memos::Syriac 9 (I)

未分類のメモ。主にシリア語の学習ノート(その9)。このノートは2014年7月下旬~11月のもので、ܩܰܪܰܗܒܰܫ: ܗܶܪ̈ܓܐ ܕܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ の第3巻12~17課に当たる。Wheelock’s Latin の35章なども含まれる。シリア語を始めて1年半、8月には少しコツがつかめ、ペシタが結構楽に読めるようになった。9月以降、オールド・シリアックに興味を持ち始めた。10月後半以降は他のことをしていたため、こちらの勉強はあまりできなかった。

[ Archive ]

CAL ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS; Wiki; Map, 2, 3, ME | Alan; Qara., 1, 2, 3; Nöld., fem, de | Per L-Sh; Gaf; Et


Greek Unicode Issues

2014-11-25

Greek Unicode

2014-11-27

Ancient Greek Accents

https://web.archive.org/web/20151104201807/http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudjis/unicode/unicode.html

Curetonian John 14:26b

2014-10-17

ܐܒܝ ܒܫܡܝ. ܗܝ
ܬܠܦܟܘܢ ܟܘܠ ܡܕ̇ܡ
ܕܐܡ̇ܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ̇ ܫܠܡܐ
ܫܒܩ ܐܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ̇
ܫܠܡܐ ܕ̣ܝܠܝ ܝܗܒ
ܐܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ̇ ܠܐ ܗܘܐ
ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܒܫܶܡܝ̱. ܗܝ ܬܰܠܶܦܟܘܢ ܟܘܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܳܐܡܰܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ. ܫܠܳܡܐ ܫܳܒܶܩ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ. ܫܠܳܡܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ. ܠܐ ܗܘܐ
ʾLP Pael to teach: impf. is nallep̄ instead of *neʾallep̄ (N §174D).
ὁ δὲ Παράκλητος, τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ὃ πέμψει ὁ Πατὴρ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου, ἐκεῖνος ὑμᾶς διδάξει πάντα καὶ ὑπομνήσει ὑμᾶς πάντα ἃ εἶπον ὑμῖν ἐγώ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 17] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 17 [ܕܰܫܒܰܥܣܰܪ (ܕܰܫܒܳܬܰܥܣܰܪ)]: ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ

2014-10-02

ܪܘܚܐ ܫܰܝܢܐ ܡܚܝܠܐ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ ܦܳܪܶܫ
rūḥā šaynā mḥīlā ʕaššīnā pārèš
f/m wind, spirit peace**, cultivated land weak, poor, lean strong, powerful to separate (pt)

2014-10-29 ** ܫܰܝܢܐ = Lat. pāx, pācis (peace, concluded between parties at variance, esp. between belligerents). ܫܠܳܡܐ = Lat. salūs, salūtis (a being safe and sound; a sound or whole condition, health, welfare, prosperity, preservation, safety, deliverance, etc.).

ܫܰܐܶܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ:
The teacher asked a question {#1} to the sons of the class (i.e. students in the class):

2014-10-03

ܟܰܕ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܡܳܚܶܝܢ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ، ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ؟
When a well-educated {#2} student sees two of his classmates {ḥaḇrā} who [are] striking {MḤY} each other, what is proper {ZDQ} that he will do (i.e. what should he do)?
ܚܰܕ ܡܰܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܗܘܢ ܘܓܳܚܶܟ: «ܕܰܐܪܚܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ ܘܬܺܚܶܐ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ».
One [student], on the one hand, said: He stands in the distance {ruḥqā} and looks at {#3} them and laughs {GḤK}: “[They say] that [you should] distance [yourself] {RḤQ Aph#4} from the evil and you will live {*teyḥē > teḥḥē > *teʾḥē > tḗḥē} in peace.”

2014-10-04

ܘܰܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܰܡܚܝܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ. ܐܰܡܝܪ ܓܶܝܪ: «ܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܰܡܚܝܠܐ ܘܰܐܩܝܡ ܠܰܢܦܝܠܐ».
The second one said: He aids {ʕDR Pa.} the weak one against the strong one. For it is said**: “Aid the weak one and make the fallen one {#5} stand.”
ܘܰܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܙܶܠ ܦܳܪܶܫ ܠܗܘܢ، ܟܶܢ ܢܫܰܝܶܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܡ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ. ܐܰܡܝܪ ܓܶܝܪ: «ܛܽܘܒܰܝܗܘܢ ܠܥܳܒ̈ܕܰܝ ܫܠܳܡܐ ܕܰܒܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܢܶܬܩܪܘܢ [ܢܶܬ̥ܩܪܘܢ]» ܀
The third one said: He goes [and] separate them so that he may conciliate {#6} them with each other. For it is said: “Blessed are (lit. [there are?] their good things {#7} for) the makers {const. of ʕāḇdīn} of peace, who will be called {#8} the sons of God.” (Cf. Matthew 5:9⁎)

2014-11-12

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Write the answer

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ ܠܰܒ̈ܢܰܝ ܣܶܕܪܐ؟
ܗܘ ܣܰܐܶܠ ܠܗܘܢ: ܟܰܕ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܪܰܕܝܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܒܪ̈ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܡܳܚܶܝܢ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ، ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ؟
2 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܦܰܢܝ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ؟
ܗܘ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܩܳܐܶܡ ܒܪܘܚܩܐ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܗܘܢ ܘܓܳܚܶܟ. ܐܰܡܝܪ ܓܶܝܪ: «ܕܰܐܪܚܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ ܘܬܺܚܶܐ ܒܫܰܝܢܐ».
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ؟
ܗܘ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܡܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܰܡܚܝܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܥܰܫܝܢܐ. ܐܰܡܝܪ ܓܶܝܪ: «ܥܰܕܰܪ ܠܰܡܚܝܠܐ ܘܰܐܩܝܡ ܠܰܢܦܝܠܐ».
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ؟
ܗܘ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܳܙܶܠ ܦܳܪܶܫ ܠܗܘܢ، ܟܶܢ ܢܫܰܝܶܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܡ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ. ܐܰܡܝܪ ܓܶܝܪ: «ܛܘܒܰܝܗܘܢ ܠܥܳܒ̈ܕܰܝ ܫܠܳܡܐ ܕܰܒܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܢܶܬ̥ܩܪܘܢ».
5 ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܥܒܳܕܐ ܕܛܳܒ ܒܗܘܢ؟
ܥܒܳܕܐ = deed, work
ܥܒܳܕܐ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܛܳܒ.

2014-11-22

ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ:

6 ܕܶܟ̥ܪܳܐܝܺܬ: ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܇ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ ܇ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܇ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ ܇ ܚܡܝܫܳܝܐ ܇ ܫܬܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ ܇ ܫܒܝܥܳܝܐ ܇ ܬܡܝܢܳܝܐ ܇ ܬܫܝܥܳܝܐ ܇ ܥܫܝܪܳܝܐ ܇ ܚܕܰܥܣܝܪܳܝܐ ܇ ܬܪܰܥܣܝܪܳܝܐ

7 ܢܶܩܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥: ܩܰܕܡܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܝܬ̥ܐ ܇ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܚܡܝܫܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܫܬܝܬ̥ܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܫܒܝܥܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܬܡܝܢܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܬܫܝܥܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܥܫܝܪܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܚܕܰܥܣܝܪܳܝܬܐ ܇ ܬܪܰܥܣܝܪܳܝܬܐ

ܠܰܚܶܡ ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ — Match opposite words

8 ܩܰܪܝܒܐ (near)ܝܰܡܝܢܐ (right)ܛܳܒܐ (good)ܡܰܕܢܚܐ (east)ܡܚܝܠܐ (weak)

ܡܰܥܪܒܐ (maʕrḇā=west)ܥܰܫܝܢܐ (strong)ܪܰܚܝܩܐ (distant)ܣܶܡܳܠܐ (left)ܒܝܫܐ (bad)

ܩܰܪܝܒܐ : ܪܰܚܝܩܐ

ܝܰܡܝܢܐ : ܣܶܡܳܠܐ

ܛܳܒܐ : ܒܝܫܐ

ܡܰܕܢܚܐ : ܡܰܥܪܒܐ

ܡܚܝܠܐ : ܥܰܫܝܢܐ

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 16] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 16 [ܕܰܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ (ܕܫܶܬܬܰܥܣܰܪ)]: ܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܫܰܡܝܪܰܡ

2014-09-20

ܪܰܡܝܐ ܢܚܘܣ ܪܰܒܰܬ ܝܶܪܒܰܬ̥ ܡܰܫܩܶܐ
ramyā nḥūs rabbaṯ yerbaṯ mašqē
fallen, lying, fem. pass. pt. of RMY will pity, Impf. of ḤWS; ū is long (N §177A) big (f. constr.) she became large (yīreḇ) gives water, pt. of ʾašqī ŠQY
ܒܚܰܕ ܪܰܡܫܐ، ܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ* [ܗܳܦܟܐ] ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܫܰܡܝܪܰܡ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ، ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܕܗܐ ܩܰܛܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܪܰܡܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܘܢܳܘܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܦܢܐ ܘܡܶܢ ܨܶܗܝܐ.
One evening, when Šammīram {fem. name; orig. unknown; “name of the high”?} was returning {HPK; K should be hard} home, she saw that — behold — a little-fem. cat [was] fallen (lying) on the side of {constr.} a road and [was] meowing {Neo-Syr: Cf. vol. 2, L. 17} from hunger {kap̄nā} and from thirst {ṣehyā OR ṣa-}.

2014-09-22

ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ̥ ܫܰܡܝܪܰܡ ܒܢܰܦܫܳܗ̇، ܟܡܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܕܢܶܚܘܣ ܥܰܠ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܝܟ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ.
And Šammīram said to herself {nap̄šā}: “How much (=It is so much) proper {zāḏeq} for a human {barnāšā “son of man”; she is using the generic m-sg for herself} that he will have pity {#1} on animals that [are] like these {m/f}.”
ܪܰܒܰܬ̥** [ܪܶܒܰܬ̥] ܩܰܛܘ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܟܰܦܝܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܘܠܰܝܬ ܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܘܟ̥ܶܠ* [ܕܡܰܘܟܶܠ] ܠܳܗ̇، ܘܨܰܗܝܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܘܠܰܝܬ ܡܰܢ ܕܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܠܳܗ̇.
“Most probably {#2} this-f cat is famished {kappīnā LS2, Not in Jess. =kap̄nā; fem abs #2a}, and there is no one who {layt man d, Jess; N §236} gives food {ʔKL Aph. ʾawkel; K should be hard; aw corrupted into ō} to her, and she is thirsty and there is no one who makes her drink.”

2014-09-23

ܘܚܳܣܰܬ̥ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ܫܰܡܝܪܰܡ ܘܰܛܥܶܢܬ̥ܳܗ̇ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.
And Šammīram had pity on her, and carried (took) her {#3} to the house.
ܘܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܠܰܚܡܐ ܘܚܰܠܒܐ.
And she gave, to her, bread/food and milk.
ܘܟܰܕ ܝܶܪܒܰܬ̥، ܫܰܪܝܰܬ̥ ܨܳܝܕܐ ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܀
And when she (the cat) grew up, she began {#4} hunting {ṢWD} mice {#5} from the house.

2014-09-27

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬܐ — Write the answer

1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ* [ܗܳܦܟܐ] ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܫܰܡܝܪܰܡ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ؟
ܗܳܦܟܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܒܪܰܡܫܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ ܐܘܪܚܐ؟
ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܕܩܰܛܘ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܪܰܡܝܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܒܢܰܦܫܳܗ̇؟
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܒܢܰܦܫܳܗ̇، ܟܡܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܕܢܶܚܘܣ (ܕܰܢܚܘܣ) ܥܰܠ ܚܰܝܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܐܝܟ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ̥ ܠܩܰܛܘܬ̥ܐ؟
ܛܥܶܢܬ̥ܳܗ̇ (ܛܶܥܢܰܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇) ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ̥ܬ̥ܳܗ̇ (ܘܝܶܗܒ̊ܰܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇) ܠܰܚܡܐ ܘܚܰܠܒ̥ܐ.
5 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܕܛܳܒ ܥܶܒܪܰܬ̥ ܐܰܘ ܕܒܝܫ؟
ܥܶܒܪܰܬ̥ ܕܛܳܒ.

2014-09-30

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ* [ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ] ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

6 ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ
ܩܰܛܘ ܨܳܕ ܥܘܩܰܒܪ̈ܐ.
A cat caught mice.
ܨܶܗܝܐ
ܩܛܘ ܢܝܐ ܡܢ ܨܗܝܐ.
ܩܰܛܘ ܢܝܐ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܗܝܐ.
The cat meowed from thirst (because he was thirsty).
ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ
ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܪܰܒ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܦܪܐ.
A man is bigger than a bird.
ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ
ܐܰܪܝܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܕܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
A lion is the king of animals.

2014-10-01

ܦܪܘܫ ܚܰܝ̈ܘܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐMatch opposite words* [Distinguish animals and birds]

7 ܝܰܘܢܐ ܦܝܠܐ ܓܰܕܝܐ ܢܶܫܪܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ
dove (f), elephant, kid/goat (gaḏyā), eagle/vulture, rooster
ܟܰܠܒܐ ܚܡܳܪܐ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܰܪܝܐ ܦܰܪܘܓ̥ܐ
dog, ass/donkey, bird, lion, chick/young chicken (parrūḡā)

2014-09-14: mkvtoolnix 7.2.0 が13日にリリースされた。新しい GUI については、MKVToolNix GUI status 参照。

Syriac: What I did between Qarahbaš vol. 3 Lesson 15 and 16

2014-09-16

  1. [Six Forms of Verbs] 2014-08-27, 2014-08-28. This is just something simple, but it was my first attempt to grasp the 6 patterns in one go.
  2. [3rd-Y + Obj. Suffix] Ex3 with ʕêḏaṯẙ 2014-08-29, 2014-08-30. While reviewing Lesson 9, I realized that the Syriac word kḗp̄ā was in an ordinary version of the Bible (e.g. John 1:42), and looked closer at Peshitta Matthew 16:18. I was happy to realize that I already knew most of the words in that verse. Currently, I can read Peshitta semi-fluently, meaning that while sometimes I understand only 25% or less of the words in a verse, it is not so uncommon that I know more than 75%. So, I can sometimes read a few verses without looking up a single word, and maybe at this point I’m better at Peshitta than at Koine (partly because Peshitta is writen with simple words, straightforward and natural, while Koine is awkward and harder to understand, with many “corrupted” word forms not found in Classical Greek). I have studied Syriac for one and a half years (more specifically 1 yr 7–8 mo), sometimes slowly sometimes intensively; maybe it’s about time for me to try to read something a little longer anyway.
  3. [How nouns are suffixed when the ground form ends in 2 or 3 consonants] 2014-08-31...2014-09-08; incl. comments on Vulgate. This was a big project. I spent more than a week for it. I started it because I was confused by the ES expression ʕêḏaṯ(y), specifically the short vowel -a- which seemed to appear from nowhere. On 2014-09-04, I also tried Syriac Psalm for the first time. While there’s this Peshitta Tool for NT, OT feels like solo climbing.
  4. [3rd-Y + Obj. Suffix] Longer forms with ūn(ā) and ēn(ā)/ES forms of 3rd-Y Feminine Plural Imperative 2014-09-09, 2014-09-10. Before this one, I didn’t know that the ê in kassāyênān was actually long.
  5. [Aphel] 3rd-Y Aphel: Pf (continued) 2014-09-11/3rd-Y Aphel: Impf and Impt 2014-09-12. More about verbs. I was impressed by a beautiful sounding expression in Syriac Sinaiticus (Matthew 27:6), which is not found in Peshitta. This was the first time I actually tried to read Old Syriac bibles, instead of Peshitta, and that was a positive experience, language-wise.
  6. [A word-final semivowel becomes a vowel when a 3rd-Y verb is suffixed: Summary] 2014-09-14. More verb things. Trying to organize my knowledge.
  7. [Peal Impf/Impt + Obj. Suffix] (in File H) Impt. 2m-pl 2014-09-15. Slightly more about verbs. More importantly, I finally understood why the Latin sentences in Vulgate were so “broken” (was always wondering about it). The author did that intentionally, using a lot of colloquial expressions, to make it easier for the common people. That makes sense.
  8. 2014-09-16: Suffixed 3rd-Y Peal Pf reviewed.
  9. 2014-09-17: Suffixed 3rd-Y Pael Pf reviewed.
  10. 2014-09-18: Suffixed 3rd-Y Peal Impf reviewed.
  11. 2014-09-19: [Examples of Imperative forms: Peal, Pael, Aphel] (in File H).

2014-09-27: CAL has been down since 2014-09-25 (Noticed at 22:42 UTC); significantly, though not extremely, inconvenient.

2014-09-28: CAL is still down, and this is getting a bigger problem for me. Hopefully it’ll be up again on Monday. BTW I read a full verse of P. only once in December, 2013; once in February, 2014; twice in April; once in May; once in July; then many times starting from August. Also in August I have started using a 29-pixel font size for Syrj, instead of 33-pixel [xbig=33px; ybig=29px; then sy2 with Serto Urhoy in 32/29 pixels, starting from around June/July, 2015; then sy3 with Serto Kharput in 29/26 pixels in November, 2015.]. This summer (August) was surely something meaningful. Like suddenly I’ve got the hang of Syriac, and suddenly have become relatively better. I kind of feel that maybe Syriac is essentially an easy — efficient — language. I’ve never felt this way about another language. Like, Latin is always difficult for me, with many case endings and verb endings (endings themselves are not difficult but stems are so irregular). Syriac, on the other hand, does not have case endings. When Latin uses futures and subjunctives, Syriac just reuses Imperfect. That’s very cool since you can express essentially the same thing more easily. Latin is inefficient, needlessly complicated; Syriac is more elegant.

2014-09-30: CAL is still down, but it’s now reachable, showing the message The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon is temporarily down. Please contact skaufman@huc.edu if you have any questions (noticed at 03:46 UTC). Though it was unreachable around 00:00 UTC, the page header says Last-Modified: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 23:47:39 GMT, that is 19:47 EDT (assuming that CAL is physically located in Cincinnati). So it was kind of fixed on Monday after all. I think that it was a good move that around July 1, 2014, I started memorizing the lessons (starting from Vol. 3 Lesson 11, but including 10 as I did this backword for one unit), not just reading and understanding them. Since Lesson 12 (July 20), I’m memorizing text as I read, not after I finish it. That includes Lesson 13 (July 29–Aug 7), but for some reason I didn’t remember 14 and 15. Then now I’m doing (and have already almost memorized) 16 (Sept 20–). Like I said, I’ve become significantly (though relatively) more comfortable with Syriac around this Augut. Memorizing the whole text may seem boring but I think it works for me. // CAL is now back (22:30 UTC). Yay.

