memos::Syriac 17 (Q)

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my mail address is in this picture

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu Map, 2[TR][SY], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti


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Negev (1960)

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 33] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 33 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܡܛܐ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ

2018-06-13

mṭy = “to come, reach; to happen, occur”: ܡܛܐ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܕܦܐܪ̈ܐ = “the time for the fruits arrived” (Mt21:34)

teḏā (tæḏā) = “grass, spring”: L4:23

mæššḇā = “blowing, wind”: L4:23, Ac27:14

mṣæbbæṯ mṣæbbṯā (√ṣbt D) = “to adorn”

gæn(nə)ṯā pl. gænnè N §81: גִּינְּתָא pl. גִּינָּתָא

ʕāḇā = m. “forest” [soft B in CAL too now, which had a hard B in the past]

zæhyā = “shining, splendid”

ܡܛܐ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ ܕܡܰܫܒ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ : ܘܢܶܗܪܰܬ̥ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܒܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ
Spring, of nice breeze, has arrived; and the earth has shone (OR has been lit up) with flowers.
ܗܐ ܋ܡܨܰܒܬ̥ܳܢ܌ ܍ܡܨܰܒ̈ܬ̥ܳܢ܌ ܓܰܢ̈ܐ ܘܥܳܒ̈ܐ : ܒܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܙܗܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
Look! Gardens and forests are adding beauty (lit. decorating) [to it]; with shining and fragrant (pleasant) colors.

2018-06-14

The predicative participle “(they are) decorating” is in the feminine form, with the subject “gardens (f.) + forests (m.),” perhaps because the nearer word (“gardens” is immediately after it) is feminine, as if “the gardens are decorating, and also the forests are.” Seyame should be on this participle. ܡܨܰܒ݁̈ܬ݂ܳܢ and ܡܨܲܒ݁ـ̈ܬ݂ܵܢ (1Pt3:5 UK/NY)

yæsmā = jasmine: LS assumes it’s from Middle Persian (cf. pal yāsaman CPD97), while CAL questions that. — šny D = “to move around from place to place” ܡܫܲܢܸܐ (Lk5:16)

šwær = “to leap, bound, spring, jump” — rqæḏ = “to dance” (rare in G, often ræqqeḏ D; curiously, C “to lament”) — ʕænā = “to answer”: ʕænnī D = “to raise (a shout or song); to sing in alternate parts; to sing a response, refrain” — ḥəlé, ḥælyā, ḥəlīṯā; ḥəlæyyā, ḥælyāṯā; like qšé

ܘܗܐ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܒܰܝܢܳܬ̥ ܓܰܢ̈ܐ : ܡܶܢ ܝܰܣܡܐ ܠܘܰܪܕܐ ܡܫܰܢܶܐ
And look! A bird, among the gardens, is moving around; from a jasmine to a rose.
ܫܳܘܰܪ ܪܳܩܶܕ ܘܰܡܥܰܢܶܐ : ܒܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
He is leaping, dancing, and twittering [in response OR repeatedly]; with sweet and fragrant (pleasant) voices.

Both ḥælyā and bæssīmā mean “sweet”; it seems that √ḥly = “to taste sweet” as in “sugary; not bitter” while √bsm = “to smell sweet” i.e. “fragrant”

2018-06-15

ḥār √ḥwr = “to look” ≠ ḥwær √ḥwr “to become white”: often with b-. ܚܘܪܘ ܒ̈ܢܰܥܒܐ = “Look at ravens” (Thomas194 / II-168)

zīwā = “appearance; splendorous appearance, beauty; shining, brightness,” said to be from Akkadian zīmu “appearance” via Neo-Babylonian (NB) *zīwu (note: NB is a Babylonian form of Akkadian around 1000 to 600-or-500 BCE, roughly the same period as Old Aramaic; it does not mean the Neo-Babylonian Empire [c. 620–539], although 539 could be seen as the end year of it.) This word appears in Daniel 2:31 (splendor) and in 5:6 (appearance, face), both in BA and Pesh.

ṣwr = “to depict, form”

ܘܐܳܦ ܘܰܪܕܐ ܒܫܶܡܫܐ ܚܳܐܰܪ : ܘܙܝܘܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܨܳܐܰܪ
And also the rose is looking at the sun; and forming a beautiful appearance.

2018-06-17

pāqæḥ = “flourishing” — bsm D = “to make cheerful, to sweeten” — rèḥā = m. “a smell”: pl. rèḥè, but usually rèḥ-ān-è with ān (N §74)

ܘܟܰܕ ܦܳܩܰܚ ܡܒܰܣܶܡ ܠܐܳܐܰܪ : ܒܪ̈ܝ̣ܚܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
And when blossoming, it is sweetening the air; with [its] sweet and fragrant smells.

ܪܹܝܚܐ ܚܢܢ ܓܝܪ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܒܰܡܫܝܚܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ܉ ܒܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܚܳܐܹܝܢ܇ ܘܒܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܳܐܒܕܝܢ. (2Co2:15⁎) — ḥāyā ḥāy(y)è pl. ḥāyèn OR ḥāʾèn (N §183 (7))

ܡܛܠ ܕܪܝܚܐ ܒܣܝܡܐ ܒܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܝܢ ܠܐܠܗܐ. ܒܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܡܫܬܘܙܒܝܢ. ܘܒܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܐ̇ܒܕܝܢ. (2Co2:15⁎ H)

ܫܰܘܙܶܒ = “to save” — related to Akkadian ezēbu (PS *ʕazāb) = “to leave”, whose causative is marked with Š- (ša or šu?) just like our C is marked with ʔa- or ha-; hence *šVzb = “to cause to leave; to spare, let go, save” and mušēzibu = “rescuer”, šūzubu = “saved” — so, our Shaphʕel and ʾEshtaphʕal ܐܶܫܬܰܘܙܰܒ = “to save oneself, escape; to be saved”: Perf. meštäwzæḇ meštäwzəḇīn (cf. ܡܸܫܬܵܘܬ݁ܦܝܼܢ = “participating” Ac2:42)

2018-06-19

The active participles of ܦܩܰܚ (i.e. ܦܳܩܰܚ and ܦܳܩܚܐ) are used to mean “to be better” (lit. “to be flourishing”): ܠܡܸܦܛܰܪ ܪܓܝܓ ܐܢܐ܉ ܕܥܰܡ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܸܗܘܹܐ. ܘܗܕܐ ܛܒ ܦ̇ܩܚܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܠܝ. = “I wish to leave, so that with M I may be. And that would be much better for me.” (Phil1:23)

ʾumməṯā = “people, nation” — māṯā = “native land”

dāṣ (dwṣ) = “to exult, leap for joy”: duṣ Imperat. as in Lk6:23 [BTW, I noticed that it was a bit difficult to point ܢܒ̥ܺܝ̈ܶܐ in ES (Syrn). NY makes it ܢܒ݂ܝܼ̈ܐ while Mosul (1891) makes it ܢܒ݂ܝܹ̈ܐ. In theory one could write this as ܢܒ݂ܝܼܹ̈ܐ]

zäwʕā = “movement”

ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ ܘܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ : ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܐܽܘܡܬ̥ܐ ܘܡܳܬ̥ܐ
Brothers, sons, and daughters; the flowers of the nation and native land!
ܕܘܨܘ̱ ܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܢ̈ܕܐ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ : ܒܙܰܘܥ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
Leap for joy like birds in the garden; with nice and fragrant (pleasant) movements!

