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CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, Sarb] TUS-eu Map, 2[TR][SY], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl, 2 | G Ti


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Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 38] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 38 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܨܶܒܬ̥ܐ (ܨܶܒܬ̊ܐ) ܕܰܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ

2018-11-16

ṣéḇtā (hard t) = n.m. [N §86 √ṣbt “to adorn”] “ornament, decoration”: sometimes ṣép̄tā (N §27)

ܐܸܨܛܰܒܰܬܹܝ̈ܢ ܒܒܰܪܢܫܐ ܟܰܣܝܐ ܕܠܸܒܐ܉ ܒܪܘܚܐ ...܇ ܨܸܒܬ̊ܐ ܕܰܡܝܰܬ̊ܰܪ ܩܕܡ ܐܠܗܐ. = “Adorn yourselves {ʾéṣṭæbbæṯ-ên 2fp, longer form: N §158D} with a hidden human of the heart;|| with a spirit…,| [that is] an ornament highly-valued {məyættær D p.p.mas.} before God.” (1Pt3:4)

2018-11-17

ܫܘܫܰܢ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ، ܪܳܚܡܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܣܰܓܝ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܚ̈ܰܕ̱ܬ̥ܐ ܘܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ.
Little Šūšæn used to love new {ḥæṯê N §26B, CAL; ḥæṯṯê Muraoka §6I} and pretty clothes very much.
ܒܚܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܰܘܡܐ، ܠܶܒܫܰܬ̥ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܚܰܕ̱ܬ̥ܐ ܘܐܶܙܰܠ̱ܬ̥ ܩܳܡܰܬ̥ ܩܕܳܡ ܡܰܚܙܝܬ̥ܐ،
But one day she wore a new garment, and went {N §183, (4); ʾézzæṯ Mu. §6M} and stood in front of the mirror,
ܘܚܳܪܰܬ̥ ܒܐܶܣܟܺܡܳܗ̇، ܘܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥: ܐܳܗ ܟܡܐ ܫܦܝܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ!
and looked into her figure {ʾéskèmā = σχῆμᾰ} and said: “Oh, how pretty I am!”

ܗܵܫܵܐ ܋ܕܹܝܢ܌ ܐܲܝܟ ܕܲܒ݂ܡܲܚܙܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܚܵܙܹܝܢܲܢ ܒܦܸܠܐ݈ܬ݂ܵܐ: ܗܵܝܕܹ݁ܝܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܐܲܦ̈ܝܼܢ ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܐܲܦ̈ܝܼܢ. ܗܵܫܵܐ ܝܵܕܲܥ̇ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܩܲܠܝܼܠ ܡ̣ܢ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼ: ܗܵܝܕܹ̇ܝܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܐܸܕܲܥ ܐܲܝܟ ܡܵܐ ܕܐܸܬܝܲܕܥܹܬ݂.܀ = “Now [it is] like, in a mirror, we are seeing, with a metaphor; but then [we will see] face to face. Now I know [only] a few [things] out of many; but then I will know [fully] just like I was (OR: have been) known.” (1Cor13:12⁎) — pélḙʔ(ə)ṯā = pélêṯā: פִּלְאֲתָא

2018-11-18

Is the -eṯ ending (1cs) always wide (-èṯ) in P-NY, not only in Peal?

ܚ̇ܙܝܢܢ ܓܝܪ ܗܫܐ ܍ܐܝܟ܌ ܕܒܝܕ ܡ̇ܚܙܝܬܐ ܒܪܶܡ̣ܙܐ. ܗ̇ܝܕܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܦܰܪܨܘܿܦܐ ܠܘܬ ܦܪܨܘܦܐ. ܗܫܐ ܝ̇ܕܥ ܐܢ̣ܐ ܡܢ ܡܢܴ̇ܬܐ܆ ܗ̇ܝܕܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܐܕ̇ܥ ܐܟܡܐ ܕܐܦ ܐܬ̇ܝܕܥܬ܀ (1Cor13:12 Ḥ⁎) — remzâ = “hint” — pærṣōp̄ā = “face”

There is also a CPA version: CPA 1Cor13:12(150a)

🖉 Memo: Pope Francis Suggests “Change” to Lord’s Prayer

ʕəp̄æq = “to embrace”

dərâʕâ = “arm”: masculine! as seen in ܒܰܕܪܳܥܐ ܪܳܡܐ, Ac13:17

næššéq D = “to kiss”

bærṯā, bærṯ (constr.), bærṯèh, etc. BUT bræṯ(y) — in P-UK Mt9, wrongly written ܒܪ̱ܰܬ݂ܝ instead of ܒܪܰܬ݂ܝ, confused with ܒܰܪ̱ܬ݂.

ܘܰܚܙܳܬ̥ܳܗ̇ ܐܶܡܳܗ̇، ܋ܘܐܶܬ̥ܳܬ̥ܳ܌ ܍ܘܐܶܬ̥ܳܬ̥܌ ܥܰܦܩܰܬ̥ ܠܰܬܪܶܝܢ (ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܰܬܪܶܝܢ؟) ܕܪ̈ܳܥܶܝܗ̇، ܘܢܰܫܩܰܬ̥ ܠܢܰܚܬܳܗ̇ ܚܰܕ̱ܬ̥ܐ، ܘܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥܍:܌ ܐܝܢ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܗ̱ܘ ܢܰܚܬܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܒܪܰܬ̥ܝ̱.
And her mother saw her, and came [and] embrace (her with?) her two arms, and kissed her new garment, and said: “Yes, your garment is pretty, my daughter.”
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܫܘܫܰܢ: ܘܰܠܡܘܢ ܠܝ ܐܶܢܐ ܠܐ ܡܢܰܫܩܐ ܋ܐܰܢ̱ܬ܌ ܍ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱܌ ܐܶܡܝ̱؟
Šūšan said: “And why are you not kissing me, my mother?”

In this context ܠܝ ܐܶܢܐ should be emphatic “me myself”; I’m not sure if this is idiomatic in Classic Syriac (not found in Peshitta NT).

nušqəṯā (P-NY) = nuššæqtā (P-UK, hard t) = “kiss”

qny = “to possess”: C “to make someone possess, to provide”

rəḏē̤ / ræḏyâ = “experienced, trained, educated”: p.p. of rdy “to travel, to train”: ≠râḏê / râḏyâ Act.part.

2018-11-19

ܐܰܪܰܐ ܠܰܝܬܰܝ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܬܐ؟
“Am I not a pretty girl?”
ܦܰܢܝܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ: ܠܐ ܗܐ ܢܶܫܩܶܬ̥ ܢܰܚܬܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܋ܢܘܫܰܩܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܢܘܫܰܩܬ̊ܐ܌ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ؟
The mother answered: “Look, didn’t I kiss your pretty garment a big kiss?”
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܫܘܫܰܢ: ܐܶܠܐ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܚܠܳܦܰܝ!
Šūšæn said: “But my garment does not stand for me!”
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܐܶܡܐ: ܗܳܢܰܘ ܫܪܳܪܐ ܒܪܰܬ̥ܝ̱، ܘܗܐ ܝܳܕܥܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬܝ̱ ܕܨܶܒܬܐ ܕܝܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱ ܠܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܕܘܟܬܶܟ̥ܝ̱، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܨܶܒܬܐ ܕܰܒܝܰܕ ܢܰܚܬܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܩܢܶܐ ܐܝܩܳܪܐ،
The mother said: “That is true, my daughter; and, look, you know that the decoration of yours does not stand [in] the place of you, because the decoration that [is achieved] by means of a pretty garment does not make you honorable.”
ܐܝܩܳܪܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܕܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܢܰܘ ܕܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡܐ!
“The honor of a daughter, on the other hand, is this: that she will be cultivated and sweet!”

