḥāḏē (“looking,” masculine singular), then bāʕēn (“wishing,” masculine plural), then teḥṭól (“she will snatch,” feminine singular). Maybe the mouse is so terrified he can’t think straight?

2017-09-10

ܗܳܝܕܶܝܢ ܕܚܶܠ ܥܘܩܒܪܐ. ܕܐܢ ܗ̇ܦܟ ܠܒܶܣܬܪܹܗ܂ ܩ̇ܛܠ ܠܗ ܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ.
So then the mouse feared, that if he returns back, the weasel ⟦mustēla⟧ is going to kill him. (KwDW 264:7–8)

2017-09-12

ܘܐܢ ܣ̇ܠܩ ܠܐܝܠܢܐ܂ ܚ̇ܛܦܐ ܠܗ ܩܘܦܝܢ.
And if he goes up the tree, the owl is [going to] snatch {fem. again!} him. (KwDW 264:8–9)

2017-09-13

ܐܡ̇ܪ ܥܘܽܩܒܪܳܐ ܠܩܲܛܘ. ܩܪܘܒ [ܐܶܩܪܘܿܒ] ܩܰܕܡܐܝܰܬ ܕܢܬܠ ܫܠܡܐ ܠܰܚܕܳܕ̈ܐ
The mouse [was] saying to the cat: “I will come near firstly so that we may give greeting[s] to each other,”
ܕܦܣܩ [ܕܢܶܦܣܩܘܽܢ] ܣܰܒܪܶܗ ܡܢܢ ܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ ܘܩܘܽܦܕܝܺ ܘܢܶܗܦܟܘܽܢ ܟܕ ܒܗ̇ܝܬܝܢ [ܒܰܗܝ̈ܬܺܝܢ].
“so that the weasel and the owl may cut (give up) his (their) hope from us and they may return while ashamed (disappointed).” (KwDW 267:17–19)
ܘܟܕ ܚܙܘ ܩܘܦܕܝ ܘܒܪ ܐܘܪܘܙܕ. ܬܗ̣ܪ [ܬܗܰܪܘ̱] ܒܗܘܢ ܘܐܬܕܡܪ [ܘܶܐܬܕܰܡܰܪܘ̱].
And when the owl and the weasel saw [it], they wondered about them and surprised. (KwDW 267:24–268:1)

2017-09-14

ܘܩܘܦܕܐ ܥܟ ܥܘܪܒܐ
an owl and a raven {ʕūrḇā N §114} (KwDW 367:17)
[index]