The first half of the final line only has 6 syllables. One possible way to make it 7-syllable would be to use bḡäw gænṯā “within the garden” or bḡäw gænnè “within the gardens” instead of b-ḡænṯā “in the garden”.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 32] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 32 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪ̈ܶܝܢ]: ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܕܰܡܕܝܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ

2018-05-28

ܒܟܽܠ ܋ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ܌ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܺܝ̈ܶܐܐ.
In every big city, there are many sūqā (streets/markets).
ܘܥܰܡ ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܢ ܓܰܒ̈ܐ ܕܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ† ܕܰܣܕܝܪ ܒܗܘܢ ܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫܰܝ̈ ܡܠܘ̈ܐܶܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܙܘܒܳܢܐ.
And along both sides {gabbè} of streets/markets, there are shops† {not syc?; not in Maclean #1}, in which all kinds {ʾāḏšā #2} of supplies {mlṓʾā} are arranged {sḏær, sḏīr} for sale {zubbānā v.n.D}.

#1 Perhaps related to dukkānā (CAL) i.e. דּוּכָנָא (Jastrow) = “dais, platform” JLAtg, PTA, etc. Almost certainly from Akkadian (from Sumerian!) da/ukkānnu, "a small chamber or cell" (CAL)
2018-05-31 This might be dukkōnā “a small place” i.e. “booth”, a diminutive (N §131) of dukkā.

#2 ʾāḏšā = εἶδος = “that which is seen; form; kind, class”: though some have argued that it is a native Semitic word (CAL). ܐܳܪܫܐ sometimes means “fruit”: according to Jess. its origin is ellipt. for ܐܳܕ̈ܫܹܐ ܕܫܰܢ̄ܬܐ = “various kinds [of fruits] of year (i.e. the seasons)” — ܐ̇ܡܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܕܡܢ ܗܫܐ ܠܐ ܐܸܫܬܹܐ ܡܢ ܐܳܕܫܐ ܗܢܐ ܕܰܓܦܸܬܐ. ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܬܹܐܬܹܐ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ. (OS-C Lk22:18⁎): dæ-ḡəp̄ettā = “vine” — ܨܒܹܝܬ ܕܹܐܬܹܐ ܠܘܬܟܘܢ ... ܕܐܦ ܒܟܘܢ ܢܗܘܐ ܠܝ ܐܳܕܫܐ = “I wanted to come to your place so that, also in you guys, fruit would be for me (=so that I might have some fruit among you)” (Ro1:13)

ܐܰܪܡܰܘ ܡܨܝܕܬܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܕܰܣܦܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ = “you guys, throw your net {mṣī(t)tā} from the side of the right of the ship” (Jn21:6)

2018-05-29

ܘܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܠܳܢܳܝܐ.
And there are all kinds of special streets/markets.
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܙܳܙ̈ܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܙܳܩܘܪ̈ܐ ܕܫܺܐܪܐ، ܘܥܰܡܪܐ، ܘܟܶܬܳܢܐ ܘܫܰܪܟܐ ܕܰܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܕܰܙܗܶܝܢ ܒܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܕܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܘܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܘܝܰܪܘܩܐ ܘܫܰܥܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ....
A street/market of clothes {#3}: and in it, there are fabrics {zāqūrè} — of silk {*šḗrā = šḗrāyā}, wool, linen {kettānā}, and so on — of (OR for) garments, which are shining {zhy “to shine”: p.p. zhḗ} in colors of red {summāqā}, white, yellow-green {yārṓqā}, yellow {šæʕṓṯā}, etcetera {wæ-sṭær}.

-tā of šæʕṓṯā is hard in CAL, as שַׁעַוְתָּא ‎— ܫܥܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ (P Is64:1(2), London 1913) — ܫܥܘܿܬ݂ܵܐ (P Jer8:22, ibid.) = “balm, ointment”

2018-05-30

#3 bazzāzā = “dealer in cloth” from بَزَّاز = “draper, cloth merchant”: Neo-Syr [bæzɑːz] (Maclean29a)

ܘܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫ̈ܰܝ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ، ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ، ܪܘܙܐ، ܚܶܡ̈ܨܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...
And [there is] a market of gardeners {#4}: and in it, there are all kinds of grains/seeds {perdè f.pl.} such as wheat grains, barley grains {sʕārè f.pl.}, rice {rūzā m.sg.}, chickpeas {ḥemṣè n.m.pl.t}, etc.

#4 baqqāl = “gardener” (LS2/LS3/CAL) ⟦ŏrĭtor⟧, from بَقَّال = “(green)grocer”: Neo-Syr [bʌqɑːl] = “fruit-seller, grocer” (Maclean37a), from Arabic (see above)/Turkish (bakkal)

2018-05-31

ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܢܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܟܽܠ ܙܢ̈ܰܝ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܋ܒܰܨ̈ܠܐ܌ ܍ܒܸܨ̈ܠܐ܌، ܋ܦܶܓ̈ܠܐ܌ ܍ܦܘܓ̈ܠܐ܌، ܚܰܣ̈ܐ، ܣܶܠܩ̈ܐ، ܝܰܒܪ̈ܘܚܐ، ܒܢܳܬ̥ܓܰܢ̈ܐ، ܘܩܘܦ̈ܛܐ† ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...
A suq of vegetables {#5}: and in it, [there are] all sorts of green things such as onions {beṣlè}, radishes {puḡlè}, lettuces {ḥæssè, sg. ḥæs(sə)ṯā}, beets {selqè}, mandrakes {yæḇrūḥè; here somehow “tomatoes” are meant; this could mean “eggplants”}, mandrakes {bnæṯ-gænnè; “eggplants” are meant}, cauliflowers† {QUP̄ṬÈ prob. not Syriac; maybe from قُنَّبِيط (qunnabīṭ)}, and so on.

#5 yærqōnè = “vegetables”, pl. of yærqā, enlarged with -ān (N §74 fn3), which was changed into -ōn (N §44).

2018-06-01

ܐܶܒ̊ܐ = “fruit”: pl. ܐܶܒܳܢ̈ܐ (N §74), often ܐܶܒ̈ܒܳܢܐ

ܫܘܩܐ ܕܐܶܒܒܳܢ̈ܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܽܠ ܓܢܶܣ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ، ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ، ܡܘܙܐ، ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ، ܐܶܓܳܨ̈ܐ†، ܘܒܘܨܝܢ̈ܐ ܘܒܰܪܩܘܩܝܐ.
A fruit market: and in it, there is every kind of fruits, such as grapes, figs, banana {mūzā sg.}, apples, pears† {Arabic}, gourds {būsīnè: Qarah. means “cucumbers”}, and apricot {#6}.

#6 bær-quqyā TS1-595; bærqūqāyā CAL/LS2/LS3 — LS2 states that this is from the [Byzantine] Greek word βερίκοκκα [sg. βερίκοκκον]. TS refers to πρεκόκκιον Cf. بَرْقوق “plum”: basically, from Lat. prae-coquō = “to be premature”. French abricot still has -b- from Arabic (English apricot is like French).