2014-10-04: There was a word neṯqrṓn (3rd-Y Ethpe. Impf.) in Lesson 16; started reviewing Ethpe.

  1. 2014-10-05 / 2014-10-06: 3rd-Y Ethpeel Perfect.
  2. 2014-10-07: 3rd-Y Ethpeel Imperfect.
  3. 2014-10-08: ʾettəḵar, etc.
  4. 2014-10-09: Strong Ethpeel Imperative; Suffixed Ethpeel.
  5. 2014-10-10: Traits — Mingana’s explanation [mhagyānā/marhṭānā].
  6. 2014-10-11: Imperative Ethpeel (3rd-Y).
  7. 2014-10-12: Several additional things.

2014-10-13 Avestan Unicode fonts:

2014-10-13/2014-10-14: read Burkitt (1904): Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe Vol. II, which is fascination, almost like a fine mystery novel.

Georgian scripts

2014-09-25


ა ბ გ დ

First I was interested in the Georgian script(s) on 2014-09-11 2014-08-11, mostly because the CSS2/2.1 list-style-type supports it.

I started to study them more seriously on 2016-12-21, as a new project after I had learned the Armenian alphabet. As of 2016-12-31, I memorized the first 16 letters of the mxɛdɾʊlɪ script (about 20 more to go), how to read/write them. [SyriacM.php#georgian]

2014-12-21

An Ban Gan Don En Vin Zen

2014-12-24

About კ (Kʼan)

Georgian distinguishes between aspirated and non-aspirated (ejective) consonants. An aspirated consonant is accompanied by a puff of air when you say it. In Georgian, there is even more of a "puff" of air for aspirated consonants than you would hear in English. A non-aspirated consonant in Georgian, however, actually contains no puff of air whatsoever. Georgians close the back of their throat, similar to what you do before you cough or the closed throat moment between uh and oh in "uh-oh." They then pronounce the non-aspirated consonants without any exhalation at all.

Georgian phrasebook – Travel guide at Wikivoyage

თ (tan) is θ, so it’s easy to see it is aspirated. The problem is კ (kʼan). First I thought this sound might be difficult to reproduce. But if I’m guessing right, you can pronounce it by simply repeating ka ka ka… with a lot of puffing, until your lungs become empty; then you’ll be saying /kʼa kʼa kʼa/ before you know it. And once you know what it is all about, it’s so simple you can do it almost unconsciously.

In the languages where they are more obvious, ejectives are often described as sounding like “spat” consonants; [...] In strict, technical terms, ejectives are glottalic egressive consonants. The most common ejective is [kʼ], not because it is easier to produce than other ejectives like [tʼ] or [pʼ] (it isn’t) but because the auditory distinction between [kʼ] and [k] is greater than with other ejectives and voiceless consonants of the same place of articulation.

Ejective consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

How nouns are suffixed when the ground form ends in 2 or 3 consonants

2014-08-31

References: Nöldeke (=N) §145; Alan 97–101; Muraoka §42. Additional reference: Mingana, Clef, 464–471.

A ground form (=emphatic state minus ā) may end in a vowel + CCC, CC, or C. If there are many C’s there, you can’t just add a consonantal suffix (C-suf) to it, because that would produce too many consecutive consonants. In that case, a short vowel (usually a; in a few cases è or e) is inserted — or rather restored. This short vowel is:

On the other hand, you can just add a vocalic suffix (V-suf) to anything, even if it’s CCC.

CCṯā = Restore

1 If the noun in the emphatic state ends in -CC(ə)ṯā, i.e. if there are two consecutive consonants before the -ṯā, then the a of the original -aṯ- is restored before a consonantal suffix. (N §145G)

Example: malk(ə)ṯā (< *malkaṯāh) “queen” [abs. malkā, cst. malkaṯ]

  1. A vocalic suffix is attached trivially: malk(ə)ṯèh, etc.
  2. A consonantal suffix would produce 4 consecutive consonants, CC(ə)ṯ-C, as in *malk(ə)ṯ-hṓn; such a form is practically impossible, unless the original -aṯ- is restored. Hence, malkaṯ-hṓn.
  3. The suffix for 1c-sg, -ẙ, is treated as consonantal: malkaṯ-ẙ.

Also: šeʾlṯā (abs. šeʾlā) “request”: šeʾlaṯhṓn (Lk23:34) [2014-09-02]

1.1 Words like mel(lə)ṯā, gan(nə)ṯā also belong to this class, even though in reality they are pronounced with only one consonant before -ṯā (melṯā, genṯā). In this case, not only the a but also consonant doubling is restored before a consonantal suffix: e.g. mel(lə)ṯèh “his word” and mellaṯhṓn “their word” [cf. mellā abs, mellaṯ cst]. Also:

  1. šenṯā “sleep” [šennā (ES šnā), šennaṯ] as if *šen(nə)ṯā: šenṯèh, šennaṯhṓn, šennaṯẙ
  2. ḥem(mə)ṯā (abs. ḥemmā) “anger” originally had ḥemmaṯhṓn as expected, but the newer form is simply ḥemṯhṓn (N §145G), as if belonging to type eCṯā. [2014-09-02]
  3. Mingana 469 has 4 more words like ḥemṯā, ḥem(ma)ṯ-. A shorter form seems standard (N §145G), and as long as a shorter form is used, these words simply behave as Short V + Cṯā, exactly as they look. — ḥar(rə)ṯā, ḥarrā “end, purpose”: ḥar{ra}ṯhṓn (Ro6:22). — ʾam(mə)ṯā, ʾammā “cubit” & ʾamṯā “maidservant”. — ṣep̄ṯā “concern”: ṣep̄ṯḵṓn (1Pe5:7) [CAL abs. sp̄eṯ with E]. — qeštā “bow, rainbow” [CAL abs. qšet with E and hard T]. [2014-09-06]

1.2 If a mar(ɩ)hṭānā or mhagyānā is inserted, the inserted (half-)vowel will disappear when the a is restored. Also, a secondary change like YWṯā > Yūṯā will be reverted when the a is restored. [Generally, secondary consonantal changes will be reverted when the a is restored, as in ʕḗ(t)tā, ʕḗḏaṯẙ; mḏī(t)tā, mḏīnaṯ.]

  1. ḥaY(ɩ)W(ə)-ṯā (=ḥayūṯā) “animal”, ḥaY(ɩ)W(ə)-ṯèh (=ḥayūṯèh) “his animal”, ḥaY-Waṯ-hṓn “their animal”.
  2. ḥaḏw(ə)ṯā = ḥaḏūṯā (abs. ḥaḏwā) “joy”: ḥaḏūṯèh, ḥaḏwaṯhṓn, ḥaḏwaṯẙ. [2014-09-02]
  3. ES form of peleʾṯā “simile, parable” (N §100) is pel()ʾ(ə)ṯā [CCC] (Mt24:32, Mk13:28): from which Mingana 466 suggests pelʾaṯhṓn, pelʾaṯẙ, etc. WS forms are probably pele(ʾ)ṯhṓn, pele(ʾ)ṯẙ, etc. [2014-09-05]

āCt̤ā = Depends

2 [CVCṯā] When a word in the emphatic state ends in a long vowel + Cṯā, the a is often restored (N §145F ¶3). This seems to happen when the T is soft.

In order for this to happen, there must be exactly two letters before -ṯā, not counting a letter used as a vowel sign. That is, the noun must be of the form CVCṯā. [2014-09-05]

2.1 [CCVCtā] However, the a may not be restored at all in this case (N §145F ¶2). This seems usual when the T is hard (-āCtā, -īCtā, etc.), before which you can’t even feel a potential ə.

Basically, a noun behaves this way only when there is CC before VCtā. If there is nothing but a word-initial C before VCṯā, then 2.1 is usually not applied (Mingana 466). [2014-09-05]

2.1A [CVCtā] The a is not restored in some nouns of the form CVCtā, when CVC is written as three letters (Cf. N §145F ¶2; Mingana 466 ¶2). [2014-09-05]

2.2 In ṭāḇṯā “goodness”, the a is generally restored, but not in 1c-sg: ṭāḇṯèh, ṭāḇaṯhṓn, but ṭāḇṯẙ; maybe because ḇ works like a semivowel. (N §145F; Min 471; Mura §42 fn33) // Similarly, mārtā (hard T) “mistress”: mārtẙ [and māraṯhṓn?].

2.3 In “my church”, the a is restored is ES (ʕêḏtā=ʕêttā, ʕêḏaṯẙ), but not in WS (ʕī̆ḏtẙ=ʕī̆(t)tẙ): N §145F.

2.4 In mḏīntā=mḏī(t)tā [mḏīnā, mḏīnaṯ] “city”, the a is restored only in 1c-sg: mḏī(t)tèh (Lk19:14), mḏī(t)thṓn (Lk2:39), but mḏīnaṯ (Not in NT).

2014-09-01

āṯā / aCt̤ā = Drop

3 If a word in the emphatic state ends in -āṯā, -īṯā, -ṓṯā, or -ūṯā, every suffixed form is trivial, as in malkāṯā pl. “queens”, malkāṯ-èh -ẙ -hṓn (N §145C, §145H). Obviously, no one wants to “restore” an a like *malkāaṯhṓn.

3.1 The same thing happens with -aCtā (incl. -aCṯā), -eCtā, etc. (N §145F ¶1), if there are 3 or more letters before -t̤ā.

Note: Generally, a noun of the form “C + a short vowel + Ct̤ā” (2 letters + t̤ā) belongs to 1.1 above. About nouns ending in -t̤ā, Mingana 466 even states that tous les bilitères à première accentuée et à deuxième quiescente (i.e. all the CVCt̤ā-type nouns, where V may be long or short) will restore an a when a C-suf is attached. The statement seems true when the V is long (See 2 above); when the V is short, what looks like Ct̤ā often works as CCəṯā — as in gan(nə)ṯā, gannaṯẙ (See 1.1 above). So, a few exceptions aside, he is probably right. Also note that in a “2 letters + t̤ā” case, -t̤ā is usually, if not always, soft. [2014-09-05]

Examples

ܬܒܰܥܬ̥ܐ (Short Vowel + CC) just gets a C-suf, without restoring the a:

ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ ܬܒܰܥܬ̥ܗܘܢ ܒܰܥܓ̥ܰܠ
I tell you guys that he will do their judgment{#1} quickly {baʕḡal}. (Luke 18:8)

#1 “judgment for them (to help them)”.

Dico vobis quia cito faciet vindictam illorum. (Vulgate)

Another English-like Latin from around 400 CE. In a way, this is easier to understand than “Dico vobis eum cito facere (OR facturum esse)…” It makes me realize that Latin was a living language back then, actually spoken by people, changing itself little by little.

2014-09-15: Wheelocks says: At times the classical style was deliberately employed to impress the pagans, but more and more the concern was to reach the common people (vulgus) with the Christian message. Consequently, it is not surprising to see vulgar Latin re-emerging as an important influence in the literature of the period. St. Jerome in his letters is essentially Ciceronian, but in his Latin edition of the Bible, the Vulgate (383–405 A.D.), he uses the language of the people.

Ex2 (2014-09-04). When ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ (Long Vowel + CC) gets a C-suf, the a is restored:

ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܫܳܥܰܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ
But this is you guys’ hour. (Luke 22:53)
sed hæc est hora vestra

Ex3 (2014-09-05). Although ܢܝܳܚܬ̊ܐ also has Long Vowel + CC, it just gets a C-suf without a helper vowel: ܢܝܳܚܬ̊ܝ̱, not *ܢܝܳܚܰܬ̥ܝ̱. Apparently, this happens when the -tā is hard. Also this type of noun seems to begin with 2 consonants instead of 1 (n(ə)y- in this case).

ܕܰܫܡܰܝܐ ܟܘܪܣܰܝ܂ ܘܰܐܪܥܐ ܟܘܒܫܐ ܕܰܬܚܶܝܬ̥ ܪ̈ܶܓ̥ܠܰܝ܂ ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܬܶܒܢܘܢ ܠܝ܂ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܡܳܪܝܐ܂ ܐܰܘ ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܐܰܬ̥ܪܐ ܕܰܢܝܳܚܬ̊ܝ̱܂
[He says] that the heaven [is] my throne and the earth [is] the footstool that [is] under my feet. “Which is the house that you guys will build for me?” The Lord says. “Or which is the place of my rest?” (Acts 7:49⁎ from Isaiah 66:1)
Cælum mihi sedes est: terra autem scabellum pedum meorum. Quam domum ædificabitis mihi, dicit Dominus? Aut quis locus requietionis meæ est?

¶ šmayyā “heaven” is originally a masculine plurale tantum in Aramaic, just like Hebrew שָׁמַיִם. In Syriac, while it may be treated as pl-m in OT translations, this word is generally sg-m or sg-f (N §87 §146; Alan 69) — usually sg-m (Jess). The word doesn’t have a syāmē here anyway. There is a d- in front of this, since the phrase is quoted. ¶ kuḇšā “footstool” ¶ t(ə)ḥēṯ prep. “under” ¶ reḡlay — the syāmē is not on Rḗš (ES). ¶ ʾaṯrā “place”

Thus {hāḵanā} the Load says: the heaven [is] my throne and the earth [is] the footstool of my feet. Which is the house that you guys are building for me? Or {ʾāw possibly ʾaw} which is the place of my rest? (Isaiah 66:1⁎)

2014-09-03

CCC in general

4 If the ground form ends in CCC, an a is restored when a consonantal suffix is attached. This is obvious, as CCC + C-suf is impossible, exactly like when the ground form ends in CCṯ.

4.1 If the ground form ends in CCy, an a is restored with a C-suf, just like in 4 above. In this case you write only one y for 1c-sg (not -ayẙ but -ay). (α) The ay for 1c-sg is simply pronounced /aj/, which may become [eɪ] or [eː] in some dialects. (β) Otherwise, ay often becomes ī and written that way, especially in WS (N §145J ¶4), though ay /aj/ is possible in ES. Alan uses ī (Lv4 L100); so does Mingana (465).

Notes (1) The -y of kursay, or more generally -y of (α), is not a suffix but a part of the stem. This is quite different from ṭalyā + ẙ, where two y’s are written and pronounced ī (or, in ES, may not be pronounced at all). (2) According to Mingana, the vowel to be restored in 4/4.1 is always an a. (See (3) below about this.) [2014-09-04]

(3) Mingana 467 is very helpful about a noun of the form CCC and Long V+CC: Tous les noms SAINS relevant des règles Nos 331, 4º; 332, prennent, avec le[s cinq] pronom[s], l’accent de la contraction d’annexion, c’est-à-dire que les mots de la forme ܦܵܥܠܵܐ prennent un zélam, ex. ܕܵܚܸܡܝ mon ami, ܕܵܚܸܡܟ݂ܘܿܢ votre ami, et ceux des autres formes (332), un phatḥ, ex. ܗܲܝܟܲܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ votre sanctuaire, ܡܲܕܲܥܝ ma raison. [Mingana writes e instead of è.] — Simply put, an è appears when a noun is an active Peal participle (rḥam “to love”: rāḥèm, rāḥmā “loving” = “a lover, a friend” Cf. N §106); otherwise, an a appears by default. What a simple and effective explanation! Suddenly everything seems obvious. (4) Muraoka §42d, on the other hand, is needlessly confusing. It says that the vowel to be inserted is “unpredictable” in those cases. In fact, one of his two examples is rāḥèmhṓn from rāḥmā — just a typical participle (like Mingana he writes e instead of è, but that’s not the problem here). The other example is maškanḵṓn from mašknā “tent” — just a typical CCC. His §42c is also questionable. While trying to illustrate nouns where a short vowel is not restored, he only uses vocalic suffixes. That’s pointless since a vowel is not restored before a V-suf anyway. [2014-09-06]

(5) With the exception of the words in 4.1, a noun ending in -yā + 1c-sg usually has two y’s; though sometimes only one simple ܝ is written instead of the two (N §145J). [2014-09-07] // One such example is ܒܳܪܘܿܝ “my creator” (see 8.1 below). [2014-09-08]

Long Vowel + CC

5 If the ground form ends in a long vowel + CC, then a short vowel is usually restored before a C-suf.

This is predictable, since *rāḥmhṓn doesn’t sound right (though *rāḥmẙ seems marginally possible).

However, there are a few conceptual cousins of fem. nyāḥtā, where a long vowel + CC + C-suf occurs:

5.1 A long vowel + Cy behaves like ṭalyā (6.1), and not like kursyā (4.1).

5.2 A long vowel + Cʾ is a bit tricky.

  1. Both mārā “master” and māryā “Load” are originally mārʾā, but behave as if they were simply mārā: mārèh, mārẙ, mārhṓn. This should be understood as irregular (N §146).
  2. From sānʾā (=sānā N §172) “hater, enemy”, sānʾẙ “my enemy”, where ʾ may not be pronounced in WS (Alan 99).⁂(Min470) [N §§33A 106 110 113 145J 172C]
  3. Similarly, from buyyāʾā “consolation”, buyyāʾẙ.

5.3 A long vowel + C + sonorant may be possible in some dialects. Alan 99 has two examples: From ḥātmā, ḥātem “seal, signet ring”, ḥātmẙ instead of ḥātemẙ (?). From pāʕlā, pāʕel “worker”, pāʕlẙ instead of pāʕelẙ (?). ⁂(Min470)

Short Vowel + CC

6 [CaCCā, CeCCā] No vowel is restored if the ground form ends in a short vowel + CC (including CəC).

6a [CeDDā] If, like ܠܸܒܵܐ “heart”, a biliteral noun has an e after the first C, and the second C is doubled (DD), then the e becomes an è when -ẙ is attached (ܠܹܒ݁ܝ). Other than that, the rule 6 is applied. In short, this type of noun behaves like dmā “blood”.

6.1 [CaCyā] If the stem ends in a short vowel + Cy, then: (α) when suffixed for 1c-sg, the resulting -yẙ is traditionally silent in ES*1, while pronounced ī in WS; (β) otherwise, Cy + C-suf becomes Cī*2 + C-suf. [A long vowel + Cy behaves exactly in the same way (5.1).]