Sometimes, after ܕܰܒܝܰܕ, a verb is implied but not said. For example ܦܘܩܕܳܢܗ ... ܕܰܒܝܰܕ ܫܠܝܚ̈ܐ (2Pet3:2) — literally, “his command {puqdânèh} that by the apostles,” where “that by” is understood as “that was given by,” “that was spoken by,” or “that you heard by.” Similary, ܨܶܒܬܐ ܕܰܒܝܰܕ ܢܰܚܬܐ (literally “decoration that by a garment”) can be understood as “decoration that is made/achieved/arranged by a garment.”

ləḇūšâ = “clothing (pl. for multiple items)” (CAL)

næḥtâ = “outer garment”: TS2-2345 assumes √nḥt “to descend” (vestis longa exterior usque ad tālōs {tālus=“ankle”} descendens)

ܐܸܢ ܬܸܒ݂ܥܸܐ ܩܘܼܫܬܵܐ: ܬܸܫܟ݁ܚܝܼܘܗܝ. ܘܬܸܠܒ݁ܫܝܼܘܗܝ ܐܲܝܟ ܢܲܚܬܵܐ ܕܬܸܫܒ݁ܘܿܚܬܵܐ.
If you (sg.) want truth, you will find it. And you will wear it like a (long) garment of glory. (Sirach27:8⁎)

quštâ = m.(f.) “truth, faith”: originally -tâ is not feminine (N §86), as the word is from qušṭâ (cf. קוּשְׁטָא), dissimilated (LS3) i.e. avoiding two emphatic consonants (q/ṭ). — téškæḥ téškəḥīw (OR téškəḥèh) — télbæš (e/a) télbəšīw (OR télbəšèh) — téšboḥtā = “praise, glory, splendor”: té/tæ-CC+shortV+Ctā from šæbbæḥ D “to praise” (N §127): short vowel O is rare in this position, cf. תּוּשְׁבַּחְתָּא

2018-11-20

܋ܝܺܨܰܦ܌ ܍ܝܺܨܰܦܝ̱܌ ܡܶܟܝܠ ܕܨܶܒܬܐ ܕܢܰܦܫܐ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܒܬܐ ܕܦܰܓ̥ܪܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܘܰܡܝܰܩܰܪ ܠܶܟ̥ܝ̱.
“Therefore {mékkêl} be careful about the decoration of [your inner] self rather than the decoration of a garment, and everyone [will] love and respect you.”

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 37] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 37 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܫܰܒ̥ܥܐ]: ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ ܪܳܥܝܐ

2018-10-14

ʕyr (ʕwr) = “to watch”: C ܐܰܥܝܪ = “to rouse, awaken”: Ct ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ (*ʾettæʕyær > *ʾettæʕīr > ʾettəʕīr) = “to be roused, to be awaked; to be alert” — ܘܰܩܪܶܒܘ ܬܰܠܡܝ̈ܕܘܗܝ ܐܰܥܺܝܪܽܘܗ̱ܝ ܘܳܐܡ̇ܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܡܳܪܰܢ܁ ܦܰܨܳܢ܉ ܐܳܒ̇ܕܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܢ. = “His disciples came near, woke him up, and [were] saying to him: Our lord, save us; we are perishing.” (Mt8:25⁎) — ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ ܕܰܡܟܐ = “Wake (yourself) up, sleeper” (Eph5:14)

rāʕyā = “shepherd; pastor”: emph. of rāʕē, pt. of rʕy “to graze, to tend flocks” — ܐܝܟ ܥܶܪ̈ܒܐ ܕܠܰܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܪܳܥܝܐ = “like sheep that do not have a shepherd”

2018-10-21 rāʕyā = could be also pt. f. of rʕā

2018-10-15

phy = “to wander around” — šp̄ōlā = “base”

ܚܘܪ ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܚܶܙܘܐ ܕܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܕܦܳܗܝܐ ܒܰܫܦܘܠ ܛܘܪܐ ܗܳܢܐ
Look, how beautiful the view of the sheep is, wandering around at the base of this mountain,

2018-10-16

ܘܐܲܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܠܵܐ ܬܸܒ݂ܥܘܿܢ ܡܵܢܵܐ ܬܹܐܟ݂ܠܘܼܢ ܘܡܵܢܵܐ ܬܸܫܬ݁ܘܿܢ: ܘܠܵܐ ܢܸܦܗܹܐ ܪܸܥܝܵܢܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܒܗܵܠܹܝܢ.܀ = “And you guys should not seek what you will eat and what you will drink, and your mind {ræʕyān(ā)} should not wander around in these [matters].” (Lk12:29⁎)

2018-10-20

mærgā = “meadow”: pl. mærḡē (WS -gē)

pæggī = D “to delight”: Dt “to be delighted, to enjoy onself”

ræḡyā = “wet, green, tender”

ܒܡܰܪ̈ܓܐ ܘܥܳܒ̈ܐ ܟܰܕ ܡܶܬܦܰܓܝܐ ܘܪܳܥܝܐ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܪܰܓ̥ܝܐ
in meadows {mærḡē} and forests, while they enjoy themselves {lit. it enjoys itself} and eating in peace tender grass!

ܢܸܥܘܿܠ ܥܲܡ ܚܲܒ݂ܪܸܗ ܠܥܵܒ݂ܵܐ = “he will enter, with his friend, into a forest” (Dt19:5)

2018-10-21

ḥuṭrā = “stick, staff”

smæḵ = “to support”: smīḵ = “supported” hence “reclining, leaning”

l-wæʕdā d- = “toward, near” lit. “to the place of”

dæmmīḵ = “sleeping” (√dmk “to sleep”)

nbæḥ = “to bark”

ܘܪܳܥܝܐ ܩܳܐܶܡ ܘܰܠܚܘܛܪܶܗ ܣܡܝܟ ܘܟܰܠܒܶܗ ܠܘܰܥܕܐ ܕܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܰܡܝܟ
And a shepherd is standing and leaning on his staff; and his dog, near his feet, is sleeping.
ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܕܗܐ ܢܒܰܚ ܕܺܐܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܘ ܥܳܒܐ
Stay alert, stay alert, O good shepherd! For, behold, a wolf barked from the inside of the forest.

ܐܶܬܬܥܝܪܘ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ܉ ܕܠܐ ܝ̇ܕܥܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܒܰܐܝܕܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܐ̇ܬܐ ܡܳܪܟ̥ܘܢ ܀ (Mt24:42⁎) — ʾæydā šāʕṯā = “what (f.) hour?”: ʾæyḏā UK (as if ʾēḏā)

2018-10-22

gzārā = mas. “herd, flock”

ʾen + Impf. with Part. in the apodosis (N §265)

ʕīrā = “awake, alert, watching”

lḇīḇā = “strong, valiant, brave”

zwʕ = “to be in motion; to tremble; to be afraid”: may take mn, as in ܠܵܐ ܬܙܘܼܥܘܼܢ ܡܸܢܗܘܿܢ = “you guys should not be afraid of them” (Dt1:29)

ܘܐܶܢ ܠܐ ܬܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܥܳܢܳܟ ܡܳܪܐ ܚܳܛܦܝܢ ܕܺܐܒ̈ܐ ܠܟܽܠܶܗ ܓܙܳܪܐ
And if you are not going to become, for your flock, a [proper] master; wolves will fetch every single one of it — the herd.
ܗܘܝ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ ܥܝܪܐ ܠܒܝܒܐ ܕܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܙܳܐܰܥ ܡܶܢܳܟ ܕܺܐܒܐ
Be strong, alert, [and] brave; so that a wolf may stay being afraid of you.

ܕܢܗܘܐ + Impf. (as opposed to simple ܕ + Impf.) seems to mean, “so that he may/might do something repeatedly; so that he may/might keep doing,” like pres. subj. in Greek (2Cor12:7, Phile1:13), as opposed to aor. subjunctive. Other examples in Syriac include: Jn5:27, Ac3:2, Ac24:23 [Inf. in Greek]; Phil4:11 [Adj. in Greek]; 2Tim2:25 [Part. in Greek].

