memos::Syriac 12 (L)

My study notes on the Syriac language #12. As a hobby, I’ve been teaching myself Syriac since 2013. I’m reading Qarahbaš books. I also read Peshitta and Old Syriac. One of my long-term goals is to determine for myself how much, if any, Quran and Peshitta are related. While Christoph Luxenberg (2007) is very intriguing, I’m not going to believe it blindly; on the other hand, some of the criticism about this book is rather unsatisfactory. This is a purely linguistic problem, and should be treated as such.

CAL- ?; Dic, 2, 3 Ana+, NY; TS 1 2 | TUS[he, ar, sy, sa, et, osa] Map, 2[tr], 3, ME, Eura, Afr | Alan[; Qara, 1, 2, 3; N[de] | Per] L-Sh; Gaf; EtTbl | G Ti

memos top | Syriac1 | Syriac2 | Syriac3 | Syriac4 | Syriac5 (E) | Syriac6 (F) | Syriac7 (G) | Syriac8 (H) | Syriac9 (I) | Syriac10 (J)
Syriac11 (K) | Syriac12 (L) | Syriac13 (M) | Syriac14 (N) | Syriac15 (O) | Iranian, Indo-Aryan.

my mail address is in this picture

Jpeg 34 KiB Old fortress of Harput, Elazığ
by Ingeborg Simon (cc-by-sa-3.0)

HQ Scan of Clef

2016-05-09

Clef de la langue araméenne HQ [2015-03-17]

2016-05-10: Linguae syriacae grammatica et - Content - Home

2016-09-27

§§ 520–1

On voit que pour obtenir le féminin de ces noms de nombre jusqu’à dix (ܥܣܲܪܬܵܐ ܩܲܕ݂ܡܵܝܬܵܐ ou ܐܲܣܵܪܵܐ ܩܲܕ݂ܡܵܝܵܐ‎), on n’a qu’a en contracter le masculin.

[One see that for obtaining the feminine form of these numerals up to ten (the first tens or first series), one only has to shorten some of them — the masculine numerals.]

Les nombres suivants sont appelés ܥܣܲܪܬܵܐ ܬܪܲܝܵܢܝܼܬ݂ܐ ou ܐܲܣܵܪܵܐ ܬܪܲܝܵܢܵܐ‎.

ܐܶܣܳܪܐ ES ܐܲܣܵܪܵܐ N §109, LS2 37: lit. an object for tying up (bond, chain, girdle, belt, etc.), fig. prohibition, bonding, (gram.) a particle, series, contract, imprisonment, etc. (CAL)

Les actes des apotres, les épitres, l'apocalypse d'après La Pschitta. Mossoul : Impr. des Pères Dominicains, 1898

Les actes des apotres, les épitres, l'apocalypse d'après La Pschitta. Mossoul : Impr. des Pères Dominicains, 1900

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 5] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 5 [ܕܚܰܡܫܐ]: ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܒܪܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ؟

2016-02-07

ܡܰܠܟܐ ܚܰܕ ܪܰܒܐ، ܥܒܰܪ ܥܰܠ ܣܳܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܩܘܪܝ̣ܳܝܐ ܕܢܳܨܶܒ ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܟܰܪܡܐ، ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܳܕܐ ܣܳܒܐ؟
ܥܒܰܪ ܥܠ = “to walk by the side of; to go close to; to flow near or by; to come upon”; qūryāyā = “rustic, relating to towns and villages”
ܘܰܐܪܝܡ ܣܳܒܐ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܚܳܪ ܒܶܗ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ: ܠܐ ܗܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܢܳܨܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ؟
ܠܐ ܗܐ = “(behold,) is it not?” as in ܠܐ ܗܐ ܐܦ ܡܳܟ̥ܣ̈ܐ ܗܝ ܗܳܕܶܐ ܥܳܒܕܝܢ “Look, aren’t even tax-collectors doing this very thing (=the same thing)?” (Mt5:46)
ܕܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ ܢܳܨܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ : the word order is such that olives is emphasized. “I’m planting olives” or “olives are what I’m planting.”

JPG 40 KiB

2016-02-13

ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܟܐ: ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܣܰܟܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܺܚܶܐ ܘܬܶܐܟ̥ܘܠ ܡܶܢ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܟܰܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܣܰܝܒܘܬ̥ܐ؟
sakkī √sky D = “to expect, to wait for”; WS tḗḥē = teḥḥē (Ac11:14); neṣb(ə)ṯā = “plant”; saybūṯā = “old age”
ܘܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ: «ܗܶܢܘܢ ܙܪܰܥܘ̱، ܘܰܚܢܰܢ ܐܶܟܰܠܢܰܢ» ܘܗܳܐ ܚܢܰܢ ܙܳܪܥܝܢܰܢ ܕܰܐ̱ܚܪ̈ܳܢܐ ܢܶܐܟ̥ܠܘܢ!
zrʕ = “to seed”; ḥrḗnā, pl. ḥrānē
2016-02-15 ʾeḵalnan (newer form) = ʾeḵaln
2016-10-06 Jn4:37 ܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ ܗ̱ܘ ܙܳܪܰܥ ܘܰܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ ܚܳܨܶܕ “It is another man [that] seeds, but another man reaps”

2016-02-15

ܘܐܶܨܛܒܝ [ܘܶܐܨܛܒ̥ܝ] ܒܶܗ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܟܰܝ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ؟
ܨܒܐ √ṢBY = “to desire”: Ethpe. ܐܶܨܛܒ̥ܝ = with ܒ, “to be pleased with”; kay = “therefore” or interrogative enclitic (usually rhetorical and/or expressing uncertainty)
ܘܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ: ܐܝܢ، ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ. ܘܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܟܐ: ܠܰܐܝܢܐ ܚܰܕ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ؟
“three sons”: ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܢܝ̈ܢ and ܒܢܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ are both grammatical (N §237)
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ = interesting word order

2016-02-16

ܘܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ: ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗܰܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܺܐܪܰܒ، ܘܰܠܗܰܘ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܶܚܠܰܡ [ܕܢܶܬ̥ܚܠܶܡ ؟]، ܘܰܠܗܰܘ ܪܰܚܺܝ̣ܩܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܶܦܢܶܐ܀
ʕ(ă)ḏammā d- = “until, so far, so that”; ܝܺܪܶܒ impf. ܢܹܪܰܒ; krīhā = “sick”; √ḥlm: ʾaḥlem Aph. = “to heal someone”, ʾeṯḥlem Ethpe. = “to be healed”: Qara. uses this root as if in Peal with ‘a’ in impf.; raḥḥīqā = “distant”; pnā, nep̄nē = “to return”

2016-09-28 ܚܠܰܡ Pe. “to dream” would have ó: ܢܶܚܠܘܿܡ Cf. Acts2:17

2016-02-18

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܢܳܨܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܣܳܒܐ؟
ܗܰܘ ܢܳܨܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܠܣܳܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟
ܡܰܠܟܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ: ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܣܰܟܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܕܬܸܚܶܐ ܘܬܶܐܟ̥ܘܿܠ ܡܶܢ ܦܹܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܟܰܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܗܳܕܶܐ ܣܰܝܒܘܼܬ̥ܐ؟
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ ܣܳܒܐ: «ܗܶܢܘܢ ܙܪܰܥܘ̱، ܘܰܚܢܰܢ ܐܶܟ̥ܰܠܢܰܢ» ܘܗܳܐ ܚܢܰܢ ܙܳܪܥܝܢܰܢ ܕܰܐ̱ܚܪ̈ܳܢܷܐ ܢܶܐܟ̥ܠܘܼܢ!
4 ܘܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܡܰܠܟܐ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܟ ܟܰܝ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ؟
5 ܠܰܐܝܢܳܐ ܚܰܕ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ؟
ܣܳܒܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܠܗܰܘ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܹܐܪܰܒ، ܘܰܠܗܰܘ ܟܪܝܗܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܶܬ̥ܚܠܶܡ، ܘܰܠܗܰܘ ܪܰܚܻـܝܩܐ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܶܦ̥ܢܶܐ.

2016-10-02

ܦܪܘܫ ܫܡܐ. ܡܶܠܬ̥ܐ. ܐܣܳܪܐ.

ܦܪܰܫ = “separate”

Note that a pronoun (ܚܠܳܦ ܫܡܐ) is also a ܫܡܐ.

2016-10-03

ܣܝܡ ܒܢܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܥܘܩܰܒܪܐ (ܥܘܼܩܒ̊ܪܐ) ܙܰܪܥܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ ܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܚܰܙܘܪܐ

ʕū̆qaBrā = ʕuqb(ə)rā = “mouse”: hbo עַכְבָּר as in Leviticus 11:29: jpa עַכְבְּרָא‎ [Targum Onkelos, Leviticus 11:29]

zarʕā = “seed”; ʾeggaṯā = “letter”

9 ܛܰܠܝܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܚܰܙܘܪܐ. ܐܰܟ̊ܳܪܐ ܙܳܪܰܥ ܙܰܪܥܐ. ܩܰܛܐ ܨܳܐܶܕ ܥܘܩܰܒܪܐ.
A boy is eating an apple. A farmer is scattering seed (grain). A cat is catching a mouse.
10 ܡܶܛܪܐ ܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ. ܣܘܣܝܐ ܪܳܥܶܐ ܥܶܣܒܐ. ܐܰܦܪܶܝܡ ܟܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܐܶܓܰܪܬ̥ܐ.
Rain is watering (šqy C) wheat. A horse is eating grass. ʾAp̄rēm (Ephrem) is writing a letter.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 4] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 4 [ܕܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܩܘܡ ܐܰܚܐ ܕܣܰܗܪܐ

2016-01-22

ܩܘܡ ܐܰܚܐ ܕܣܰܗܪܐ ܩܘܡ ܘܰܦܬܰܚ ܥܰܝܢܰܝ̈ܟ݁
ܦܬ̥ܰܚ a/a: impf. ܢܶܦ̥ܬ̊ܰܚ imperat. ܦܬ̥ܰܚ
ܕܗܳܐ ܙܰܗܝ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܠܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ ܓܒܝ̈ܢܰܝܟ݁
zahhī = zhy Pa. “to make shine”; gḇīnā = “eyebrow”

2016-01-23

ܚܙܝ ܕܠܺܠܝܐ ܐܶܙܰܠ ܘܙܰܠܓܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ ܥܰܠ
ܘܩܳܪܶܐ ܐܳܘ ܫܰܒܪܐ ܩܘܡ ܘܰܠܒܶܫ [ܘܰܠܒܰܫ ؟] ܡܳܐܢܰܝ̈ܟ݁
lbeš = “to clothe”, lbaš imperat.; mānā = “garment”
ܥܒܰܪ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܕܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܟܰܕܘ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܬܶܫܟ̥ܰܒ [ܬܶܫܟܰܒ]
ܕܗܳܐ ܘܰܪܕܐ ܕܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܝ̣ܚܐ ܠܡܰܫܒܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ
ʕḇar = “to pass by”; šḵeḇ (Jess. šḵaḇ ?), neškaḇ = “to lie down, fall asleep, take rest”: impf. without d- is confusing here, though from the context, this seems to mean “Enough sleeping!”, “It is enough (=it is no more okay) for you to sleep.”
rḗḥā = “smell”; maš(šə)ḇā = “breeze”
ܫܡܰܥ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ ܕܙܳܡܪܐ ܘܠܳܟ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܶܪܝ̱ ܐܳܡܪܐ
ܩܘܡ ܗܰܒܳܒ ܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܢܘܫܩܐ [ܢܘܫܳܩܐ ؟] ܠܫܶܡܫܐ ܗܳܒ
šmaʕ a/a; zmr = “to sing”; lāḵ ʾa(t)t = strange, but maybe “Listen to the bird that is singing, and to you — O you, my son — she is saying.”
māṯā = (m.) “nation, homeland”; nušqā, nušqəṯā OR nūšaqtā (nuššaqtā?) = (f.) “kiss”: “Wake up, O flower of nation, give a kiss to the sun!”

2016-01-25

ܦܰܫܶܩ ܡܺܐܡܪܐ ܕܰܠܥܶܠ.

paššeq = “Explain”; māmlā = “speech, poem”

2016-01-28

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

1 ܓܒܝ̈ܢܐ
ܒܰܪܢܳܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܓܒܝ̈ܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܥܰܝܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱.
ܫܰܒܪܐ
ܫܰܒܪܐ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
ܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ
ܠܒܶܫ ܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ.
ܡܰܫܒܐ
ܡܰܫܒܐ ܪܘܚܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܬܐ.
ܗܰܒܳܒܐ
ܘܰܪܕܐ ܗܰܒܳܒܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
ܢܘܫܩܐ [ܢܘܫܳܩܐ ؟]
ܟܰܕ ܢܳܫܶܩ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ، ܝܳܗܶܒ ܠܶܗ ܢܘܫܳܩܐ.
ܙܰܗܝ
ܢܘܗܪܐ ܕܫܶܡܫܐ ܙܰܗܝ ܠܝܰܡܬ̥ܐ.
yamṯā = “lake”
ܥܶܕܳܢܐ ܥܒܰܪ ܠܶܗ.
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܳܡܪܐ.
ܟܰܕܘ
ܐܶܟܰܠ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܠܰܚܡ̈ܐ. ܟܰܕܘ!