2018-06-02

ܘܰܣܛܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܫܘܩܐ ܕܩܰܨܳܒ̈ܐ ܡܙܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܶܣܪ̈ܳܢܐ،
And other than these, there is a suq of butchers {qæṣṣāḇè} — sellers of meats,
ܘܚܳܢܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܰܙܢ̈ܰܝ ܦܘܠܚܳܢ̈ܐ ܐܘܡܳܢܳܝ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ:
and shops {ḥānūṯā pl. ḥānwāṯā} of various (lit. “sorts of”) artisanal {ʾummānāyè} works, such as:
ܢܰܓܳܪ̈ܐ، ܩܰܝܢܳܝ̈ܐ، ܚܰܝ̣̈ܳܛܐ، ܓܳܪ̈ܽܘܥܐ ܙܰܩܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ.....
carpenters, smiths, tailors, barbers {gārōʕè}, weavers {zæqqārè #7}, et cēterī.

#7 Also, ܙܳܩܘܿܪܐ nom.ag.

2018-06-05

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܰܝ ܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܟܳܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܩܶܢܝܳܢ̈ܐ ܩܳܝܡܝܢ،
And while the lives of village-men stand on {qwm ʕl} agriculture {ʾækkārūṯā} and the raising of livestock {cattle; lit “possessions”},
ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܕܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܋ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ܌ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܓܳܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܘܟܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܋ܙܶܒܳܢܐ܌ ܍ܙܒܳܢܐ܌ ܘܙܘܒܳܢܐ ܀
the lives of city-boys, therefore, [stand] on commerce {tæggārūṯā}, or in other words, on buying {zḇānā} and selling {zubbānā v.n.D #8}.

#8 ܙܒܵܢܵܐ ܘܙܘܼܒ݁ܵܢܵܐ = “buying and selling, business” LS3-369a. (LS2-187b as Rabb[ula] 213 9)

2018-06-06

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܋ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ܌ ܍ܐܰܕܟܰܪ܌ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܰܝ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ؟
Mention {C} the names of some of the shops?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܙܴܙ̈ܐ، ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ، ܘܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܐ.
A suq of cloth, a suq of gardeners (grains), and a suq of vegetables.
2 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܒܶܣܪ̈ܳܢܐ؟
Who sells meat?
ܩܰܨܳܒܐ.
A butcher.
3 ܡܰܢ ܚܳܐܶܛ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ؟
Who sews {ḥwṭ} garments?
ܚܰܝܳܛܐ.
A tailor.

ܟܘܬ̊ܝܢܗ ܕܝܢ ܐܝܬܹܝܗ̇ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܕܠܐ ܚܺܝܛܐ ܡܢ ܠܥܸܠ = “His tunic {OR (under)garment: fem. kuttīnā NY, CAL || kottīnā N §71, Mosul: perh. from akk or grc χιτών} was without being sewed {pass. pt. f. *ḥwīṭā > ḥīṭā} from above (from the top)” (Jn19:23)

2018-06-07

4 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ؟
Who (Which) sells apples?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܶܐܒܒܳܢ̈ܐ.
A suq of fruits.
5 ܒܡܳܢܐ ܦܳܠܰܚ ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ؟
With what does a smith work?
ܦܰܪܙܠܐ.
Iron.

2018-06-08

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܫܘܩ̈ܐ : ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܋ܒܰܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܒܰܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ܌ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ.
Suqs — Example: In our town there are large suqs.
ܐܶܙܹܠ̱ܬ̥ ܠܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܕܶܐܙܒܶܢ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
I went {ʾezzèṯ} to suqs so that I might buy fruits and wheat.
ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ: ܒܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ ܡܙܰܒ̊ܢܝܢ ܗܠܝܢ، ܘܙܳܒ̥ܢܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܰܢ.
Shops: In shops they sell these, and we buy (them).

ܘܡ̣ܢ ܒܬܪ ܬܠܬ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ܉ ܐܶܙܹܠ̱ܬ̥ ܠܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ (ܠܐܘܽܪܺܫܠܶܡ) ܕܶܐܚܙܹܐ ܠܟܹܐܦܐ. ܘܩܵܘܝܬ ܠܘܬܗ ܝܵܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܚܡܫܬܥܣܪ. (Gal1:18⁎)

ܘܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ ܬܘܒ ܕܰܗ̤ܘܐ ܒܝܵܘ̈ܡܬܗ ܕܠܘܿܛ: ܕܳܐܟ̥ܠܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܘ ܘܫ̇ܬܹܝܢ: ܘܙ̇ܒܢܝܢ ܘܰܡܙܰܒܢܝܢ: ܘܢ̇ܨܒܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܘ ܘܒ̇ܢܹܝܢ: (Lk17:28⁎) — nṣæḇ = “to plant”

2018-06-11

ܫܺܐܪܐ: ܫܹܐܪܐ (ܫܹܐܪܝܳܐ) ܗܢܐ ܪܰܟܝܟܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Silk: This silk is soft {rækkīḵā}.
ܝܰܒܪܘܚܐ: ܝܰܒܪܘܚܐ ܢܶܨܒܬ̥ܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Mandrake (or eggplant): A mandrake is a plant {neṣbəṯā}.

2018-06-12

ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ: ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܒܣܐܡܐ ܘܰܢܚܳܫܐ.
Smith: A smith works with silver and copper.
7 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܒܰܨ̈ܠܐ (ܒܶܨ̈ܠܐ) ܘܚܰܣ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Who (Which) sells onions, lettuces, etc.?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܹܐ.
A suq of vegetables.
8 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܘܰܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Which sells wheat, barley, and so on?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ.
A suq of gardeners.
9 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Which sells clothes, etc.?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒ̈ܰܙܳܙܹܐ.
A suq of cloth-dealers.

ܐ̇ܡܪܐ ܗܘܬ ܓܝܪ܉ ܕܳܐܦܸܢ ܠܰܠܒܘܫܗ ܩ̇ܪܒܐ ܐܢܐ܂ ܚܳـܝܳܐ ܐܢܐ܇ (Mk5:28⁎) — ḥāyè, ḥāyyā (ḥāyā?) Part. (N §183 (7)) [pl. ḥāyèn/ḥāʾèn]: ܘܸܐܠܘ ܠܐ ܡܪܝܐ ܕܟܰܪܝ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ܉ ܠܐ ܚܳـܝܹܐ ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ܒܣܰܪ. ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܓܒ̥ܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܰܓܒܐ܂ ܟܰܪܝ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ܀ (Mk13:20⁎) — gæḇyā, pl. emph. gḇæyyā (like qænyā: N §72) — ʾellū + Perf, & Part. + wā (N §375): with ʾellū lā accompanied by a noun, the idea of existence does not need to be expressly denoted (N §375C), i.e. “if the lord, who has shortened, were not [existing] (=if the lord were not shortening), this would be happening.” In this specific example, the original is «aorist indicative, & ἂν + aorist indicative», meaning “if he had not shortened, this would have happened,” although in Syriac there is no sharp distinction between unreal-present (breviō: breviāret) and unreal-past (breviāvisset).

2018-06-13 OS-S: ܘܐܠܘ ܠܐ ܟܪܹܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܝܘܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ ܠܐ ܚܝܐ ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ܒܣܪ. ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܓܒ̈ܝܐ ܕܓܒܐ ܟܪ̈ܝܢ ܝܘܡܬܐ. — the Seyame on the second krèn p.p. (?) seems inconsistent. But we don’t have Seyame on yāwmāṯā either.

Daniel 5 (Biblical Aramaic/Peshitta)

Daniel 2 is in SyriacL.php, etc.