2018-10-23

ləḇīḇâ “brave” is from lébbâ “heart”

ləḇīḇ(â) = “spirited,” as if G p.p. of D ܠܰܒܶܒ = “to encourage, comfort,” from lébbâ “heart”. Examples of lbb D: ܠܲܒܸܒ݂ܬ݁ܝܼܢܝ ܚܵܬ݂ܝ ܟܲܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܠܲܒܸܒ݂ܬܝܼܢܝ: ܒܲܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܲܝ̈ܢܲܝܟ݁ܝ: ܒܚܲܕ݂ ܥܸܩܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܨܵܘܪܹܟ݂ܝ.܀ = “You comforted me, O my sister the bride {kæl(lə)ṯâ}, you comforted me; with [even] one of your eyes, with one necklace {ʕéqqâ} of your neck {ṣäwrâ-ḵ(y)}.” (P Song4:9⁎) — ܠܰܒܶܒܘ ܠܰܙܘܥܪ̈ܰܝ ܢܰܦܫܐ = “Comfort (2mp) the feeble-minded!” (1Th5:14) — Example of lbb Dt: ܐܸܬ݂ܠܲܒܲܒ݂ܘ: ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ = “Be comforted (Don’t worry), it’s me!” (Mt14:27): WS ʾéṯlæ(b)bəḇ for ʾéṯlæbbæḇ (N §163).

2018-10-24

néhwê + Impf. in Syriac is like Present Subjunctive in Greek

ܘܲܕ݂ܠܵܐ ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܪܝܼܡ ܒܝܲܬ݁ܝܼܪܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܓܸܠܝܵܢܹ̈ܐ: ܐܸܫܬ݁ܠܸ݇ܡ ܠܝܼ ܫܦܵܝܵܐ ܠܒܸܣ݇ܪܝ: ܡܲܠܲܐܟܹܗ ܕܣܵܛܵܢܵܐ: ܕܢܸܗܘܹܐ ܡܩܲܦܲܚ ܠܝܼ ܕܠܵܐ ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܪܝܼܡ.܀
Then, so that I might not be exalted by (OR conceited of) the abundance of revelations, a thorn — an angel of Satan — was delivered to me, to my flesh; so that it/he might be oppressing me [continuously] so that I might not be exalted [at all, not even once]. (2Cor12:7)

This verse has three occurrences of “so that … might,” of which only one is néhwê + Part. in Syriac, the others being just Impf. One can say that “I become exalted” could be a one-time event, while “someone or something is keeping me in check” is continuous (hitting once would not be enough to stop someone, generally). In the Greek version, however, all of the three are said with Present Subjunctive; i.e. both “being conceited” and “hitting” are progressive, as in “so that it might be hitting me, so that I might not be feeling conceited.”

ἵνα με κολαφίζῃ — pres. subj. of κολαφίζω “I hit strongly”: aor. would be ἐκολάφισε (?), aor. subj. would be ἐκολαφίσῃ (?) or something with -σ- anyway. So the original form is surely Present Subjunctive.

ἵνα μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι is subtler: pres. ὑπεραίρω, ὑπεραίρομαι, pres. subj. ὑπεραίρωμαι; but aor. ὑπερῆρα, ὑπερηράμην, aor. subj. ὑπεράρωμαι.

Unlike in Latin, the tense of the main clause (ἐδόθη aor. Pass.) is irrelevant in Greek (it does not have Impf. subj.). In this case, Latin Vulgate uses pres. subj. too: Et nē magnitūdō revēlātiōnum extollat {pres. subj.} mē, dătus est {pf.} mihi stimulus carnis meae Angelus Satanae {Sătăn(as), ae}, quī mē colaphīzet {pres. subj.}.

rwm = “to be high”: C “to lift”: Ct “to be lifted up; to be haughty” — ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܪܝܼܡ Impf. 1ms (=Perf. 3ms): ܐܶܬ݁ܪܺܝܡ UK, with a single t (N §36). The word sounds a bit like yttrium (element).

šlm = “to be whole; to finish; to die”: Gt “to be given up; to be delivered”

ܒܸܣ݇ܪܝ has a Mærhəṭânâ, even though superficially it has CCC without a full vowel, with the 2nd C=ʕæmlæy nuwhrâʔ. This is mentioned as Exception no. 3 in Mingana §92. In P-NY ܒܸܣ݇ܪܝ is seen twice (Rom11:14, 2Cor12:7); while ܒܸܣܪ݈ܝ is found three times (Gal4:13/4:14, Col1:24), not agreeing with Mingana!

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܺܐܡܪܐ ܕܰܠܥܶܠ
ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܸܗܘܘܢ ܛܳܒܝܢ ܡܰܠܦܳܢ̈ܐ ܘܟܳܗܢ̈ܐ: ܕܠܐ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܘܛܠܳܝܴ̈ܬܐ ܢܶܛܥܘܢ.

2018-10-26

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܦܳܗܝܐ ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ ܒܡܰܪܓܐ.
Example: The flock is wandering in the meadow.
1 ܦܳܗܝܐ ... ܦ̇ܗܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ ܛܠܝܬܐ ܠܒܰܪ.
The girl was wandering outside.
ܘܲܒ݂ܒܲܝܬܵܗ̇ ܪܸ̈ܓ݂ܠܹܝܗ̇ ܠܵܐ ܫܵܠܝ̈ܵܢ.܀ ܐܸܠܵܐ ܒܲܙܒܲܢ ܠܒܲܪ ܦܵܗܝܵܐ: ܘܒܲܙܒܲܢ ܒܫܘܼܩܹ̈ܐ
And her feet do not remain in her house. Instead, sometimes she wanders outside, and sometimes in streets. (Prov7:11–12)

2018-10-28

ܒܰܫܦܘܠ ... ܩܳܡܹ̇ܬ ܒܰܫܦܘܿܠ ܛܘܪܐ.
I stood at the bottom of the mountain.
ܘܐܲܦܸܩ ܡܘܼܫܹܐ ܠܥܲܡܵܐ ܠܐܘܼܪܥܹܗ ܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܲܫܪܝܼܬ݂ܵܐ: ܘܩܵܡܘ ܒܲܫܦܘ݁ܠܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܕܛܘܼܪܵܐ.܀
And M brought the people out toward G (to G’s meeting) from the camp, and they stood at the bottom {pl.} of the mountain. (Ex19:17⁎)

2018-10-29

ܡܶܬܦܰܓܝܐ ... ܐܰܪܢܒ̥ܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡܬܦܓܝܐ ܟܕ ܪ̇ܗܛܐ ܥܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ.
A little hare is enjoying herself while running on the grass.
ܚܘܛܪܐ ... ܢ̣ܣܒ ܡܘܫܹܐ ܚܘܛܪܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ ܒܐܝܕܗ.
Moses took the rod of God in his hand. (Ex4:20)
ܓܙܳܪܐ ... ܓܙܳܪܐ ܗܢܐ ܠܐ ܕ̇ܚܠ ܡܛܠ ܕܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܪܥܝܐ ܛܒܐ.
This flock does not fear, because it has a good shepherd.

2018-10-30

ʾéttəḥéḏ is Gt, not Ct

ܘܟܕ ܐ̣ܙܠ ܠܡܸܙܒܰܢ܉ ܐ̣ܬܐ ܚܰܬܢܐ܂ ܘܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܰܡܛܰܝ̈ܒܳܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܝ̈܂ ܥ̣ܰܠ ܥܡܗ܁ ܠܒܝܬ ܚܠܘܠܐ܉ ܘܸܐܬܬܚܸܕ ܬܰܪܥܐ.
And while they (f.) went to buy; the bridegroom {ḥæṯnâ} came, and they who were ready (f.) entered — with him — the house-of-festival {ḥəlūlâ}; and the door was shut. (Mt25:10⁎) {no səyâmê on (h)wæy in P-UK}

ܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ

buḥrânâ = “test” — tényânâ = “repetition, second” — ḥrâyâ = “final” — bâlâ = “mind” — ʾæḵšær C = “to prosper, to do well” — dærḡâ = “order, rank, level” — dâšnâ = “gift” (from Middle Persian) — məḏæbbrānā = “leader, administrator”

ܕܳܕܝ̱ ܪܚܝ̣ܡܐ:
Dear my beloved one (OR paternal uncle):
ܗܐ ܫܰܒܥܐ ܝܰܪ̈ܚܐ ܥܒܰܪܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܕ ܫܰܪܝܘ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܒܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ، ܘܠܐ ܦܳܫ ܐܶܠܐ ܟܒܰܪ ܚܰܕ ܝܰܪܚܐ ܘܰܡܫܰܪܶܐ ܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ.
Look, seven months have passed since when the students started the lessons (=since the academic year started), and it has not (=nothing has) remained but perhaps one month, and the test is starting.
ܘܐܶܢܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܕܳܡ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܝܰܘܡܝ̈ܢ ܫܰܪܝܬ̥ ܒܬܶܢܝܳܢ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܰܥܒܰܪܘ̱، ܐܰܝܟܳܢܐ ܕܶܐܗܘܶܐ ܡܛܰܝܰܒ ܠܒܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܳܝܐ.
And I have started, since three days ago, the review of the lessons that had passed (=had been taught?), so that I may be ready for the final exam.
ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܠܐ ܐܶܬ̥ܐ ܥܰܠ ܒܳܠܝ̱ ܕܐܶܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܳܟ، ܕܗܰܘ ܚܰܒܪܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ، ܝܶܫܘܥ، ܐܰܟܫܰܪ ܒܒܽܘܚܪܳܢܐ ܕܪܝܫ ܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ، ܒܕܰܪܓ̥ܐ ܛܳܒ ܪܳܡܐ.
I don’t know how it did not come onto my mind (=occur me) that I should write you that that friend of ours, Yéšōʕ, did well in the test of (=at) the beginning of the year, in the rank pretty high.
ܘܕܳܫܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܩܰܒܶܠ ܡܶܢ ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܐ.
And he received a beautiful gift from the principal.