2016-02-03

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

2 ܡܳܢܰܘ ܫܡܳܟ ܘܕܰܐܒܘܟ؟
ܫܶܡܝ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܰܪܝܰܡ ܘܫܡܶܗ ܕܳܐܒܝ̱ ܗ̱ܘ ܡܰܬ̊ܰܝ.
3 ܒܰܪ ܟܡܐ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝܟ݁؟
ܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܒܰܪ ܫܢܝܢ ܬܰܪܬܰܥܶܣܪ̈ܐ.
4 ܡܳܢܰܘ ܫܶܡ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܳܟ؟
ܫܶܡ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܝ̱ (؟) «ܗܰܒܳܒܐ».
5 ܟܡܐ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܣܶܕܪ̈ܐ.
6 ܒܐܰܝܢܐ ܣܶܕܪܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܝܳܠܦܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ.
7 ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܠܶܫܳܢ̈ܐ ܝܳܠܶܦ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܝܳܠܦܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ ܘܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܪܗ̱ܘܿܡܳܝܐ.
8 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܗܶܪܓܐ ܪܚܝ̣ܡ ܠܳܟ؟
ܪܚܝ̣ܡ ܠܝ ܠܶܫܳܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܐ.

2016-02-04

9 ܠܰܚܶܡ ܣܰܩܘܒܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ

saqquḇlāyā = “opposite”; ḥḏāḏē = “one another, each other”

ܐܰܝܟ: ܥܰܬܝܪܐ with ܡܶܣܟܺܢܐ.

ʕattīrā = “rich”; meskḗnā = “poor”

ܛܳܒܳܐ ܟܰܪܝܐ ܚܰܡܝܡܐ ܥܰܬܝܪܐ ܐܘܟܳܡܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ

karyā = “short”; ḥammīmā = “hot”

ܪܰܒܐ ܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܡܶܣܟܺܢܐ ܐܰܪܝܟ̥ܐ ܩܰܪܝܪܐ ܒܝܫܐ

ʾarīḵā = “long”

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 3] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 3 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܟܶܣܦܐ ܛܡܝܪܐ

2016-01-09

Memo: This has nothing to do with Syriac, but today I got a formula for the “oriented methyl numbers”:

μn(a) = ∑k=0..⌊n/3⌋{(−1)kτk(a+1−kn−3k(a)},
where τn(a) is the a-th n-dimensional triangular number.

μn(a) = n/3⌋k = 0 (−1)k τk(a + 1 − k) τn − 3k(a)

For example, μ15(18)=1*565722720 -18*51895935 +153*3124550 -816*100947 +3060*1140 -8568*1=30759120. (This number+u)/2 should be equal to the number of the isomers formed on the C20 skeleton with 15 methyl branches; in this example, u=0.

kespā = “silver, money”; ṭmīrā = “hidden”

ܒܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܰܝ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ [ܬܰܕܳܐܐ]، ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܠܚܰܩ̈ܠܐ ܕܰܠܒܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ.
taḏā OR teḏā (CAL tēḏā) [See SyriacO.php#tdaa] = “grass, spring time”; lḇar = “outside”;
ܘܰܚܙܰܘ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܕܚܳܦܰܪ ܒܰܐܪܥܐ. ܘܡܶܢ ܙܒܰܢ ܠܰܙܒܰܢ ܡܪܺܝܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܚܳܐܰܪ ܒܰܐܦ̈ܰܝ ܫܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
ḥāʾar = pt. of ̣ḥwr; bappay = “towards” (≈ lappay), maybe more like “into, at”;

2016-01-10

ܘܰܩܪܶܒ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ، ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܠܡܘܢ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܐܰܝ̱ܬ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܐܳܘ ܕܳܕܐ ܛܰܒܐ؟ ܘܦܰܢܝ ܓܰܒܪܐ: ܛܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܟܝܣܐ ܕܟܶܣܦܐ ܩܕܰܡ ܝܰܪܚܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܪܰܥ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܽܘܟܬ̥ܶܗ!
qrb = “to approach”; ṭmr = “to hide something in the groud”; dukk(ə)ṯā;
ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ: ܐܰܪܰܐ ܣܳܡܬ ܥܠܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܝܰܕܥܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ؟ ܘܦܰܢܝ ܓܰܒܪܐ: ܐܝܢ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܝܰܕܥܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܕܘܟܬ̥ܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܗܳܫܐ ܠܐ ܚܳܙܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܗ!
yaḏʕā = “sign”;
ܘܫܰܐܠܶܗ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ: ܘܡܳܢܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܝܰܕܥܐ ܗܳܢܐ؟ ܘܦܰܢܝ: ܥܢܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܝ̱ ܟܰܕ ܛܳܡܰܪ ܗ̱ܘܝܬ̥ ܠܟܝܣܐ ܘܗܳܫܐ ܠܰܝܬܶܝܗ̇!
ʕnānā = f. “cloud”: tmr עֲנָנָא ‎= עָנָן

2016-01-11

ܘܚܳܪܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܒܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ܟܰܕ ܓܳܚܟܝܢ ܡܶܢ ܒܘܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܓܰܒܪܐ، ܘܐܶܡܰܪܘ̱: ܐܳܘ ܠܳܟ ܡܶܣܟܺܢܐ، ܐܰܘܒܶܕܬ ܟܝܣܐ ܕܝܠܳܟ ܘܰܠܥܳܠܰܡ ܀
gḥk = “to laugh”; būrūṯā = “ignorance”; ʾō + l-; meskḗnā = “poor (man)”; ʾeḇaḏ = “to be lost”: Aph. ʾawbeḏ; l-ʕālam = “forever”

Early Biblical Hebrew Pronunciation (EBHP), etc.

2016-01-14

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ؟
ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܠܚܰܩ̈ܠܐ.
2 ܡܰܢ ܚܙܰܘ ܒܚܰܩܠܐ؟ ܘܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ؟
ܚܙܰܘ ܓܰܒܪܐ. ܗܘ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܒܰܐܪܥܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܰܐܶܠ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܠܓܰܒܪܐ؟
ܫܰܐܠܶܗ: ܠܡܘܢ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܐܰܝ̱ܬ ܗܳܪܟܐ؟
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܦܰܢܝ ܓܰܒܪܐ؟
ܦܰܢܝ: ܛܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܗܳܪܟܐ ܟܝܣܐ ܕܟܶܣܦܐ ܩܕܰܡ ܝܰܪܚܐ، ܘܗܳܫܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܕܘܟ̊ܬ̥ܶܗ!
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܗܘܳܐ ܝܰܕܥܐ ܕܥܰܠ ܟܝܣܐ ܛܡܝܪܐ؟
ܥܢܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܕܩܳܝܡܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܪܝܫܶܗ.
6 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܓܚܶܟ̥ܘ̱ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܓܰܒܪܐ؟
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܓܰܒܪܐ ܠܐ ܝܺܕܰܥ ܕܰܥܢܳܢܐ ܛܳܠܩܐ.

ṭlq = “to disappear”

2016-01-19

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܝܣܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ.

7 ܟܶܣܦܐ
ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ ܛܳܒ ܡܶܢ ܟܶܣܦ̊ܐ.
ܝܰܪܚܐ
ܬܶܫܪܝܢ ܩܕܶܝܡ: ܝܰܪܚܐ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
ܥܢܳܢܐ
ܚܙܹܝܬ̥ ܥܢܳܢܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܒܰܫܡܰܝܐ.
ܐܰܘܒܶܕ
ܡܰܠܟܐ ܐܰܘܒܶܕ ܣܳܢ̈ܐܐ.
ܟܝܣܐ
ܟܝܣܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܙܘܙ̈ܐ.

2016-01-20

8 ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܫܶܡ 5 ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܚܳܙܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܣܶܕܪܐ.

ܐܰܝܟ: ܟܘܪܣܝܐ.

  1. ܠܘܚܐ
  2. ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ
  3. ܩܰܢܝܐ
  4. ܛܰܒܠܳܝܬ̊ܐ
  5. ܟܶܪܟܐ

9 ܛܰܠܝܐ ܟܬ̥ܳܒܐ ܒܰܝܬܐ = ܫܡܳܗ̈ܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ.

ܟܬ̥ܰܒ ܩܪܐ ܐܶܟ̥ܰܠ = ܡ̈ܶܠܐ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ.

mellē = pl. of melṯā f. “gram. verb, voice” (Jess): not in CAL!

ܡܶܢ ܥܰܠ ܨܶܝܕ = ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܶܐ ܐܶܢܶܝܢ [ܐܶܢܘܢ].

ṣēḏ = “with, at”; ʾesārā = “particle” lit. “bond”, masc. (CAL/Jess)

Jess. 25a “ʾesārā”:

m. gram. a conjunction or copula, but in a wider sense than in English grammar, the ancient Syrian grammarians only counting three parts of speech, ܫ̈ܡܳܗܶܐ nouns, pronounces, adjectives, and most prepositions, ܡܷ̈ܠܷܐ verbs, and ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܶܐ particles i.e. adverbs, conjunctions, the prefix preps., interjections. ܐܶܣܳܪ̈ܶܐ have no gender nor state but admit of the Bdul i.e. ܒ‎, ܕ‎, ܘ‎, ܠ prefixes.

Things are very similar also in Arabic grammar, which has اَلِٱسْمُ (noun), اَلْفِعْلُ (verb), and حَرْفٌ (particle), possibly influenced by Syriac grammar.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 2] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 2 [ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ]: ܬܰܘܕܝ ܐܳܘ ܒܰܪܬܐ ܛܰܒܬ̥ܐ

2015-12-30

ܒܚܰܕ ܪܰܡܫܐ، ܟܰܕ ܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ [ܗܳܦܟܐ] ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܣܰܪܰܐ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ، ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܳܗ̇ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢ ܒܺܐܝܕܶܗ ܩܠܘܒܝܳܐ، ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ ܘܫܰܦܝܪܐ، ܕܦܳܪܰܚ ܘܡܳܚܶܐ ܢܰܦܫܶܗ ܒܓܰܒ̈ܐ ܕܰܩܠܘܒܝܳܐ.
ṭʕīn = pass. pt. in active sense, like “loaded”
qlUḇyā (qlóḇyā ?) = “(bird) cage, basket”, ܣܰܠܐ: CAL “Given the Hebrew כְּלוּב and other Semitic cognates with /k/, as well as the frequent spelling with prothetic vowel, it is clear that this form is a reborrowing from the Greek κλωβός, itself a loan from Semitic. The native form would appear to be reflected in the unusual kwlbšy [kulbāšē pl. vulg.].” կողով (koġov /kɔʁɔv/, Classical: kołov /kɔɫɔv/ = /kɔlˠɔv/)
2017-03-28 qlū̆ḇyā LS2-667a, LS3-1368a
ʕendā = non-classical? Qara. “bird”, Jess. “m. some bird”, TS2-2933 “nom. avis”, BB 1445
mḥy = “to strike”, “to make any movement involving a sudden and/or strong impact” (CAL); nap̄šā = “self” i.e. himself; gabbā = “side”

Jpg 23 KiB

ʕundānā = “departure, end, death”; nsīḇ = “(gram.) derived”; mtqryn: read meṯqrēn (TS); qeštā = “bow” (?) OR qešš(ə)ṯā = “chaff”; hap̄kāʾīṯ = “bottom-upward, in reverse order” (Jess); h. = hānâw “that is”; šennē = “teeth, steep rocks”; hp̄īḵē = pass. pt. of hpk “changed, upside-down, perverted”; qattārē = “rocks”; mšawzbīn = “refugees, survivors” (?); ḥayyayhṓn = “their lives”

2015-12-31

ܘܩܳܡܰܬ̥ ܩܕܳܡ ܩܠܘܒܝܳܐ، ܘܫܶܐܠܰܬ̥ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ: ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܗܳܢܐ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ؟ ܦܰܢܝ ܛܰܠܝܐ[:] ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܗ ܒܥܶܣܪܐ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ. ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܣܰܪܰܐ ܒܢܰܦܫܳܗ̇: ܟܒܰܪ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܚܺܐܪܘܬ̥ܐ، ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܕܰܥ! ܘܡܶܚܕܳܐ ܐܰܦܩܰܬ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܡܕܳܗ̇ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ ܘܝܶܗܒܰܬ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ، ܘܐܶܡܪܳܬ: ܗܰܒ ܠܝ ܗܳܢܐ ܥܶܢܕܐ.
kḇar = “perhaps”: possibly from √kbr, i.e. “largely = (most) probably”. Qara. also uses rabbaṯ/rebbaṯ this way in Book 3 Lesson 16, when a girl says to herself, “Probably this cat is hungry.”
ḥḗrūṯā = “freedom, liberty”; zāḏeq = “it is right”; neddaʕ N §175A, not nèddaʕ; ʾappeq, ʾap(p)qaṯ = “to take out”, Aph. of √npq