*1 quoique quelques-uns de leurs savants s’efforcent de revenir à l’ancienne prononciation. (Mingana 465 fn)

Alan100: My child (t:âl) His Grace Bishop Manna recommended for the 1st person sing. t:âlee is more acceptable. [2015-11-07]

*2 It is a general rule that Cy(ə)C becomes CīC (N §40C ¶2; Cf. §145J ¶4). E.g. ṭa(l)līhṓn from *ṭaly(ə)hṓn. [2014-09-07]

6.1a [CeCyā] ܪܸܢܝܵܐ “thought”, a triliteral noun of the form CeCyā, behaves exactly like 6.1. Additionally, the e after the first radical becomes an è when -ẙ is attached. [2014-09-06]

This type of noun comes from a 3rd-Y (N §101; Min 468). In this case √RNY, rnā “to think”, pass. pt. rnē, ranyā (≈ renyā). [2014-09-07]

6.2 ʾaṯrā m. “place” may restore an a with a C-suf, though that is just a modified, new pronunciation (N §145B Rem). Mingana 471 states that it takes an a with 1c-sg (ʾaṯarẙ), while the Taw regularly stays vowelless with the other [consonantal] suffixes. [2014-09-07]

2017-04-04 The suffixed forms of the plural noun mayyā “water” are either m- or mayy-.

Zero + CC

7 Zero Vowel + CC behaves like Long Vowel + CC, or rather, like CCC.

This is easy to understand. In kespā / kespḵṓn, vowel restore is not needed only because there is a vowel before sp; if there were no vowel there, obviously you couldn’t do *spā / *spḵṓn. The word dmā is exactly of this type, to which a C-suf can be attached only if a short vowel — almost always e — is restored. This is simple, but there are a few additional twists:

7.1 In a biliteral word of type CəCā — also CeDDā (6a) and triliteral CeCyā (6.1a) — , the restored vowel e becoems è when -ẙ is attached (Mingana 468). That is, a “harder” (qašyā) vowel is used (or at least written) in ES. ܕܸܡܗܘܿܢ “their blood”, ܕܸܡܟ݂ܘܿܢ “you guys’ blood”, but ܕܹܡܝ “my blood”.

  1. Similarly, šmā, šem “name”: šmèh, šemhṓn, šèmẙ.
  2. Putting the rare triliterals in 6.1a aside, this happens only in biliteral words. For example, the e is kept in ܟܸܣܦ݇ܝ “my silver” (Mt25:27, Lk19:23).

7.2 brā, bar “son” is suffixed exactly like dmā: brèh, berhṓn, bèrẙ (bêr). The only irregularity here is that an e is “restored” (inserted) while the abs. st. has a. Everything else follows the general rules. [2014-10-06: N §47 says that bèrẙ has a long ē. 2014-10-07: Alan 98 writes it Béar.]

7.3 The preposition men is suffix in a similar way (Mingana 468): “from me” is often written ܡܹܢܝ in ES, though ܡܸܢܝ is also found (6 times mènẙ and 1 time menẙ [3:11] in Mt. in the NY Peshitta). [2014-09-07]

Can we assume that in Zero+CC, always an e is restored, even when the abs. st. has a? For znā, zen “kind, type”, Nöldeke §146 says cst. zan WS zen, suggesting zanḵṓn WS zenḵṓn. Muraoka §42 says zanḵṓn. Then, TS1139 has zenḵṓn, and Amira 215 has zenẙ. So maybe e is usual, but not always.


Fun Facts: ܙܢܐ is from Old Persian 𐏀𐎴 (za-na, read LTR) “man”, probably related to γόνος and/or γένος. The question is, is this zana related to another Persian word *gauna “kind, type”? If yes, this means that the Syriac people imported the essentially same Presian word twice, once as znā above, once as gawnā ܓܘܢܐ “color”. Or is the resemblance coincidental?

2014-09-04 More fun with the Old Persian [Xpeo] script:

  1. ZA is H like. Write two vertical lines |  | and add a horizontal broken line at the center |--|.
  2. NA is two horizontal lines = plus an angled stroke like katakana KU , also known as “ten” 𐏓 . That makes an unhappy face =⟨.
  3. NU is a variation of NA: 𐎵. It’s like NA, except you put two (not one) tens before (not after) the horizontal lines: ⟨⟨=.

(See also SyriacM.php#Xpeo)


2016-11-08 pal MacK 37/200:

2014-09-04

Vowel + C

8 This type of noun is totally regular and does not need an additional vowel in the first place.

8.1 A noun that ends in Vowel + yā usually belongs to this class.

Six Forms of Verbs

2014-08-27

1 Both Pf. and Impf. have two stems: (1) the basic one used by default (e.g. Pf. 3m-sg), and (2) the modified one usually used when followed by a vowel (e.g. Pf. 3f-sg). [Note: a longer, alternative ending like -ūn is attached to (1), just like the shorter version of the same ending.]

1.1 Except in Pf. Peal and in Pf. and Impf. Ethpeel, one can create the second (pre-vowel) stem simply by reducing the “too open” vowel (after the 2nd radical) to ə:

Similarly:

  1. [III] Pael Pf: katteḇ, kattəḇaṯ.
  2. [IV] Ethpaal: ʾeṯkattaḇ, ʾeṯkattəḇaṯ; neṯkattaḇ, neṯkattəḇūn.
  3. [V] Aphel: ʾaḵteḇ, ʾaḵtəḇaṯ; naḵteḇ, naḵtəḇūn.
  4. [VI] Ettaphal: ʾettaḵtaḇ, ʾettaḵtəḇaṯ; nettaḵtaḇ, nettaḵtəḇūn.

Pael Impf. is similar, except that in the 1c-sg, the 1st rad. is doubled. This is understandable, as *ʾe-ḵat-teḇ would be too open.

2015-06-21: In this case, the prefix vowel is è in ES.

ÈKKATTEV? Wow, that’s DOUBLY DOUBLE! So confusing!

Not so confusing as MISSISSIPPI.

1.2 In Pf. Peal and in Pf. and Impf. Ethpeel, one can’t simply reduce the “too open” vowel, because the 1st rad. already has a reduced vowel (e.g. ʾeṯ-kəṯeḇ > *ʾeṯ-kəṯəḇ-aṯ = impossible). In this case, the ə after the 1st rad. becomes a full vowel (e in Peal, a in Ethpeel), while the vowel after the 2nd rad. is completely deleted, making the 3rd rad. hard.

  1. [I] Peal Pf: (1) kəṯaḇ -t(ẙ) -ů -tṓn -tēn -n; (2) {She/I} keṯb-aṯ -èṯ.
  2. [II] Ethpeel Pf: (1) ʾeṯ-kəṯeḇ etc.; (2) ʾeṯ-kaṯb-aṯ -èṯ. [Confusable with Ethpa. ʾeṯ-katḇ-aṯ -èṯ]
  3. [II] Ethpeel Impf: (1) neṯ-kəṯeḇ etc.; (2) neṯ-kaṯb-ūn etc.

2 Impt. forms are mostly predictable (similar to Pf. 3m-sg), except that: (α) in Ethpeel, stem (2) is used; (β) in Ethpaal, WS (sometimes even ES) has shortened forms, where the second vowel is reduced (the result is like Ethpeel Impt., but the 3rd rad. is soft). [This is also essentially stem (2).]

  1. [I] Peal: kəṯóḇ -ẙ -ů (-ūn) -ẙ (-ēn)
  2. [II] Ethpeel: ʾeṯkaṯb (Cf. ʾeṯ-kəṯeḇ, ʾeṯ-kaṯb-aṯ)
  3. [IV] Ethpaal: ʾeṯkattaḇ, WS ʾeṯkat(t)əḇ (OR possibly ʾeṯkaṯəḇ ?) (Cf. ʾeṯ-kattaḇ, ʾeṯ-kattəḇ-aṯ)

2014-08-28

3 Part. are also formed on (1) and (2), except in Peal. Examples:

  1. [II] meṯkəṯeḇ, meṯkaṯbā (Cf. ʾeṯkəṯeḇ, ʾeṯkaṯbaṯ)
  2. [III] məḵatteḇ, məḵattəḇā (Cf. katteḇ, kattəḇaṯ)
  3. [V] maḵteḇ, maḵtəḇā (Cf. ʾaḵteḇ, ʾaḵtəḇaṯ)

4 Pael has a few vowel variations: (α) The default type of a transtive verb is a/o; (β) a/e occurs in ʕḇaḏ, neʕbeḏ “to make”; zḇan, nezban “to buy”; and in a few 1st-N verbs. (γ) The default type of an intransitive verb is e/a. (δ) Not only 3rd-Guttural verbs, but also several intransitive verbs are of type a/a; non-hollow 2nd-W verbs, a few 2nd-Guttural verbs, and a few 1st-N verbs are also of this type. (ε) e/o occurs in a few verbs. There are also some other rare types, but they can be understood as irregular or exceptional. The vowel variations are neutralized when the second stem is used, because in that case the vowel in question is deleted (in Pf/Part) or is reduced to ə (in Impf/Impt).

Examples of a/a. šp̄aq, nešp̄aq “to be sufficient”; ʕnaḏ, neʕnaḏ “to depart”. — While Impf. forms of these verbs are like normal intransitive verbs, their Pf. forms are transtive-like.

Imperative Ethpaal

ܒܣܶܡ “to be sweet” as in ܒܰܣܝܡ. Hence ܒܰܣܶܡ “to sweeten, to make cheerful” and ܐܶܬ̥ܒܰܣܰܡ “to enjoy oneself, to rejoice”. So, “Enjoy yourself!” is ʾeṯbassam, which may become ʾeṯbas(s)(ɩ)m.

ܐܶܬ̥ܒ̊ܰܣ݇ܡܝ̱
Enjoy yourself (sg-f)! (Luke 12:19) // ʾeṯbas(s)(ɩ)m < ʾeṯbassam // The oblique line above is on the vowel position in WS, and after the vowel position in ES.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 15] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 15 [ܕܚܰܡܫܰܥܣܰܪ (ܕܚܰܡܶܫܬܰܥܣܰܪ)]: ܡܐ ܪܚܝܡ ܛܘܝܳܠܐ

2014-08-25

ṭuyyālā “walking around”

ܝܰܪܚܐ ܪܘܰܙܘ̱ ܝܘܒܳܒܐ ܫܶܥܝܳܢ̈ܐ
yarḥā rwaz yubbāḇā šeʕyānē
month they rejoiced / you guys rejoice!{#1} music, musical military signal sports, games ⟦lūsūs⟧
ܡܐ ܪܚܝܡ ܛܘܝܳܠܐ ܒܥܳܒ̈ܐ:
ܒܢܝܣܳܢ ܝܰܪܚܐ ܕܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
How beloved/lovely walking-around in the forests {sg ʕāḇā: CAL hard B} is,
in the Nīsān month of flowers.
ܘܥܰܠ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܘܒܶܝܬ̥ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ:
ܢܩܘܡ ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܒܫܶܥܝܐ ܕܨܳܒܶܐ.
And upon grass (lit. grasses) {ʕesḇē Soft B; N §93} and among{#2} trees,
everyone will stand (=be occupied) with a play (=recreational activity) {šeʕyā} that he desires.
#2 bēṯ “between, among” (N §§156, 251) = baynay, baynāṯ, ≠ bēṯ, constr. st. of baytā (N §146). §156 fn: Not to be confounded with the like-sounding ܒܷܝܬ̥ when used adverbially, meaning “in the house of, i. e. in the place of”. Examples: (1) ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܡܰܠܟ̈ܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ “Those [who are clothed in soft things] are [in] the house of kings {ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις τῶν βασιλέων}.” (Matthew 11:8); (2) ܡܗܰܠܶܟ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܒܫܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܙܰܪܥ̈ܐ “Jesus was going on the sabbath through {διὰ} the grain.” (Matthew 12:1) — Both have a soft T (Nöld./CAL). In reality, the difference is not always clear; Etheridge translated (2) as “among the grain” with a note, “Or, in the place of seeds” [Ether-SC, p. 296].

2014-08-27

ܚܕܰܘ ܘܰܪܘܰܙܘ̱ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ:
ܘܐܰܪܝܡܘ̱ [ܘܰܐܪܝܡܘ̱] ܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܕܝܽܘܒܳܒ̈ܐ.
Be glad{#3} and rejoice, good brothers!
Raise [your] voices of music (songs)!
#3 ḥzī “was glad” // Impt. 2m-pl ḥzaw ES ḥzāw (≠ Pf. 3m-pl. ḥzīw) // -w is non-silent in (and only in) 3rd-Y verbs.
ܕܙܰܒܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܶܟܝܠ ܕܫܶܥܝܳܢ̈ܐ:
ܘܠܰܘ ܕܩܰܢܝ̈ܐ [ܕܩܰܢܝܐ] ܐܰܘ ܕܰܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ.
[Saying] that {?} after this {mekkḗl} it is time {zaḇnā: WS -a before h̊u} for games
and it is not {law} [time] for pen{#4} or for books.
#4 I’m pretty sure that this is supposed to mean “time for writing (as in studying)” lit. “time of pen”. For *d-qanyē, read d-qanyā (sg). Grammatically, da-qnayyā (pl. N §72) is also possible, but that would have too many syllables (a line has exactly 7 syllables in this poem). Just remove the syāmē, and everything looks okay.

ˀEṯpəʕel

2014-08-19

Strong Ethpeel Perfect

ܐܶܬ̥ܟ̊ܬ̥ܶܒ̥ (ʾeṯk(ə)ṯeḇ)

ܟܽܠ ܟܬ̥ܳܒ ܕܰܒܪܘܚܐ ܐܶܬ̥ܟܬ̥ܶܒ ܡܰܘܬܪܳܢܐ ܗ̱ܘ
Every book {abs-st} that, by the spirit, was written is useful. (2Timothy 3:16)
ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܓܶܝܪ ܕܡܶܢ ܩܕܝܡ ܐܶܬ̥ܟܬ̥ܶܒ ܠܝܘܠܦܳܢܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܐܶܬ̥ܟܬ̥ܶܒ ܕ ... ܣܰܒܪܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܰܢ ܀
Indeed everything that was written previously (lit. “from former”) — it is for our study [that it] was written so that … hope might be for us. (Romans 15:4)
OR: Indeed everything that was written previously — which is for our study — was written so that… // ܗܘ feels slightly strange; if you just say “was written for our study”, you don’t need ܗܘ. This one feels like, “was written [and that] is for our study”.

2014-08-20

Strong Ethpeel Perfect (Cont.)

ܐܶܬ̥ܟܱ̊ܬ̥ܒܱ̊ܬ̥ (ʾeṯkaṯbaṯ) // The 3rd radical obviously has a vowel, because the suffix -aṯ begins with a vowel. Then, if the 2nd radical had another vowel (*ʾeṯk(ə)ṯebaṯ), the vowel distribution wouldn’t be optimal, with an under-vowelled CeC(ə)CC section, and an over-vowelled and too open VCVC section; ʾeṯkaṯbaṯ is much better-balanced (CeCCaCCaC), with tidily repeated three CVC’s.

Similarly: (1) ʾeṯkəṯeḇ -ů -t(ẙ) -tṓn -tēn -n; but (2) ʾeṯkaṯb-aṯ -èṯ.

2015-01-15: Observe what follows the prefix ʾeṯ-: (1) is like Peal (kəṯaḇ), except the vowel is e; (2) is like Peal (keṯbaṯ -èṯ), except the vowel is a.

2014-10-08: Examples √DKR

2014-10-12: √ʕHD “to remember” is also used in Ethpe. The 1st radical is treated as ʔ in WS — it was treated that way even in the fourth century (N §37). In WS, “you guys will remember” (2Peter 3:2) will be ܬܶܬ̥ܰܥ̱ܗܕܘܢ (teṯahdūn < *teṯʔahdūn < ES teṯʕahdūn), which is practically a 1st-A verb (N §174G); Peshitta Tool incorrectly analyzes it as Ethpa. In the P-NY, the Peal form te-ʕḙh-dūn is used here.

2014-08-23

Strong Ethpeel Imperfect

Impf. works exactly the same way: (1) neṯk(ə)ṯeḇ, teṯk(ə)ṯeḇ; (2) neṯkaṯb-ūn, teṯkaṯb-īn.

ܣܠܶܩ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܳܦ ܝܰܘܣܶܦ ... ܠܰܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܶܗ ܕܕܰܘܝܕ ... ܕܬܰܡܳܢ ܢܶܬ̥ܟܬ̥ܶܒ ܀
Then also Joseph had gone up… to the city of David… so that there he might be registered. (Luke 2:4–5) // m(ə)ḏīn̊tā (N §28): Heb מְדִינָה // JBA מְדִינְתָּא // Ar مدينة

2014-10-09

Strong Ethpeel Imperative

As if followed by a V-suf, the second stem — with an a after the first radical — is used in imperative forms: ʾeṯkaṯb, ʾeṯkaṯb(y), ʾeṯkaṯb(w) -ūn, ʾeṯkaṯb(y) -ēn. The stem is identical to the one used in ʾeṯ-kaṯb-aṯ, neṯ-kaṯb-ūn, teṯ-kaṯb-īn, etc. Commonly a line is added below or over the 2nd rad. showing it’s vowelless (or at least without a full vowel).

Mingana 92 has an explanation about those Marhṭānā lines: On met un propulsif à la place d’un vocalisateur: […] 2º sur l’avant-dernière lettre de l’impératif passif de la forme trilitère primitive, à toutes les personnes, quand elles sont sans noun, ex. ܐܸܬ݁ܕܲܟ݂݇ܪ souviens-toi. Here “sans noun” should mean that “unless they are long forms ending in īn/ūn/ēn”; which sounds natural, as a form like ʾet-taḵ-rēn would not need a Mhagyānā nor a Marhṭānā.

Sometimes an Ethpaal imperative looks like Ethpeel, except unlike a real Ethpeel the 3rd radical never becomes hard (N §163).

Suffixed Ethpeel

A reflexive verb, if transitive in meaning, can take an object suffix (N §198; Mingana, Paradigme 12e): e.g. ʾett(ə)ḵar, ʾeddaḵr-èh (V-suf); ʾeddaḵraṯ, ʾett(ə)ḵar-ṯèh (C-suf).

An imperative form takes a suffix like qṭól does (the ending marked with a ☆ is in N §198A):

2014-10-11: When suffixing, use the primary stem (=Pf. 3m-sg) before a consonant, and use the secondary stem (as in 3f-sg) before a vowel. They are the masculine-like stem and feminine-like stem, so to speak. Basically, this is the same as when a Peal verb is suffixed, except that unlike in Peal (qeṭl-aṯ, qaṭl-èh), there is no vowel variation in the stem. In the following list, the ending marked with a ☆ is in N §198A.