2018-10-31

reḥṭâ (ES ræḥṭâ) = “running, course, activity”

ܟܬ̥ܘܒ ܠܝ ܒܟܽܠܙܒܰܢ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܝܠܳܟ. ܡܰܠܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܪܶܗܛܐ ܕܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ.
Write me on every occasion about these [things] of yours, especially about the course (progress) of lessons.
ܩܪܝ ܫܠܳܡܝ̱ ܠܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܳܟ، ܘܩܰܘܐ ܚܠܝܡ.
Say hello {lit. Call my šəlâmâ} to all of the friends — your classmates (perh. “all of the fellow students of yours”), and stay healthy.
ܕܝܠܳܟ، ܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ
Yours, Yōḥænnân

dærgâ OR dærḡâ

The word ܕܪܓܐ is related to דַּרְגָּא, that is an S-shaped (or mirrored-Z-shaped) cantillation mark.

Although normally the g of dærgâ should be hard (CAL, Jastrow, wikt), forms with a soft ḡ are attested in several traditions, including P-UK, P-NY, OT-Urmia/London (see the example below from 2Sam). Qarah. does not mark this g, but in Ed. Shabo there are ܕܰܪ̈ܓ̥ܐ ‎(3-13), ܒܕܰܪܓ̥ܐ ‎(4-15), etc.

ܘܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܫܡܵܗܹ̈ܐ ܕܓܲܒ݂ܪܹ̈ܐ ܕܕܵܘܝܼܕ: ܝܵܬܹܒ݂ ܒܡܵܘܬ݁ܒ݂ܵܐ ܩܲܕܡܵܝܵܐ ܒܕܲܪܓ݂ܵܐ ܬܠܝܼܬܵܝܵܐ: ܫܡܹܗ ܓܲܕܚܘܿ (ܓܕܝܼܢܘܿ؟ ܥܕܝܼܢܘܿ؟): ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܕܲܢܚܸܬ݂ ܘܲܩܛܲܠ ܬܡܵܢܹܡܵܐܐ ܩܛ̈ܝܼܠܝܼܢ ܒܫܵܥܬ݂ܵܐ ܚܕ݂ܵܐ.܀
And these are the names of the men of David: [the one] sitting in the first chair in the threesome rank (≈the first one of the trio), whose name [was] Gæḏḥō {Gəḏīnō? ʕəḏīnō? = עֲדִינוֹ}, [was] a man who went down and killed 800 that were killed at one time. (2Sam23:8⁎)

Ct of strong verbs

One of the important points of this lesson (4-37) should be ʾéttʕīr, the Ct form (of a hollow verb). Another example of this form is ʾéttrīm (2Cor12:7 above). Ct of a strong verb is quite rare. One example would be from √blṣ = “to blossom”: ܐܰܒܠܶܨ C “to pronounce,” ܐܶܬܬܰܒܠܰܨ Ct “to be pronounced.” The following are a few other examples from Syro-Hexapla.

ܘܰܒܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܕܫܘܠܳܡܐ ܢܸܬܬܰܕܩܰܪ ܥܡܗ ܡ̇ܠܟܐ ܕܡܸܨܪܶܝܢ
And at the time of the end, the king of Egypt will lock horns (OR: fight with the horns) {√dqr Ct ʾéttæḏqær} with him. (DnHex11:40)

✽ Like Old Greek, Syro-Hexapla has “the king of Egypt” instead of “the king of the south.” Also, in LXX it is said, “[he] will fight against the king of the south” (subject=he, enemy=south), which has been fixed here as “the king of the Egypt (south) will fight against him” (subject=south, enemy=he).

συγκερατισθήσεται = fut. pass. 3s of συγκερατίζομαι “to fight with the horns,” with (seemingly) Middle meaning.

ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܢܸܬܬܰܕܪܰܟ ܘܬܸܫܬܟܰܚ ܒܐܝܕܐ ܕܝܠܗ ܓܢܘܒܬܐ
But if he is caught {√drk Ct ʾéttæḏræḵ} and a stolen item {gnūḇtâ} is found in his hand… (ExHex22:3[4])
ܘܟܠܗܘܢ ܐܰܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܰܠܸܠܘ̱ ܒܐܠܗܐ ܕܰܫܡܰܝܐ: ܘܟܠܗܘܢ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܸܬܬܰܕܪܟ̥ܝܢ ܕܰܡܡܰܠܠܝܢ ܡܸܕܸܡ. ܠܗܳܢܘܢ ܡܚܰܝܸܒ ܐܢܐ ܒܡܵܘܬܐ.
And [as for] every one of them that have spoken [inappropriately] with the God of the heaven: and every one of them that are caught, who speak anything: I am going to condemn those with death. (DnHex4:34[a])

Romans 11 — ܛܥܡ Gt/Ct

While looking for Ct examples of a strong verb, I stumbled upon Ḥ (Harklean, Harclean, Harkleian: ḥærqəlâyâ) Rom11:17+. This is interesting reading, not only linguistically, but also religiously, as Paul is saying that Christianity is “unnatural” like wild branches (Gentiles) artificially grafted onto an old olive tree (Judaism).

2018-11-01

Rom11:17

√ṭʕm = Gt *ʾéṯ-ṭə-ʕém > ʾéṭ-ṭə-ʕém: Ct ʾét-tæṭ-ʕæm

✽ See also: AphDem XVI 331:10+ (marked “o”) = Parisot, Vol. 1, 784:11+

ܘܐܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܣܵܘ̈ܟܹ̊ܐ ܐܬ̥ܦܫܰܚ܇ ܘܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܕܙܰܝܬܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܒܰܪܐ ܐܸܬܛܥܸܡܬ ܒܕܘܟ̈ܝܳܬܗܹܝܢ܇
And if [some] of the branches {fem.} were broken off | and you (sg.), who are an olive of the wild {bærrâ}, were grafted {ʾéṭṭəʕémt} into their (f.) places… |
ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܢܗܝܢ ܡܢ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ ܐܬܦܫܰܚ̈ܝ: ܐܢܬ ܕܝܢ ܕܙܝܬܐ ܕܒܪܐ ܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ̊: ܐܸܬܬܰܛܥܰܡܬ ܒܗܝܢ:
But if [some] of them (f.) — of the branches — were broken off | and you (sg.), on the other hand, who are an olive of the wild, | were engrafted {ʾéttæṭʕæmt Ct} in (=among) them (f.)… |

säwkəṯâ “branch,” pl. säwkê, is like ʕénbəṯâ ʕén(nə)ḇê [cf. עִנְּבַיָּא], except the k doesn’t become soft.

duk(kə)ṯâ, pl. duk(kə)yâṯâ with -y- (N §71 Rem. 4)

2018-11-02

ܘܰܗܘܰܝܬ ܫܵܘܬܳܦ̥ܐ ܠܥܸܩܳܪܗ ܘܰܠܫܘܡܢܗ ܕܙܰܝܬܐ܉
…and you (sg.) have become a partner for the root and for the fat {šumnâ} of the olive; || (P Rom11:17⁎)
ܘܰܫܘܸܐ ܒܫܵܘܬܳܦ̥ܘܬܐ ܕܥܩܪܐ ܘܰܕܕܰܗܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܙܝܬܐ ܗܘܝܬ܆
…and you (sg.) have become an equal in the partnership of the root and of the fatness {dæhhīnūṯâ} of the olive; || (Ḥ Rom11:17⁎)