2016-01-01

ܘܟܰܕ ܫܶܩܠܰܬ ܠܥܶܢܕܐ ܒܺܐܝܕܳܗ̇، ܚܳܪܰܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܟܰܕ ܦܨܝ̣ܚܐ، ܟܶܢ ܢܫܰܩܬ݂ܶܗ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܙܰܒܢܝ̈ܢ، ܟܶܢ ܦܶܬܚܰܬ ܐܺܝܕܳܗ̇، ܘܶܐܡܪܰܬ̥:
šqal = “to take, receive”; ḥār, ḥāraṯ √ḥwr = “to look”; qallīl = “swift, a little, somewhat”; pṣīḥā = “rejoiced, glad”; nšaq, nešqaṯ = “to kiss”: nšaqṯèh (WS also nšaqtèh) “she kissed him”, cf. nšaqtèh “I kissed him”; pṯaḥ, peṯḥaṯ: cf. pṯāḥ (opening), zqāp̄ (rising up), فَتْح.
2016-01-02 She had it in one hand (ܐܝܕܗ̇, masc. ܐܝܕܶܗ), not in both hands (ܐܝܕܶܝܗ̇, masc. ܐܝܕܰܘܗ̱ܝ).
ܙܶܠ ܐܳܘ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ، ܙܶܠ ܠܥܳܒܐ ܕܰܐܠܳܗܐ، ܙܶܠ ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܕܺܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܣܘܶܝܢ ܠܚܰܠܝܐ ܩܳܠܳܟ، ܐܳܘ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܚܺܐܪܘܬ̥ܐ! ܘܰܦܪܰܚ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܒܐܳܐܰܪ، ܘܫܰܪܝ ܡܢܰܨܰܪ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ. ܐܰܟܡܰܢ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ ܠܣܰܪܰܐ: ܬܰܘܕܝ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ، ܬܰܘܕܝ!
ʕāḇā = “forest”; swē, sawyā, swēn, sawyān = “desirous”, adj. in the form of pass. pt. of √swy, where “w” is a strong root (N §179C)
ʾaḵman d (from ʾaẙḵ + man d) = lit. “like one who”, i.e. “as if”

2016-01-03

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܡܶܢ ܐܰܝܟܐ ܗܳܦܟ̥ܐ [ܗܳܦܟܐ] ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܣܰܪܰܐ؟
ܣܰܪܰܐ ܗܳܦܟܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܡܶܢ ܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܒܽܐܘܪܚܐ؟
ܚܙܳܬ̥ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܕܰܛܥܝܢ ܒܺܐܝܕܶܗ ܩܠܘܒܝܐ، ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܫܶܐܠܰܬ̥ ܠܛܰܠܝܐ؟
ܫܶܐܠܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: «ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܐܰܢܬ̊ ܒܗܳܢܐ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ؟»
4 ܟܡܐ ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ ܛܝ̈ܡܐ ܕܥܶܢܕܐ؟
ܝܶܗܒܬ̥ ܥܶܣܪܐ ܙܘܙ̈ܝܢ.
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܶܒܕܰܬ ܣܰܪܰܐ ܠܥܶܢܕܐ؟
ܫܶܩܠܰܬ ܠܥܶܢܕܐ ܒܺܐܝܕܳܗ̇، ܟܶܢ ܦܶܬܚܰܬ ܐܺܝܕܳܗ̇ ܕܗܘ ܢܶܦܪܰܚ ܒܳܐܐܰܪ ܘܢܹܐܙܰܠ ܠܥܳܒܐ.
6 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܫܘܡܳܗܐ ܠܳܚܶܡ ܠܗܳܕܶܐ ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ؟
«ܒܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ».

Let’s get this straight:

2016-01-04

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܩܠܘܒܝܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܶܗ ܨܶܦܪܐ.

7 ܩܠܘܒܝܐ
ܚܙܶܝܬ̥ ܠܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܩܠܘܒܝܐ.
ܥܶܢܕܐ
ܥܶܢܕܐ ܦܳܪܰܚܬܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
ܙܘ̈ܙܐ
ܝܳܗܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܙܘ̈ܙܐ ܟܰܕ ܡܙܰܒ̊ܢܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ.
ܥܳܒ̈ܐ
ܥܳܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܓܝ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ. ܛܘܪܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܶܗ ܣܰܓܝ ܥܳܒ̈ܐ.
ܬܰܘܕܝ
ܐܶܡܪܶܬ̥ ܠܶܗ «ܬܰܘܕܝ» ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܗܘ ܥܰܕ̊ܪܰܢܝ̱.
ܚܺܐܪܘܬ̥ܐ
ܚܹܐܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܟܰܕ ܥܳܒܕܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܪܳܚܡܐ.
ܦܳܪܰܚ
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܦܳܪܚܐ ܒܓܶܦ̈ܐ، ܐܶܠܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܠܐ ܦܳܪܰܚ.
ܡܙܰܒܶܢ
ܗܘ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܰܚܡܐ: ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܙܘܙ̈ܐ ܘܰܫܩܰܠ ܠܰܚܡܐ.
ܫܰܕܰܪ
ܫܶܡܫܐ ܫܰܕܰܪ ܙܰܠܓܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱.
ܡܢܰܨܰܪ
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܡܢܰܨܰܪ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ.

2016-01-05

ܣܝܡ ܒܢܳܬ̥ܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܘܟܰܬ̥ ܢܘܩ̈ܙܐ

ܚ̈ܶܛܐ؛ ܩܶܢܐ؛ ܚܰܠܝܐ؛ ܚܰܕ؛ ܬܪܶܝܢ؛ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ

8 ܥܶܢܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ... ܘܡܳܩܘܙܐ ... ܠܳܩܶܛ ...
ܥܶܢܕܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܓܶܦ̈ܐ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ ܘܡܳܩܘܙܐ ܚܰܪ ܠܳܩܶܛ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ
ܘܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ... ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܳܦ ܩܳܠܐ ... ܘܐܶܒܪ̈ܐ ...
ܘܥܳܡܰܪ ܒܓ̥ܰܘ ܩܶܢܐ ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܐܳܦ ܩܳܠܐ ܚܰܠܝܐ ܘܐܶܒ݂ܪ̈ܐ ܬܪܶܝܢ.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 1] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 1 [ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ]: ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ

2015-12-21

ܒܫܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡܝܩܐ، ܢܦܰܩ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܐ، ܘܰܛܪܰܦ ܓܶܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܐܰܪܝܡ [ܘܰܐܪܝܡ] ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܫܰܪܝ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ، ܘܰܡܥܝܪ ܠܕܰܡܟ̈ܐ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܘܐܳܡܰܪ:
ܥܰܡܝܩܐ “deep, extreme”, ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡܝܩܐ “in the very early morning”; ܫܰܦܪܐ “dawn”; ܛܪܰܦ “to smite, clap, flap”; ܐܰܥܝܪ √ʕwr (ʕyr) Aph. “to wake” ܡܰܥܝܪ Part.; ܕܰܡܟܐ “sleeping (person), sleeper”, often used instead of part. of ܕܡܶܟ
ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܕܗܐ ܠܺܠܝܐ (ܠܹܠܝܐ) ܥܒܰܪ، ܘܚܶܫܟ̥ܐ [ܘܚܶܫܟ̊ܐ] ܛܠܶܩ، ܘܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܐܶܬܛܰܫܺܝܘ، ܘܰܦܪܰܣ ܫܰܦܪܐ ܒܰܗܪܶܗ ܥܰܠ ܦܶܢܝ̈ܳܢ.
ܕܗܐ “for behold, because, already”; ܚܶܫܟܐ “darkness” ܛܠܶܩ “disappear, D complete”
ܟܰܘܟ̊ܒ̥ܐ “star” = tmr כּוֹכָב or כּוֹכְבָא ‎= כּוֹכָב ‎= كَوْكَب ‎= ኮከብ LLA 865: Ti ኮኾብ (koḵobə) /koxobɨ/; Fa کوکب /kowkæb/
ܐܬܛܰܫܝܘ (ʾeṭṭaššīw N §26 B) Ethpa. “they hid themselves” √ṭšy; ܦܪܰܣ “to spread out (intr/trans)”; bahrā “twilight”: probably ܦܪܰܣ ܫܰܦܪܐ ܒܰܗܪܶܗ = “dawn has spread his twilight” ܦܢܝ and ܦܢܝܬܐ, pl. ܦܶܢ̈ܝܳܢ and ܦܶܢ̈ܝܳܬܳܐ “region, district”{#1} cf. ܐܰܪܒܰܥܦܶܢܝܳܢ “the four quarters of the globe”

2015-12-28 {#1} CAL “ pl.ellipt.: everywhere on Earth”

2015-12-22

ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܕܗܐ ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܢܰܚ، ܘܫܰܕܰܪ ܙܰܠܓܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܥܰܠ ܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܛܘܪ̈ܐ، ܘܐܰܫܦܰܥ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܘܚܰܡܝܡܘܬ̥ܐ.
dnḥ = “to shine”; šdr D = “to dispatch, send”; zalgā = “splendor, ray”; špʕ C = “to pour out abundantly”; ḥammīmūṯā = “heat”
ܛܘܪܐ = tmr טוּר and טוּרָא ‎= צוּר “cliff, rock”
ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ، ܕܗܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܕܒܰܪ ܥܳܢ̈ܶܗ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܡܰܪܓܐ، ܘܐܰܟܳܪܐ [ܘܰܐܟܳܪܐ] ܣܳܡ ܠܩܺܩܢܐ (ܠܩܹܩܢܐ) ܥܰܠ ܬܰܘܪ̈ܐ،
ܪܳܥܝܐ “shepherd” [identical to fem. pt. of ܪܥܐ]; ʾakkārā = “farmer”; qḗqnā = “(a part of) plow, plowshare” N §31

2015-12-23

ܘܰܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܫܒܰܩ̈ܝ̱ ܠܩܶܢ̈ܐ، ܘܗܐ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܣܰܘܟܐ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ ܘܚܳܕܝܐܝܺܬ̥ ܡܢܰܨܪ̈ܳܢ.
šbq = “to leave”: ܫܒܰܩ̈ܝ̱ is WS spelling for ܫܒܰܩ (pl. 3 f.); ḥāḏyāʾīṯ = “joyfully”; ܢܨܰܪ “to chirp, twitter” ܢܰܨܰܪ Pa. “to chirp frequently”
ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܐܳܘ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ̈ܐ، ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܗܐ ܫܳܥܬ̥ܐ ܢܳܩܫܐ ܫܶܬ ܕܨܰܦܪܐ. ܥܶܕܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ ܀
nqš = “to knock”: lit. “The hour is striking 6 in the morning”; ʕeddāna(h)w WS = ʕeddānā (h)w

2015-12-25

ܦܰܢܐ ܟܬ̥ܝܒܬ̥ܳܢܳܐܝܺܬ̥

1 ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܐ؟
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܢܳܦܶܩ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܐ ܒܫܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡܝܩܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܟܰܕ ܢܳܦܶܩ؟
ܛܳܪܶܦ ܓܶܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܘܰܡܪܝܡ ܪܝܫܶܗ، ܘܰܡܫܰܪܶܐ ܩܳܪܶܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܪܳܡܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܠܶܠܝܐ؟
«ܠܹܠܝܐ ܥܒܰܪ، ܘܚܶܫܟܐ ܛܠܶܩ، ܘܟܰܘܟܒ̈ܐ ܐܶܬܛܰܫܝܘ.»
4 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܫܶܡܫܐ؟
«ܫܶܡܫܐ ܕܢܰܚ، ܘܫܰܕܰܪ ܙܰܠܓܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱ ܥܰܠ ܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܛܘܪ̈ܐ.»
5 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܰܡܰܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܪܳܥܝܐ؟ ܐܰܟܳܪܐ؟ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ؟ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ̈ܐ؟
«ܪܳܥܝܐ ܕܒܰܪ ܥܳܢ̈ܶܗ ܠܘܳܬ̥ ܡܰܪܓܐ، ܘܰܐܟܳܪܐ ܣܳܡ ܠܩܹܩܢܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܘܪ̈ܐ، ܘܰܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ ܘܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܫܒܰܩ̈ܝ̱ ܠܩܶܢ̈ܐ، ܘܗܐ ܡܶܢ ܣܰܘܟܐ ܠܣܰܘܟܐ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܢ. ܩܘܡܘ̱ ܐܳܘ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܟܰܫܝܪ̈ܐ، ܥܶܕܳܢܰܐܗ̱ܘ ܕܒܶܝܬ̥ܣܶܦܪܐ.»

Akkadian

2015-12-26

ܡܳܢܰܘ ܣܘܟّܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܫܰܦܪܐ ܫܘܪܳܝܐ ܕܝܰܘܡܐ.

šūrāyā = “beginning”

6 ܫܰܦܪܐ
ܨܰܦܪܐ ܥܰܡܝܩܐ.
ܚܶܫܟ̥ܐ [ܚܶܫܟܐ]
ܟܰܕ ܠܐ ܐܝܬ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܢܳܗܰܪ ܐܰܝܟ ܒܠܹܠܝܐ.
ܙܰܠܓ̈ܐ
ܢܘܗܪܐ ܣܰܓܝ.
ܩܺܩܢܐ (ܩܹܩܢܐ)
ܩܰܝܣܐ ܕܦܰܕܳܢܐ
“wood of plow” (from Hassan bar Bahlul 1830)
ܣܰܘܟܐ
ܡܢܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܺܐܝܠܳܢܐ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܐܶܡܰܬ̥ܝ̱ ܕܨܶܦܪܐ ܝܳܬ̥ܒܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇.
ܛܪܰܦ
ܪܰܦ̥ ܩܰܫܝܳܐܝܺܬ̥.
ܡܥܝܪ
ܡܩܝܡ ܡܶܢ ܫܶܢܬ̥ܐ.
ܛܠܶܩ
ܣܳܦ.
ܫܰܕܰܪ
ܫܠܰܚ.
ܐܰܫܦܰܥ
ܢܨܰܠ.