2014-10-12: Imperfect. [3m-sg] nett(ə)ḵar: (1) neddaḵr-īw(hy) (-èh?), -īh, -āḵ☆, -èk(y)☆, -an(y); (2) nett(ə)ḵar-ḵṓn. [3m-pl] neddaḵr-ūn: -ūnāy(hy), -ūnāh, -ūnāḵ☆, -ūnāḵṓn.

2014-10-12: 3rd-Y. N §198B has a few examples of suffixed Ethpaal (3rd-Y), but not Ethpeel. Just like gallyèh from gallī, one says ʾeštaʕʕyèh “he told of him”, from Ethpa. ʾeštaʕʕī “he told”. If, hypothetically, a 3rd-Y Ethpeel verb like ʾeṯqrī, ʾeṯqary-aṯ (see below) could be suffixed, perhaps the result would be *ʾeṯqary-èh, etc.

2014-10-05 / 2014-10-06

3rd-Y Ethpeel Perfect

The perfect 3rd-Y always has -ī, except in 3f-sg and in Peal (e.g. ḥzā). This ī is mostly from *ey, and as such, the following T is hard. In 1c-sg, however, the ī is from *yè, where the following T is soft.

The 3f-sg form is exactly like a strong verb.

2014-10-07

3rd-Y Ethpeel Imperfect

Like the other classes (e.g. Peal) of 3rd-Y Impf., the endings are -ē and -ēn, -ṓn, -yān. Note that in ES (at least in P-NY; but not in Mingana), the ending -ē is written as (see below), like in passive participles (N §8 Rem.); this does not happen in Peal.

[2015-11-16 ES occurs also in participles: e.g. ܡܶܬ̥ܒܥܶܐ ES ܡܸܬ݂ܒ݁ܥܸܐ]

The short vowel a after the 1st rad. is kept only with -yān (neṯqaryān, exactly like a strong verb) — that is, only in 2f-pl and 3f-pl. In other words, when the third radical Y is kept, an additional vowel is needed to balance it, since the stem neṯqr- is already “saturated” — a form with CCCC (*neṯqry-) would be impossible. Notes: (1) These -ēn, -ṓn, -yān are exactly the same things as in a 3rd-Y Peal. The only difference is that in the stem of Ethpeel, there is an additional a when the ending is -yān. (2) In a strong Ethpeel, the a is restored for every V-suf (-īn -ūn -ān). In a 3rd-Y Ethpeel, this a is deleted when the third radical Y disappears.

Memo (Another firefox problem): Serto fonts use a ligature AL only after D or W: e.g. ܘܐܠܝܢ but ܗܐܠܝܢ. Somehow, the non-liga version of AL confuses Firefox 24.8.1 (the vowel mark is on L, not A): ܗܐܠܶܝܢ and ܗܐܠܷܝܢ. IE8 doesn’t have this problem. [Firefox 38 is still like this.]

2016-05-13

ʾeṯqrē, ES ʾiṯ(ɩ)qrî (Lk15:19⁎)

ܘܠܐ ܡܶܟ̊ܝܹܠ ܫܳܘܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܰܒܪܳܟ ܐܶܬ̥ܩܪܶܐ. ܥܒܶܕ̥ܰܝܢܝ̱ ܐܰܝܟ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܓ̥ܺܪܰܝ̈ܟ.
ܘܠܵܐ ܡܸܟܹ݁ܝܠ ܫܵܘܹ̇ܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܕܲܒ݂ܪܵܟ ܐܸܬ݂ܩ݇ܪܸܐ. ܥܒܸܕܲܝܢܝ ܐܲܝܟ ܚܲܕ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܲܓ݂ܝܼ̈ܪܲܝܟ.܀
lā mekkḗl = “not after this” i.e. “no longer”
ʾaḡīr = p.p. “hired (servant)”

2014-10-11

Imperative Ethpeel (3rd-Y)

The endings of the imperatrive 2sg-f, 2pl-m, 2pl-f are just like in other 3rd-Y classes (Peal, Pael, etc.):

  1. -āy for the 2nd sing. feminine; and also for plur. feminine as a rare short form;
  2. -aw (ES -āw) for the 2nd plur. masculine.
  3. There are also longer forms ending in -n (N §176E): sometimes -aʾūn (ES -āʾūn) for -aw (ES -āw); commonly -āyēn (ES -āʾīn?) for -āy (fem. plur.); and in theory *-āʾīn (?) for -āy (fem. sing).

The only difficult form is the 2sg-m, which in general ends in -ā (or -ī in the Peal), but things are different in the Ethpeel: (α) The commonly used form is like an imperative of a strong verb (e.g. ʾeṯ-kaṯb), with the final -y being silent (e.g. ʾeṯ-panẙ). (β) Another form, used in WS, ends in -ay (e.g. ʾeṯp-nay) — this is like 2sg-f, but the a before the y is short.

Example: ʾeṯp(ə)nī “to turn thyself/yourselves” from √PNY “turn”:

2014-10-12: √TWY “to be sorry, to regret”, Ethpe. ܐܶܬܬܘܺܝ (ʾett(ə)wī < *ʾeṯ-təwey) ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܘܝ݂ “to repent, to change one’s mind” (Mt21:29) // P-NY has a strange imperative form (2sg-m) in Re 2:5 and 2:15(16), for μετανόησον (aor. imper. 2sg). ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܘܵܐ (ʾett(ə)wā), possibly from the WS form ܐܸܬ݁ܬ݁ܘܲܝ (ʾett(ə)way). See N §176D footnote (or p. 306 of the German edition). The normal ES form would be ܐܸܬ݁ܬܲܘܝ(ܝ) (ʾettaw). Note that these words do not exist in P-UK.

2015-01-17:

2015-01-19:

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 14] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 14 [ܕܰܐܪܒܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱

2014-08-12

ܨܠܝܠ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܡܥܝܪ ܡܰܙܥܶܩ ܟܰܕܘ
ṣlīl šappīr mʕīr mazʕeq kaddū
clear, transparent beautiful Aph. he wakes √ʕYR ʾaʕīr** Aph. he cries out (loudly) (is) enough

File:Pomegranate on the Branch.tif Random memo: ܪܘܡܳܢܐ (rummānā) “pomegranate”

2016-05-14 նուռն

2014-08-13

ܡܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱:
ܘܰܟܡܐ ܪܳܡ ܩܳܠܶܗ ܘܰܨܠܝܠ.
How beautiful my rooster is!
And how very (lit. how much) high his voice is, and [how very] clear!
ܗܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ [ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱] ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܙܳܓ̥ܐ:
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܬܳܓ̥ܐ.
Look, after {men d-} he was a young chicken {zāḡā},
[now] he has, upon his head, a crown{#1}.
#1 tāḡā CAL “Iranian”; LS2 “pers?”; witk “Middle Persian 𐭲𐭠𐭢 (tāg).” Cf. Persian تاج as in Taj Mahal.
2016-11-07 There is a pal word tāg «tʾkẘ» PNG meaning “item” (fa تا), but probably there was another word meaning “crown”.
2016-11-08 According to թագ - Wiktionary, թագ is from pal *tāg “crown” (cf. xpr tāg «tʾg») perhaps via Syriac, since the word has թ (unusual for Iranian /t/) instead of տ. On the other hand, تاج - Wiktionary says that fa تاج is from xpr tāg “crown”. Apparently, while ܬܳܓܐ could be from pal, only the xpr form is attested; 𐭲𐭠𐭢 seems to be a fake pal word written phonetically.
ܩܳܐܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܰܦܪܐ ܕܝܰܘܡܐ:
ܘܰܡܥܝܪ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܢܰܘܡܐ.
He rises/stands from dawn {šap̄rā ≠ ṣap̄rā “morning”} of the day,
and wakes people{#2} from sleep.
ܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ “someone”: N §146 says that this word is never found in the emph. st. in the plural. Maybe he means *ܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܶܐ ? However, ܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܳܐ “people” seems to be attested, also by Nöldeke himself (§203). Alan 69-3 states that ܐ݇ܢܵܫܵܐ has one form for both singular and Plural.
ܘܟܰܕ ܩܝ ܩܝ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܡܰܙܥܶܩ:
ܕܩܘܡܘ̱ ܟܰܕܘ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܡܒܰܕܶܩ.
And when he cries out “Qī qī!”{#3} in the morning,
he is pointing out:{#4} “You guys, wake up! Enough sleep!”
#3 ܩܝܩܝ may mean “bee-eater” (Jess.), but here, probably ܩܝ ܩܝ (qī qī) = “cock-a-doodle-doo”, like Sp. quiquiriquí.
#4 də + impt.: a quotation (see below)

Random Memos

Brooks A Syriac Chronicle Of The Year 846 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive


ܘܒܰܫܢܰܬ̥ ܦ̇ܦܗ [ܬܡܳܢܶܡܳܐܐ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ] ܕܝܰܘ̈ܢܳܝܶܐ

Year 885 of the Greeks (Anno Graecorum) = Oct 573–Sept 574 [end-point year offset, 311]

ES ܝܵܘ̈ܢܵܝܹܐ

2014-08-14

də + imperative

ܘܳܐܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗܳܢܐ ܕܙܶܠ ܘܳܐܙܶܠ
And I say to this [man], “Go!”, and he is going. (Matthew 8:9)
ܠܡܺܐܡܰܪ ܕܩܘܡ
to say, “Wake up!” (Mark 2:9): lmḗmar Inf.

Aphel

2014-08-14

Ap̄ʕel Reviewed (2)

Cf. 2014-05-22

Strong verbs DKR ʾaḏkar “Mention!”; HPK nahpeḵ “will reverse”; ṢMḤ maṣmaḥ “shining”; ʕBD maʕbeḏ “working”; ḤRB maḥreḇ “destroying”; ZʕQ mazʕeq “crying out”

—1st-ʔ: ʔBD nawbeḏ “will waste”

—Gaminate: ʕLL ʾaʕʕel “inserted”

3rd-Y *-ey becomes -ī (Pf/Impt) or -ē (Impf/Pt): YDY ʾawdī “thanked”; RDY mardē “making flow”

Hollow *ʾaCweC > ʾaCīC (also w could be y) & *maCweC > m(ə)CīC (the prefix is vowelless, because the 1st rad. has one): ŠWG ʾašīḡ “washed”; NWD ʾanīḏ “shook”; ʕYR mʕīr “waking”

2014-08-22

Aphel + Suffix

Clef, Paradigme Dixième, Cinquième Forme; Ungnad (1913), pp. 120–121

Examples
ܠܐ ܐܰܕܪܟ̥ܶܗ
He did not overcome/understand it. (John 1:5) // ʾaḏr(ə)ḵèh from ʾaḏreḵ
ES has a mhagyānā (originally acute-like), meaning that a vowel is to be inserted before the R: ʾa-ḏḙr(ə)-ḵèh OR ʾa-ḏa̱r(ə)-ḵèh. [N §52B, §52C]
ܪܳܗܶܛ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܐܰܕܪܶܟ ܠܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܡܶܛܽܠܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܐܰܕܪܟ̥ܰܢܝ̱ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ
ܪ̇ܗܛ ܐܢܐ܉ ܕܰܠܡܐ ܐܰܕܪܶܟ ܠܡܕܡ ܕܡܶܛܽܠܳܬܗ ܐܰܕܪܟܰܢܝ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ.܀
I am running so that I may apprehend/understand something because of which JC apprehended me. (Philippians 3:12) // ʾaḏreḵ Impf. 1c-sg (identical to Pf. 3m-sg) // ʾaḏr(ə)ḵanẙ “he apprehended me”
Actually, if dalmā is “lest”, this could mean: “I am trying very hard so that I will not overtake (control/privatize) the thing for which JC overtook (controlled/appointed) me.” Isn’t that what Paul really had to say anyway?! Of course that’d be heresy, but who cares? This is an interesting interpretation of Peshitta, and is linguistically possible (maybe more natural, even). Philippians 3:10 is “I want to be assimilated to his death,” and then 3:11 would be “so that I may not be resurrected,” like Buddhism. That is, if dalmā is “lest”. Dr. John Wesley Etheridge† [see 2017-06-23 below] translated this one as “any how 9 I may be able” with a note “9 Dalmo.” (Etheridge Translation - Philippians), probably because this dalmā feels strange. Seriously, in 1:23, Paul says he has a desire “to be set free, that I might be with the Meshiha, and this is greatly preferable to me”, where he is not talking about resurrection; and in 3:20, he says, “our employment is in heaven (=we are citizens of heaven).” As such, it would be logical even if he indeed said: “I do not want to live here again. I just want to return home.” [2014-08-22/23]
ܐܶܠܐ ܐܳܦ ܢܶܫ̈ܐ ܡܶܢܰܢ ܐܰܬ̥ܡ̈ܗܳܢ
But also [some] women of ours surprised us. (Luke 24:22) // from ʾaṯmah (e-to-a), ʾaṯmhāy [2014-08-23]

2017-06-23 ܕܰܠܡܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ ܐܶܡܰܛܶܐ ܠܰܩܝܳܡܬ̊ܐ ܕܡ̣ܢ ܒܶܝܬ ܡܝ̈ܬܐ. = “so that perhaps {N §373} I may be able to attain {ʾemmaṭṭē D: ES ʾemṭē G ‘arrive at’} the resurrection which is from the world {lit. ‘house’} of the dead.” (Phil3:11) — † that any how9 I may be able to come to the resurrection which is from among the dead. with 9 Dalmo. (Ether-AAE, p. 333), where Etheridge takes bēṯ as “between” instead of “the house of.”

2014-08-22/24

Aphel + Suffix (3rd-Y)

N §194

Note: Peshitta Tool says that ܐܰܣܠܝܢܰܢ has a suffix for 1c-pl (2Corinthians 4:2), but this is simply the long form of ܐܰܣܠܝܢ (Aph. pf. 1c-pl). See Ungnad (1913), p. 112; N §158C. The 1c-pl form with the 1c-pl (reflexive) suffix is unusual; besides, such a form, if exists, would be *ʾaslīnān with a long ā.

2014-09-11

3rd-Y Aphel: Pf (continued)

ʾarmī to throw, to provide; ʾašqī to give drink; Also there is ʾaḥī “to give life” √ḤYY, but it’s a bit different, being 2nd-Y at the same time.

ES ʾaytyaṯḵṓn (2Co7:9). ʾeštayt̤èh (Mt26:42), Peal, “I drank it” T not marked hard; maybe soft; soft in WS.

  1. In ES, -yaṯ of 3f-sg becomes -yāṯ- when suffixed (or, more accurately, before a vocalic suffix — see below). This is related to the “too open” ya before the ṯ, and the same happens in Pael too (Peal is irrelevant, having a long ā there anyway). In theory, though, forms with -ḵṓn or -ḵēn are not “too open”, as in ܓܰܠܝܰܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ “she revealed you guys”. Does ES lengthen the vowel even in such a case? // The answer is no. I happened to find this example. ܐܰܝܬ̊ܝܰܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ ES ܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܲܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ “It [sadness f] brought you guys [to repentance]” (2Corinthians 7:9). Compare: ܐܰܝܬ̊ܝܰܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܶܐܡܳܗ̇ ES ܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܵܬܹܗ ܠܐܸܡܵܗ̇ “She brought it to her mother” (Matthew 14:11), where the same verb is used and it has a longer ā in ES. // 2014-09-12 Also in Pael, Mingana has: gabbyaṯ; gabbyāṯan(y), gabbyāṯan, gabbyāṯaḵ, gabbyāṯēḵ(y), gabbyāṯèh, gabbyāṯāh; BUT gabbyaṯḵṓn, gabbyaṯḵēn. In Peshitta NT, the only example of -yaṯḵṓn is ʾaytyaṯḵṓn (see above); there are no Pael examples or -yaṯḵēn examples.
  2. In ES, -īṯ of 1c-sg becomes īt- when suffixed, as if in a strong verb (qaṭṭelṯèh vs. qaṭṭeltèh; ʾaqṭelṯèh vs. aqṭeltèh). Apparently there is only one real example of this in the whole NT Peshitta. While WS says ܚܰܠܒ̥ܐ ܐܰܫܩܝܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ, ES says ܚܲܠܒ݂ܵܐ ܐܲܫܩܝܼܬ݁ܟ݂ܘܿܢ “I made you guys drink milk” (1Co3:2). The exact same happens in Pael, though.
  3. I’m pretty sure that 2m-sg ʾarmīt is suffixed as ʾarmīt-ā-y(hy), etc. Can’t find real samples in NT.
  4. Most probably 3f-pl ʾarmī becomes ʾarmyāy(hy).

2014-09-12

3rd-Y Aphel: Impf and Impt

ܪܰܒܰܝ̈ ܟܳܗܢ̈ܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܫܰܩܠܘܗ̱ܝ ܠܟܶܣܦܐ܂ ܘܶܐܡܰܪܘ̱. ܠܐ ܫܰܠܝܛ ܕܢܰܪܡܶܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܒܶܝܬ̥ ܩܘܪܒܳܢܐ. ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܛܝܡܰܝ̈ ܕܡܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ. ܀
The chiefs of priests {kāhnē}, however, took it — the silver [coins] — and said: [It is] not lawful {šallīṭ#1} that we throw it [into#2] the house of offering {qurbānā} (sacred treasury), because [it] is the price {ṭīmē pl#3} of blood. (Matthew 27:6⁎)
  1. #1 Somewhat like Ar. šarīʕa, but probably unrelated.
  2. #2 It seems that a verb that means “fill something with something”, “throw something into something”, etc. will take double objects in Syriac, without a preposition (See 2014-08-10 Ex2). I was always wondering about this, as Qarahbash always uses this pattern when he says things like “Fill in the blanks with appropriate words,” which made me feel like a preposition was missing.
  3. #3 τῑμή. Since ṭīmē in Syriac is pl. mas., ʾennṓn is expected (or at least possible) instead of (h)w [dma (h)w, instead of dmā (h)w, is just a WS way]. OS Sinaiticus has a song-like Meṭṭul da-ḏmayyā ʾennṓn da-ḏmā, instead of Meṭṭul d-ṭīmay dma (h)w. Quite beautiful. Gk. ἐπεὶ τιμὴ αἵματός ἐστι.