Rom11:18

ܠܐ ܬܸܫܬܰܒܗܰܪ ܥܠ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ. ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܸܫܬܰܒܗܰܪ ܐܢ̱ܬ܉ ܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܐܢܬ ܫܩܝܠ ܠܗ ܠܥܸܩܳܪܐ܇ ܐܠܐ ܗܘ ܥܩܪܐ ܫܩܝܠ ܠܟ.
you should not glorify youself against the branches. But in case you [do] glorify yourself: || it is not you that carries {p.p. with act. meaning: N §280} him — the root; | but he — the root — carries you. (P Rom11:18⁎)
ܠܐ ܬܸܫܬܰܒܗܰܪ ܥܠ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ. ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܸܫܬܰܒܗܰܪ ܐܢܬ܆ ܠܵܘ ܐܢܬ ܠܥܩܪܐ ܛܥܝܢ ܐܢܬ܆ ܐܠܐ ܥܩܪܐ ܠܟ.
you should not glorify yourself against the branches. But in case you [do] glorify yourself: || it is not that you support the root, || but the root [supports] you. (Ḥ Rom11:18⁎)

šæḇhær = Q “to glorify” (Shaphel of √bhr “to shine”): ʾéštæḇhær = Qt “to glorify oneself, to boast” (Eshtaphal): these are like Aphel vs. Ettaphal (or Pael vs. Ethpaal).

lâ (h)wâ ʾæ(n)t + part. = “it is not you who does” (present meaning), N §328B: ܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܓܝܪ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܡܡܰܠܠܝܢ = “for it is not you guys who speak” (Mt10:20) — läw (< lâ (h)w) works similarly.

AphDem16.331:10–13

ܘܰܫܠܝܚܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ: ܕܣܘ̈ܟܐ ܕܰܚ̈ܛܰܝ ܐܬܦܫܰܚܝ̈ ܠܗܹܝܢ:
And the apostle said: “The branches that sinned {3fp short but with Səyâmê} were broken off.” {lhên = emphatic “off” or ethical dat.}
ܘܰܚܢܰܢ ܒܕ̈ܘܟܝܳܬܗܝܢ ܐܸܬܛܥܸܡܢ ܘܰܗܘܰܝܢ ܫܵܘ̈ܬ̊ܳܦ̥ܐ ܠܫܘܡܢܗ ܕܙܝܬܐ.
“And we were grafted onto their places and have become partners of the fat of the olive.”
ܡܸܟܹܝܠ ܠܐ ܢܸܫܬܰܒܗܰܪ ܘܢܸܚܛܹܐ ܕܠܐ ܐܦ ܚܢܰܢ ܢܸܬܦܫܰܚ ܕܗܐ ܡܸܬܛܰܥܳܡܘ (ܡܸܬܛܥܳܡܘ) ܡܸܬܛܰܥܡܺܝܢܰܢ ܒܗ ܒܙܰܝܬܐ.
“Therefore we should not glorify ourselves and sin, so that we too may not be broken off; since, you see, we [have been] grafted, [only] grafted {*méṯṭəʕâmū > méṭ(ṭə)ʕâmū inf. abs.}, onto it — the olive tree.” (AphDem16.331:10–13⁎)

Parisot vocalizes the inf. as if it were Dt (*méṯṭæʕʕâmū *méṯṭæʕʕəmīnæn), but it seems reasonable to say that his version is *méṭṭ(æ)ʕâmū Gt, where an euphonic full vowel æ is written for ə before ʕ to support the doubled ṭṭ (< *ṯṭ) — a bit like a Məhæggəyânâ, but as CCæC instead of CéCC. Ct would be ܡܬܬܛܥܡܘ ܡܬܬܛܥܡܝܢܢ (méttæṭʕâmū méttæṭʕəmīnæn).

Phonetically méṭ(ṭə)- is possible in Syriac, as in ܠܡܸܬ̊ܛܦܳܣܘ (Ac5:29).

2018-11-03

Rom11:19

ܘܰܟܒܰܪ ܬܐܡܪ ܕܣܘ̈ܟܐ ܕܸܐܬܦܫܰܚ܉ ܕܐܢܐ ܒܕܘܟܝܴ̈ܬܗܝܢ ܐܸܬܛܥܸܡ.
And perhaps you (sg.) will say: “The branches that were broken off {3fp}, || so that I might be grafted onto their places!” (P Rom11:19⁎)
ܐܡ̇ܪ ܐܢܬ ܗܟܝܠ܆ ܕܐܬܦܼܫܚ̈ܝ ܗܸܢܹܝܢ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ܆ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܐܢܐ ܐܶܬܬܰܛܥܰܡ.
You (sg.) are saying therefore: || “They (f.) — the branches — were broken off || so that I might be engrafted.” (Ḥ Rom11:19⁎)

Ḥ is no doubt based on a MS that has οἱ κλάδοι, not just κλάδοι.

If Rom15:32 ܘܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܢܝܼܚ “and I may be refreshed” is any indication, Ct Impf. 1cs is ʾétt(æṭʕæm) and not ʾètt-. Although Mingana §21 says that a consonant after è is never doubled, a form like ʾèkkættéḇ seems possible at least in some tradition (more about this), and so one can’t rule out ʾètt- out of hand.

2018-11-04

Rom11:20

ܫܰܦܝܪ. ܗܠܝܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܠܐ ܗܰܝܡܸܢ܂ ܐܬܦܫܰܚ (NY ܗܰܝܡܸܢܘ ܐܬܦܫܚܘ). ܐܢܬ ܕܝܢ ܒܗܰܝܡܳܢܘܬܐ ܩܳܡ̣ܬ. ܠܐ ܬܸܬ̊ܪܝܡ ܒܪܸܥܝܳܢܳܟ܉ ܐܠܐ ܕܚܰܠ.
Fine. These (com.), because they didn’t believe (f./m.),↓ were broken off (f./m.). You on the other hand, with belief, stand. You should not glorify yourself in your thought/heart {réʕyânâ}, || but fear {dḥél (é/æ)}. (P Rom11:20⁎)
ܫܦܝܪ. ܒܠܐ ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ ܐܬܦ̣ܫܚ̈ܝ. ܐܢܬ ܕܝܢ ܒܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ ܩ̣ܡܬ. ܠܐ ܪ̈ܳܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܬܸܬ̥ܪܰܥܹܐ. ܐܠܐ ܕܚܰܠ.
Fine. With non-belief they were broken off. You on the other hand, with belief, stand. You should not think {rʕy Dt téṯræʕʕê} arrogant things {râmâ “high” f.pl.}, but fear. (Ḥ Rom11:20⁎)

When a verb form beginning with ܐܬܬ (mainly Ct) is prefixed by another ܬ in Impf. [all 2nd person forms and 3fs], almost always only two (instead of three) ܬ’s are written (N §36). So ܬܬܪܝܡ instead of ܬܸܬ̥ܬ̊ܪܝܡ.

The feminine form of ܪܳܡܐ is ܪܳܡܬ̥ܐ with a soft ṯ (N §23E); fem. pl. is ܪ̈ܳܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ as in Ps18:28(27). These are examples of the most usual formations (N §70, Mura §17), except the soft ṯ in fem. sg. is not predictable. Here ܪ̈ܳܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ is a literal translation of ὑψηλά, neut. pl. of ὑψηλός “high”.

Rom11:21

kəyânâ = “nature, natural state”

√ḥws (ʕl) = “to have pity (on); to spare”

ܐܢ ܐܠܗܐ ܓܝܪ ܥܠ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ ܕܡ̣ܢ ܟܝܳܢܗܝܢ ܠܐ ܚܳܣ܉ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܐܦܠܐ ܥܠܝܟ ܢܚܘܼܣ.
For if God did not spare the branches that [were] from their natural state {i.e. native branches naturally belonging there}, || perhaps {μήπως “how is it not that; is it not true that”} He will not spare you either. (P Rom11:21⁎)
ܐܢ ܓܝܪ ܐܠܗܐ ܥܠ ܣܘ̈ܟܐ ܕܒܰܟܝܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܚܣ܆ ܕܠܡܐ ܐܦ ܠܐ ܥܠܝܟ ܢܚ̣ܘܣ.
For if God did not spare the branches that [were] in the natural state, || perhaps He will not spare you either. (Ḥ Rom11:21⁎)

P-UK has néḥūs for nəḥūs, a poetical form (N §177C).