2018-05-28

Daniel (P/BA) 5:1⁎

ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܥܒܲܕ݂ ܠܲܚܡܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ ܠܐܲܠܹܦ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܐܲܠܦܵܐ ܚܲܡܪܵܐ ܫܵܬܹܐ ܗ̣݇ܘܵܐ.܀
Belṭšāṣær [sic] the King made a great feast {læḥmā = “bread; dinner”} for his 1000 nobles {räwrḇānè}, and was drinking wine {ḥæmrā} in front of the 1000 {hard p in sg.emph. N §93 §148}.

Originally בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר (possibly “Bel will protect the king”) is the Babylonian name of Daniel, while the “king” in the story is called בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר (“Bel, protect the king!”). It seems that the two names are not clearly distinguished in Peshitta. In the actual history Belshazzar was not a king, but a crown prince. His father was Nabonidus, the last king of Neo-Bab, who would be defeated by Cyrus in October, 539 BCE.

בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֣ר מַלְכָּ֗א עֲבַד֙ לְחֶ֣ם רַ֔ב לְרַבְרְבָנ֖וֹהִי אֲלַ֑ף וְלָקֳבֵ֥ל אַלְפָּ֖א חַמְרָ֥א שָׁתֵֽה׃
-ˈohi = suffix same as in TgO: our -äw(hy)

2018-05-29

Daniel (P/BA) 5:2⁎

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ ܒܲܛܥܸܡ ܚܲܡܪܹܗ ܠܡܲܝܬܵܝܘܼ ܡܵܐ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܣܹܐܡܵܐ: ܕܐܲܦܸܩ ܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕܢܵܨܲܪ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܒ݂ܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ:
And Belṭšāṣær [sic] said (commanded), in tasting {ṭʕem = noun} his wine, to bring the vessels of gold and of silver {sèmā}, which Nəḇũḵæḏnāṣær, his father, had brought out from the temple {hæyklā} that [was] in ʾÓrešlem;
ܕܢܸܫܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܒܗܘܿܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܢܸܫܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܘܲܕ݂ܪ̈ܘܼܟܵܬܹܗ.܀
so that they might drink using them — the king and his nobles, and his women (wives) {nešè N §146} and his concubines {drūḵtā, pl. -āṯā N §113: √drk = “to tread (upon)”}.
בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֞ר אֲמַ֣ר ׀ בִּטְעֵ֣ם חַמְרָ֗א לְהַיְתָיָה֙ לְמָאנֵי֙ דַּהֲבָ֣א וְכַסְפָּ֔א
hayṯāyā (T marked as soft, perh. ay was one vowel for someone who pointed this) = similar to Jar ʾayTāyā: in Syriac there is an M instead of h/ʾ and the final vowel is ū, not ā. — A Re̊ḇīaʕ section is sometimes divided into two with a Le̊ḡarmēh, when Mūnaḥ + Pāsēq + Mūnaḥ + Re̊ḇīaʕ is seen. Here, however, the section is divided into three, and a Gerˈšayim is placed at the additional dividing point. This pattern might be rare.
דִּ֤י הַנְפֵּק֙ נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּ֣ר אֲב֔וּהִי
מִן־הֵיכְלָ֖א דִּ֣י בִירוּשְׁלֶ֑ם
ʾɐ̊ˈḇūhī = practically identical to the form used in TgO — Ye̊rū-še̊lèm {#1} = BH Ye̊rū-šā-ˈla-(y)im
וְיִשְׁתּ֣וֹן בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ׃
šglh, šgltʔ = “royal consort, queen” Dan; “name or epithet of a goddess” Hatran (الحَضر); from Akkadian — lḥnh, lḥntʔ = “temple servant” arc-EG; “concubine” Dan (only in pl.), JLAtg, etc. [lḥn n.m. “temple servitor” from Akkadian laḫḫinu]: לְחֵ(י)נְתָא = “concubine, maid-servant”, pl. לְחֵ(י)נָתָא (Again, the word form in Daniel is identical to that in TgO)

2018-05-30

#1 In this dialect (unlike in Syriac) there seems to be a vowel /ə/ after Š, i.e. not *Ye̊rūš-lèm; as this phrase is sometimes written בִירֽוּשְׁלֶם (4x in Ezra, 1x in Daniel); it’s probably not a mere typo of בִֽירוּשְׁלֶם (3x in Ezra).

Similarly, hēḵlā (hæykəlā) is commonly written with a ˈMèṯèḡ in BA, as if hē-ḵəlā. This is a (no later than) Late Bronze Age borrowing into West Semitic from Akkadian ekallu < Sumerian e2. gal "palace, temple," as evidenced by the preservation of the initial consonant. (CAL) — That is, there must have been an older form of Akkadian /ekallu/ with *h- (or perhaps *ʕ-), something like *haykallu, because this word is either hay- or hē- in Arabic, Ugaritic, Hebrew and Aramaic (in other words, the CUNEIFORM SIGN E2 𒂍 was perhaps originally the sign for HAI or HE). According to ePSD: egal[palace], Sumerian e2gal / Akkadian ekallu were used in roughly 2500–1500 BCE. If the borrowing from Akkadian to West Semitic occured in 2500 BCE (Early Bronze Age), it might be that back then Arabic/Ugaritic/Hebrew/Aramaic were still one proto-language. Even if the borrowing was as new as 1500 BCE, perhaps Aramaic was not yet born (diverged) at that time. It’s a very old borrowing.

Daniel (P/BA) 5:3⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܡܵܐ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܲܦܸܩ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܕܒ݂ܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ: ܘܐܸܫܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܒܗܘܿܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܢܸܫܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܘܲܕ݂ܪ̈ܘܼܟ݂ܵܬܹܗ.܀
So then, they brought the vessels of gold, which he {Nebuchadnezzar} had brought out from the temple of God that [was] in ʾÓrešlem; and they drank using them — the king and his nobles, and his wives and his concubines.
בֵּאדַ֗יִן הַיְתִיו֙ מָאנֵ֣י דַהֲבָ֔א
דִּ֣י הַנְפִּ֗קוּ מִן־הֵֽיכְלָ֛א דִּֽי־בֵ֥ית אֱלָהָ֖א
דִּ֣י בִירֽוּשְׁלֶ֑ם
hanˈpiqu = “they brought”: similar to the regular C 3mp form in TgO, except the 1st-N is not assimilated; “he brought” in Peshitta.
וְאִשְׁתִּ֣יו בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי
שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ׃
ʾištīw = like Syriac; the TgO form seems to be ʾištiʾu (close enough!)