The unsuffixed imperative forms of 3rd-Y Aphel are like ʾaḡbā, ʾaḡbāy, ʾaḡbaw (ES ʾaḡbāw), ʾaḡbāyẹ̄n ? (Mingana ʾaḡbāy). The 2m-sg form ʾaḡbā is suffixed as ʾaḡbā-y(hy) -h -n, just like in Pael (gabbā, gabbāy(hy), etc.). The other forms are exactly like in Peal and Pael: ʾaḡbāʾīw(hy), ʾaḡbaʾū(h)y (ES ʾaḡbāʾū(h)y), *ʾaḡbāyênāy(hy) (see Mingana, Paradigme Douzième).

Examples. (1) ʾašqāy(hy) “Make him drink” (Ro12:20) from ʾašqā. (2) ʾaytāy(hy) “Make him come” (Mt17:17) from ʾaytā. (3) ʾaytaʾū(h)y “You guys, make him come” (Mk9:19) from ʾaytaw (ES ʾaytāw). ES ʾaytāʾū(h)y — while this is in N §49B, it may be explained better as a “too open” syllable problem (§42): ʔay-ta-ʔū(h)y, where -ta- is too open and hence becomes -tā-. (Wrong. See below.)

2014-09-23: (4) N §196 has ʾašqāʾīn(y) (also written: ʾašqāyīn) “Make me drink” (2f-sg).

2014-09-24: The reason why the ā of ʾaytāʾū(h)y in (3) is long, is not because the syllable is otherwise too open; in ES, the unsuffixed form ʾaytāw (“You guys, make come!” i.e. “Bring!”) already has a long ā. An example follows:

ܗܶܢܘܢ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱ ܠܶܗ ܠܰܝܬ ܠܰܢ ܬܢܳܢ ܐܶܠܐ ܚܰܡܶܫ ܓܪ̈ܝܨܳܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪܶܝܢ ܢܘܢܝ̈ܢ ܀ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܐܰܝܬܰܘ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܠܝ ܠܗܳܪܟܐ ܀
ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܐܸܡ̣ܲܪܘ ܠܹܗ: ܠܲܝܬ݁ ܠܲܢ ܬܢܵܢ: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܚܲܡܸܫ ܓܪܝܼ̈ܨܵܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܪܹܝܢ ܢܘܼܢ̈ܝܼܢ.܀ ܐܵܡ̇ܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܝܼܫܘܿܥ: ܐܲܝܬܵܘ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ ܠܝܼ ܠܗܵܪܟܵܐ.܀
¶ hennṓn “they-m” may have a dot below, as opposed to hānṓn “those-m”, which may have a dot above (N §6). ¶ tnān “here” ¶ grīṣtā (d-laḥmā) f. “a loaf (of bread)” // ES. Here, the seyame is not on the R. (Matthew 17:17–18⁎)

2014-09-13

Memo

Syriac New Testament, catalog of versions | Scholar's corner: Syriac and Aramaic New Testament studies

ṣap̄rā vs. šap̄rā

2014-08-15

If you check usage in Peshitta, the word ṣap̄rā seems to mean “morning” in general — often “early morning” but not always. Jess. says that it is “the third of the twelve divisions of the day”. TS 2:3432 says “tertia e duodecim diei partibus”. This definition is ambiguous, since day/diēs could mean both “24 hours” and “non-night”. (α) If “day” means “0:00 to 23:59”, ṣap̄rā is 4:00–6:00; (β) if it means “non-night”, ṣap̄rā is roughly 7:00–8:15 in summer and 9:00–9:45 in winter.

She also says “the second of the seven canonical hours,” which could mean Lauds or Prime or Terce. TS says it’s between ܢܘܓܗܐ (nughā: CAL Hard G) “early dawn” and ܡܰܦܩܳܢܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ (mappəqānā ḏ-šemšā) “exit of the sun” (whatever it is…maybe a sunrise?). This could still mean both (α) 4:00–6:00 and (β) around 8:00. True, Roman time-keeping was like (β) and TS is written in Latin, so we should assume (β) unless proven otherwise. Then again:

  1. If “exit of the sun” is “sunrise”, ṣap̄rā is before sunrise, and hence (α) is more likely.
  2. In the poem, šap̄rā is like 4:00, before dawn when the rooster crows, and ṣap̄rā is after that, maybe around 6:00. So definition (α) seems more consistent.
  3. Also in Vol. 1 Lesson 20, this word is used when the sun is on the horizon. (α) is more consistent with this one too.

The word šap̄rā is used less frequently, and it means “(very) early in the morning”, as in “when the sun had risen” (Mk16:2), “while it was still dark” (Lk24:1), and “daybreak, dawn” (Acts5:21).

2014-08-16

Matthew 27:1 ܟܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܗܘܳܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ “When, then, it was morning” should mean 6–9 a.m.; similarly in John 21:4, Acts 12:18, 16:35, 23:12.

John 18:28 ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ “and it was morning” is obviously “early”, as it is πρωί in Greek; also in Acts 28:23, Mark 11:20. Like 6–7 a.m.

Acts 20:11 ἄχρι αὐγῆς “until the sun light” should mean “until the next morning”, and it must be “early in the morning”, rather than “late in the morning”. Like 6–7 a.m.

Acts 27:37 ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܰܗܘܐ ܨܰܦܪܐ “until it was morning” is actually “just before the sunrise”, as it is Ἄχρι δὲ οὗ ἡμέρα ἤμελλεν γίνεσθαι “until the day was about to come” in Greek. 5:30–6:00 a.m.

Revelation 2:28, 22:16 ܟܰܘܟܰܒ ܨܰܦܪܐ “the morning star”; in theory this “morning” should be dawn or even pre-dawn (4:00–5:30 a.m.) But this one could be just taken as an idiom.

Matthew 20 gives a crystal clear proof that ṣap̄rā is — or at least can be — significantly before the Roman hora tertia. Here, ṣap̄rā is around 6 a.m.

Mark 13:35: Cockcrow vs Ṣep̄rā (6–9 a.m.)

Mark 15:1 ܘܡܶܚܕܐ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ “immediately (≈first thing) in the morning”  — Καὶ εὐθὺς πρωὶ “early in the morning” (6–7 a.m.)

John 8:2 Ὄρθρου “the time about daybreak” (6 a.m.)

John 20:1 ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܕ ܚܶܫܘܟ “in the morning while [it was] dark”  — πρωὶ σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης (the same): 4:30–5:30 a.m.

Matthew 16:3: predicting the weather of the day; should be early in the morning around 6 a.m.

Mark 1:35 πρωὶ ἔννυχα λίαν “early, still much nightly” (5:00–5:30 a.m.); in Luke 4:42 “daybreak having arrived” (around 5:30 a.m.)

Luke 10:35 just “next day” (6–10 a.m.)

3rd-Y + Obj. Suffix

2014-08-06

ܓܠܐ √GLY to show, declare; Pa. ܓܰܠܝ (gallī) to uncover, reveal.

Peal Perfect

2014-08-11 +Examples

1A [3m-sg] glā: -ā is retained but when written, the ܐ is dropped as in ܓܠܐ and ܓܠܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱: glā-yh̊ẙ ♥, glāh; glāḵ, glāḵẙ; glān(ẙ); glāḵṓn, glāḵēn. (1) This -ā is a part of the verb body (*glay), and is persistent: unlike the connecting -ā- in glayāyh̊ẙ (3f-pl), it “deflowers” -èḵẙ. (2) After a vowel, -hy is used instead of -èh. (3) The same stem is used also for 2-pl.

1B [3f-pl] glay: takes a connecting -(y)ā-: glay-ā-yh̊ẙ ♥, glay-āh; glay-āḵ, glay-èḵẙ; glay-ānẙ; glay-ā-ḵṓn (?), etc.

  1. Unlike in a strong verb, 3f-pl forms are totally different from the 3m-sg forms, as the unsuffixed forms are already different.
  2. Examples: ܚܙܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “he [Jairus] saw him” (Mark 5:22). ܚܙܰܝܳܝ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ “they-f saw it” (Luke 23:55).
    2014-12-31: ܩܰܪ̈ܝܒܳܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܝ̈ ܕܝܢ ܢܶܫ̈ܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܶܐܬ̥ܰܝ̈ ܥܰܡܶܗ ܡܶܢ ܓܠܝܠܐ܉ ܘܰܚ̈ܙܰܝܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ ܠܩܰܒܪܐ ܘܰܐܝܟܰܢܳܐ ܐܶܬܬܣܝܡ ܦܰܓܪܶܗ܀ “Then the women were near — those who came with him from Galilee, and saw it — the tomb, and (saw) how {ʾaykanā: -kannā?} his body was put.” (Luke 23:55⁎)
  3. 2014-08-18: Note: ܓ̈ܠܰܝ “they-f revealed” and ܓܠܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “he revealed it” are similar when pronounced — different only in a vs. ā. // 2014-09-23: Also there is ܓܠܳܝ Impt. 2f-sg. // 2014-09-30: And ܓܠܳܝ̈ Impt. 2f-pl (short).
  4. 2014-08-19: According to Muraoka and Thackston, 3f-pl is like glayāy, ḥzayāy; Peshitta Tool doubles the middle y, like *ḥzayyāy(hy). [That is, ⁂the y may be doubled (e.g. *glay-yā-y(hy)), at least secondarily.]
  5. 2014-09-16: I would like to believe that the y is doubled, because otherwise the first syllable is too open. Think about ܩܫܰܝ̈ܳܐ (qšayyā a.k.a. qšaiyā), pl. emph. of ܩܫܶܐ (Emph ܩܰܫܝܐ) “hard”, QŠY (N §72; Cf. Ungnad 1913, p. 36), where the 3rd. Y is doubled after a short vowel a. This one could be suffixed like *qšayyāh. Given that, a form like glayyāh should be quite reasonable.
  6. 2014-09-29: Then again, perhaps this is like kṯaḇēn = kṯaḇ “they-f wrote”, where an open syllable is left as is.
  7. 2014-09-18: Long form: *glayênāy(hy) N §194 // 2014-09-23: Palacios even has glayênāḵṓn.
  8. 2014-10-01: *glayāḵṓn “they-f showed them”: Nöld.=“?”; Ungnad (1913)=“uncertain”; Palacios (1954)=yes; Brockelmann (1960)=n/a; Robinson (1962)=yes. [2014-12-13: Mingana too supports this form.]
  9. 2014-12-21: (1) Unlike qṭal (3rd pl. f.) — qaṭlāy(hy), the vowel position does not change in glay — glayāy(hy). (2) For the 3rd pl. f. + “you guys/you girls”, *glay-ḵṓn/ḵēn is possible in theory, instead of *glayā-ḵṓn/ḵēn. But no textbooks support it.
    2014-12-22: Indeed, *glay-ḵṓn would want to become *glā-ḵṓn, just like l-meglāḵṓn is not *l-meglayḵṓn. It seems that -ā- is necessary to keep the y of glay (3rd pl. f.), to keep it different from glā (3rd sg. m.).

2 [3m-pl] glaw (ES glāw): w becomes ʾū: ܓܠܰܘ to ܓܠܰܐܽܘܗ̱ܝglaʾūh̊y ❊ (OR gla(w)ūh̊y; ES glāʾūh̊y), where the ū is long (N §192) and persistent: glaʾ-ūh; -ūḵ, -ūḵẙ; -ūn(ẙ); -ūḵṓn, etc. Basically, this is like qaṭlûh̊y from qṭalů (3m-pl), except that the vowel a after the 2nd radical doesn’t change position, and this a is long in ES.

  1. Example: ܟܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܚܙܰܐܘܗ̱ܝ ܠܟܰܘܟܒܐ ES ܟܲܕ ܕܝܹܢ ܚܙܵܐܘܼܗܝ ܠܟ݂ܵܘܟ݁ܒ݂ܵܐ “When, then, they saw it — the star {kawkḇā ES kāw-}” (Matthew 2:10).
  2. 2014-09-09 In general, ◌ܰܐܽܘ in the middle is also written ◌ܰܘܽܘ or ◌ܰܐܘܽܘ (N §192) [Example]; sometimes even ◌ܰܘܽ is found (N §196). This is also true about Impt. 2m-pl, which is identical to 3m-pl (see below).
  3. 2014-09-18: Long form (rare): *glâʾūnāy(hy) N §194
  4. 2014-12-27: ܐܰܫܘܺܝܘ ܘܰܡܚܰܐܽܘܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ ܠܬܰܪܥܐ “They made flat {ŠWY Aph.} and knocked {MḤY} (=beat down) the gate/door.” (Land II, 26, 11: Life of John the Nazirite, compiled about 569; E.W. Brooks, ed.): mḥaʾūnāy(hy) for mḥaʾūy(hy).
  5. 2014-12-28: N §194 (English version) has two examples of the longer form of 3rd pl. m. Perfect: one is Land II above; the other is Mark 6:49 S. Unfortunately, the second example is now invalid, because, while Bensly et al. (1894) and Burkitt (1904) have ܟܕ ܚܙܘܢܝܗܝ ܥܠ ܡ̈ܝܐ, Agnes Smith Lewis (1910) emended that reading as ܟܕ ܚܙܘܘܗܝ ܥܠ ܡ̈ܢܐ (Cf. p. 296). So this word is actually ḥzâwū(h)y, just like in 6:50, and not ḥzâwūnā(h)y. Burkitt himself says in vol. 2 (1904), pp. 55–56: In Mk vi 49 S ܚܙܘܢܝܗܝ is the 3rd pl. masc. Perf. in -ûn- with suffix. The word was so read by the late Professor Bensly and myself at Sinai, but the form is said to be otherwise unknown in these verbs and I confess that the photograph now suggests to me ܚܙܘܘܗܝ as the reading of the MS, a form which actually occurs in the following verse, Mk vi 50. Nöldeke’s second edition in German (1898) does not have examples of the ūn(ā) form of 3rd-Y Perfect at all, where he says such a form is not known to him. The two examples were only added in the English edition by March, 1904, while Burkitt’s 2 volumes were published after that, practically in 1905 (dated December, 1904).

3A [3f-sg] glāṯ {< *gelāṯ < *gelyaṯ}: (simply takes a suffix) glāṯ-èh, glāṯ-āh; glāṯ-āḵ, glāṯ-èḵẙ1; glāṯ-an(ẙ); glāṯ-ḵṓn; etc.

1 N §193 (Eng): For ܓܠܴܬ̥ܟ̥ܝ, read ܓܠܴܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ, as in the original German version.

  1. Example: ܘܟܰܕ ܚܙܳܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܫܶܡܥܘܢ ܝܶܬ̥ܒܰܬ̥ “and when she [Tabitha] saw him — Simon — , she sat [up]” (Acts 9:40).

3B [1c-sg] glḗṯ {< *glēṯ < *gelēṯ < *gelyèṯ}: similarly, glḗṯ-èh, -āh; glḗṯ-āḵ, -èḵẙ; glḗṯ-ḵṓn, etc.

  1. Example: ܘܰܚܙܺܝܬ̥ܶܗ ܒܚܶܙܘܐ ES ܘܲܚܙܹܝܬܹܗ ܒܚܸܙܘܵܐ “and I saw him in a vision” (Acts 22:18).
  2. More examples: ܚܙܝܬ̥ܳܟ ES ܚܙܹܝܬ݂ܵܟ “I saw thee” (John 1:48). ܓܒܝܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ ES (also soft T) ܓܒܹܝܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ “I chose you guys” (John 6:70). BUT in Pael: ܚܰܘܝܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ ES (now hard T) ܚܵܘܝܼܬ݁ܟ݂ܘܿܢ “I showed you guys” (John 10:32). [2014-09-16]

In Peal 3rd-Y, even ES has a soft T.

4 (Same as Strong Verbs) [2m-sg] glayt & [2f-sg] glayti̊: (takes -ā & -ī respectively) glayt-āyh̊ẙ ♥, glayt-āh, glayt-ān(ẙ); glayt-īwh̊ẙ ♠, glayt-īh, glayt-īn(ẙ).

4.1 [2m-pl] glaytṓn: glaytṓn-āyh̊ẙ ♥, -āh, -ān(ẙ). [2f-pl] glaytēn: glaytēn-āyh̊ẙ ♥, -āh, -ān(ẙ).

4.2 [1c-pl] glayn: glayn-āyh̊ẙ ♥, -āh; glayn-āḵ, glayn-èḵẙ; glayn-āḵṓn, etc.

2014-08-18 Starting today, as a test, I will use (1) ȱ instead of ṑ, for ES ō/WS ū, and (2) ė̄ instead of ḕ, for ES ē/WS ī; (3) similarly, ȯ instead of ò, ȯ̂ instead of ồ, etc. Old transliterations have been updated only on this page; except ȯ̂ is now used everywhere instead of ồ (which was introduced on 2014-08-10***).

2014-08-25 I will use ṓ for ES ō/WS ū; ó for ES o/WS u; ḗ for ES ē/WS ī; ô for ES ō-or-o/WS ū-or-u; keep using è for ES e/WS e, and e for ES i/WS e.

2014-08-07

Pael Perfect

1A [3m-sg] gallī: ī becomes y, except before ḵṓn/ḵēn. (1) gallyèh, gallyāh; gallyāḵ, gallyèḵẙ; gallyan(ẙ). (2) For +2m-pl/2f-pl, the old stem is used as is: gallīḵṓn, etc. This is natural, as *gal(lə)yəḵṓn is unlikely. [2014-08-18: Both in (1) and (2), you actually just add a suffix to the unsuffixed form, e.g. ܓܰܠܝ to ܓܰܠܝܶܗ.]

1B [3f-pl] gallī☆: ī becomes y and takes a connecting vowel -ā-. gallyāyh̊ẙ ♥, gallyāh☆; gallyāḵ☆, gallyèḵẙ☆; gallyān(ẙ); *gallyāḵṓn(?) {OR *gallīḵṓn☆}, etc.