τῶν κατὰ φύσιν [φῠσῐν] κλάδων [ᾰ] οὐκ ἐφείσατο (aor.) / οὐδὲ σοῦ φείσεται (fut.) — φείδομαι + gen. = “spare persons and things, e.g. in war, i.e. not destroy them”

2018-11-05

Rom11:22

qæšyūṯâ is of the type mælkūṯâ (N §76, §138): the 2nd rad. is not doubled (*qæššəyūṯâ), just like it is not *mælləḵūṯâ. Indeed, the 2nd rad. is soft in gæḇrūṯâ = “manliness,” dæḵyūṯâ = “purity,” etc.

ܐܸܬܦܣܸܩ = “to cut down/off”: used in Ḥ for ἐκκόπτω; as opposed to ܐܸܬܦܫܰܚ for ἐκκλάω = “to break off”

ܚܙܝ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܒܰܣܝܡܘܬܗ ܘܩܰܫܝܽܘܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ. ܥܠ ܐܰܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܰܢܦܰܠܘ܂ ܩܫܝܽܘܬܐ. ܥܠܝܟ ܕܝܢ ܒܣܝܡܘܬܐ܉ ܐܢ ܬܩܵܘܸܐ ܒܗ̇ ܒܒܰܣܝܡܘܬܐ. ܘܐܢ ܠܐ܇ ܐܦ ܐܢܬ ܬܸܬ̥ܦܫܰܚ.
See therefore his sweetness and his hardness — of God. Towrad whomever (=those who) fell,↓ hardness. But toward you, sweetness, || if you should remain {təqäwwḗ} in it — in the sweetness. And if not, | also you will be broken off. (P Rom11:22⁎)
ܚ̣ܙܝ ܗܟܝܠ ܒܣܝܡܘܬܐ ܘܩܫ̣ܝܘܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ. ܥܠ ܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܡ̇ܢ ܕܢܦ̣ܠܘ ܩܫܼܝܘܬܐ. ܥܠܝܟ ܕܝܢ ܟܣܝܡܘܬܐ. ܐܢ ܬܩܲܘܐ ܒܒܣܝܡܘܬܐ܆ ܘܐܢ ܠܐ ܐܦ ܐܢܬ ܬܸܬ̥ܦܣܸܩ.
See therefore sweetness and hardness of God. Toward those who fell, on the one hand, hardness. Toward you, on the other hand, sweetness — if you should remain in the sweetness; || and if not, also you will be cut off. (Ḥ Rom11:22⁎)

Rom11:23

ḥæssīrūṯâ = “lack”

méṯmæṣyânâ = “possible”

ܘܗܳܢ̇ܘܢ ܐܢ ܠܐ ܢܩܵܘܘܿܢ ܒܚܰܣܝܪܘܬ ܗܰܝܡܳܢܘܬܗܘܢ܉ ܐܦ ܗܸܢ̣ܘܢ ܢܸܬ̊ܛܰܥܡܘܼܢ. ܡܸܫܟܰܚ ܓܝܪ ܐܠܗܐ ܕܬܘܼܒ ܢܰܛܥܸܡ ܐܢܘܢ.
And those (m.): if they (m.) do not remain {nəqäwwōn D} in the lack of their faith, || also they (m.) will be grafted. For God can again graft them (m.). (P Rom11:23⁎)
ܐܦ ܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܐܢ ܠܐ ܢܩ̇ܘܘܢ ܒܠܐ ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ܆ ܢܸܬܬܰܛܥܡܘܼܢ. ܡܸܬܡܰܨܝܳܢܐ ܓܝܪ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܐܠܗܐ ܕܬܘܒ ܢܰܛܥܸܡ ܐܢܘܢ܀
Also they (m.), however, if they should not remain in non-belief, || will be engrafted. For God is able to graft them again. ¶ (Ḥ Rom11:23⁎)

2018-11-07

Rom11:24

ܐܢ ܓܝܪ ܐܢܬ ܕܡ̣ܢ ܙܝܬܐ ܐܢܬ ܕܒܰܪܐ܇ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܒܰܟܝܳܢܳܟ ܐܬܦܫܰܚܬ܇ ܘܰܕܠܐ ܒܰܟܝܳܢܳܟ ܐܬ̊ܛܥܸܡܬ ܒܙܝܬܐ ܛܒܐ܉ ܟܡܐ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܗ̇ܢܘܢ (NY ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ) ܐܢ ܢܬܛܰܥܡܘܼܢ ܒܙܝܬܐ ܕܰܟܝܳܢܗܘܢ.܀.܀.
For if you (sg.), who are from a wild olive tree | — that which accords to your nature —, were broken off, | and who, not according to your nature, were grafted onto a good olive tree; || then how much [easily would] those/they (m.) [be handled] if they should be grafted onto the olive tree, which accords to their nature? (P Rom11:24⁎)
ܐܢ ܓܝܪ ܐܢܬ: ܡܢ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܒܰܟܝܢܐ ܙܝܬܐ ܕܒܰܪܐ ܐܬܦ̣ܣܘܬ: ܘܠܒܪ ܡܢ ܟܝܢܐ ܐܬܬܰܛܥܰܡܬ ܒܙܝܬܐ ܛܒܐ܆ ܟܡܐ ܝܬܝܪܳܐܝܬ ܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܐܢ ܒܟܝܢܐ ܢܬܬܰܛܥܡܘܿܢ ܒܙܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ܀
For if you (sg.), from that which by nature a wild olive tree, were broken off; | and, out of nature, were engrafted onto a good olive tree: || how much more [easily would] those [guys be handled], if according to nature they should be engrafted onto the olive tree of their own? (Ḥ Rom11:24⁎)

More Ct

2018-11-08

méttæšwəyân Ct √šwy

šwy “to be equal”: Gt ʾéštwī “to become equal, to join together, to agree”, Ct ʾéttæšwī “to be made equal”

For a paradigm of III-y Ct, see Clef, Paradigme Quatrième, no. 6.

ܡܛܠ ܕܐܫܬܘܺܝܬܘܿܢ
because you guys agreed (Ac5:9)
ܐܫܬܘܺܝܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܓܝܪ ܥܡ ܡ̈ܠܐܟܐ
for they will have become equals to the angels (Lk20:36 C/S)

mənârtâ = “lamp stand” — mænhərā = nhr C part. — məšærrær = “made strong” — šäwyâ = p.p. (fem.) of šwy “equal, flat” — qænyâ = “stalk, tube, arm” — gæbbê = “sides” — mäwʕīṯā = “sprouting, plant” — ndy = “to project” — mekkâ w-mekkâ = “from both sides, here and there” — ḥəḏâḏê = “each other”

ܘܰܥܒܰܕ ܠܰܡܢܳܪܬܐ ܗܳܝ ܕܡܰܢܗܪܐ܉ ܕܕܰܗܒܐ܂ ܡܫܰܪܰܪܬܐ܂ ܠܫܵܘܝܐ ܘܠܰܩ̈ܢܰܝܳܐ ܡܢ ܬܪ̈ܝܗܘܢ ܓܰܒ̈ܐ ܕܝܡܗ̇.
And he {Bæṣlīʾêl: Heb. Bəṣalʾēl} made a lamp stand (f.) — that [thing] which [was] shining (f.),|| of gold,↓ made strong (f.),↓ — a flat {well-balanced?} one (f.); and [he made] arms from both sides of it (f.).
ܡܢ ܩ̈ܢܰܝܳܐ ܕܝܠܗ̇ ܡܵܘ̈ܥܝܳܬܐ ܕܢܳܕܝܳܢ (ܕܢܳܕܝ̈ܳܢ)܂ ܬܠܳܬܐ ܡܶܟܐ ܘܰܬܠܳܬܐ ܡܶܟܐ܂ ܕܡܬܬܱܫܘܝܢ (ܕܡܸܬܬܰܫܘ݈ܝ̈ܳܢ) ܠܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ.
From the arms of it (the lamp stand), “buds” (f.pl.) [came out] that were projecting (f.pl.),↓ three [of them] here, and three here (the other side);↓ which were made equal (f.pl.) {identical? symmetric? equal-height?} each other. (ExHex37:17, de Lagarde)