2018-05-31

Daniel (P/BA) 5:4⁎

ܐܸܫܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܚܲܡܪܵܐ: ܘܫܲܒܲܚܘ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܹ̈ܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܣܹܐܡܵܐ: ܘܕܲܢܚܵܫܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ: ܘܲܕ݂ܩܲܝܣܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܟܹܐܦܵܐ.
They drank wine, and praised gods of gold and of silver, and of copper (alloy) and of iron, and of wood {qæysā} and of stone.
אִשְׁתִּ֖יו חַמְרָ֑א
וְ֠שַׁבַּחוּ לֵֽאלָהֵ֞י דַּהֲבָ֧א וְכַסְפָּ֛א נְחָשָׁ֥א פַרְזְלָ֖א אָעָ֥א וְאַבְנָֽא׃
šabbahū = also šabˈbahu in TgO — ʾāʕā = “wood” Com (“tree” in PS) — ʾaḇnā = “stone” Com; kēp̄ā = “large rock” Com, later “stone”

2018-06-11 ܠܐ ܬܸܩܢܘܿܢ ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ܂ ܘܠܐ ܣܹܐܡܐ܂ ܘܠܐ ܢܚܳܫܐ ܒܟܝ̈ܣܰܝܟܘܢ. (Mt10:9⁎) — qny = “to acquire; to have”

2018-06-01

Daniel (P/BA) 5:5a⁎

ܘܒ݂ܵܗ̇ ܒܫܵܥܬ݂ܵܐ: ܢܦܲܩ ܨܸܒ݂̈ܥܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܝܼܕ݂ܵܐ ܕܐ݇ܢܵܚܵܐ: ܘܟ݂ܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܫܪܵܓ݂ܵܐ: ܥܲܠ ܟܸܠܫܵܐ ܕܐܸܣܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܲܒ݂ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ:
And in that [same] hour, the fingers of a hand of a man (=a human hand) came out {3fp}, and [were] writing in front of the lamp, on the lime {kelšā #2} of the foundation {ʾeštā, f. though T is orig. radical: N §86} of the palace of the king.
בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָ֗ה נפקו (כ נְפַ֙קָה֙ ק) אֶצְבְּעָן֙ דִּ֣י יַד־אֱנָ֔שׁ
וְכָֽתְבָן֙ לָקֳבֵ֣ל נֶבְרַשְׁתָּ֔א
עַל־גִּירָ֕א
דִּֽי־כְתַ֥ל הֵיכְלָ֖א
דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א
nəˈp̄aqā (3fp) = identical to its TgO form — ʾeṣbʕā (originally m.) & ʾṣbʕtʾ (*ʾeṣbaʕTā) f. = both have the same pl. form ʾeṣbʕān āṯā — kāṯəˈḇān = there is a vowel before the B, and the B is soft! Identical to the TgO form. — neḇraštā (Syriac voc. naḇreštā) = either Old Persian or Akkadian. — kṯal kuṯlā = “wall”

#2 “chalk, whitewash, lime” Syr (CAL). According to LS2/LS3, this is from χάλιξ, χάλικος [ᾰ] (m. or f.) = “small stone; gravel, rubble, used in building” — gīr(ā) = “chalk, lime, plaster” Official Aramaic in general (in this verse, usually translated as “plaster”)

2018-06-02

Daniel (P/BA) 5:5b⁎

ܘܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܚܙܵܐ ܦܲܣܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܝܼܕܵܐ ܕܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ.܀
And the king saw the palm {pæssəṯā f.} of the hand {f.} that [was] writing.
וּמַלְכָּ֣א חָזֵ֔ה פַּ֥ס יְדָ֖ה דִּ֥י כָתְבָֽה׃
And the king [was] seeing of the palm {m.} of the hand {f.} that [was] writing.

2018-06-15

Daniel (P) 5:6a⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܙܝܼܘܹܗ ܫܢܵܐ: ܘܪܸܥܝܵܢܹܗ ܐܸܬ݁ܕܲܠܲܚ:
Then as for the king, his splendorous appearance {zīwā: topic-subject} faded {šnā}; and his mind {reʕyānā} was agitated {dlæḥ ʾeddælæḥ Dt}.

2018-06-16

Daniel (BA) 5:6a⁎

Suffixed plural nouns (or suffixed nouns in general) in BA are very similar to those of TgO. For example, from yom-ayyā: yom-ay, yom-āḵ (Qr), yom-ˈohi, yom-ah (Qr); they are exactly the same as the corresponding TgO forms, except “her days” would be yom-ˈahā with extra -ā in TgO [ref. Johns: A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1972), p. 13; Lambdin, Huehnergard: An Introduction to the Aramaic of Targum Onkelos (2002), p. 21]. Based on that, I’m pretty sure that *ziw-ayyā (pl. of ziwā) + “his” is ziˈwohi (can be written with U+05BA HEBREW POINT HOLAM HASER FOR VAV), and not *zi-yo-hi.

שְׁנוֹ is ܫܢܵܘ (3mp), and שְׁנ֫וֹהִי is ܫܢܵܐܽܘܗܝ (+him).

bhl D bahhel = “to trouble”: Impf. *yəḇahhel *yəḇahhəlun > yə-ḇa-hɐ̊-lun (w. suf. -lun-neh) — Here, Imperfect seems strange as Aramaic (unlike w + Impf. in Hebrew).

אֱדַ֤יִן מַלְכָּא֙ זִיוֺ֣הִי שְׁנ֔וֹהִי וְרַעיֹנֹ֖הִי יְבַהֲלוּנֵּ֑הּ
Then as for the king, his splendorous appearance {pl.} faded for him (OR faded on him), and his thoughts troubled him.

2018-06-19

Daniel (P) 5:6b⁎

qeṭrā = “knot, joint”

ḥæṣṣā = Syr “loin” — ḥrṣ in other dialects, e.g. חַרְצָא — Arabic خَصْر

šrī = “to loosen”: Gt ʾeštrī

burkā = fem. “knee” — hence, nqæš 3fp

ܘܩܸܛܪ̈ܲܝ ܚܲܨܹܗ ܐܸܫܬ݁ܪܝܼܘ: ܘܒ݂ܘܼܪ̈ܟܵܘܗܝ ܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܠܲܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܢܩܲܫ.܀
And the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees knocked against each other.

2018-06-20

Daniel (BA) 5:6b⁎

וְקִטְרֵ֤י חַרְצֵהּ֙ מִשְׁתָּרַ֔יִן
וְאַ֨רְכֻבָּתֵ֔הּ דָּ֥א לְדָ֖א נָֽקְשָֽׁן׃
*mištarˈrayin > mištāˈrayin Dt Part. m. pl. (cf. mištəˈrayin Gt) — in BA א and ר are not geminated, and as compensation, Short vowels before א and ר are lengthened (Rosenthal: A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1961), §20). Instead of -ayin, the ending would be -è(y)n in Syriac, and -an in TgO.
*ʾar(ə)ḵubbəṯā (?), pl. ʾar(ə)ḵubbāṯā — K is soft, as the original word is something like rəḵuḇtā (Jastrow 1479a).

2018-06-22 דָּא = “this (f.)” = ܗܵܕܹܐ (LS3 ܗܵܕܸܐ) — “this (m.)” in BA is דְּנָה — in TgO, while dā (f.) is identical, the masculine “this” is דֵּין in the absolute state.

Sometimes a stand-alone word has both Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn and Qaḏmā, where the Qaḏmā is called Me̊ṯīḡā (מְתִיגָה), which can be seen as a variation of ˈMèṯèḡ. The combination of ZQ and Me̊ṯīḡā is a variation of Zāqēp̄ Gāḏōl, and it may occur when there are 3 vowels (including e̊) in the word in question before the vowel on which ZQ is placed. Another example is Dn2:48. [ref. Zakef katon und Metiga | Metiga | Davis, Arthur (1900) | Cantor Gastón's Website-Tutorial]

2018-06-21

ZQ+Me̊ṯīḡā may occur when there are four vowels before ZQ, as in the above example (we̊-ʾar-ḵub-bā-ˈṯeh, OR possibly even we̊-ʾa-re̊-ḵub-bā-ˈṯeh). Another such example from Num13:20 is וְהִ֨תְחַזַּקְתֶּ֔ם = “you guys shall strengthen yourselves,” where Perf. 2mp (of Hithpaʕʕel; -tèm is our -tón) is used like imperative (G §106m).