2015-12-28

ܐܰܕܟܰܪ ܫܶܡ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ...

7 ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ [ܐܰܕܟܰܪ] ܫܶܡ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܚܰܝ̣ܘ̈ܳܬܳܐ. ܐܰܝܟ: ܬܰܘܪܐ.
ܓܰܡܠܐ، ܦܝܠܐ، ܐܰܪܝܐ، ܥܶܙܐ.
8 ܐܰܕܟܰܪ ܟܶܡ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬܳܐ. ܐܰܝܟ: ܝܰܡܢܐ.
ܨܶܦܪܐ، ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ، ܘܰܙܐ، ܢܶܫܪܐ.
9 ܐܰܕܟܰܪ ܫܶܡ ܐܰܪܒܰܥ ܦܶܢܝ̈ܳܬܳܐ. ܐܰܝܟ: ܡܰܕܢܚܐ.
ܡܰܕܢܚܐ، ܡܰܥܪܒ̥ܐ، ܓܰܪܒܝܐ، ܬܰܝܡܢܐ.

2015-12-29

ܣܝܡ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ

√swm “to compose (as an author), edit, quote” (Jess)

10 ܣܝܡ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܦܶܬܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ:
ܐܰܝܟ: ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܠܳܩܶܛ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
ܒܫܰܦܪܐ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܩܪܐ.
ܢܦܰܩ ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܶܢܐ.
ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܛܪܰܦ ܓܶܦܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱.

2015-12-30

ܬܰܪܢܳܓ̥ܠܐ ܡܰܠܟܐ ܗ̱ܘ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܟܠܝܠܐ ܥܰܠ ܪܹܫܶܗ.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, Last] — ܨܠܘܬ̥ܐ

2015-12-13

ܨܠܘܿܬ̥ܐ prayer (tmr/jpa צְלוֹתָא): inde ar. صَلٰوة (old spelling, ṣalāh or perhaps like [sˤalɔːh]: W §7 Rem. d), صَلاة [from which, Russian саля́т]
= ጸሎት (ṣälot) LLA 1263: Ti ጸሉት (ṣälutə) /sʼɜlutɨ/

ܡܰܘܕܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܐܰܒܐ، ܐܳܘ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܘܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܟܽܠܗܘܢ ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
ܡܰܘܕܶܐ = part. of ܐܰܘܕܝ √YDY Aph. “to confess, to give thanks, praise”; nuhrā = “light”
ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ = “beings, created things; essences”, pass. pt. pl. of ܗܘܐ

2015-12-15

ܡܰܘܕܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܟ ܕܝܰܗ̱ܒܬ ܠܝ ܡܰܕܥܐ ܢܰܗܝܪܐ، ܘܠܶܒܐ ܛܳܒܐ، ܘܚܰܒܪ̈ܐ ܫܦܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܘܚܘܒܐ ܫܰܪܝܪܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܡܳܕܶܡ ܕܠܝ ܥܳܕܰܪ.
ܝܰܗ̱ܒ̥ܬ̊ but ܝܶܗܒܰܬ̥ and ܝܰܗܒܶܬ̥ N §183 (6)
maddʕā (from yīḏaʕ) “intelligence”: OfA (and dependent dialects) with nunation: mndˁ (CAL): Cf. manda. See “Daniel 2:21b” below.
nahhīr = “shining”; ḥaḇrā = “comrade”; ܫܦܐ “to become clear”: Pass. part. ܫܦܶܐ and ܫܰܦܝܐ “clear(ed), pure, sincere, peaceful, pleasant”: pl. emphatic state ܫܦܰܝ̈ܳܐ N §72
ḥubbā = “love” (pure Syriac)
šarrīr = “firm, true”; ܥܕܰܪ “to help, assist”

2015-12-16

oar ʕzr (ʕdr) = tmr עֲדַר ‎= עָזַר Seems PS *ʕḏr

ܥܰܠ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܟ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ ܕܰܠܘܳܬ̥ܝ̱، ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܠܶܒܝ̱، ܘܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ، ܘܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ، ܠܳܟ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ = constr. st. of ܐܰܦ̈ܐ:‎ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܦܰܝ̈ = “on the surface, upon; in front of; for (the sake of), on account of”; lwāṯ(y) = in this case, perhaps more like “towards me”;
Passhinate-sounding anastrophe: “From the bottom of my heart, and more than anyone, and more than anything, you — I love.”

2015-12-17

ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܪܰܒܘܬ̥ܳܟ ܣܳܓ̥ܶܕ ܐ̱ܢܐ، ܘܡܶܢ ܚܘܒܳܟ ܪܰܒܐ ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ: ܡܶܛܽܠ ܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܳܐܒܝ̱ ܘܳܐܡܝ̱، ܘܟܽܠܳܗ̇ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܘܬ̥ܐ، ܘܡܶܛܽܠ ܫܰܝܢܐ ܕܡܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱ ܪܚـܝܡܬ̥ܐ، ܘܰܫܠܳܡܐ ܕܟܽܠܶܗ ܥܳܠܡܐ. ܐܰܡܝܢ ܀
ܣܓܶܕ, impf. ܢܶܣܓܘܕ = “bow down” (e-ó) N §160A; tmr סְגַד or סְגֵד ‎= סָגַד ‎= سَجَدَ (cf. مَسْجِد) ‎= ሰገደ LLA 398; ሰጐደ (sägwädä) NBsS 36
ܒܥܐ “to ask someone for something, pray” with ܡܶܢ as in ܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܢܳܟ ܡܳܪܝ̱ “I pray (from) you, my lord” (Lk 5:8); (ʾe)nāšūṯā = f. “humanity”
ܫܰܝܢܐ = “peace” (from Old Persian?) [2016-11-01: from which xcl շէն (šēn) “inhabited place”] [2016-11-04: Not in MacK. Sogdian [sog]? Avestan [ae]?]
ܡܳܬ̥ܐ = “region, homeland”, fem. (Jess/Jastrow [but mas. in CAL])
rḥīm = “beloved, lovable”
  1. 2016-11-02: rḥīmtā (hard T) is expected, though -ṯā may be possible, as there are rḥūmṯā “beloved” and rāḥemṯā N §23E, LS2 724
  2. 2016-11-03: Also, reḥmṯā “friendship” Heb. 13:2, etc. and obviously soft T in rāḥmūṯā “friendship”
  3. 2016-11-03: CAL has rǝḥīmtā “love” but as n.f. JBA, LJLA. It also has syc rāḥemṯā “friend, beloved” (Soft T), rḥūmtā “beloved one” (Hard T). Jastrow 1466 has both רְחִימְתָּא and רְחִימְתָא “beloved, love”. It also has רְחוּמְתָא.
ܐܰܡܹܝܢ: Liturgical Hebraism (CAL).

Biblical Aramaic Samples (Daniel 2:1–2:16)

Daniel 2:17–2:36 are in SyriacM.php.

2015-12-25 BA Daniel chapter 2 (CAL): (2016-02-28 BA Daniel chapter 2)

2016-03-01 WLC[4.20] : Dan 2:1 - 49?

2016-05-10 דנייאל פרק ב

2015-12-15

Daniel 2:21b

Aramaic Text from [Daniel 2:21 Hebrew Text Analysis]
(2015-12-21 WLC[4.18] : Dan 2:21)

יָהֵב חָכְמְתָא לְחַכִּימִין וּמַנְדְּעָא לְיָדְעֵי בִינָה

ܝܵܗܹ̇ܒ݂ ܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬ݂ܵܐ ܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ: ܘܡܲܕ݁ܥܵܐ ܠܝܵܕ݂ܥܲܝ̈ ܣܘܼܟܵܠܵܐ

2016-10-13 {#1} If this was Hebrew, יָדְעֵ֫י would probably be read “yḁḏ-ʕēy”, while יָֽדְעֵ֫י would be “yḁ̄ḏ-ʕēy” (G §16f, §16h), where ḁ means Tiberian [ɔ]. In Aramaic, יָדְעֵ֫י is perhpas “yāḏ-ʕē(y)” (cf. Greenspahn, p. 42).

2015-12-16

Cantillation

יָהֵ֤ב חָכְמְתָא֙ A mĕhuppāḵ (mahpāḵ) is a conjunctive accent, put on an accented syllable and always followed by a pašṭā (which is postpositive and disjunctive).

לְחַכִּימִ֔ין A zāqēp̄ qāṭōn (qāṭān) is disjunctive, and it ends a Qāṭān Group (in this case, Mah-Paš-ZQ). It’s a comma or a semicolon, so to speak. Apparently, it is placed on the last syllable of the phrase-ending word.

וּמַנְדְּעָ֖א לְיָדְעֵ֥י בִינָֽה׃ A ṭip̄ḥā is a subordinate disjunctive, while a mērĕḵā is conjunctive (in this case, it is put under a word in the construct state); they make a Sōp̄ Pāsūq group, where Ṭip. is “lowest-highest-low” and Mēr. after it is “low(est?)-highest”.

So I guess this one is vaguely like this:
{yā˦ hēḇ˦˨ ḥɔḵ˩ mĕṯā˥˧}, lĕḥak˦ kī˦ mīn˨;
ū˩ man˥ dəʕā˨, {lĕyā˨ ḏ(ə)ʕē˥ bī˧˨ nā(h)˥}.

Just like in Syriac, the Aramaic ā was probably /ɔ(ː)/ in some later dialects (including Tiberian), while it was originally /a(ː)/ or /ɑ(ː)/ in Imperial Aramaic. In a way, it is strange to pronounce ā as /ɔː/, since the language did not even have the Canaanite Shift. For example, it is šĕlām in Aramaic, not šālōm (that’s Hebrew), and ā is more original. So why would you want to go Tiberian, reading the Aramaic word šĕlām /ʃəlaːm/ as /ʃəlɔːm/? While that is acceptable too (as in Western Syriac), in principle it’s better to try to use the original pronunciation used at the time when the text was originally composed. Since the text is now written in the Tiberian system, ā (their /ɔː/, original /aː/) and å (their /ɔ/, original o-like sound) are marked with the same symbol; which is inconvenient but similar things also happen in Syriac text written in Serto (e.g. ū and ō, ī and ḗ), and certainly we can live with that. Another possible option would be seeing ā as å̄, the longer version of å; which would make things simpler and more systematic, more compatible with Hebrew. The choice is between older pronunciation and Tiberian one.

2016-03-02 Using ā (=ḁ̄), ḁ, ḁ̆ for Qāmèṣ seems a decent idea.

2015-12-19

Daniel 2:21a

וְהוּא מְהַשְׁנֵא עִדָּנַיָּא וְזִמְנַיָּא מְהַעְדֵּה מַלְכִין וּמְהָקֵים מַלְכִין

ܘܗ̤ܘ ܡܚܲܠܸܦ ܙܲܒ݂ܢܹ̈ܐ ܘܥܸܕܵܢܹ̈ܐ: ܡܲܥܒܲܪ ܡܲܠܟ̈ܝܼܢ ܘܲܡܩܝܼܡ ܡܲܠܟ̈ܝܼܢ:

2015-12-20 #1 زمان zamān: Iranian/Dari [zæmɒ(ː)n]; Tajiki замон [zæmɔ(ː)n]; Azerbaijani zaman, زامان [zɑmɑn]; Turkish zaman [zɐmɐn]

2016-01-11 #2 Hebrew Hiphil (Hip̄ʕīl, Hiphʕîl) is Biblical Aramaic Haphel (Hap̄ʕēl), and Syriac Aphel (ʾAp̄ʕel). The h(a)- appears in Syriac too, in ܗܰܝܡܶܢ “to believe, to entrust”, which Nöld. calls “the old Aphel” (§174E), and Jess. calls “Paiel conj. of ܐܶܡܰܢ”; the Hebrew form is הֶאֱמִין (Genesis 45:26, Judges 11:20, etc.) from √ אמן. CAL hymn says, “Note that post BA forms are explicitly derived from the hafel form of the literary tradition and that technically the older forms are not quadriradicals.” The Jewish Babylonian Aramaic form is הֵימֵן,‎ הֵימִין, about which Jastrow says, “Af. of אמן”.

2015-12-20

Malḵīn: This is certain not Hebrew!

מֶלֶךְ or מְלֵיךְ and מַלְכָּא, pl. מַלְכִין: the soft ḵ of the plural form looks rather unusual. Maybe this is usual in Aramaic, though. In Syriac, the k is definitely hard in this position. In Hebrew, this is possible but then the preceding vowel is long (מֶלֶךְ, pl. מְלָכִים). Is this supposed to be ma-lĕḵīn (weird!) with a Šĕwā Nāʕ, or just mal-ḵīn? Syriac does have the same pattern from time to time (e.g. dahḇā “gold”, ḥalḇā “milk”), from which I’d prefer mal-ḵīn at least for now.