  1. ☆ = identical to 3m-sg (except for a seyame). Just like qaṭlèh vs. qaṭlāy(hy), or qaṭ(ṭə)lèh vs. qaṭ(ṭə)lāy(hy), only the “him/me/us” forms are different between 3m-sg and 3f-pl. However, in 3rd-Y Pael, the new stem might have been used with +2pl (Robinson, Ungnad), e.g. *gallyā-ḵṓn(?) instead of the old-stem form (identical to 3m-sg+suffix) *gallī-ḵṓn (Mingana, Palacios, Thackston146).
  2. Example: ܗܘ ܕܶܝܢ ܠܐ ܦܰܢܝܳܗ̇ ܦܶܬ̥ܓ̥ܳܡܐ “He however did not answer her a word.” (Matthew 15:23)
  3. Ex2: ܘܡܶܢ ܟܽܠܗܶܝܢ ܦܰܨܝܰܢܝ̱ ܡܳܪܝ̱ “And from all of them, my lord saved me.” (2Timothy 3:11) ܘܡ̣ܢ ܟܠܗܹܝܢ ܦܲܨܝܲܢܝ ܡܵܪܝ // from paṣṣī [2014-08-21]
  4. Note: (α) The 3f-pl+2pl forms are not attested; they are iffy, given that in a strong verb the old stem is used for these forms — e.g. qaṭṭelḵṓn, not *qaṭ(ṭ)lā-ḵṓn. [2014-12-13: Robinson and Ungnad say gallyāḵṓn, while Mingana and Palacios say gallīḵṓn.] [2014-12-25: N says, Dagegen löst sich, ausser [außer] vor ḵṓn, ḵēn, das ī des Perf. und das ā des Inf. in j auf. So before ḵṓn, maybe gallī-ḵṓn, keeping the ī.] [2014-12-26: Also Thackston says dakkiḵon “they-f cleansed you guys”. Ungnad says gallyāḵṓn, but with a footnote Unsicher.] (β) When pronounced, these two are confusable: Pe. glayāy, glayāh, etc. VS. Pa. galyāy, galyāh, etc. Pael has an a after the 1st radical. [2014-08-19]
  5. Examples of 3m-sg + 2m-pl. ܡܰܢܘ ܚܰܘܝܟ̥ܘܢ “who showed you guys?” (Lk3:7) ܡܲܢܘܼ ܚܵܘܝܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ‎ // ܢܶܣܝܘܢܐ ܠܐ ܡܰܛܝܟ̥ܘܢ “A trial has not come to you guys” (1Co10:13) ܢܸܣܝܘܿܢܵܐ ܠܵܐ ܡܲܛܝܼܟ݂ܘܿܢ[2014-09-22]
  6. 2014-12-21: gallyèh is like qaṭṭlèh (from qaṭṭel); gallyāy(hy) is like qaṭṭlāy(hy) (from qaṭṭel). Both are like a strong verb!

2 [3m-pl] gallīw: īw becomes yū. ܓܰܠܺܝܘ to ܓܰܠܝܽܘܗ̱ܝ. This u is long (N §192) and persistent: gallyūh̊y ❊, gallyūh; gallyūḵ, -ūḵẙ; gallyūn(ẙ); gallyūḵṓn, etc.

  1. Example: ܐܰܒܳܗܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܕܡܘܫܶܐ ܛܰܫܝܽܘܗ̱ܝ ES ܐܲܒ݂ܵܗܵܘܗ̈ܝ ܕܡܘܼܫܹܐ܇ ܛܲܫܝܘܼܗܝ “The fathers (parents) of Moses hid him” (Hebrews 11:23). [ṭaššī, 3m-pl ṭaššīw ܛܰܫܝܘ]
  2. Ex2: ܠܰܘܝܽܘܗ̱ܝ (law(w)yūh̊y) “they accompanied him” (Acts 20:38) // from lawwī, 3m-pl lawwīw ܠܰܘܝܘ[2014-08-19]

3A [3f-sg] gallyaṯ: simply add a suffix. gallyaṯ-èh, -āh, -ḵṓn, etc. (ES: gallyāṯ-èh, -āh, etc. BUT gallyăṯ-kṓn, same as WS)

3B [1c-sg] gallīṯ (Soft T): gallīṯ-èh, -āh, -ḵṓn, etc. (ES: gallīt̆-èh, -āh, etc. AND gallīt̆-kṓn)

  1. Note: These forms are easy in itself, but they are quite different from strong Pael (qaṭṭlaṯ, qaṭṭelṯèh; qaṭṭlèṯ, qaṭṭelt̆èh). [2014-08-19]
  2. (1) A form like galyaṯèh feels “too open”, un-Syriac-like, and somewhat awkward. Maybe this one cannot be reduced to *galyəṯèh because a Y can’t take a schwa and/or because *galləyəṯèh is impossible anyway. East Syriac speakers fixed this problem by lengthening the “indecisive” vowel which you want to delete but you can’t (gallyaṯèh → gallyāṯèh). Now that it’s long, you no longer want to delete it, and this certainly feels better, even though it’s not the original form. (2) In ES, the hardness of “I/she” forms of Pael Pf. [but not Peal Pf.] is usually the same as that of a strong verb: T is soft when unsuffixed (gallīṯ, gallyaṯ); when suffixed, it remains soft in 3f-sg (ES gallyāṯèh) but it becomes hard in 1c-sg (ES gallīt̆èh). Originally these T’s are always soft in 3rd-Y verbs. (See N §43C, §194; Clef, GḆĀ, Troisième Forme) [2014-08-21]
  3. If you say gallyāṯèh, wouldn’t it be simpler to say *galley(ə)ṯèh > *gallēṯèh in the first place? They really hate to lose this Y, and say gallyaṯèh instead of *galleyṯèh. [2014-08-22]
  4. [3f-sg] gallyaṯ (as is; ya is not slippery), *galley(å)ṯèh > gallyaṯèh (anti-slip); [1c-sg] *gallyèṯ > gallīṯ (yè is slippery), *galleyt̆èh > gallīṯèh (ey is equally slippery; T may be originally hard like in ES) [2014-08-24]
  5. Examples. (1) ܪܰܒܝܰܬ̥ܶܗ ܠܳܗ̇ ܠܰܒܪܐ “She nourished him for herself as a son” (Acts 7:21) ܪܲܒ݁ܝܵܬܹܗ ܠܵܗ̇ ܠܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ // rabbyaṯèh, ES rabbyāṯèh, from rabbyaṯ. (2) ܚܰܘܝܬ̥ܳܗ̇ “I showed it (f)” (Galatians 2:2) ܚܵܘܝܼܬܵܗ̇[2014-08-24]
  6. (1) Note that the vowel is not lengthened even in ES if the suffix is consonantal and the syllable before it is closed (-ḵṓn or -ḵēn). See 3rd-Y Aphel: Pf (continued). (2) Additional example, where the Quššāyā dot is explicit: ܚܰܘܝܬ̥ܟ̥ܘܢ “I showed you guys” (Jn10:32/Ac20:35) ܚܵܘܝܼܬ݁ܟ݂ܘܿܢ // ḥawwīṯḵṓn vs. ES ḥāwwīt̆ḵṓn [2014-09-12]

💡 2014-09-17

  1. The 3f-sg form gallyaṯ is exactly like qaṭṭlaṯ (strong Pael), which also holds true before -ḵṓn and -ḵēn. Things are different before a vocalic suffix: while *qaṭṭ(ə)laṯèh (which is “too open”) can be routinely fixed as qaṭṭelṯèh, you can’t do the same for gall(ə)yaṯ — *galleyṯèh doesn’t work. How do we handle gallyaṯ + V-suf, then? WS just accepts it (gallyaṯèh), while ES lengthens the ya (gallyāṯèh). From *galleyṯèh, the 3f-sg form could have been *gallīṯèh; which would have contrasted nicely with gallītèh, just like qaṭṭelṯèh vs. qaṭṭeltèh. But that’s not how it is.
  2. The 1c-sg form gallīṯ < *gallyèṯ is similar to qaṭṭlèṯ (strong Pael), which also holds true before a C-suf. Even before a V-suf, gallīṯèh ≈ *galleytèh is similar to qaṭṭeltèh. One might think that both suffixed and unsuffixed forms share the same stem gallī- because both *yè and *ey became ī. However, if that’s the case, the T after *ey would have been originally hard, which seems untrue. Besides, by the same logic, the 3f-sg forms would have been *gallīṯèh, etc., which is definitely untrue. Perhaps it’s just that the suffixed forms were derived from the unsuffixed form, not from the strong suffixed forms. Nevertheless, ES uses hypercorrect forms like gallītèh (analogous to qaṭṭeltèh), while WS simply has gallīṯèh, etc. Those WS forms sound like a strong 3f-sg + V-suf (e.g. qaṭṭelṯèh), and probably that was one of the reasons why ES “corrected” them.

2014-12-13: For Pael 1st sg. gallīṯ, Palacios has gallīṯāḵ, gallīṯèh, gallīṯāh, gallīṯḵṓn, gallīṯḵēn, BUT gallīt̆èḵẙ (hard T); probably a typo.

4 (Easy) [2m-sg] gallīt (Hard T) takes -ā: gallītāyh̊ẙ ♥, -āh, -ān(ẙ). [2f-sg] gallīti̊ (Hard T) takes -ī: gallītīwh̊ẙ ♠, -īh, -īn(ẙ).

4.1 [2m-pl] gallītṓn (Hard T): similarly, gallītṓnāyh̊ẙ ♥, etc. [2f-pl] gallītēn (Hard T): gallītēnāyh̊ẙ ♥, etc.

4.2 [1c-pl] gallīn: gallīnāyh̊ẙ ♥, -āh, -āḵṓn, etc.

2014-08-10

Imperfect

Peal

Unsuffixed forms. (1) *-yūn > -ṓn | -yān (as is) | *-yīn > -ēn. (2) otherwise *ɐy > -ē, where *ɐ is whatever vowel it original was (if the verb is of type a/o, it’s o; if the verb is of type e/a, it’s a).

(1) For an unsuffixed form that ends in -n, its suffixed forms are composed just like in a strong verb [add -ā + suffix]. For example, from neḡlṓn “they will reveal”, we have neḡlṓnāyh̊ẙ “they will reveal him”. (2) So we only need to learn the suffixed forms for -ē, and these forms are quite predictable:

Example: Lk 9:9 ܘܨܳܒܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܢܶܚܙܶܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱ “And he [Herod] was wishing that he might see him (=[always] wanted to see him)” // a suffixed version of ܢܶܚܙܶܐ

Ex2: ܢܶܡܠܶܝܟ̥ܘܢ ܟܽܠܴܗ̇ ܚܰܕܘܬ̥ܐ “May he fill you guys with all joy” (Romans 15:13) from ܢܶܡܠܶܐ // also written ܢܶܡܠܶܟ̥ܘܢ without Y of EY (N §195) // ܢܸܡܠܹܝܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܟܠܵܗ̇ ܚܲܕܘܼܬ݂ܐܵ // “fill” with double objects (See 2014-09-12 #2) // Firefox 24.7 is bad with ܟܽܠܳܗ̇ (L+ā) [2014-08-22]

Ex3: ܐܳܦ ܐܶܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܕܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܗ̱ܘ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܟܺܐܦܐ ܐܶܒ̥ܢܶܝܗ̇ ܠܥܺܕ̱ܬ̊ܝ̱ ܘܬܰܪ̈ܥܐ ܕܰܫܝܽܘܠ ܠܐ ܢܶܚܣܢܘܢܳܗ̇ ܀ (Matthew 16:18⁎) ¶ bnā √BNY “to build”; ʾeḇnē “I will build”; hence suffixed ʾeḇnēw(hy) & ʾeḇnēh; Cf. 2nd pers. teḇnṓn, teḇnyān, teḇnēn, suf. teḇnṓnāy, etc. ¶ šyṓl f. = שְׁאוֹל or שְׁאֹל (N §84), meaning ᾍδης (ᾅδης) ¶ ḥsen e/a intr. “to be strong” & ḥsan a/a tr. “to be stronger than”; neḥsan “it will prevail (against)”, neḥsənūn “they will…”; neḥsənūnāh (+3f-sg). ܐܵܦ ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐܵܡ̇ܲܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܵܟ ܕܐܲܢܬ݁ ܗ݇ܘ̣ ܟܹܐܦܵܐ܇ ܘܥܲܠ ܗܵܕܹܐ ܟܹܐܦܵܐ ܐܸܒ݂ܢܹܝܗ̇ ܠܥܹܕܲܬ݂ܝ܇ ܘܬܲܪܥܹ̈ܐ ܕܲܫܝܘܿܠ ܠܵܐ ܢܸܚܣܢܘܼܢܵܗ̇܂܀ // ʕêḏaṯẙ “my church”: thus in ES. Also, in tarʕē, the syāmē is not on Rḗš. [2014-08-29]

ES ʕêḏaṯẙ (long ē without Yṓḏ, WS ʕītẙ) “my church” is correct (N §145F; Alan 101; Mura p. 15). Mosul has it as ʕī̆daṯẙ (?) ܥܺܕ̊ܰܬ̥ܝ. // This is a fem. noun of Type -āCtā: For example, mel(lə)ṯ-ā + vowel suffix (èh/āh/āḵ/èḵẙ/ān) is trivial (mel(lə)ṯèh, mel(lə)ṯāh, etc.); but when a non-vowel suffix (hṓn/hēn/ḵṓn/ḵēn/ẙ) is attached, *melləṯ-hṓn, *melləṯ-ẙ, etc. wouldn’t work very well, and so the a is restored: mellaṯ-hṓn, mellaṯ-ẙ, etc. Similarly, from *ʕḗḏ-tā > ʕḗt(t)ā, while a trivial form like ʕḗttèh is created with a vowel suffix, a form with an inserted a is created with a non-vowel suffix, e.g. ʕḗḏaṯhṓn, ʕḗḏaṯẙ. [2014-08-30] [For more info, see 2014-08-31]

Ex4: ܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܢܸܪܥܹܝܢܝ ܘܡܸܕܸܡ ܠܵܐ ܢܚܲܣܲܪ ܠܝܼ܂܀ (Psalm 23:1⁎) ¶ rʕā “to feed, tend, herd”, impf. nerʕē, +“me” nerʕēnẙ. ¶ ḥsar “to be wanting”, Pa. ḥassar “to make to lack, to deprive”, impf. nḥassar. [2014-09-04]

2014-09-17: (α) neḡbṓn (< *neḡbyūn) “they will choose”, neḡbṓnāy(hy) [OR neḡbṓnèh], neḡbṓnèḵ(y), neḡbṓnāḵṓn; teḡbṓn “you guys will choose”. (β) neḡbyān “they-f will choose”; teḡbyān “you girls will choose”. (γ) teḡbēn (< *teḡbyīn) “you girl will choose”.

2014-09-18

  1. An example of a strong verb: ܢܶܥܒܕܘܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ ܡܰܠܟܐ “they will make him a king” (Jn6:15) ܢܸܥܒ݁ܕ݂ܘܼܢܵܝܗܝ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ // Notice -ūn(ā).
  2. An example of a 3rd-Y: ܢܶܚܙܘܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “they will see him” (Lk20:13) ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢܵܝܗܝ // This is like a strong verb, but it has -ṓn(ā) instead of -[*y]ūn(ā). Also, there are only two consonants between ܢܶـ and ܘ (there are three of them in a strong verb).
  3. The second form with -èh, instead of -y(hy): ܢܶܚܙܘܢܶܗ “they will see him” (Ro15:21) ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢܹܗ // Based on Isaiah 52:15, where this verb is in Pf (ḥzâw).
  4. The same verb with “me”: ܘܬ̥ܰܡܳܢ ܢܶܚܙܘܢܳܢܝ̱ “and there they will see me” (Mt28:10) ܘܬܲܡ̇ܢ ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢܵܢܝ // has a dot above, just like in ܡ̇ܢ (mān) “what?”
  5. The same verb in 2m-pl: ܐܳܡܰܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܓܶܝܪ ܕܠܐ ܬܶܚܙܘܢܳܢܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܫܐ “I am telling you guys, indeed, that you guys will not see me from now” (Mt23:39) ܐܵܡܲ̇ܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ ܓܹܝܪ ܕܠܵܐ ܬܸܚܙܘܿܢܵܢܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܵܫܵܐ
  6. Similarly with -āḵ: ܕܰܠܡܐ ܘܳܐܦ ܗܶܢܘܢ ܢܶܩܪܘܢܳܟ “for fear that also they will call thee” (Lk14:12) ܕܲܠܡܵܐ ܐܵܦ ܗܸܢ̣ܘܿܢ ܢܸܩܪܘܿܢܵܟ
  7. BTW: ܬܶܚܙܶܝܢ “you-f will see” (Jn11:40) [ܬܸܚܙܹܝܢ] is identical to ܬܶܚܙܶܝܢ “you-m will see us”; Ac26:16 has ܬܶܚܙܶܝܢܝ̱ “you-m will see me” (close enough).

2014-09-22 (3rd-Y Pf. 2f-sg)

ܚܙܳܗ̇ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܶܫܘܥ܂ ܘܶܐܬ̥ܪܰܚܰܡ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇. ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇܂ ܠܐ ܬ̥ܶܒ̥ܟܶܝܢ. ܀
ܚ̣ܙܵܗ̇ ܕܹܝܢ ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܘܐܸܬ݂ܪܲܚܲܡ ܥܠܹܝܗ̇: ܘܐܸܡ̣ܲܪ ܠܵܗ̇: ܠܵܐ ܬܸܒ݂ܟܹ݁ܝܢ.܀
J then saw her and felt sorry for her and said to her: You-f should not weep. (Luke 7:13⁎) // ʾeṯraḥḥam Ethpa. (≈ Pa.) “to be moved with compassion, to have mercy”
Pael

Same endings as in Peal. For example, ʾeppaṣṣē “I will deliver” +you = ʾeppaṣṣēḵ

Imperative

Peal

[2m-sg] glī: glīwh̊ẙ ♠, glīh, glīn(ẙ).

[2f-sg] glāy: āy becomes āʾī: ܓܠܳܝ to ܓܠܳܐܺܝܘܗ̱ܝ̱glāʾīwh̊ẙ OR glā(y)īwh̊ẙ ♠, glāʾīh, glāʾīn(ẙ). [These forms are very rare.]

[2m-pl] glaw (ES glāw): aw becomes aʾū just like in Pf. 3m-pl: ܓܠܰܘ to ܓܠܰܐܽܘܗ̱ܝglaʾūh̊y OR gla(w)ūh̊y ❊ (ES glāʾūh̊y), glaʾūh, glaʾūn(ẙ).

[2f-pl] glāyë̄n (WS glāyēn; ES glāÿīn; Mingana glāy): the second Y falls out when suffixed, making the ē (ES ī) short but the resulting ê (ES î) is still long (N §§192, 194, 196): ܓ̈ܠܳܝܶܝܢ to ܓܠܳܝܶܢܳܝ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱glāyênāyh̊ẙ ♥ (ES *glāÿînāyh̊ẙ; Mingana glāÿāyh̊ẙ), glāyênāh, glāyênān(ẙ). The +him/her forms are spelled like Pf. 1c-pl forms: viz. ܓܠܰܝܢܳܝܗ̱ܝ̱ “we showed him” vs. ܓܠܳܝܶܢܳܝ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ “you girls, show him!”; ܓܠܰܝܢܳܗ̇ “we showed her” vs. ܓ̈ܠܳܝܶܢܳܗ̇ “you girls, show her!”.