Daniel (P) 5:7⁎

ḥæylā = “force, strength”: abs. ḥæyl = ḥèl

lə-mæʕʕālu C Inf. like mæqṭālu (ʾæʕʕel C)

ʾærg(ə)wānā = “purple”

hamnīḵā = “necklace” from Old Persian (ca. 600–400 BCE) [peo]

ṣäwrā = “neck”

šlæṭ (a/a) = “to bear rule”: cf. “sultan” = سُلْطَان from ܫܘܠܛܳܢܐ (s1=š in Aramaic, s in Arabic, but both are written like “w”)

ܘܲܩ̣ܪܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܒܚܹܝܠ: ܠܡܲܥܵܠܘܼ ܠܐܵܫ̈ܘܿܦܹܐ: ܘܲܠܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ: ܘܠܲܡܓ݂ܘܼܫܹ̈ܐ: ܘܲܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ:
And the king called loudly (lit. with strength) to bring in (i.e. summon) spell-casters and Chaldeans and magi and wise men.
ܥܢܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ: ܟܠ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܕܢܸܩܪܹܐ ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܢܚܵܘܹܝܢܝ:
The king responded [to occasion] and said: “Anyone who will read this writing and will show me its interpretation,
ܐܲܪ̈ܓܘܵܢܹܐ ܢܸܠܒܲܫ: ܘܗܲܡܢܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܒܨܵܘܪܹܗ: ܘܬ݂ܘܼܠܬܵܐ ܒܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܵܐ ܢܸܫܠܲܛ.܀
shall wear purple [clothes], also a necklace of gold around his neck, and, [as] one-third, [he] shall rule over the kingdom!”

In BA, it is said that taltā/taltī = “third ranking official”; it seems that Pesh. says, “shall rule over the kingdom, one-third [of it],” except it doesn’t simply say “shall rule over one-third of the kingdom” (nešlæṭ b-ṯulṯā d-mælkūṯā). It might mean, “shall rule the kingdom [as] one of the three rulers.”

2018-06-23

Daniel (BA) 5:7a⁎

*haʕʕālā > hanʕālā, hèʕālā = Syr. mæʕʕālu

קָרֵ֤א מַלְכָּא֙ בְּחַ֔יִל
לְהֶֽעָלָה֙ לְאָ֣שְׁפַיָּ֔א
כַּשְׂדָּיֵא [כ כַּשְׂדָּאֵ֖י ק]
וְגָזְרַיָּ֑א
The king called loudly to bring in the spell-casters, Chaldeans, [and] diviners.

If a word with ZQ has a ˈMèṯèḡ on its first syllable, that ˈMèṯèḡ may change into Mūnaḥ, resulting in a word with two accent marks:

This does not happen, however, if the ˈMèṯèḡ is on the first vowel of the word, and if the preceding syllable (i.e. the last syllable of the previous word) has a Pašṭā accent.

Ref. Davis (1900), p. 14 | Zakef katon und Munach auf einem Wort

Ethiopic (2018)

On 2018-05-31, after checking Aramaic ʾāʕā (PS *ʕiṣ́, Geʿez ʕĕṣ́) in Dn5:4, I got interested in this and started learning the Ethiopic alphabet again, this time rather seriously. See also: Ethiopic (2013, 2015); Amharic (2014); South Semitic (2013)

2018-06-01

Mnemonic: the first half (13) of the 26

ሀለ ሐመ ሠረ
Holy ḥam, sure!
ሰቀ በተ ኀነ አ
Suq bought Khan, uh-oh!

2018-06-02

Mnemonic: the second half (13) of the 26

ከወ ዐ ዘየ
Cow-eye(d) Zoey,
ደገ ጠጰ ጸፀ ፈፐ
Dog, ṭop̣, ṣaḍ, phew (oo)ps!

Example Words

ለ፤ል በ፤ብ ፥ ልብ
ܠܸܒ̊ܐ — (L) + “sheva” as a left circle; (B) + “sheva” as a left tick

2018-06-03

ለ፤ሌ ለ፤ሊ ተ፤ት ፥ ሌሊት
ܠܹܠܝܐ — (L) + “ē” as a left bottom ring [possibly an adscripted ]; (L) + “kasra” as a left bottom line; (T) + “sheva” as a top tick

With WashRa, typing cost is number_of_letters x 2. For the above two examples, the required strokes will be “L E, B E” and “L Y, L I, T E” respectively, simple and clean. With IME, you may have to type more keys. While you can still type ləb in 4 strokes (L SPACE, B SPACE), lelit costs 6 strokes (L I E, L I SPACE, T SPACE).

ሐ፤ሓ ለ፤ሊ በ፤ብ ፥ ሓሊብ
ܚܠܒ̥ܐ — (Ḥ) + extended right for “ā” [possibly a “dagger ʾalif” subscripted] — cost = WashRa 6 vs. IME 8 (H . A, L I SPACE, B SPACE)
መ፤ማ የ፤ይ ፥ ማይ
ܡܝ̈ܐ — (M) + “dagger ʾalif”; (Y) + “shva” as the extended, curled-up tail, with a left bottom tick [the whole thing looks like “ȩ”] — cost = 4 vs. 4 (tied)
መ፤ም ሰ፤ሴ ተ፤ት ፥ ምሴት
ܪܡܫܐ — (M) + “shva” as center-to-left leg; (S) + “ē” adscripted [məsēt] — Note: Like in Arabic, PS *š & *s3 are both /s/ in Geʿez, while PS *ś is (/ɬ/ ?), that is ش. is a newer later used in Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigré, etc. — Cost: 4 vs. 5
ሠ ለ ሰ፤ስ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሠለስቱ
ܬܠܬܐ — (Ś); (L); (S) + “shva” as oblique tick; (T) + “ḍamma” as lower right tick [śalasˈtū] — cf. Mercer: Ethiopic Gr. §105 — PS *śalāṯ- (Central Semitic: based on *ṯalāṯ): PS *ṯ becomes s in Ethiosemitic (but not in OSA). — Cost: 8 vs. 10
ሠ ለ፤ላ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ሠላስ
ܬܠܬ — extended right leg for “ā” [śalās] — Cost: 6 vs. 7

Confusing guys: ለሰስ — Lä looks like λ, with the head part slanted. The tick of Sä is not slanted, facing directly above. Sə is like Lä, but the head part and the right leg are connected less smoothly, somewhat zigzagging. Also, while Lä is roughly V-shaped, Sä/Sə is U-shaped.