Nöld §23D says: On the other hand such falling away [of vocal šwā] occasionally came about at a time when the influence referred to [the softening] was no longer in being, so that Rukkākhā remained effective even after the disappearance of shᵉva mobile. It makes no difference whether the foregoing syllable, — now a closed one (ending in shᵉva quiescens), — has a long or a short vowel. If this is true also here (about BA), then Malḵīn was originally Malɐḵīn (ɐ=some vowel).

2017-06-01 This is partly eplained in N §93: The insertion of an ă after the 2nd radical in the plural (Hebrew me̊lāchīm, mele̊chē from malakīm, malakai from malk) is still shown in a few traces.

GHG §10d states that in Hebrew it is for example mal-ḵē, and not ma-lĕḵē: The fact that a following Bᵉgadkᵉphath letter (§ 6 n) remains spirant instead of taking Dageš lene, is explained by Sievers on the ‘supposition that the change from hard to spirant is older than the elision of the vowel, and that the prehistoric malakai became malakhai before being shortened to malkhē’.

Why the difference between מְהַעְדֵּה and מְהָקֵימ (mĕha- vs. mĕhā-)? Apparently, the ā is long in the latter because the verb is 2nd-W and the 1st radical does not close the preceding syllable (mĕhaʕ-dē(h) vs. mĕhā-qē(y)m). While it is ʾaqīm in Syriac, it is ʾāqē(y)m in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, and hēqīm in Hebrew; so probably the first vowel is long in Biblical Aramaic too.

Structural Cantillation (Daniel 2:21⁎)

First Level

The first half ends with an ʾAṯnāḥSeph (ʾAṯnāḥtā (?), ʾÈṯnaḥtāAshk), often preceded by a Mūnaḥ. The second half ends with a Sōp̄ Pāsūq, often preceded by a Mērĕḵā.

2015-12-22 A Sillūq (ˈMèṯèḡ-like line) is always placed under the tone-syllable of the last word.

וְ֠הוּא מְהַשְׁנֵ֤א עִדָּנַיָּא֙ וְזִמְנַיָּ֔א מְהַעְדֵּ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין וּמְהָקֵ֣ים מַלְכִ֑ין
יָהֵ֤ב חָכְמְתָא֙ לְחַכִּימִ֔ין וּמַנְדְּעָ֖א לְיָדְעֵ֥י בִינָֽה׃

Second Level

The first half and the second half are both divided into three phrases (in this example); the last divider in each section is a Ṭip̄ḥāAsh (ṬarḥāSph), sometimes preceded by a Mērĕḵā; while the other dividers are Zāqēp̄ QāṭōnSph (QāṭānAsh), sometimes preceded by a Mūnaḥ (but not in this example).

וְ֠הוּא מְהַשְׁנֵ֤א עִדָּנַיָּא֙ וְזִמְנַיָּ֔א | מְהַעְדֵּ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין | וּמְהָקֵ֣ים מַלְכִ֑ין
יָהֵ֤ב חָכְמְתָא֙ לְחַכִּימִ֔ין | וּמַנְדְּעָ֖א | לְיָדְעֵ֥י בִינָֽה׃

Third Level

A phrase controlled by a Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn (Qāṭān) may be farther divided into sub-phrases. Such a sub-phrase may be marked by a PašṭāAsh (QaḏmāSph ?), often preceded by a MĕhuppāḵSph (MahpāḵAsh, Mahpaḵ ?). In this case, also a minor, fourth-level disjunctive, Tĕlīšā Gĕḏōlā Ḡĕḏōlā [prepositive, with a small ring], is used.

וְ֠הוּא מְהַשְׁנֵ֤א עִדָּנַיָּא֙ ¦ וְזִמְנַיָּ֔א |

And…

יָהֵ֤ב חָכְמְתָא֙ ¦ לְחַכִּימִ֔ין |

2015-12-23 The other kind of second-level phrase, i.e. a phrase controlled by a Ṭip̄ḥā, may be also subdivided; Tĕḇīr is used in this case (See Dan 2:20 below).

2015-12-21

ʾAṯnāḥ Hāfūḵ (Flipped ʾAṯnāḥ)

05A2 ; 4.1 # HEBREW ACCENT ATNAH HAFUKH assigned in Unicode 4.1.0 (March, 2005)
Proposal to add Atnaha Hafukh to the BMP (2003-12-17)
http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2003/03443-n2692-hebrew-atnah-hafukh.pdf
SBL Hebrew User Manual (2008-02-26)
http://www.sbl-site.org/Fonts/SBLHebrewUserManual1.5x.pdf
“The atnah hafukh (U+05A2) character has been recently included in Unicode 4.1 for the benefit of those users who wish to encode an ex- plicit distinction between this accent and yerah ben yomo (U+05AA). Many editions do not make this distinction, using the yerah ben yomo character and its glyph to represent both accents. Since this is a new character, with some disunification legacy issues (the form of the yerah ben yomo character used in many typefaces is actually that of the atnah hafukh), support in this version of SBL Hebrew is prelimi- nary and subject to review: the character code is supported, but the glyph is identical to that used for yerah ben yomo”

2015-12-22

Daniel 2:20⁎

ܟܟ: ܥܢ̣ܵܐ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ: ܢܸܗܘܹܐ ܫܡܹܗ ܕܡܵܪܝܵܐ ܡܒܲܪܲܟ: ܡ̣ܢ ܥܵܠܲܡ ܘܲܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܥܵܠܲܡ: ܕܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܓܲܢ̄ܒܵܪܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܝܼܠܹܗ ܗ̣̄ܝܼ.܀

ʕnā = “to respond, to raise a song”; ʕdammā ʕ(ă)ḏammā = “until”; gabbārūṯā = “manly strength, vigor” cf. N §28

עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר לֶהֱוֵא שְׁמֵהּ דִּי־אֱלָהָא מְבָרַךְ מִן־עָלְמָא וְעַד־עָלְמָא דִּי חָכְמְתָא וּגְבוּרְתָא דִּי לֵהּ־הִיא׃

Some impf. forms of הוה takes ל ‎{#1}; mḇāraḵ = ā is long for some reason, maybe instead of *mḇarraḵ {#2}.

2017-06-09 gəḇūrṯā = gəḇūrtā (Hard T) in CAL, Jastrow (alt. form gabbārūṯā), and also Brown–Driver–Briggs A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament with an Appendix Containing the Biblical Aramaic 1086a.

עָנֵ֤ה דָֽנִיֵּאל֙ וְאָמַ֔ר לֶהֱוֵ֨א שְׁמֵ֤הּ דִּֽי־אֱלָהָא֙ מְבָרַ֔ךְ מִן־עָלְמָ֖א וְעַ֣ד־עָלְמָ֑א

דִּ֧י חָכְמְתָ֛א וּגְבוּרְתָ֖א דִּ֥י לֵֽהּ־הִֽיא׃

2016-10-11

2016-10-13

2015-12-23

ˈMèṯèḡ is written when

Daniel 2:1 (Syriac)⁎

ܒܲܫܢܲܬ ܬܲܪ̈ܬܹܝܢ ܕܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܹܗ ܕܲܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕ݂ܢܵܨܲܪ: ܚܠܲܡ ܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕ݂ܢܵܨܲܪ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ: ܘܐܸܫܬܲܢܝܲܬ݀ ܪܘܼܚܹܗ: ܘܫܸܢܬܹܗ ܗ̤ܘܵܬ݂ ܥܠܵܘܗܝ.܀
Nəḇūḵaḏnāṣar (OR Nəḇuḵa-, Nəḇukka-; heb. Nĕḇū-ḵaḏ-nèṣ-ṣar); ḥlm = “to dream”, ḥelmā = m. “dream”; šny = “to be different”: Ethpa. ܐܶܫܬܰܢܝ “to be changed, to be mentally disturbed, troubled, insane”: sg. 3f ܐܶܫܬܰܢܝܰܬ̥; ʕlāw(hy) ES = ʕlaw(hy), lit. “his sleep was/became against him” i.e. “he couldn’t sleep well”

2015-12-24

Daniel 2:1 (Hebrew)⁎

Daniel 2:1 Hebrew Text Analysis

וּבִשְׁנַ֣ת שְׁתַּ֗יִם לְמַלְכוּת֙ נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר חָלַ֥ם נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֖ר חֲלֹמ֑וֹת וַתִּתְפָּ֣עֶם רוּח֔וֹ וּשְׁנָת֖וֹ נִהְיְתָ֥ה עָלָֽיו׃
Note: Some people uses HOLAM VAV instead of VAV HOLAM for the suffix “his”: i.e. וּשְׁנָתֹ֖ו instead of וּשְׁנָת֖וֹ. This actually makes sense if the suffix is /o(ː)w/ in their dialect, although this suffix is probably /oː/ in Hebrew. The problem is, the two spellings are not identical even after normalized.
The vowel u is probably long in Nĕḇūḵaḏnèṣṣar (Nĕḇūḵaḏrèṣṣar), as the name is also spelled נבוכך׳. The Mḕṯèḡ here is probably unrelated to the vowel length, however; this Mḕṯèḡ is sometimes written even when the vowel is explicitly long (נְבֽוּכַדְ׳).
חֲלֹמוֹת pl. of חֲלוֹם: sing. in the Syriac version.
תִּתְפָּעֶם √pʕm “to be troubled”, Hithpaʕēl (=Syriac Ethpa.), impf. sg. 3f [2015-12-31 The basic form is *tiṯpāʕēl, but ē often becomes è after wa-, especially when the 2nd rad. is guttural: GHG §64g, §52n]; נִהְיְתָה Niphʕal, Pf. sg. 3f of הָיָה “to come to pass, to be” (ܗܘܐ): Niphʕal is like Syriac Ethpe., though the forms are not similar. “His sleep came to pass itself; finished itself; was done; i.e. left him”; ʕālā(y)w = takes a plural suffix -ā(y)w [originally -a(y)w?], just like in Syriac ʕl-aw(hy).
When a Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn phrase is subdivided into 3 or more sub-phrases, the last divider is Pašṭā, while the other divider(s) are Rĕḇīaʕ.
“two” is PS *θn(y): اِثْنَانِ (informal اِثْنَيْن), fem. اِثْنَتَانِ (informal اِثْنَتَيْن); Hebrew forms are שְׁנַיִם and שְׁתַּיִם (“n” is lost). In Syriac, the “n” became “r”.

2015-12-27

Daniel 2:2⁎

WLC[4.18] : Dan 2:1 - 49

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܠܡܸܩܪܵܐ ܠܚܲܪܵܫܹ̈ܐ: ܘܠܵܐܫ̈ܘܿܦܹܐ: ܘܠܲܡܓ݂ܘܼܫܹ̈ܐ: ܘܲܠܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ: ܠܲܡܚܵܘܵܝܘܼ ܠܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܚܸܠܡܹܗ: ܘܐܸܬ݂ܵܘ ܘܩܵܡܘ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ.܀
ḥarrāšā = “sorcerer”; ʾāšṓp̄ā (CAL ʾaššāp̄ā) = “exorcist, diviner” from acc. āšipu; mḡūšā = “magus”
ܠܰܡܚܰܘܳܝܘ Pa. inf. “to show, to announce”, CAL “ fig.: to allow someone to understand”: ES ܠܲܡܚܵܘܵܝܘܼ, lamḥâwwāyū N §49B, example in Mt16:21
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹ֨א לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים וְלָֽאַשָּׁפִ֗ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וְלַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים
ʾāmar = ܐܶܡܰܪ yōmar = ܢܹܐܡܰܪ: with w-, wayyōmèr (wayyōmar in pause) GHG §68d (68c). Like the other Hebrew vowel points, Holam has a lower Canonical Combining Class (CCC) than that of Dagesh; this feels strange, but in the Canonical order you’ll have to type Holam before Dagesh. But unlike with Waw, Holam comes before Alef: Yod, Holam, Dagesh, Alef.
li-qrō = inf. of qārā = ܩܪܐ
ḥarṭummīm = “magicians (of Egypt or Babylonia)”; לַֽחַרְטֻמִּים is for ‏*לְהַחַרְטֻמִּים GHG §35n; ʾaššāp̄īm = Syriac ʾāšṓp̄ē (see above): הָ is used before א; hence לָֽאַשָּׁ׳. mĕḵaššĕp̄īm = “sorcerers”.
kaśdīm = kaldāyē: Noice ś~l.
This phrase is divided into three parts; the first part is further sub-divided into three. (1) Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn (:) has two child nodes: Rĕḇīaʕ and Pašṭā. (2) Rĕḇīaʕ has two child nodes: Tĕlīšā Ḡĕḏōlā and Gèrèš (Ṭèrès). (3) Gèrèš is preceded by ʾAzlāSph aka QaḏmāAsh (א֨). This is not Pašṭā (א֙).
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹ֨א לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים וְלָֽאַשָּׁפִ֗ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וְלַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים
לְהַגִּ֥יד לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲלֹמֹתָ֑יו וַיָּבֹ֕אוּ וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃
higgīḏ = Hiphil “declare, tell”: lĕhaggīḏ inf. const.; √bwʾ = “to come”: yāḇōʾū impf. pl. 3m; ʕāmaḏ = “to stand”: yaʕamḏū impf.; lip̄nē(y) = “in front of”
Zāqēp̄ Gāḏōl is like Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn, except it has no child nodes.