File:Menorah 0307.jpg

2018-11-10

ʾéttæṭʕīw Ct / ʾéṭṭəʕīw Gt √ṭʕy

Passive of ʾæṭʕī = “to cause someone to err; to lead someone astray” (C of ṭʕy “to err”): Ct, Gt-like Ct (or Ct-like Gt), Gt

ܡܛܠ ܕܰܒܚܰܪܳܫܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܟܝ ܐܶܬܬܛܥܺܝܘ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܥܡ̈ܡܐ
Because with the sorcery {ḥærrâšūṯâ} of yours (f.sg.), all the nations were led astray. (Rev18:23, de Dieu, 1627) {vocalized with Hebrew letters, where the Ct form is vocalized as if Gt}
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܒܚܰܪܳܫܽܘܼܬܳܐ ܕܝܻܠܶܟܝ ܐܸܬܬܰܛܥܻܝܼܘ ܟܽܠܗܽܘܿܢ ܥܰܡ̱̈ܡܶܐ
(Walton, 1655–7) {Ct}
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܰܒܚܰܪܳܫܘܬܳܐ ܕܺܝܠܶܟܝ ܐܶܬܬܰܛܥܺܝܘ ܟܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܥܰܡ̱ܡ̈ܶܐ
(Lee 1823) {Ct}
ܡܸܛܠ ܕܲܒ݂ܚܲܪܵܫܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܝܼܠܹܟ݂ܝ ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܛ݇ܥܝܼܘ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ ܥܲܡܡܹ̈ܐ
(NY) {the Ct spelling is vocalized as Gt}
ܡܶܛܠ ܕܰܒ̥ܚܰܪܳܫܘܼܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ ܐܶܬ̊ܛܥܝܼܘ ܟܠܗܘܿܢ ܥ̈ܰܡܡܶܐ
(Mosul) {spelled and vocalized as Gt; also, ḥærâšūṭâ dīlèḵ(y) → ḥærâšūṭ-èḵ(y)}
ܡܛܠ ܕܰܒܚܰܪ̈ܫܰܝܟ̊ܝ ܐܰܛܥܝܬܝ ܠܟ̥ܠܗܘܢ ܥܰܡ̱ܡ̈ܐ
Because with your (f.) magic arts {ḥæršê} you led {ʾæṭʕīt(y) C 2fs} all the nations astray (UK)

ʾéttæḥḥæḇ Ct √ḥbb

(N §178 / Clef, Paradigme Deuxième) ʾéṯ-ḥæbbæḇ Dt / ʾéttæ-ḥḥæḇ Ct

puqdânâ = “command, imperative” — nṭr = “to observe, keep”

ܗ̇ܘ ܕܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܦܘ̈ܩܕܳܢܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܘܢ̇ܛܪ ܠܗܘܢ܆ ܗ̇ܘ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܡܰܚܸܒ ܠܝ܀
That who has the commands of mine and observes them,|| that is that who loves {mæḥḥéḇ C} me.
ܗ̇ܘ ܕܝܢ ܕܡܰܚܒ ܠܝ܆ ܢܸܬܬܰܚܰܒ ܡܢ ܐܒܐ ܕܝܠܝ. ܘܐܢܐ ܐܰܚܒܺܝܘܗܝ܆ ܘܸܐܓܠܹܐ ܠܗ ܐܢܐ ܠܝ.
But that who loves me || will be loved {néttæḥḥæḇ Ct} by the father of mine. And I will love him {ʾæḥḥəḇīw C},|| and I will reveal {ʾéḡlê G}, to him, me — myself. (Jn14:21 Ḥ⁎)

ʾæḥḥəḇīw = ʾæḥḥəḇèh: C Impf. 1cs + “him” = both -īw AND -èh are possible: e.g. from ʾæppéq, ʾæppəqīw [OS-C Jn6:37], ʾæppəqèh [P ib.].

ܐܦܢ ܟܕ ܝܬܝܪܐܝܬ ܡܰܚܸܒ ܐܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܇ ܒܨܺܝܪܳܐܝܬ ܐ̇ܬܬܚܒܬ̇ (ܐܸܬܬܰܚܒܸܬ̥)܀
Even if, when I love {mæḥḥéḇ C} you guys more,| I end up being loved {ʾéttæḥḥəḇéṯ Ct pf.} less. (2Cor12:15 Ḥ)
ܐܦܢ ܟܕ ܝܬܝܪܐܝܬ ܡܰܚܸܒ ܐܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܉ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܒܨܺܝܪܳܐܺܝܬ ܡܰܚܒ̥ܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܠܝ.
Even if, while I love you guys more,| you guys love me {mæḥḥəḇī(n) tōn C part.} less. (ibid. P)

It is not clear why Hark. says “I was loved” (Pf.), when the Greek version has “(I am) being loved” and Peshitta has it as a participle too. In a way ܒܨܝܪܐܝܬ ܐܸܬܬܰܚܒܸܬ̥ is indeed more faithful (or mirror-like) than ܒܨܝܪܐܝܬ ܡܸܬܬܰܚܰܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ, as there are only two words here in Greek; but that doesn’t seem a good reason.

2018-11-11

*téttæḥḥəṯīn Ct Impf 2fs √nḥt

Mt11:23/Lk10:15 “you (fem.sg.) will go down” or “you will be made to go down” (causative passive): OS-C has ܬܸܚܬ̥ܺܝܢ (téḥḥəṯīn 2fs √nḥt néḥḥoṯ). P-NY has ܬܸܬܰܚܬ̥ܺܝܢ (téttæḥḥəṯīn Ct), except it is vocalized as téttæḥtīn. P-UK has ܬܸܬܰܚܬܷ̊ܝܢ (téttæḥtên < *téṯ-tæḥtên), which is from √tḥty Qt [ʾeṯpæʕlī cf. N §180 (4)] “to lower onself”. LS2/3 say this is Ct, while PSm says this is Qt (TS2-4424). CAL says this one is Qt in Luke; for Mat it says this is Ct, except its vocalization is like that of P-UK. Ḥ has ܬܸܬܬܰܚܬܝܢ which seems Qt (téṯ + t-), although it could be a rare 3-t Ct Impf.

2018-11-12

néttæsgê Ct √sgy

šūdâʕâ [hard D] < šuwdâʕâ (N §123, §40B), from šæwdæʕ Q [Shafʿel] “to cause someone to know”: like quṭṭâlâ from qæṭṭél

ʾéštäwdæʕ Qt: part. méštäwdæʕ: méštäwdəʕ-ân (§130) + ūṯâ (§76) = “the state of being informed”

ܛܰܝܒܘܬܐ ܘܰܫܠܳܡܐ ܢܸܣܓܹܐ ܠܟܘܢ܉ ܒܫܘܘܕܳܥܐ ܕܡܪܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ.
May grace {f.} and wholeness {m.} increase {3ms} for you guys,|| in the teaching of our lord jm. (2Pet1:2⁎)
ܛܰܝܒܘܬܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܘܫܰܝܢܐ ܢܸܬܬܰܣܓܹܐ܇ ܒܡܸܫܬܵܘܕܥܳܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܕܝܠܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ.
Grace to you guys, and may peace {m.} be increased {3ms},| in the knowledge of the Lord of ours jm. (2Pet1:2 Ḥ⁎)

ܪܰܚܡܐ = “womb, uterus” = רֶחֶם [≠ ܪܳܚܡܐ “friend”]: pl. ܪܰܚܡ̈ܐ = “compassion”

nésgê (UK): wrongly nésḡê (?) in NY in 2Pet1:2, but not in Jude1:2.