2018-06-14 [Added to Wikt @ 2018-06-13] ሠላሳ (śălāsā) = ܬܠܬܝܢ

2018-06-04

ሠ ለ፤ል ሰ፤ስ ፥ ሠልስ
ܬܠܝܬܝܐ — two consecutive consonants are possible only word finally (Mercer §12 c, §13 7b) [śals].
ረ፤ር አ፤እ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ርእስ
ܪܝܫܐ — (R) (rə) has a special form [also (F) ፈ፤ፍ]; (A) + zigzag “shva” — PS *š > s in Ethiosemitic, Arabic, and Old South Arabic. [rəʔs ?]
ሰ መ፤ማ ነ፤ኒ ፥ ሰማኒ
ܬܡܢܹܐ — (N) + adscripted “kasra” (this pattern works for almost all III. characters) — the 10th example word

2018-06-05

ሰ መ፤ማ ነ፤ን ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሰማንቱ
ܬܡܢܝܐ — (M) + “dagger alef”; (N) + “shva” as a curved head; (T) + mid-right “ḍamma” (ū is commonly shown this way, except the place may be lower-than-mid) [säˈmāntū ?] — Cost: 8 vs. 9 [T U SPACE for tū]
ሰ መ፤ማ የ፣ይ ፥ ሰማይ
ܫܡܝܐ — Cost: 6 vs. 6 (tied)
ሰ በ፤ብ ዐ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሰብዐቱ
ܫܒܥܐ — (B) + “shva” as left mid-tick (rare) [säbˈʕätū ?] — Cost: 8 vs. 10 or 11 (“eee” or “aaa SPACE”, “tu SPACE”)
ሰ በ፤ብ ዐ፤ዑ ፥ ሰብዑ
ܫܒܥ — (ʕ) + “ḍamma” (right mid tick) [ˈsäbʕū ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 6 or 7 (“uu” or “eeu”)
ሰ፤ስ መ፤ም ፥ ስም
ܫܡܐ − (S) + “shva” as the slanted top part; (M) + “shva” as a broken leg [səm] — Cost: 4 vs. 4 (tied)
ሰ፤ስ ሰ፤ሱ ፥ ስሱ
ܫܬ — (S) + “shva”; (S) + “ḍamma” [səsū] — Cost: 4 vs. 5 (s u SAPCE)
ሰ፤ስ ነ፤ን ነ፤ን ፥ ስንን
ܫܸܢܐ = “tooth” — (S) + “shva”; (N) + curved-head “shva”; (N) + “shva” [sənn, sənən ??] — Cost: 6 vs. 6 (tied)
ሰ፤ስ ደ፤ድ ሰ፤ስ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ስድስቱ
ܫܬܐ — (D) + “shva” as a higher right tick; this is not a “ḍamma” which is mid or lower right [sədsətū ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 7 (t u SPACE) — the 18th example words, 33 to go

2018-06-06

ሰ፤ሶ ረ፤ር ፥ ሶር
ܬܘܪܐ — (S) + “ō” as the extended left leg; (Rə) special form [sōr] — Cost: 4 vs. 4 (tied)
ቀ ደ፤ዳ መ፤ሚ ፥ ቀዳሚ
ܩܕܡܝܐ — (Q); (D), a simplified, ℓ-like form, with a lower right “dagger ʾalif”; (M) + “kasra” attached to an added right leg [qäˈdāmī Mer 70] — Cost: 6 vs. 7 (m i SPACE)
ቀ፤ቅ ደ፤ዱ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ቅዱስ
ܩܕܝܫܐ — (Q) + top “shva”; (D), simplified form + ḍamma, attached to the right leg; (S) + top “shva” [qəddūs ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 7

2009 Scan (Jpeg)
2018 Scan
ቀደሰ (qäddäsä) = I. (Root), 2. (Intensive) i.e. our qæddeš D: qədūs (qəddūs ?) is part. and adj. (cf. Mercer 68–69), should be our qæddīš

https://archive.org/details/lexiconlinguaeae00dilluoft   2009
https://archive.org/details/lexiconlinguaeae00dill_0     2018
The 2018 scan is not very good either, but at least it’s not blurred.
The sample image above was saved as a 4-color PNG.
Unlike in the 2009 scan, the dagesh dot and
the Syriac vowel sign for “e” are clearly visible.

2018-06-07

ቀ፤ቆ ቆበረ (?)
(Q) + “o”-ring — “to become dark” (?) [probably bad spelling on en.wiktionary.org] — LLA436 only has ቀበረ = “to bery” = ܩܒܰܪ, which seems valid
ቀ፤ቆ በ፤ባ ረ፤ር ፥ ቆባር
(Q) o-ring; (B) dagger; (R) special: qōbār = “fog, darkness” [*qōbārä on en.wiktionary.org, probably wrong again; that reminds me: en.wiktionary.org spells ሠላስ weirdly in one place, where is used instead of ; which is really strange, given that the letter is not even used in Geʿez]
በ፤ቤ ተ፤ት ፥ ቤት
ܒܝܬܐ — (B), adscripted; (T), top tick: bēt — 27 to go
ተ, ሰስ, ዐ, ተቱ ፥ ተስዐቱ
ܬܫܥܐ — (T), ḍamma: tăsʕătū
ተት, ሰስ, ዐዑ ፥ ትስዑ
ܬܫܥ — (ʕ), ḍamma: tĕsʕū
ኀ, መም, ሰስ ፥ ኀምስ
ܚܰܡܶܫ — (M), shva as broken-left-leg: ḫăms — PS *ḫ was kept by almost everyone, except Phoenician/Hebrew/Aramaic (and Amharic).
ኀ, መም, ሰስ, ተቱ ፥ ኀምስቱ
ܚܡܫܐ: ḫămsĕtū (?)

Geʿez ă vs. ā (aka. ä vs. a):

These additional letters are used:

In ti-ER, ሠኀፀ are unusued; they are there in ti-ET. (ref. Mnemonic Ethiopic Keyboards)

2018-06-08

ነን, ሰስ, ረ ፥ ንስረ
ܢܫܪܐ — (N), “shva” as a (basically horizontal) top hook; (S), slanted tick; (R): nĕsră
አ, ሐ, ተቲ ፥ አሐቲ
ܚܕܐ — (ʔ); (Ḥ); (T), kasra: ʔăḥăˈtī (Merc 69)
አ, ሐ, ደዳዱ ፥ አሐዱ
ܚܕ — (ʔ); (Ḥ); (D), ḍamma attached to (Dā) form: ʔăḥădū

2018-06-09

አ, ረር, በባ, ዐዕ ፥ አርባዕ
ܐܪܒܥ — “shva” as straight top tick (this occurs in ዕፅ)
አርባዕቱ
ܐܪܒܥܐ
አቡነ
ܐܒܘܢ — Dillman 357 (pretty much like in Syriac)
አብ
ܐܒܐ — the left middle tick as “shva” occurs only in ; a top tick would make it the wrong letters, ሰስ (să/sĕ), while a right tick makes it (bū).

2018-06-10

አባ
voc. of አብ; honorific title (LLA755) [en.wiktionary.org has *ʔāb instead; another mistake?]
አእ, ዘዝ, ነን ፥ እዝን
ܐܕܢܐ — (A), zigzag shva (also occurs in ህክፕ); (Z), curvy shva (only ን, ዝ); (N), curvy shva: ʔĕzn — PS *ḏ is kept in Arabic, changed to d in Aramaic (and Ugaritic?), otherwise changed to z.
እድ
ܐܝܕܐ — (D), right-tick shva (ውድጵጽ)

IME is inconvenient when you want to type አ. One can type it by hitting [A] then [Shift]+[2].