2015-12-29

TanakhML Project. Verse Analyser (Cool thing!)

2015-12-30

Daniel (hbo) 2:3a

וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲל֣וֹם חָלָ֑מְתִּי
ḥālamtī, in pause ḥālāmtī GHG §44b

2015-12-31

Daniel (hbo) 2:3b

וַתִּפָּ֣עֶם רוּחִ֔י לָדַ֖עַת אֶֽת־הַחֲלֽוֹם׃
tippāʕēm = Niphʕal (Ethpe.), impf. sg3f: ē becomes è after wa- (or when followed by a monosyllable or by a word with the tone on the first syllable); when this happens, the penultima has the tone (GHG §51n).
daʕaṯ = inf. of yādaʕ GHG §69m, lā+ GHG §102f
Mḕṯèḡ is infrequent on ʾèṯ-; maybe sometimes on the second syllable before the tone?

2016-01-05

Daniel (hbo) 2:4a

וַֽיְדַבְּר֧וּ הַכַּשְׂדִּ֛ים לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲרָמִ֑ית
dāḇar “to speak”: Piʕēl (Pa.) dibbèr (in pause dibbēr) GHG §52l: impf. yĕḏabbēr, yĕḏabbĕrū. *way-yĕḏab-bĕrū > wa-yĕḏab-bĕrū (OR way-ḏabb-ĕrū ?) is impf. with Wāw Consecutive, GHG §49c, §20m. The mḕṯèḡ seems optional here, but would it mean wa-yĕḏab-bĕrū, or even wā-yĕḏab-bĕrū?

2016-01-06

Daniel (syc) 2:4⁎

ܘܡܲܠܸܠܘ ܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܐܲܪܡܵܐܝܼܬ݂: ܘܐܵܡܪܝܼܢ: ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܠܥܵܠܲܡ ܚܝܝܼ: ܐܸܡܲܪ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܠܥܲܒ݂ܕܲܝ̈ܟ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܚܢܵܢ (؟) [ܚܢܲܢ] ܢܚܵܘܹܐ.܀
ʾemar a/a: takes ʾe- in imperat. (the result is identical to pf. 3m). pšārā = “interpretation”. ES nḥâwwē = nḥawwē, example 2Co6:4

2016-01-07

Daniel (arc) 2:4b

מַלְכָּא֙ לְעָלְמִ֣ין חֱיִ֔י אֱמַ֥ר חֶלְמָ֛א לעבדיך [כ לְעַבְדָ֖ךְ 󠄃 ק] וּפִשְׁרָ֥א נְחַוֵּֽא׃
Kt *ʕaḇdayk (?), Qr ʕaḇDāḵ is understandable, except the hardness of D is iffy. Since the base form is ʕăḇeḏ, a form like *ʕaḇ(ə)āḵ is not surprising, but from the Syriac point of view, *ʕaḇdāḵ would be more normal. Also, -k is hard in Syriac, where -ay- is kept.
Note: While Ezra SIL (and Shlomo) shows the Ḥīrèq-under-Yōḏ in a higher position [e.g. חֱיִי], SBL Hebrew [e.g. חֱיִי] and Taamey Frank CLM [e.g. חֱיִי] place the dot in its “normal” position, near or on the baseline (looks actually tidy).
In this dialect, אֲמַר (pf.) and אֱמַר (imperat.) are different. Also, the first vowel of חֲיָא pf. and חֱיִי imperat.
wūp̄išrā (short i) = Syc. wap̄(ə)šārā

2016-03-02: ʕḁ̄l(ĕ)ˈmīn (CAL ʕālm-) OR ʕḁlˈmīn: practically, almost the same.

2016-03-04: ˌʕā-lĕˈmīn: At least sometimes the ā is long, because occasionally it has a ˈMèṯèḡ or a Mūnaḥ.

2016-01-08

Daniel (syc) 2:5⁎

ܥܢܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ: ܫܲܪܝܼܪܵܐ ܗ̣݇ܝ ܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܸܡܪܹܬ݂: ܕܐܢ [ܕܐܸܢ] ܠܵܐ (ܕܐܸܠܵܐ) ܬܚܵܘܘܿܢܵܢܝ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ: ܗܲܕܵܡ ܗܲܕܵܡ ܬܸܬܼܦܲܣܩܘܼܢ ܘܒ݂ܵܬܲܝ̈ܟ݁ܘܿܢ ܢܸܬ݂ܒܲܙܙܘܼܢ (ܢܸܬ݂ܒܲܙܘܼܢ).܀
šarrīrā = “firm”; ܕܐܠܐ (dellā = den lā); tḥawwṓn ES tḥāw- = “you guys will show”; haddām haddām = “limb by limb”
psaq = “to cut off”: Ethpe. ʾeṯpseq, impf. pl. 2m teṯpasqūn
baz √bzz = “to despoil”: Ethpe. ʾeṯbzez, impf. pl. 3m neṯbazzūn: ܢܶܬܒܰܙܙܘܢ may be written simply ܢܶܬܒܰܙܘܢ N §178D

2016-01-12

Daniel (arc) 2:5a

עָנֵ֤ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֣ר לְכַשְׂדָּיֵא [כ לְכַשְׂדָּאֵ֔י ק] מִלְּתָ֖א מִנִּ֣י אַזְדָּ֑א
עָנֵה part. VS עֲנָה pf. — CAL: “In BA past tense narrative this verb (when introducting אמר) is pointed as an active participle wherever possible, but when not possible as a perfect, which is clearly the original form”; also, from Syriac, the Kt version actually makes more sense.
אַזְדָּא — perhaps a tmr form of a pass. pt. like ܐܰܙܝܠܐ, i.e. maybe *אֲזִילָה, “be gone, proceeded, decreed”: “The word is being decreed from me!”
2016-02-16 ʾazdā = “announced” (CAL), “decreed” (Jestrow);

2016-01-13

Daniel (arc) 2:5b

הֵ֣ן לָ֤א תְהֽוֹדְעוּנַּ֙נִי֙ חֶלְמָ֣א וּפִשְׁרֵ֔הּ הַדָּמִין֙ תִּתְעַבְד֔וּן וּבָתֵּיכ֖וֹן נְוָלִ֥י יִתְּשָׂמֽוּן׃
ˌtĕhō-ḏĕʕūn-ˈna-nī {#2}: √ydʕ Aph. is tawd(ə)ʕūn in Syriac; in Aramaic, *tĕhawdĕʕūn. Basically, the difference is just tawdʕ- vs. *thawdʕ-. However, in this dialect, it is pointed as tĕhōḏ(ĕ)ʕ-, i.e. awd > ōḏ. Suffixed as -ū-nā-nī in Syriac, -ūn-na-nī in BA, with a closed long-vowel syllable + a short open syllable; but this might be *ˌtĕhō-ḏĕʕun-ˈnā-nī {#1}. In some other places, this suffix is actually written as -un-nanī (possibly *-un-nānī {#1}); that is, if n is doubled before the suffix (tĕhōḏ(ĕ)ʕūnnaˑnī), then perhaps the ū can be shortened (*tĕhōḏ(ĕ)ʕunnaˑnī) {#3}. ˈMèṯèḡ seems optional, but perhaps it is a light ˈMèṯèḡ showing that this is not *tĕhōḏ-ʕūn, but tĕhō-ḏĕʕūn. Pašṭā [Shift]+[2] is doubled when the word is not an “oxytone”.

{#1} 2016-01-14 According to GHG (Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar) §26g, this could be *-nannī instead of -nanī or *-nānī.

{#2} 2016-02-23 Tĕ- is soft after lā (conjunctive).

{#3} 2016-02-24 In A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1963, 1972), page 78, Alger F. Johns implies that the u is short though sometimes written as long: In BA most of the attestations of the imperfect with a suffix occur in the so-called “Energic” form of the imperfect. In […] the plural the Energic imperfect ends in -unn (sometimes written with a long û).

haddām is said to be from Persian. If this is from Middle Persian, that means this text was written in the 2nd century BCE or later. Possibly it’s a loan from Old Persian? Even so, pre-Achaemenid Nebuchadnezzar II could not use this word anyway. In Modern Persian, هندام or اندام (Arm. անդամ).
[2016-11-01 pal PNG (hndʾm handām, = xpr: 𐭀𐭍𐭃𐭀𐭌) “member, limb” MacKenzie p. 41, p. 228]
tiṯ-ʕaḇ-ˈḏūn: very much like Syriac, except in Syriac the d would be hard in this position. Maybe -ʕaḇ- was like *-ʕau- in this dialect?
bātēḵōn = possibly bātaykōn, as in Syriac; nĕwālī = “rubbish heap”
yit-tĕśā-ˈmūn (= Syc. nettəsīmūn) CAL says, “The simple T-stems should at least theoretically properly be divided between OA, OfA, Syr, CPA Gt ˀettǝsīm and JLA, LJLA Ct ˀettǝsām, but lexically they are the same.” while classifying this yittĕśāmūn as Gt.

2016-01-21

Daniel (syc) 2:6⁎

ܐܸܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܬܚܵܘܘܿܢܵܢܝ: ܡܵܘ̈ܗܒ݂ܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܥܘܼܬ݂ܪܵܐ ܘܐܝܼܩܵܪܵܐ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼܵܐܐ ܬܩܲܒ݁ܠܘܼܢ ܡܹܢܝ:
mawhaḇtā, pl. mawh(ə)ḇāṯā, ES māw-. Usually the T is hard in the sing. mawhaḇTā, though occasionally a soft ṯ is written instead.
ʕūṯrā = “wealth”; ʾīqārā = “honor”; qbl D. “to receive”
ܒܲܠܚܘܿܕ݂ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܚܵܘܵܐܘܼܢܝ.
balḥṓḏ = “only”; ḥawwaw (ES ḥāwwāw, with 2 ā’s while WS has 2 a’s) “You guys, show!”: ḥawwaʾūn (or ḥawwawūn N §40F; ES ḥāwwāʾūn) “Show me!” e.g. Mt22:19
2016-01-30: ܙܸܠܘ ܚܵܘܵܘ ܢܲܦ̮ܫܟ݂ܘܿܢ Lk17:14; ܘܡܵܐ ܕܐܸܫܟܲܚܬ݁ܘܢܵܝܗܝ: ܬܵܘ ܚܵܘܵܐܘܼܢܝ Mt2:8; ܚܵܘܵܐܘܼܢܝ ܕܹܝܢܵܪܵܐ ܕܲܟ݂ܣܸܦ ܪܹܫܵܐ Mt22:19; ܚܵܘܵܐܘܼܢܝ ܕܹܝܢܵܪܵܐ: ܕܡ̇ܢ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܒܹܗ ܨܲܠܡܵܐ ܘܲܟ݂ܬ݂ܝܼ̈ܒ݂ܵܬ݂ܵܐ Lk20:24

2016-01-22

Daniel (arc) 2:6⁎

וְהֵ֨ן חֶלְמָ֤א וּפִשְׁרֵהּ֙ תְּֽהַחֲוֹ֔ן (תְּֽהַחֲוֺ֔ן) מַתְּנָ֤ן וּנְבִזְבָּה֙ וִיקָ֣ר שַׂגִּ֔יא תְּקַבְּל֖וּן מִן־קֳדָמָ֑י
tĕha-ḥăwōn = Syc. ta-ḥwṓn (Aph.) — in reality, Pa. is used in Syriac. What is this ˈMèṯèḡ doing here {#1}?

{#1} 2016-02-24 Perhaps this means ˌtĕha-ˈḥăwōn as opposed to ˌtĕhaḥ(ă)-ˈwōn, as if תְּהַֽחֲוֺ֔ן.

mattĕnā = f. “gift”; nĕḇizbā(h) = f. “gift, supplies”
לָהֵ֕ן חֶלְמָ֥א וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ הַחֲוֹֽנִי (הַחֲוֺֽנִי)׃
lāˈhēn (CAL lāhen) = “but”: “But (only) if.” i.e. “But there is a condition.”
*ha-ḥăwō (?) imperat. pl. = Syc. *ʾa-ḥwaw {#1}; ha-ḥăwōnī = Syc. *ʾa-ḥwaʾūnẙ {#1}
2016-01-30: {#1} Aph. forms of √ḤWY in Syriac are theoretical; in reality, only Pa. and Ethpa. were used. See ḥâwwâw and ḥâwwâʾūn above.

2016-01-25

Daniel (syc) 2:7⁎

ܥ̣ܢܵܘ ܬܘܼܒ݂ ܘܐܵܡ̇ܪܝܼܢ ܠܹܗ: ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܢܹܐܡܲܪ ܠܥܲܒ݂ܕܵܘܗ̈ܝ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܚܢܲܢ ܢܚܵܘܹܐ.܀
ʕnaw ES ʕnāw = “they responded”;

2016-01-26

Daniel (arc) 2:7⁎

עֲנ֥וֹ תִנְיָנ֖וּת וְאָמְרִ֑ין מַלְכָּ֕א חֶלְמָ֛א יֵאמַ֥ר לְעַבְד֖וֹהִי וּפִשְׁרָ֥ה נְהַחֲוֵֽה׃
ʕănō = Syc. ʕənâw; tinyānūṯ (CAL ten-) = adv. “a second time”; yēmar (?) = Syc. nḗmar;
ʕaḇḏōhī: Again “d” is strangely soft: −ōhī = Syc. -âw(hy)
nĕha-ḥăwē = C impf. p1m {#2}: in 2:4, D nĕ-ḥawwē was used.
2016-01-30: {#2} Syc. *na-ḥwē, in reality Pa. nəḥâwwē
2016-03-02: ʾḁ̄m(ĕ)ˈrīn OR ʾḁmˈrīn
2016-03-04: (wĕ)ˌʾā-mĕˈrīn: At least sometimes the ā is long, because occasionally there is a ˈMèṯèḡ there, or even a Mūnaḥ (Dan 2:10, 3:9).