ܪ̈ܰܚܡܹܐ ܘܰܫܠܡܐ ܘܚܘܒ̊ܐ܂ ܢܸܣܓܹܐ ܠܟܘܢ܀
May compassion {m.pl.} and wholeness {m.} and love {ḥubbâ m.}↓ increase {3ms} for you guys. (Jude1:2⁎)
ܪ̈ܚܡܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܘܫܝܢܐ ܒܡܪܝܐ ܘܚܘܒܐ ܢܸܬܬܰܣܓܐ܀
Compassion for you guys, and peace in Lord, and love — may it be increased {3ms}. (Jude1:2 Ḥ⁎)

ʾäwléḏ C √yld = “to cause to bear, to produce”

ʾéttél = “I will give”: ʾét(tə)līw(hy)

2018-11-13

ʾæsgīṯ C = “I multiplied”: but ES ʾæsgītèh (hard t in D/C instead of ʾæsgīṯèh: N §194)

räwləḇ-ê/īn Adj.: räwləḇân-ê/īn Noun (N §146)

ܘܥܲܠ ܐܝܫܡܵܥܹܝܠ ܫܡܲܥܬܵܟ: ܗܵܐ ܒܲܪܸܟ݂ܬܹ݁ܗ ܘܐܲܣܓ݁ܝܼܬܹ݁ܗ: ܘܐܲܟ݂ܒܲܪܬܹ݁ܗ ܛܵܒ݂ ܛܵܒ݂.
And about ʾīšmâʕêl, I have heard you. Look, I have blessed him and multiplied him; and I have made him very, very great.
ܬܪܸܥܣܲܪ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܝܼܢ ܢܵܘܠܸܕ݂: ܘܐܸܬܠܝܼܘܗܝ ܠܥܲܡܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ.܀
He shall produce twelve leaders; and I shall give him a great nation. (Gn17:20⁎)

The perfect in “and multiplied” etc. is originally waw-consecutive (waw + Perfect). “I shall give him” is also originally waw + Perfect, although in Syriac it is now Imperfect — idiomatically in a way, but perhaps simply keeping the original √ntn as √ntl.

ʾéttæʕmær(w) Ct √ʕmr

lèwwâyâ = “Levite” — ʾæṯrâ = “region, countryside” — məzæmmərânâ = “singer” — kâhnâyâ = “priestly” — târʕâ (CAL ⁑tarrāˁā [LS3: Voc. acc. to 12-syllable verse]) = “gatekeeper”: ܬ̇ܪܥܐ as opposed to ܬ̣ܪܥܐ i.e. ܬܰܪܥܐ = “gate” — quryâ = pl. of qərīṯā

ܘܸܐܬܬܰܥܡܰܪܘ ܟܳܗ̈ܢܐ ܘܠܹܘܴ̈ܝܐ ܘܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܡܢ ܥܡܐ ܕܝܠܗ ܒܐܘܪܝܫܠܡ ܘܒܰܐܬ̥ܪܐ. ܘܰܡܙܰܡܪ̈ܳܢܐ ܟܳܗ̈ܢܳܝܐ ܘܬܳܪ̈ܥ̇ܐ ܘܟܠܗ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܒܩܽܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ.
Priests and Levites and those who [were] from his people were made to dwell (were settled) in Jerusalem and [its] suburb[s]. And priestly singers and gatekeepers and every one of Israel [were settled] in their towns. (1Esdras(3 Ezra)5:45⁎)

kumrâ = “Jewish priest” — məšæmməšânâ = “minister, religious administrator” — nâṯnâyê (so in Ezr2:43, etc. Urmia/Mosul; TS2-2482 nəṯænnāyē) = “Nethinim, temple servants”: נְתִינִים :‎ נְתִינִין — quryâ “cities” + suf. = quryæyk, etc.; more commonly quryāḵ, etc. (N §146)

ܘܲܗܦܲܟ݂ܘ ܟܘܼܡܪܹ̈ܐ ܘܠܹܘܵܝܹ̈ܐ ܘܡ̣ܢ ܥܲܡܵܐ: ܘܡ̣ܢ ܡܫܲܡ̈ܫܵܢܹܐ: ܘܡ̣ܢ ܬܵܪ̈ܥܹܐ ܘܢܵܬ݂ܢܵܝܹ̈ܐ: ܘܐܲܝܠܹܢ ܕܝܵܬ݂ܒ݁ܝܼܢ (ܕܝܼܗܝܼܒ݂ܝܼܢ ܇ ܕܝܼܬ݂ܝܼܒ݂ܝܼܢ) ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ ܒܩܘܼܪ̈ܝܼܗܘܿܢ: ܘܟ݂ܠܹܗ (ܐ)ܝܼܣܪܵܝܹܠ ܘܩܘܼܪ̈ܝܼܗܘܿܢ (ܒܩܘܼܪ̈ܝܼܗܘܿܢ).
And they returned {were repatriated} — Jewish priests and Levites and [some] of the people; and some of the gatekeepers and Nethinim (temple servants), and whoever (pl.) {ʾæylên d-: N §353} had been [originally] placed/situated in their towns [with them]; and every one of Israel in their towns. (P Ezr2:70⁎ — somewhat different from MT)

2018-11-14

ܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬܹܗ ܢܬܲܢ̈ܝܵܢ ܟܢܘܼ̈ܫܵܬ݂ܵܐ. ܘܬܸܫ̈ܒ݁ܚܵܬܹܗ ܢܹܐܡܲܪ ܥܲܡܵܐ.
The congregations {kənuštâ: kənūšâṯâ} will narrate {nə-ṯænnəy-ân D Impf. 3fp} his wisdom. And people will say praises {téšboḥtâ: téšbəḥâṯâ} of him. (Sirach39:10(14)⁎)

néttæḥšæḵ Ct √ḥšk

zæhhær D = “to warn”: ʾézdəhær (< *ʾéz-təhær < *ʾéṯ-zəhær) Gt = “to beware of”: Imperative ʾézdæhr (N §162)

qdm D = co-verb “to do early on”

ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕܝܢ܂ ܐܸܙܕܰܗ̱ܪܘ. ܗܐ ܩܰܕ̊ܡܹܬ ܐܸܡ̇ܪܹܬ ܠܟܘܢ܂ ܟܠ ܡܕܡ܀
But you guys,↓ be warned! Look, I beforehand have said, to you guys,↓ everything. (Mk13:23 P⁎)
ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܚܙܵܘ ܗܐ ܩܰܕܡܬ ܐܡܪܬ ܠܟܘܢ ܟܘܡܕܡ
But you guys, see! Look, I beforehand have said, to you guys, everything. (S⁎)
ܐܢܬܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܚ̣ܙܘ. ܗܐ ܩ̇ܕܡܬ ܐܡ̇ܪܬ ܠܟܘܢ ܟܠܗܝܢ܀
But you guys, see! Look, I beforehand have said, to you guys, all of them. (Ḥ⁎)

ʾulṣânâ = “hardship”

ḥšk = “to be dark”

ܒܗܳܢ̇ܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ܁ ܒܳܬܰܪ ܐܘܠܨܳܢܐ ܗ̇ܘ܉ ܫܸܡܫܐ ܢܸܚܫܰܟ. ܘܣܰܗܪܐ ܠܐ ܢܸܬܠ ܢܘܗܪܗ.
But in those days,↑ after that hardship;|| the sun will be dark, and the moon will not give its light. (Mk13:24 P⁎)
ܐܠܐ ܒܗܘܢ ܒܗܢܘܢ ܝܘܡܬܐ ܒܬܪ ܐܘܠܨܢܐ ܗܘ ܢܚܫܟ ܫܡܫܐ ܘܣܗܪܐ ܢܘܗܪܗ ܠܐ ܢܚܵܘܸܐ
Except {#1}, in them — in those days (i.e. “in those very days”), after that hardship, the sun will be dark and the moon will not show its light. (S⁎)
ܐܠܐ ܒܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܒܬܪ ܐܘܠܨܢܐ ܗ̇ܘ܆ ܫܡܫܐ ܢܸܬܬܰܚܫܰܟ. ܘܣܗܪܐ ܠܐ ܢܬܠ ܙܰܗܪܐ ܕܝܠܗ.
Except {#1}, in those days after that hardship,|| the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give the splendor {#2} of its. (Ḥ⁎)

#1 ʾéllâ = Ἀλλὰ = perhaps “I have already said everything, except…” or “besides/anyway/here’s another thing”

#2 apparently mirror t/l of φέγγος = “(moon)light, splendor”, where ܢܘܗܪܐ (a generic word for “light” in Syriac) is reserved for φῶς (a generic word for “light” in Greek).

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