አእ, ገግ, ዘዚ, አ, በብ, ሐሔ, ረር ፥ እግዚአብሔር
(A), zigzag shva; (G), ring shva (ልግ); (Z), kasra; (A); (B) left-tick shva ( only); (Ḥ), ring adscripted; (R), special shva: ʔĕgzīʔă-bĕḥēr
እግዚእ = ⟦dominātor; in speciē de Deō et Christō (quamquam de Deō እግዚአብሔር magis ūsitūtum est)⟧ LLA1191
The construct state follows the form of the accusative, where -ĕ may become -ă (Merc63); ʔĕgzīĕ, ʔĕgzīă
ብሔር = ⟦regiō, terra⟧ LLA492

2018-06-11

The ring of sometimes doesn’t show good with Abyssinica SIL v1.500, when the font size is 26–30px inclusive, especially 29px/27px. For this reason, I tried some other fonts, including Ethiopic WashRa Bold (which has a similar, though not-so-obvious, problem for 28px/30px), and have changed CSS settings. Now Geʿez words in dt.sy3 are 32px instead of 29px, and modern languages (am/ti/tig) are shown with Nyala instead of SIL. I assumed Nyala was ugly since it’s a Microsoft font, but actually it is unexpectedly elegant.

Px 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Abys. SIL
GF Zemen
Ethiopia Jiret
Ethiopic WashRa
Nyala
ከልብ
ܟܠܒܐ — (K); (L), ring shva; (B), left-tick shva (ልግ): kălb
ክልኤ
kĕlʔē = “two” LLA820, wikt has *kālʔĕ as “second” [perh. another mistake] — Tigre does have ካሊ [kɐːlɨ] “le second” (Vocabulaire de la langue tigré 48)

2018-06-14

ከካ, ዐዕ, በብ ፥ ካዕብ
kāʕ(ĕ)b = “other” LLA866 [wikt “second”]: (ʕ) top tick shva (ዕፅ): (B) left tick shva ( only)
ከክ, ለል, አኤ, ተቱ ፥ ክልኤቱ
kĕlʔētū = “two”: zigzag shva (ህእክፕ)
ክልኤቲ
kĕlʔētī = “two” (fem.) — 7 to go

2018-06-15

ዐ, ሠ, ረር, ተቱ ፥ ዐሠርቱ
ܥܣܪܐ — ʕă-śăr-tū
ዐ, ሠሥ, ረሩ ፥ ዐሥሩ
ܥܣܪ — ʕăś-rū — a slant left leg as shva (ምሥ) — a vertical line as ḍamma (ሩፉ)
ዕፅ
“tree” LLA1025 — ʕĕṣ́ (PS *ʕiṣ́) — gez ṣ́ (or ḍ) might have been [ɬʼ].

2018-06-16

ዝእብ
zĕʔb (zĕʔĕb?) ܕܐܒܐ but it means “hyena” in Geʿez (LLA1056)
ደም
dăm ܕܡܐ
ደዳ, ገግ, መም ፥ ዳግም
dāgm = “second”: (G) ring shva (ልግ)
ግዕዝ
gĕʕz (gĕʕĕz?) LLA1188

2018-06-18

#1–#5 (30 non-base letters)

The leg of (śĕ) is left-sided, while the legs of ሦምሞ (śō/mĕ/mō) are in the middle. The other characters up to this point are relatively easy (followed by confusing r-series).

ዐሥሩ “ten (fem. indeclinable)” and ዕሥር “ten (fem. declinable)”: Dillmann §158, Merc70

ሦስት “three” [soost.ogg] = ܬܠܬܐ in Amharic

ስም “name” [sem.ogg] showing that Amharic ĕ (ə) /ɨ/ is a bit higher than [ɨ], near [ɘ]

ሳመ “to kiss” [saama.ogg] Amharic ă (ä) /ə/ is near [ɜ] while ā (a) /a/ is [ä].

These sound clips are based on amh_word-list_1987_02.wav from Amharic, the UCLA Phonetics Lab Language Archive (cc-by-nc-2.0).

ሸሞንተ (šämmontä) = ܬܡܢܐ in Tigrinya

Also, it is interesting to observe that both Syriac (at least ES) and Geʿez have similar sets of seven vowels:

  1. (hă) vs. ܗܰ (hæ) — first A, short
  2. (hū) vs. ܗܽܘ (hū) — U
  3. (hī) vs. ܗܺܝ (hī) — I
  4. (hā) vs. ܗܳ (hā) — second A, possibly long
  5. (hē) vs. ܗܹ (hè) — first E, wider, possibly long
  6. (hĕ) vs. ܗܸ (he) — second E, narrower, short
  7. (hō) vs. ܗܘܿ (hō) — O

2018-06-19

#6–#10 (30 non-base letters)

For the sake of argument, I’m going to call the middle-horizontal stroke seen in ሉ ሑ etc. (as attached to ለ ሐ) Ethiopic ḍamma. Also, by Ethiopic kasra I mean the low-horizontal stroke seen in ሊ ሒ etc.

A few base letters, like ረ ደ ፈ, natively have a horizontal element that looks like an Ethiopic kasra, and such a base letter tends to take a horizontal line below in order to show the vowel ū. Notice that thanks to the added horizontal line, the “native kasra” will look like an Ethiopic ḍamma: ሩ ዱ ፉ. So anyway, that’s how (rū) looks like.

Now, when this kind of base letter wants to take its own kasra, it could have double-kasra (since it has a sort of kasra natively); in reality, this double-kasra will be kind of “folded” as a curled-up line (ሪ ፊ), except (dī) will get a real Ethiopic kasra.

The ā-form of such a base letter could be confusing, but as for , its ā-form (rā) looks like a half-circle version of (rē), that is, only the upper half of the small circle (showing ē) is attached to it. The other letters up to #10 (t-series) are relatively easy.

ተማሪ = (Amharic) “student”
🔊 /tɜmari/ [From amh_word-list_1967_01, cc-by-nc-2.0, by The UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive]

ራስ = (Amharic) “head” ܪܝܫܐ

memo
http://www.educationalfontware.com/open_font_license.html
Geez Handwriting fonts - VERY cool!

http://www.semiticroots.net/index.php?r=site/downloads
OLD SOUTH ARABIAN Unicode fonts
font names = “Qataban” and “Sabaic”

2018-06-20


written from the top circle; simplified (kind of shorthand)

#11–#12 (10 non-base letters)

(ḫā) shows ā like ቃ ታ do, while (nā) is unusual, where ā is shown as a top, right, horizontal stroke. (nĕ) shows ĕ like ሕ ቅ ት do, while (ḫĕ) is unusual, where ĕ is shown as a curved (“broken”) stroke instead of the straight stroke in its base form (and in the other non-base forms). As for the remaining 10 letters (2 base + 8 non-base), the ḫ-series and n-series are very similar and relatively easy to remember.

and are confusable.

እኅው (ʔĕḫwĕ) = “brother” ܐܚܐ LLA765

አኀው (ʔăḫăw [ʔăḫăwĕ ?]) = “brothers”

እኅት (ʔĕḫt) = “sister” ܚܬܐ LLA766

አኃት (ʔăḫāt) = “sisters”

አንተ /antɜ/ = Amharic “you (m.)” [In Amharic, አ = ኣ See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Amharic]

እናንተ /ɨnnantɜ/ = Amharic “you guys”

2018-06-21

1967_01 Entries #1–10

(Try amh_word-list_1986_01 instead, as 1967_01 is not by a native speaker of Amharic.)

2018-06-22

1986_01

This is a very userful sample set, even though its IPA transcription is often incorrect. Among other things, this author (a student?) often thinks that the 1st and 4th orders ([ɜ] and [ɐ̞]) are the same, and their teacher (?), while commenting on a few other things, does not fix those mistakes either. Nevertheless, both from the audio recording and from the Amharic spellings given, the actual phonemes are usually very clear.

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