The second half is divided into three:

  1. מַלְכָּ֕א
  2. חֶלְמָ֛א יֵאמַ֥ר לְעַבְד֖וֹהִי
  3. וּפִשְׁרָ֥ה נְהַחֲוֵֽה׃

The first part is terminated by Zāqēp̄ Gāḏōl, the stand-alone version of Zāqēp̄.

The second part is terminated by Ṭip̄ḥāAsh/ṬarḥāSph, which is proceded by Mērḵā (Mērĕḵā)Ash/MaʾărīḵSph.

The second part, i.e. the Ṭip̄ḥā phrase, is subdivided into two by Tĕḇīr.

Tĕḇīr is often preceded by Dargā (e.g. 2:3, 2:4), sometimes preceded by Mērḵā (e.g. 2:4); but here it is stand-alone.

MP3 file is here: http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/olam_hatanah/perekT.asp?sefer=37&perek=2

2016-02-01

Daniel (syc) 2:8⁎

ܥܢܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ: ܫܲܪܝܼܪܵܐܝܼܬ ܝܵܕܲܥ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܕܙܲܒ݂ܢܵܐ ܗ̣݇ܘ ܫܵܐܠܝܼܢ ܐ݇ܢܬ݁ܘܿܢ:
šarrīrāʾīṯ “truly, verily, indeed, firmly”: adj. šarrīr, šarrīrā, šarrīrtā (N §23E)
ܫܳܐܶܠ,‎ ܫܳܐܠܝܢ “asking, begging” N §171A, from which šālī(t)tṓn, where -n is not read (N §64, cf. N §28): (α) n of šālīn is dropped, or possibly assimilated to -tṓn; (β) n of *ʾantṓn is assimilated, resulting in ʾattṓn, and this ʾat- (*ʾan-) is dropped here.
The phrase means something like “I know that it is time [that] you guys are buying.” (zaḇnā is mas. in Syriac)
ܡܸܛܠ ܕܲܚܙܲܝܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܕܫܲܪܝܼܪܵܐ ܗ̣݇ܝ ܡܸܠܲܬ݂ܝ.܀
mellā, mel(lə)ṯā: becomes la when a consonantal suffix (including -ẙ) is attached: mellaṯẙ, mellaṯḵṓn, mellaṯhṓn, etc. See 20140831.

2016-02-16

Daniel (arc) 2:8⁎

עָנֵ֤ה מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָמַ֔ר מִן־יַצִּיב֙ יָדַ֣ע אֲנָ֔ה דִּ֥י עִדָּנָ֖א אַנְתּ֣וּן זָבְנִ֑ין
min- = as the first element of compound adverbs of manner [I know for certain] (CAL); yaṣṣīḇ (abs.) = “firm, irrefutable”; zāḇnīn = ܙܳܒ̥ܢܝܢ (part. pl.)
2016-03-02: zḁ̄ḇ(ĕ)ˈnīn OR zḁḇˈnīn
כָּל־קֳבֵל֙ דִּ֣י חֲזֵית֔וֹן דִּ֥י אַזְדָּ֖א מִנִּ֥י מִלְּתָֽא׃
kɔl-qɔ̆ḇēl (kḁl-qḁ̆ˈḇēl) = “because (of), in view of”; ḥăzētōn = ܚܙܰܝܬܘܿܢ;

2016-02-22

Daniel (syc) 2:9⁎

ܕܐܸܢ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܠܵܐ ܬܚܵܘܘܿܢܵܢܝ: ܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܗ̣݇ܝ ܕܵܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ:
tḥawwṓnānẙ (ES tḥāwwṓnānẙ): from tḥawwṓn, impf. 2mp of ḥawwī Pa.; dāṭā = f. “verdict”
ܘܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܟܲܕܵܒ݂ܬܵܐ ܘܲܣܪܝܼܩܬܵܐ ܐܸܬ݂ܪܲܥܝܼܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܠܡܹܐܡܲܪ ܩܕ݂ܵܡܲܝ: ܥܲܕ݂ ܙܲܒ݂ܢܵܐ ܢܸܥܒܲܪ.
kaddāḇā, kaddāḇTā = “lying, false”: LS2 has kaddāḇtā (hard T) as a noun; srīqā, srīqtā (hard T) = “empty, hollow; vain, worthless”
ʾeṯraʕʕītṓn = Ethpa. of √rʕy “to be contented”: “to be reconsiled, to make peace, to make agreement; to deliberate, to devise, contrive”; ʕaḏ = “while, until”
ܐܸܠܵܐ ܚܸܠܡܵܐ ܐܸܡܲܪܘ ܠܝܼ: ܕܐܸܕܲܥ ܕܐܵܦ ܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܡܚܵܘܹܝܢ ܐ݇ܢܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܠܝܼ.܀
mḥawwē(t)tṓn (ES mḥāw-): “so that I may know that, also, you guys are showing me its interpretation” — maybe: “so that I may know that you guys are indeed showing me…” or “you guys are showing me its very interpretation

The T in -tṓn/tēn (2mp/2fp) is always hard: especially, the T is hard in 3rd-Y -ītṓn.

2016-02-23

Daniel (arc) 2:9a

דִּ֣י הֵן־חֶלְמָא֩ לָ֨א תְהֽוֹדְעֻנַּ֜נִי חֲדָה־הִ֣יא דָֽתְכ֗וֹן
tĕhō-ḏĕʕunˈnanī = “you guys will let me know”: The u is short; a long ū was written in 2:5, as tĕhō-ḏĕūnˈnanī. The suffix is written ˈ-anī, with a short, open syllable; though it may have been read -annī (as in Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar §26g) or -ānī (like in Syriac). Tĕ- is soft after lā (conjunctive).
חֲדָה־הִ֣יא דָֽתְכ֗וֹן ‎= ܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܗ̣݇ܝ ܕܵܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ: in theory, the BA version is ˌdā-ˈṯĕḵōn, where the reason why the -ḵōn is soft is more obvious than in Syriac. D- is soft after hī (conjunctive).
This Rĕḇīaʕ (כ֗) phrase is divided into two by a Gèrèš (נ֜). Before this Gèrèš, there are paird conjunctive accents: (1) Tĕlīšā Qĕṭannā (א֩), followed by (2) a (middle) Qaḏmā (ל֨) aka ʾAzlāSph. The latter is not a postpositive QaḏmāSph i.e. Pašṭā (ל֙), which is disjunctive. Also note that while Tĕlīšā Ḡĕḏōlā (א֠) is disjunctive, Tĕlīšā Qĕṭannā (א֩) is conjunctive.

2016-02-25

Daniel (arc) 2:9b

וּמִלָּ֨ה כִדְבָ֤ה וּשְׁחִיתָה֙ הַזְמִנְתּוּן (כ הִזְדְּמִנְתּוּן֙ ק) לְמֵאמַ֣ר קָֽדָמַ֔י
kiḏ(ĕ)ḇā = m. “falsehood”: apposition? or as adjective?; šĕḥīṯā = fem. pass. pt. of šĕḥat = “to rust”
hiz-ˈdĕmIn-tūn [A. F. Johns, p. 39] or -dĕmEn-tūn [Greenspahn, p. 216] (would be ʾez-dəmen-tṓn in Syriac) = “to plot together” [CAL], Hithpeel pf. 2mp of zĕman “to prepare”;
The first part with Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn (מ֔) is divided into four by Reḇīaʕ (כ֗), Pašṭā (ה֙), and another Pašṭā (ן֙).

2016-02-27

Daniel (arc) 2:9c

עַ֛ד דִּ֥י עִדָּנָ֖א יִשְׁתַּנֵּ֑א
שְׁנָא = “to be different”: Dt impf. 3ms יִשְׁתַּנֵּא = “to be changed”: in Syriac, this would be ne- instead of yi-, and the rest would be the same.
The second part with Ṭip̄ḥā (נ֖) is subdivided by Tĕḇīr (ע֛).

2016-02-28 Although ʕaḏ dī “until” is an idiom, it seems that dī is connected to the following word more strongly than ʕaḏ + dī.

2016-02-28

Daniel (arc) 2:9d

לָהֵ֗ן חֶלְמָא֙ אֱמַ֣רוּ לִ֔י וְֽאִנְדַּ֕ע דִּ֥י פִשְׁרֵ֖הּ תְּהַחֲוֻנַּֽנִי׃
lāˈhēn (CAL lāhen) = “but, therefore”
ʾindaʕ = Syr. ʾeddaʕ: In BA, a 1st-Y in Peal impf. generally behaves like a 1st-N, where the N is assimilated (A Short Grammar of BA, pp. 48–49); if so, the result would be ʾiddaʕ, almost identical to the Syriac form. However, here “N” is at least written (though possibly assimilated when read).
tĕha-ḥăwōn is suffixed as tĕha-ḥăwunˈnanī: i.e. a 3rd-Y has -ōn when not suffixed, but when suffixed, it has -unn- like a strong verb. Note that in Syriac, the ṓ is kept when suffixed (e.g. teḥzṓnānẙ “you guys will see me”).

2016-03-04

Daniel (syc) 2:10⁎

ܥܢܵܘ ܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ ܘܐܵܡܪܝܼܢ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܠܲܝܬ݁ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܥܲܠ ܐܲܪܥܵܐ ܕܡܸܠܲܬ݂ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܡܸܫܟܲܚ ܠܲܡܚܵܘܵܝܘܼ:
lamḥawwāyū (ES lamḥāwwāyū) Pa. inf. = “to show”, more like “to perform (his order)” or “to inform (him of the matter)”
ܐܵܦܠܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܬ݂ܘܿܡ ܡܠܸܟ ܪܲܒ݁ ܘܫܲܠܝܼܛ ܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܐܲܝܟ ܗܵܕܹܐ ܫܲܐܸܠ: ܠܟ̣ܠ ܚܲܪܵܫ ܘܐܵܫܘܿܦ ܘܟܲܠܕܵܝ.܀
men mṯṓm = “never”
mleḵ = abs.; šallīṭ, šallīṭā = “ruler” (possibly “ruling”): Apparently, the context (“there is no one”) triggers the Absolute State, as in ܠܰܝܬ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ (also in John 7:4) in the first part. Even ܪܰܒ is in the Abs. st. (this can’t be Const.), although it is seemingly restrictive. Perhaps predicative, as in: “Even a king, however great and powerful (he may be), has never asked something like this.” That, or: “Even a king, a leader, or a ruler”.
lā … kul = “not any”

2016-10-23 CAL on ʾaššāp̄: alternate vocalization: ˀāšep̄, ˀāšpā Akkadian āšipu. In Akkadian, the āšipu is an exorcist rather than a diviner (i.e. barû), but the distinction seems to have been lost on the users of the loanword.: ʾāšṓp̄(ā) = “reciter of incantations”

2016-03-05

Daniel (arc) 2:10a

עֲנ֨וֹ כַשְׂדָּיֵא (כ כַשְׂדָּאֵ֤י ק) קֳדָם־מַלְכָּא֙ וְאָ֣מְרִ֔ין
qḁ̆ḏḁ̄m (CAL qŭḏām): in theory, qḁ̆ḏåm (qɔ̆ḏɔm) here.
wĕˌʾā-mĕˈrīn: has two accents, as if wĕˌʾā-me-ˈrīn. In Syriac, the second radical (m) is vowelless (wām-rīn). [See 2:11b below]
לָֽא־אִיתַ֤י אֲנָשׁ֙ עַל־יַבֶּשְׁתָּ֔א דִּ֚י מִלַּ֣ת מַלְכָּ֔א יוּכַ֖ל לְהַחֲוָיָ֑ה
yabbèštā (yabbaštā) = Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (tmr) for Biblical Hebrew (BH) yabbāšā “dry land”: not used in Old Aramaic/Official Aramaic/Syriac, so it is technically strange that they use this word here. Probably this text was written or rewritten in about 200 CE or later.
ד֚ has a Yĕṯīḇ (a name like ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒܐ), which is the isolated form of Pašṭā, sometimes used on a monosyllabic word. On the Tiro keyboard, this one is on [']; this is not a Mahpāḵ (Mĕhuppāḵ) ד֤, that is [Shift]+[X]. With a vowel point, the difference is obvious — as in דִ֚ and דִ֤ —, that is, a Yĕṯīḇ is prepositive.
ykl = “to be able”: BA shows inconsistent multiple forms: יוּכַל (impf.?) (CAL)
(lĕ)haḥăwāyā = Haphel Infinitive. If this form had existed in Syriac, it would have been *(lə)maḥwāyū.

2016-03-06

Changed KL shortcuts tentatively to see if this is better: previously, [LAlt]+[Shift]+[6/7/8] = Hebrew/Amharic/Greek and +[4] was unassigned (long ago, +[3/4] = Syriac Phonetic/Syriac, but then I switched to +[3] = Syriac); now [LAlt]+[Shift]+[4/6/7] = Greek/Amharic/Hebrew and +[8] is unassigned.