2014-09-09: Longer forms with ūn(ā) and ēn(ā): (1) glaw (both as Pf. 3m-pl and as Impt. 2m-pl) has a longer form with n — glaʾūn (N §176E). (2) Also when suffixed, glaʾū-y(hy), etc. are sometimes used instead of glaʾū-(h)y, etc., mainly as Impt. 2m-pl (N §196) and rarely as Pf. 3m-pl (N §194). Example: ܫܪܰܐܘܽܘܢܝ̱ “Loose me!” (from ܫܪܰܘ “You guys, loose!”) can be also ܫܪܰܐܘܽܘܢܳܢܝ̱. Cf. ܫܪܰܐܘܽܗ̱ܝ ES ܫܪܵܐܘܼܗܝ “Loose him!” (Jn11:44) — incidentally the same spelling is used to mean “They dismissed him” in Ac17:14. (3) Similarly, glay (Pf. 3f-pl) can be lengthened as glayēn (⁂ES glaÿīn?), and may be suffixed as glayênā- (ê is ē, but written as “e”: N §194). (4) The plural feminine imperative glāyẹ̄n (ES glāÿīn), whose suffixed forms are glāyê-, can be seen as the longer form of *glāy (N §176E; Mingana Paradigmes 4e et 12e), whose suffixed forms are glāÿā- (Mingana Paradigme 12e).

2014-09-09: ES forms of 3rd-Y Feminine Plural Imperative: In the NY Peshitta, the unsuffixed forms of Impt. 2f-pl are written this way: ܚܕ݂ܵܝܼ̈ܝܼܢ (ḥḏāʾīn) “Be glad!” (Lk15:9); ܒܟ݂ܵܝܼ̈ܝܼܢ (bḵāʾīn) “Weep!” (Lk23:28); ܚܙܵܝܼܝܼ̈ܢ (ḥzāʾīn) “See!” (Mt28:6). They look a bit strange, but obviously the ending in ES is ʾīn, not ʾēn. As such, I’m now reasonably sure that in ES the suffixed forms of glāʾīn is glāʾînā- (î is written as “i” but pronounced ī), and not *glāʾènā- (*glāʾênā-) — which I was not sure about on 2014-08-10. At least in Pael, ʾînā-, not ʾênā-, is attested when suffixed: ܟܲܣܵܝܸ̈ܢܵܢ (kassāÿînān) “Cover us!” (Lk23:30). Impt. to ܪ̈ܵܡܵܬ݂ܵܐ pl. f. “hills”. The unsuffixed ES form of Pael Impt. 2m-pl is probably *gallāʾīn, and the suffixed forms should be gallāʾînā-.

2014-09-10: (1) In ES, → ā + ܝ + V is pronounced āʾV instead of āyV (N §40E) — I may write it as āy͗V [2015-11-10 For the sake of convenience, I’ll use ÿ instead of y͗]. A strange spelling like ܚܙܵܝܼܝܼ̈ܢ makes sense if you see it as ܚܙܵܐܝܼ̈ܢ, that is, the first ܝ is a consonant (still the Ḥḇāṣā dot below it looks strange). (2) Nöldeke clearly means that the ê in glāyên(ā), etc. is long. §194 has ܚܙܰܝܷܢܳܝ̈ܗ̄ܝ (ḥəzayênāh̊y) and he says “ēn(ā)”. §192 says “orthographic differences also with ē in these cases, v. infra”, and §196 has: “Modes of writing are found like ܟܱܣܴܐܷܝ̈ܢܳܢ‎ = ܟܱܣܴܝ̈ܶܢܳܢ”, that is kassāʾẹ̄nān = kassānān “Cover us”; and ܩܪܴ̈ܐܷܝܢܳܝܗ̄ܝ (qərāʾẹ̄nāyh̊ẙ) “Call him”. (3) Muraoka pp. 118–9 also makes them glāyēnān, glāyēnāy, etc. But he marks every è as long anyway. (4) Palacios (1931, 1954) has a good table (Paradigma XI), where longer forms of suffixed Impt. 2m-pl of 3rd-Y Pael/Peal are included. However, the row for Pael Impt. 2m-sg is simply wrong, where 2f-sg forms are listed instead (e.g. gallāʾīn instead of gallān).

2014-12-16

3rd-Y Impt. 3rd pl. fem.
glāyglāy-āy(hy)glāy-āhglāy-ānShort (Mingana), N §176E
glāy-ēnglāy-ên-āy(hy)glāy-ên-āhglāy-ên-ānLong (Standard)
glāy-īnglāy-în-āy(hy)glāy-în-āhglāy-în-ānLong (ES)

2014-12-26

Pael

[2m-sg] gallā (takes a suffix quite regularly, like Pe. Pf. glā, glāyh̊ẙ): gallāyh̊ẙ ♥, gallāh, gallān(ẙ).

The other forms are like Peal. For example, [2f-sg] gallāy: gallāʾīwh̊ẙ ♠, gallāʾīh, gallāʾīn(ẙ).

A 2m-sg form, ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱ (paṣṣān) “Save me!”, is in Qara. Vol. 2, Lesson 28. Also:

ܐܶܠܐ ܦܰܨܳܢ ܡܶܢ ܒܝܫܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܕܝܠܳܟ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܰܠܟܘܬ̥ܐ
But save us from the bad; because the kingdom is yours. (Mt 6:13) [Peshitta has the “For thine is the kingdom" thing.]
ܘܳܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܶܗ ܡܳܪܰܢ ܦܰܨܳܢ
[They woke him up,] saying to him, “Our Lord, save us.” (Mt 8:25)
ܘܡܳܢܐ ܐܺܡܰܪ ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܦܰܨܳܢܝ̱ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܐܶܠܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܗܳܢܐ ܐܶܬ̥ܝܬ̥ ܠܗܳܕܶܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ
And what shall I say {ʾḗmar}? My father, save me from this hour? But [exactly] for this, I came to this hour. (Jn 12:27)

2014-09-09: [2m-pl] gallaw (ES gallāw): gallaʾū-(h)y ❊ -h -n(y) -n. Examples: (1) lawwaʾū(h)y (ES lawwāʾū(h)y) “Escort him!” (1Co16:11) from lawwaw; lawwaʾūn(y) “me”, Longer Form lawwaʾūnān(y) (N §196). (2) From ʾassaw “Heal!”, ʾassaʾū(h)y “Heal him!”, OR ʾassaʾūnāy(hy) (N §196). ¶ [2f-pl] gallāyẹ̄n (ES gallāÿīn ?): gallāyênā-y(hy) ♥ -h -n(y) -n. [ 2014-12-26: The shorter forms are gallyāyhy etc. See below.]

2014-09-23: Palacios spells suffixed forms of Pael (but not Peal) Impt. 2m-pl with ܘܽܘ instead of ܐܽܘ (Cf. N §192), except the “me” form: ܓܰܠܱܘܽܘܗ̱ܝ and ܓܰܠܱܘܽܘܗ̇, but ܓܰܠܱܐܾܘܢܝ.

2014-12-22:

2014-12-27:

2015-01-12:

2015-01-13:

2014-12-17

Infinitives, etc.

Peal Inf. meglā (< *meglay): the y is restored before a V-suf, when the result is like a strong verb: megly-èh, megly-āh, megly-an, etc. (Cf. meqṭl-èh, meqṭl-āh, meqṭl-an) — IOW the ā becomes y; otherwise, the stem used when unsuffixed is used as is: meglā-ḵṓn (Cf. meqṭal-ḵṓn).

2014-12-28: Duval XXXV has strange “one-color” infinitive forms with ḵṓn/ḵēn, like *megly-ā-ḵṓn; maybe typos.

Pael Inf. is like a strong verb: mgallāyū (Cf. mqaṭṭālū), and mgallāyūṯ-èh (Cf. mqaṭṭālūṯ-èh), etc. The ū in -ū(ṯ) of an infinitive is long (N §167).

In summary, the word-final vowel is:

ܟܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܶܙܰܠܘ̱܆ ܫܰܪܝ ܝܶܫܘܥ ܠܡܹܐܡܰܪ ܠܟܶܢܫ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܝܘܿܚܰܢܳܢ. ܡܳܢܐ ܢܦܰܩܬܘܢ ܠܚܘܪܒܐ ܠܡܶܚܙܐ܉ ܩܰܢܝܐ ܕܡܶܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܡܶܬܬܙܝܥ.
Mat 11:7⁎ // kenšā (kenšē) = multitude(s) [of people] // ḥzā: l-meḥzā // mettəzīʕ “being caused to move” = pt. of ʾettəzīʕ, Ettaphal (= Ethpe.) of ZWʕ “to move”; a 2nd-W verb has ī in Aphel and in Ettaphal, except in the infinitive and the passive participle (N §177B).
ܨܳܒܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܓܶܝܪ ܠܡܶܚܙܝܶܗ
ܨܵܒܹ̇ܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ ܓܹܝܪ ܠܡܸܚ݇ܙܝܹܗ
for he had wished to see him (Luke 23:8) // l-meḥzyèh
ܘܨܳܒܶܝܢ ܠܡܶܚܙܝܳܟ
and they want to see you (Luke 8:20) // l-meḥzyāḵ
ܘܰܣܘܶܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܠܡܶܚܙܝܰܢ
you guys are desirous of seeing us (1Thessalonians 3:6) // l-meḥzyan // səwē (səwēn) = desirous

In conclusion:

Non-Peal Inf. (-ū) + “me”: -ūṯẙ for -ūṯanẙ

Peshitta (UK, NY) and Harqel have a strange form, la-mḏakkāyūṯẙ, in Matthew 8:2, etc., where OS says la-mḏakkāyūṯanẙ. It’s somewhat like Arabic, where -un is there but is not actually read. N §191 says nothing about it. This is explained in Mingana §475, §498 Nota.

2014-12-18: The “me” form of a non-Peal infinitive can be -ūṯẙ, instead of -ūṯanẙ. This is not limited to 3rd-Y verbs. For example, one could say mqaṭṭālūṯẙ for mqaṭṭālūṯanẙ. According to Mingana, this -an- is originally epenthetic, like نون الوقاية (nūnu-l-wiqāyati) in Arabic, or the “nun of protection” (W §185). One possible explanation would be that the me in “to cleanse me” (mḏakkāyūṯ-anẙ) can be reinterpreted as “cleansing of me” (mḏakkāyūṯ-ẙ).

2014-12-19: Similar things do happen in Hebrew. That is, an infinitive may take a verbal suffix (-ny) or a noun suffix (-y). See Gesenius-Kautzsch §61a.

2015-01-10: This form is also discussed in N §294.

2017-06-27:

2014-09-14

A word-final semivowel becomes a vowel when a 3rd-Y verb is suffixed: Summary

There are two or three patterns of transmutations where the final W or Y becomes vocalic:

  1. An ܐ is inserted before the final W or Y, initiating a new syllable. (α) -âw to -â.ʾū- (â is short in WS, long in ES):
  2. (β) -āy to -ā.ʾī- (Rare):
  3. The ܝܘ (-īw) at the end becomes the head of a new syllable (yū-).

Different but somewhat similar patterns include:

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 13] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 13 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܰܥܣܰܪ]: ܚܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܕܪܳܡܘܬ̥ܐ

2014-07-29

ܙܟ̥ܐ ܙܳܘܝܬ̥ܐ ܛܪܰܦ ܢܶܫܪܐ ܛܳܐܶܣ
zḵā zāwīṯā ṭrap̄ nešrā ṭāʾes
√ZKY he conquered, overcame, showed himself in the right f. corner he struck, flapped m. eagle* ⟦aquila⟧, vulture √ṬWS he flies high, circles in the air

*CAL: The frequent modern rendering as "eagle" is misguided for the Ancient Near East, where a distinction between these two large raptors was not generally made. Most commonly the word would seem to refer to what is now known as the "griffon" vulture (Gyps fulvus).

Different subfamilies, the same family (Accipitridae).
Griffon VultureGolden Eagle
Griffon Vulture (JPEG 11 KiB) Golden Eagle (JPEG 10 KiB)

Since in this story the guy snatches a healthy chicken alive, it is most probably an eagle, not a vulture.

2014-07-30

ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪ̈ܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ، ܚܰܕ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܘܰܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ، ܡܚܰܘ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܕܳܪܬܐ ܕܒܳܝܬܐ.
Two roosters, one [being] white {ḥewwārā CAL ḥi-} and the other {ḥrḗn N §146} [being] black, pecked (lit. “struck{#1} in(to)”) each other {ḥḏāḏē N §242} within the enclosure (pen){#2} of the house.
#1 MḤY mḥā: pf. 3m-pl mḥaw: the -w is read in a 3rd-Y verb.
#2 dārtā f.; hard T. [But Qara. also says “dārṯā”. See 2014-04-07.]

2014-07-31

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܙܰܒܢܐ، ܙܟ̥ܐ ܗܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܠܚܶܘܳܪܐ.
And after a while, that black [one] overcame the white [one].
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܰܢ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ: ܥܪܰܩ ܘܥܰܠ ܠܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢܐ ܘܺܝܬ̥ܶܒ ܒܙܳܘܝܬ̥ܐ ܟܰܕ ܪܳܥܶܠ.
The white rooster, on the one hand {μέν}, fled {ʕraq} even{#3} toward (OR into) the inside of{#4} the nest, and sat down (OR remained){**} in a corner while trembling {rʕel, rāʕel}.
#3 ⁂w- = “even” ?
#4 gaw “inward part”: l-gaw & b-gaw “inside, within”, also as a preposition.
2014-08-02/03 ** Usually, a 1st-Y verb has an e in Peal Pf [N §175].
ܗܰܘ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ: ܐܰܪܝܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܰܛܪܰܦ ܓܶܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܰܣܠܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܫܘܪܐ ܘܩܳܪܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
That black [one], on the other hand, raised his head and flapped {ṭrap̄} his wings and went up {sleq} onto the wall, and was crowing with a loud voice.
ܢܶܫܪܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܚܰܕ ܪܰܒܐ، ܕܛܳܐܶܣ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܳܐܐܰܪ، ܟܰܕ ܫܡܰܥ ܩܳܠܶܗ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܚܰܛܦܶܗ ܘܰܦܪܰܚ ܀
Then, one big eagle which was circling in the air, when it heard his voice, descended{**2} unto him and snatched him away{#5} and flew {praḥ} [away].
#5 ܚܛܰܦ (ḥṭap̄) “snatched away, took by force” — to snatch away quickly, especially of wild animals and birds of prey (CAL): ḥaṭp-èh +him. The 3rd rad. of Peal pf. 3m-sg is hard before -èh, as in: ¶ Acts 2:36 ܥܰܒܕܶܗ (ʕaḇdèh) ܥܲܒ݂ܕܹܗ “he (God) has made him (Jesus) [Lord]” ¶ 1John 5:10 ܥܰܒܕܶܗ (ʕaḇdèh) ܥܲܒ݂ܕܹܗ “he (an unbeliever) has made him (God) [a liar/false one]” ¶ AND in ES, even the ḇ of yaḇ is explicitly marked as hard in John 5:22: ܝܲܗ݇ܒܹ݁ܗ (yabèh) “he (the father) has given it (judgment) [to his son]” // The 3rd rad. would be soft in Pael pf. 3m-sg +him.

The hardness of the 3rd rad. before -èh is exactly like keṯbaṯ from kṯeḇ. [2014-09-07]

2014-08-05 **2 nḥeṯ with e, because it is intransitive. Actually, this verb is one of the very rare e/o (CAL i/u; ES i/o) verbs, resulting from an intermixture of transitive and intransitive expression (N §160A, §173A, §173B; Mura §55 Type 6; Alan 132 #4): nḥeṯ, neḥḥoṯ.

2014-08-01

zaḇnā

(1) ܙܰܒܢܐ (zaḇnā) “time” (die Zeit / le temps) is masculine [N §87]; abs. et cstr. ܙܒܰܢ (zḇan) [N §94C].

(2) However, the same word is treated as feminine when it means “first time, second time, etc.” (das Mal / une fois). As in [Jess 110]: ܚܕܐ ܙܒܰܢ or ܙܰܒܢܐ ܚܕܐ “once”.

(3) The masculine-looking plural (abs. st.) ܙܰܒ̈ܢܝܢ (zaḇnīn) is also feminine, at least in this sense: ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܙܰܒ̈ܢܝܢ “twice”. See the Fix to 2013-10-01 and 2014-01-23.

2014-08-03

2014-08-05

ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܗ [ܕܚܰܡܫܐ] (= ܒܚܰܡܶܫܬܐ) :
[ܒܝܰܪܚܐ] ܕܳܐܒ :
ܒܰܫܢܰܬ ܒ݈ܝܕ [ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܠܦܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ = ܐܰܠܦ̥̈ܐ ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ] :
ܒ݈ܫܟܗ [ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܠܦܝ̈ܢ ܘܰܬܠܳܬܡܐܐ ܘܥܶܣܪܝܢ ܘܚܰܡܶܫ = ܐܰܠܦ̥̈ܐ ܬܰܪ̈ܬܶܝܢ ܫܟܗ] ܕܝܰܘܢܳܝ̈ܐ

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܡܚܰܘ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܶܐ ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪ̈ܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ؟
ܬܪܶܝܢ ܬܰܪ̈ܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܚܰܘ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܕܳܪܬܐ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ.
2 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܙܟ̥ܐ ܠܰܐܚܪܺܝܢ؟
ܙܟ̥ܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ.
3 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܥܪܰܩ ܗܰܘ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܥܪܰܩ ܥܠ ܠܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܗܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܐܰܪܝܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܰܛܪܰܦ ܓܶܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱، ܘܰܣܠܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܫܘܪܐ ܘܩܳܪܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܓܕܰܫ ܠܶܗ؟
gḏaš = “happened”
ܢܶܫܪܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܚܰܛܦܶܗ ܘܰܦܪܰܚ.

2014-08-06

ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܫܬܐ ܕܐܒ

ʾāb (hard): CAL; Alan 114 (ES) // ʾāḇ (soft): LS2; Robinson (1962):128; Mura Chrestomathy 1 (3);

ܪܰܟܶܒ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ — Make a sentence from each word

6 ܙܟ̥ܐ
ܙܟ̥ܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܐ.
He conquered the world.
ܚܛܰܦ
ܢܶܫܪܐ ܚܛܰܦ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ.
A eagle snatched a rooster.
ܥܪܰܩ
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ ܥܪܰܩ.
The other rooster fled.
ܛܳܣ
ܢܶܫܪܐ ܛܳܣ ܒܐܐܰܪ.
The eagle flew around in the air.

2014-08-07

ܒܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܫܰܒܥܐ (ܒܰܫܒ̥ܰܥܬ̥ܐ) ܕܐܒ

ܣܝܡ «ܛܳܒܐ» ܐܰܘ «ܒܝܫܐ» ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐAnswer “good” or “bad”

7 ܕܡܳܚܶܐ ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܕܰܙܥܘܪ ܡܶܢܶܗ؟ ... ܒܝܫܐ
ܕܡܳܚܝܐ ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܕܰܙܥܘܪܝܐ ܡܶܢܳܗ̇
He who beats [someone] who is smaller than him(self)? … bad one
8 ܕܢܳܣܶܒ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܠܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ؟ ... ܒܝܫܐ
ܕܢܳܣܒܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܠܐ ܕܝܠܳܗ̇
He who takes something that is not his? … bad one
9 ܕܡܰܚܪܶܒ ܩܶܢ̈ܐ ܕܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ؟ ... ܒܝܫܐ
ܕܡܰܚܪܒ̥ܐ ܩܶܢ̈ܐ ܕܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ
He who destroys nests of birds? … bad one
ḥreḇ intr. “became a ruin”; Aph. ʾaḥreḇ “devastated, destroyed”
10 ܕܝܠܶܦ ܗܶܪܓܶܗ ܫܰܦܝܪ؟ ... ܛܳܒܐ
ܕܝܶܠܦܰܬ̥ ܗܶܪܓܳܗ̇ ܫܰܦܝܪ
He who has learned his lesson well? … good one
Pf. (as 1st-Y) yīlep̄, yelpaṯ; Pt. yālep̄, yālpā
11 ܕܫܳܡܰܥ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܶܐܡܶܗ؟ ... ܛܳܒܐ
ܕܫܳܡܥܐ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܕܶܐܡܳܗ̇
He who listens to word[s] (OR a command) of his mother? … good one

Random Memo: English-like Latin “Veni enim separare hominem adversus patrem suum” (Matthew 10:35); Latin-like Latin would be “Veni enim ut separarem…”, wouldn’t it? Church Latin?

服装コードの謎

2014-07-25

ある種の文化圏では、一般に、女性が肌をあらわにするような服装は受け入れられない。 ある人々は、これを悪いことであるとに主張する。 女性に対して特定の服装を押し付けている…と。

一方、そう主張する人々の文化圏においても、往々にして、服を着ないで道を歩けば逮捕されたりする。 女性が下着姿で働くことが受け入れられなかったり、どんなに暑くても男性はズボンを履かなければならないという宗教的規則が存在していたりする。 もし、そうしたことの文化的意味が尊重されなければならないとするなら、他の文化における同種の規則も尊重されなければならないだろう。 その文化の内部において自然に変化が起きるとすれば、それはそれでまだ尊重されるべきことだろうが、少なくとも「われわれと同じ規則集合でないのは間違っているから、同じ規則集合を採用しなさい」などと外部から強制されるべき事柄ではない。

「豚肉を口にすることを許されず、非豚肉料理を強制されるかわいそうな人々を解放しよう!」とかね。

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 12] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 12 [ܕܰܬ̥ܪܶܥܣܰܪ]: ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܰܝܬܐ

2014-07-20

ܢܰܦ̈ܫܳܢ ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܬܰܓܳܪ̈ܐ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ
nap̄šān sʕārē taggārē rḇīʕāyā
souls (pl. abs. of nap̄šā f.) pl. of barley f. merchants fourth
ܐܶܡܰܪ ܐܰܕܰܝ، ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܫܒܰܥ ܢܰܦ̈ܫܳܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ: ܐܰܒܐ، ܐܶܡܐ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܘܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܚܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
Adday said: Our family members {bar baytā, pl. bnay baytā} are seven souls: Father, mother {ʾemmā}, three brothers and two sisters.

2014-07-21

ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱، ܙܳܪܰܥ ܚܶܛ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ، ܘܳܐܚܝ̱ ܟܳܬ̥ܘܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܬܰܓܳܪ̈ܐ ܒܫܘܩܐ. ܘܶܐܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ.
My father is a farmer {ʾakkārā}, planting {lit. scattering} grains of wheat and grains of barley in our field, and my brother is a bookkeeper {kāṯṓḇā lit. writer} [working] for#1 one of merchants in the market place. And I am in the fourth grade.
#1 lwāṯ; OR at the place of; also could be understood as “a secretary to”.

2014-07-23

ܘܰܐܚܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܝ̱ ܝܳܠܦ̈ܳܢ ܒܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܕܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ. ܘܳܐܚܝ̱ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܥܕܰܟܝܠ ܒܳܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܚܰܠܒܐ ܝܳܢܶܩ.
And my sisters are studying at a school {ES WS bēṯ- with Soft T; Cf. N §146} of girls {barṯā bnāṯā}. And my younger brother is still {ʕḏakkḗl} a baby, and he sucks milk {ḥal(ə)ḇā}.
ܘܶܐܡܝ̱ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ، ܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ ܘܰܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ، ܘܝܳܨܦܐ ܕܰܐܚܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܀
And my mother manages {OR takes care of: qām ʕal, lit. “to stand upon” i.e. “to be superintendent of”} these [things?] of the house, prepares#2 for us food {mēḵlā WS me-? #3} and garments {lḇūšē}, and takes care of {lit. worries about} my younger brother.
#2 ṭayyeḇ Pa. to prepare, provide, pt. mṭayyeḇ, mṭay(yə)ḇā; √ṬWB to be good. Cf ṭāḇ
#3 ܡܹܐܟ݂ܠܵܐ

2014-07-24

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥ — Write the answer

1 ܟܡܐ ܢܰܦ̈ܫܳܢ ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ؟
ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܫܒܰܥ ܢܰܦ̈ܫܳܢ ܐܶܢܘܢ.
2 ܟܡܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܚ̈ܐ.
3 ܟܡܐ ܐܰܚܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܬܰܪܬܶܝܢ ܐܰܚܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܳܠܰܚ ܐܰܒܘܟ؟
PLḤ to work, to do
ܐܳܒܝ̱ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐܶܡܳܟ؟
ܐܶܡܝ̱ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܒܰܝܬܐ، ܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܠܰܢ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ ܘܰܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ.

2014-07-27

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܣܘܟܳܠ — What is the meaning of

6 ܬܰܓܳܪܐ
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܕܙܳܒܶܢ ܘܰܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܛܘܒ̈ܐ.
A man who is buying and selling goods {ṭūḇē}.
ܐܰܟܳܪܐ
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܕܦܳܠܶܚ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ ܘܙܳܪܰܥ ܡܰܘܥܝܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܚܶܬ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ.
A man who works in a field and plants plants {mawʕīṯā} like grains of wheat and grains of barley.
ܝܳܨܦܐ
ܩܳܝܡܐ ܥܰܠ.
ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ
ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ. ܐܰܝܟ: ܗܶܪܓܐ ܪܒܝܥܳܝܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Of four. As in: the fourth lesson is Lesson 4.

ܣܝܡ ܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ ܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ — Fill in the blanks

7 ܢܦܰܩ ... ܒܰܝܬܐ. ܩܳܡ ... ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
ܢܦܰܩ ܡܶܢ ܒܰܝܬܐ. ܩܳܡ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ.
He (OR they-f) went out from the house. He stood near the tree.
8 ܣܠܶܩ ... ܛܘܪܐ. ܢܦܰܠ ... ܒܺܐܪܐ.
ܣܠܶܩ ܥܰܠ ܛܘܪܐ. ܢܦܰܠ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܒܺܐܪܐ.
He (OR they-f) went up onto the mountain {ṭū-}. He fell inside (=into) the well {bḗrā f.}.
9 ܐܶܙܰܠ ... ܐܰܕܰܝ. ܟܬ̥ܰܒ ... ܩܰܢܝܐ.
ܐܶܙܰܠ ܥܰܡ ܐܰܕܰܝ. ܟܬ̥ܰܒ ܒܝܰܕ ܩܰܢܝܐ.
He (OR they-f) went with Adday. He wrote with a pen.

2014-07-28

Wheelock 35

2014-07-25

1. Minerva, fīlia Iovis, nāta est plēna scientiae et ingeniī.
Minerva, the daughter of Jupiter, was born full of wisdom and innate talent {ingenium}.
2. Custōdiae sī cum duce nostrō līberē loquantur et huic tyrannum trādere cōnentur, sine perīculō ex moeniīs urbis prōtinus ēgredī possint.
The guards, if they should talk freely with our leader and try to surrender the tyrant to him, would be able to exit from the walls of the city immediately without danger.
3. Pārēre lēgibus aequīs melius est quam tyrannō servīre.
To obey fair laws is better than serving a tyrant.

2014-07-28

4. Cum optimē honōribus ūsus esset et sibi cīvitātem semper antepōneret, etiam plēbs eī crēdēbat et nōn invidēbat.
Since he used honors (OR his office/post) very well and he always put the citizenship (freedom of the city) before himself, even the common people believed him and did not feel jealousy (resentment).

2014-08-05

5. Diū passa, māter vestra fēlīciter, sedēns apud amīcōs, mortua est.
Long suffered, your mother died peacefully, sitting among her friends.
6. Philosophī cōnsilium spectāvērunt et recūsāvērunt tālem rem suscipere mōlīrīve.
The philosophers looked at the plan, and refused to undertake or work at {mōlior} such a thing.
7. Cum dīves sīs atque dīvitiae crēscant, tamen opibus tuīs parcere vīs et nēminī assem offerēs.
Although you are rich and also [your] wealth is increasing {crēscō ere}, nevertheless you want to spare your resources and you will offer an as to nobody.

2014-08-17

8. Ab illā īnsulā repente profectus, eādem nocte ad patriam nāve advēnit; tum, quaerēns remissiōnem animae, diū rūsticābātur.
Suddenly having set out {proficīscor} from that island, he came to his fatherland by ship on the same night; then, seeking relaxiation of his soul, he lived in the country {rūsticor ārī} for a long time.
9. Hic mīles, cum imperātōrī vestrō nōn placēret, heu, illa praemia prōmissa āmīsit.
This soldier, as he was not pleasing to your commander-in-chief, alas, he lost {āmittō} those promised rewards.

2014-08-19

10. Nisi mōrēs parēs scientiae sunt — id nōbīs fatendum est — scientia nōbīs magnopere nocēre potest.
Unless habbits are (OR character is) equal to (OR suitable to) knowledge, it is to be admitted by us {fatendus Ger. of fateor}, knowledge can greatly harm us.
11. Magistra tum rogāvit duōs parvōs puerōs quot digitōs habērent.
The mistress (OR schoolmistress) then asked the two little boys how many fingers they had.
12. Māter candida nātae cārissimae subrīdet, quam maximē fovet, et eī plūrima ōscula suāvia dat.
The beautiful mother smiles to her very dear daughter{#}, whom she comforts {foveō} very greatly, and gives very many sweet kisses to her.
# Since nātae cārissimae could be genitive instead of dative, another possible translation would be: “The beautiful mother of the very dear daughter smiles, whom…”

2014-09-15

13. Why does he now wish to hurt his two friends?
Cūr duōbus amīcīs suīs nocēre nunc vult?
14. If he does not spare the plebeians, alas, we shall never trust him.
Nisi plēbibus{#} parcet, heu, eī numquam crēdēmus.
# Wheelocks (6th ed) says “plēbs = the common people, populace, plebeians”, which is confusing for two reasons: (1) plēbs/plēbis f. actually means “pleb, plebeian” (one of the common people), while in plural (plēbēs/plēbum) it means “plebs, plebeians”; (2) As such Lat. plēbs (singular) and Eng. plebs (plural) are different. He should have add “(in plural)” before “the common people”.
15. Since you are studying Roman literature, you are serving a very difficult but a very great master.
Cum litterīs rōmānīs studeās/studeātis, magistrō difficillimō sed maximō servīs/servītis. (VEL: Quoniam litterīs rōmānīs studēs/studētis, etc.)
16. If they were truly willing to please us, they would not be using their wealth thus against the state.
Sī nōbīs placēre vērē vellent, dīvitiīs contrā cīvitātem (VEL: rem pūblicam) nōn sīc ūterentur.

2014-09-20

SA 1. Nēmō līber est quī corporī servit.
No one is free who serves his body.
2. Imperium habēre vīs magnum? Imperā tibi!
Do you want to have great authority? Command yourself!
3. Bonīs nocet quisquis pepercit malīs.
Anyone who has spared {parcō pepercī} the evil harms the good.
4. Cum tū omnia pecūniae postpōnās, mīrāris sī nēmō tibi amōrem praestat?
While you prioritize money over everything (Lit. you put everything behind, for money), do you wonder {mīror ārī} if nobody offers you love?
5. Frūstā aut pecūniae aut imperiīs aut opibus aut glōriae student; potius studeant virtūtī et honōrī et scientiae et alicui artī.
In vain they are eager for either power or wealth or glory; rather let them be eager for virtue and honor and wisdom and some {aliCuĭ, dat. of aliQUī} art.

2014-09-23

6. Virtūtī melius quam Fortūnae crēdāmus; virtūs nōn nōvit calamitātī cēdere.
Let us believe virtue rather than Fortuna; virtue does not know {nōscō nōvī} [how?] to yield to misfortune {calamitās f}.
7. Et Deus āit [VEL ait]: “Faciāmus hominem ad imāginem nostram et praesit piscibus maris bēstiīsque terrae.”
And God says: “Let us make a human in our image, and let him be the head of {prae-sum} the fish(es) of the sea and the beasts of the land.”
8. Omnēs arbitrātī sunt tē dēbēre mihi parcere.
All people have judged {arbitor, arbitrātus sum} that you must spare me.

2014-09-26

9. Quid facere vellet, ostendit, et illī servō spē lībertātis magnīsque praemiīs persuāsit.
He showed {ostendō dere dī} what he wished to do and persuaded that slave with the hope of freedom and [with] great rewards.
10. Sī cui librī Cicerōnis placent, ille sciat sē prōfēcisse.
If the books of Cicero are pleasant to him, let him know that he has progressed.

2014-09-27

11. In urbe nostrā mihi contigit docērī quantum īrātus Achillēs Graecīs nocuisset.
In our city I had the privilege of being taught {#} how much (the) angry Achilles had harmed the Greeks.

2014-10-02

12. Alicui rogantī melius quam iubentī pārēmus.
We obey someone asking better than [someone] ordering {iubeō iubēns}.
13. Vīvite fortiter fortiaque pectora rēbus adversīs oppōnite.
Live bravely and set [your] brave hearts {pectus toris n} against adverse things.
14. Nōn ignāra malī, miserīs succurrere discō.
Not ignorant {f.} of the evil, I learn to help {+dat} miserable men.
15. Ignōsce saepe alterī, numquam tibi.
Forgive another person frequently, but never [forgive] yourself.
16. Quandō tē, deum meum, quaerō, vītam beātam quaerō; quaeram tē ut vīvat anima mea.
When I ask you, my God, I ask a happy life; let me ask {OR I will ask, if quaeram is fut} you so that my soul may live.

2014-10-04

In nova fert animus mūtātās dīcere fōrmās
[My] soul demands {#1} to tell about forms changed into new
corpora: dī, coeptīs — nam vōs mūtāstis et illās —
bodies: gods, my beginning {coeptus} — for you guys have changed {#2} also those [forms] —
adspīrāte meīs prīmāque ab orīgine mundī
do inspire [my beginning]! {adspīrō} And as first things from the beginning of the world
ad mea perpetuum dēdūcite tempora carmen!
to my times, lead [my] perpetual song!

2014-10-05

Nāsīca ad poētam Ennium vēnit. Cum ad iānuam Ennium quaesīvisset et serva respondisset eum in casā nōn esse, sēnsit illam dominī iussū id dīxisse et Ennium vērō esse in casā.
N came to the poet E’s place. When at the door {iānua} he had asked for E and a woman slave had answered that he was not in the house, he felt that she had said it at the command of her master and E was actually in the house.
Post paucōs diēs, cum Ennius ad Nāsīcam vēnisset et eum ad iānuam quaereret, Nāsīca ipse exclāmāvit sē in casā nōn esse. Tum Enniums “Quid?” inquit, “Ego nōn cognōscō vōcam tuam?”
After a few days, when E had visited N and was asking for him at the door, N himself cried out that he was not home. Then “What?” E said {inquit}, “Do I not recognize your voice?”
Hīc Nāsīca merō cum sale respondit: “Vae, homō es impudēns! Ego, cum tē quaererem, servae tuae crēdidī tē nōn in casā esse; nōnne tū mihi ipsī nunc crēdis?”
Here N answered with pure {merus} wit: “Alas, you are an impudent man! I, when I was looking for you, trusted your slave woman that you were not home; do you not believe me myself now?”

2014-10-15

Nūbere vīs Prīscō. Nōn mīror, Paula; sapīstī.
Dūcere tē nōn vult Prīscus: et ille sapit!
You wish to marry Priscus. I do not wonder, Paula; you have got good sense.
Priscus does not wish to lead you: also he has got good sense!

2014-11-23

Petit Gemellus nūpitās Marōnillae
et cupit et īnstat et precātur et dōnat.
Adeōne pulchra est? Immō, foedius nīl est.
Quid ergō in illā petitur et placet? Tussit!
Gamellus seeks marriage to Maronilla
and wishes and insists and begs and gives.
Is she that much pretty? On the contrary, nothing is uglier{#1}.
What exactly in her is sought and is pleasing? She coughs.
#1 foedus “ugly” foedior -ius
Petit Gemellus nūpitās Marōnillae
x -   v - |y   - v -  |v - -  -
et cupit et īnstat et precātur et dōnat.
y  V V1v  -   |x -    v  -|v -    - -
Adeōne pulchra est? Immō, foedius nīl est.
x-2 v  - |y3     -    v4  - |v -  -   -
Quid ergō in illā petitur et placet? Tussit!
x  -   v5  -  |y  V V1v -   |v  -    -  -

x = free and short; y  = free and long
1 VV instead of -
2 “[A]deō[ne]” as one -
3 “[pul]chra es[t]” as one -
4 “Immŏ” for “Immō”
5 “[er]gō in” as v?

2014-11-24

Ludī [Lūdī] magister, parce simplicī turbae:
aestāte puerī sī valent, satis discunt.
The master of the school, be lenient to the youthful disturbance:
in the summer, boys, as long are they are fine, learn enough.

Archive

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Syriac16 (P) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

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