2016-05-03: Changed again: now [4]=Arabic, [5]=Hebrew, [6]=Amharic, [8]=Greek.

Daniel (arc) 2:10b

כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּ֚י כָּל־מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ רַ֣ב וְשַׁלִּ֔יט מִלָּ֤ה כִדְנָה֙ לָ֣א שְׁאֵ֔ל
kiḏnā or possibly kiḏĕnā, though unlikely [the first syllable like this is sometimes closed, but not always, at least in Hebrew (Gesenius §28a, b)]: from dĕnā (Abs. dēn) “this”. According to Jastrow, com. gen. In some dialects, Abs. is den, as CAL says: In PTA/Gal/Sam/CPA (and probably Qum.) apparently with a short vowel (which is probably original: see s.v. dnh), for it is almost always spelled defectively in those dialects. Our ܗܳܢܐ is from hā (“Lo!”) + dĕnā (N §67).
šĕʾēl = A pausal or dialectal form of šĕʾal (Peal). If pausal, the reason it’s not šĕʾāl may be that in Tiberian ā /ɔː/ was not the long version of a, which was probably [a~æ~ɛ].
לְכָל־חַרְטֹּ֖ם וְאָשַׁ֥ף וְכַשְׂדָּֽי׃
lĕḵḁl-ḥarṭ-ˈṭōm: While this Dagesh (Dāḡēš) is obviously strange and may simply be a typo, it is understandable in a way. This is like a Finnish word metsa, which is pronounced like mettsa. The copyist may have been hyper-faithful, and may have actually meant -rṭṭ-. Another possibility would be that the copyist was a little sleepy and thought that this ṭ must be marked as hard, confusing it with t/ṯ.

2016-05-03

Daniel (syc) 2:11⁎

ܘܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܫܵܐܹܠ ܝܲܩܝܼܪܵܐ ܗ݇ܝܼ: ܘܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܠܲܝܬ݁ ܕܲܢܚܵܘܹܝܗ̇ ܩܕܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܐܸܠܵܐ ܐܸܢ ܐܲܠܵܗ̈ܝܼܢ ܕܠܲܝܬ݁ ܡܲܥܡܲܪܗܘܿܢ ܥܲܡ ܒܢܲܝ̈ ܒܸܣܪܵܐ.܀
nāš layt = again, abs. as “no one” [perh. also related to the fact that ʾalāhīn is in the abs. st.?]; ʾellā ʾēn = “unless, except for”; maʕmar = “domicile (the place where a person lives), dwelling”
besrā = “flesh”, bar besrā = “man”. This is a clearcut example of s2: Heb בָּשָׂר “flesh”; Ara بَشَر “human, skin” [“human” also in Persian] and بَشَرَة “skin”; Tmr בִּשְׂרָא or בִּסְרָא. CAL: spelled with sin in pre-classical texts and so too occasionally in later Jewish texts influenced by Bib. Hebrew

2016-05-05

Daniel (arc) 2:11a

וּמִלְּתָ֨א דִֽי־שָׁאֵל֙ יַקִּירָ֔ה וְאָחֳרָן֙ לָ֣א אִיתַ֔י דִּ֥י יְחַוִּנַּ֖הּ קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א
ʾḁḥḁ̆rḁ̄n (ʾoḥŏrān) Cf. G §9v
D *yĕḥawwē: in Impf. often -inn- is inserted before a suffix (Eric D. Reymon, Introductory Lessons in Aramaic, p. 91): this is like the longer forms of imperatives in Syriac (-īnā-, -ūnā-, -ēnā-).

2016-05-06

Daniel (arc) 2:11b

לָהֵ֣ן אֱלָהִ֔ין דִּ֚י מְדָ֣רְה֔וֹן עִם־בִּשְׂרָ֖א לָ֥א אִיתֽוֹהִי׃
מָדוֹר and מְדוֹרָא = “dwelling place” (masc. sing.): here in מְדָרְהוֹן it is written mĕḏḁ̄r- (mĕḏḁr ?) instead of mĕḏōr-. This has two accents, as if mĕ-ˌḏār-ˈhōn. 2:10a also has a similar pattern: wĕ-ˌʾām-rīn. Now I’m suspecting that these are for musical reasons, where you want to have a Mūnaḥ before a Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn but there are not enough words, and so you put the two on one word.
ʾīṯōhī = ܐܝܬ̥ܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱

2016-05-07

Daniel (syc) 2:12⁎

ܗܵܝܕܝܹܢ ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܐܸܬ݂ܚܲܡܲܬ݂ ܪܵܘܪܒ݂ܵܐܝܼܬ݂: ܘܲܒ݂ܪܘܼܓ݂ܙܵܐ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼܵܐܐ ܐܸܡܲܪ: ܠܡܵܘܒܵܕܘܼ ܠܟ݂ܠܗܘܿܢ ܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒܵܒܹܠ.܀
hāydēn = adv. of time, “then”: The older form ˀdyn [BA אֱדַ֫יִן] for "then" seems to have split into two forms in Syriac: this one as a relatively rarer and archaic independent form and dyn as an enclitic under the influence of Greek usage. (CAL)
ʾeṯḥammaṯ = Dt “to be angered, become angry”; râwrəḇāʾīṯ = “greatly”, related to ܪܰܘܪܒ̥̈ܐ (ES rāw-), which is used as a pl. form of ܪܰܒ̊ (N §146)
ruḡzā = “wrath”
ܐܶܒ̥ܰܕ, impf. ܢܹܐܒ̥ܰܕ = “to be lost, disappear, to perish” (like ʾemar: N §174B): C “to destroy”, ləmâwbāḏū inf. (eg Mk3:4)
Bābèl or Bābē(y)l, written ܒܳܒ̥ܶܠ in WS (eg Ac7:43)

2016-05-08

ܚܶܡܬ̥ܐ “anger” and words like ܚܘܡܐ “heat” might be related, or at least they overlap in meaning. Both CAL and LLA treat them separately, however. ሐመመ: radix semiticis linguis communis, quae significat 1) caluit [he was hot]… and ሐመወ: rad. inus.

Daniel (arc) 2:12⁎

כָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָ֔ה מַלְכָּ֕א בְּנַ֖ס וּקְצַ֣ף שַׂגִּ֑יא וַאֲמַר֙ לְה֣וֹבָדָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל חַכִּימֵ֥י בָבֶֽל׃
bns = “to be(come) angry”: LJLA usages almost certainly represent a secondary verb based on a mis-interpretation of the BA passage. The latter should be understood as ב + נס, from nss 'to be enraged', as argued by R. Steiner, JQR 82 [The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 82, No. 3/4: Meaninglessness, Meaningfulness, and Super-Meaningfulness in Scripture: An Analysis of the Controversy Surrounding Dan 2:12 in the Middle Ages]. (CAL) This is also discussed in Pulpit Commentary.
qṣp = “to be(come) angry”; “to be rough, excited” (Jestrow)

2016-05-10

Daniel (syc) 2:13⁎

ܘܦܘܼܩܕܵܢܵܐ ܢܦܲܩ ܘܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܡܸܬ݂ܩܲܛܠܝܼܢ: ܘܲܒ݂ܥܵܘ ܕܢܸܩܛܠܘܼܢ ܠܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܘܲܠܚܲܒ݂ܪ̈ܵܘܗܝ.
puqdānā = “command” (*1); meṯqaṭ(ṭ)līn Ethpe. OR Ethpa. = “being killed” ≈ “to be killed” [Dt in arc. See below]; bʕy = “to seek”; ḥaḇrā = “companion”

(*1) 2016-08-24: ܡܰܠܦ̥ܳܢܐ܂ ܐܰܝܢܐ ܦ̥ܘܩܕܳܢܐ ܪܰܒ̊ ܒܢܳܡܘܿܣܐ. (Mt22:36⁎)

2016-05-11

Daniel (arc) 2:13⁎

וְדָתָ֣א נֶפְקַ֔ת וְחַכִּֽימַיָּ֖א מִֽתְקַטְּלִ֑ין וּבְע֛וֹ דָּנִיֵּ֥אל וְחַבְר֖וֹהִי לְהִתְקְטָלָֽה׃ פ
dāṯā = f. “law, edict, verdict”: from Old Persian, possibly related to Lat. datum (i.e. “what is given”).
nèp̄qaṯ = the meaning is clear, but why not *nip̄qaṯ? Some kind of pausal form? Or is it related to the fact that the 1st rad. is N?

2016-11-05: pal PNG MacK23/204: dād [dʾtẘ | M dʾd, N ~] law, justice; those scriptures dealing with legal matters.

2016-06-04

Daniel (syc) 2:14⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܐܸܬ݂ܪܲܥܝܼ ܘܐܸܬ݂ܡܲܠܲܟ: ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܐܵܪܝܼܘܼܟ ܪܲܒ݁ ܕܲܚܫܹ̈ܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܗܵܘ ܕܲܢ̣ܦܲܩ ܠܲܡܩܲܛܵܠܘܼ ܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ.܀
rʕy (II) = “to desire”, D “to reconcile”, Dt “to be reconciled”, then: “to think, contemplate” Secondary development from rˁy #2 vb. (CAL).
mlk Dt = “to deliberate”
daḥšā = “attendant, lictor” from: Iranian (CAL), Parthian *daxš (wikt) [2016-11-03 Not in MacK]

2016-06-05

Daniel (arc) 2:14⁎

בֵּאדַ֣יִן דָּנִיֵּ֗אל הֲתִיב֙ עֵטָ֣א וּטְעֵ֔ם לְאַרְי֕וֹךְ רַב־טַבָּחַיָּ֖א דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א
twb = “to return”, C “to answer”
עֵטָא‎ = עֵיטָא “counsel, advice, order”
טְעֵם = “taste, sense, reason”, also BA “command, order” [CAL The meaning "order" is a calque from the Akkadian cognate]; ܛܥܶܡ and ܛܰܥܡܐ “taste”. CAL reads this as “report”, under ṭʕm, as “Daniel returned an advisory report to Arioch”, and also under twb, “Daniel responded with advice for Arioch”. Since Daniel is asking a question in 2:15, like he is confused and has no idea what is going on, “an advisory report” doesn’t sound right here. The current BA text of 2:14 feels strange (and its various translations feel forced), and is perhaps corrupted. The Syriac version sounds very natural (though it may be too free). So does the Vulgate, “Daniel requisivit de lege atque sententia ab Arioch”.

2016-08-24

Daniel (syc) 2:15⁎

ܥܲܠ ܡܵܢܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܦܘܼܩܕܵܢܵܐ ܡܲܚܨܸܦ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܕ݂ܵܡ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܘܲܓ݂ܠܵܗ̇ ܡܸܠܬ݂ܵܐ ܐܵܪܝܼܘܼܟ ܠܕ݂ܵܐܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ.܀
ʕal mānā = “whatfore, on what account”; √ḥṣp = “to be bold”: Aph. to urge. to dare {#1}; glā = “to show, reveal”; melṯā = “matter”, prob. not “word” {#2}
2016-09-29 {#1} “to be severe (command)” (CAL); {#2} This should be “the situation” i.e. “the story”.

2016-09-29

Daniel (syc) 2:16⁎

ܘܕ݂ܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܒܥܵܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܕܙܲܒ݂ܢܵܐ ܢܸܬܸ݁ܠ ܠܹܗ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܵܐ ܠܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܢܚܵܘܹܐ.܀
CAL: NTN (to give) is a common verb in Old Aramaic and Official Aramaic. In the later dialects it is regularly suppletively used in the pre-formative patterns for the even more irregular YHB [ܝܰܗ̱ܒ]. In Syriac (and less commonly CPA as a borrowing thereof) the dative preposition is assimilated to the end of the word, yielding the new root NTL. In Babylonian, NTN and YHB merge producing NTB.
NTL works like ܢܦ̥ܰܠ “to fall”, impf. ܬܶܦ̊ܶܠ (from ܬܶܢܦܶܠ); ܢܶܦ̊ܶܠ (from ܢܶܢܦܶܠ); with e.
2016-10-08 Note: in ES, ܢܚܵܘܹܐ is sometimes written ܢܚܵܘܸܐ.

2016-10-01 Dan 2:16 below has an example of NTN, where the thematic vowel is é.

Daniel (arc) 2:15⁎

עָנֵ֣ה וְאָמַ֗ר לְאַרְיוֹךְ֙ שַׁלִּיטָ֣א דִֽי־מַלְכָּ֔א עַל־מָ֥ה דָתָ֛א מְהַחְצְפָ֖ה מִן־קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א
[חֲצַף‎] = ܚܨܰܦ “to be bold”: Haphel (C) would be הַחְצֵף “to embolden [oneself], to act irreverently”, Pt. מְהַחְצֵף and מְהַחְצְפָה. Jastrow 496 takes מְהַחְצְפָה as passive here, “[being] insisted upon, urgent”; also Emil Kautzsch 1884, §33, 2e.
2016-10-03: Pass. pt. masc. would be מְהַחְצַף, with a instead of é. This is a of the so-called Hop̄ʕal (the first vowel is also a in participles). In Aramaic, just like in Syriac, D and C pass. pt. are identical to act. pt., except in m. sg. (Greenspahn, p. 130; Alger F. Johns, p. 91; Cf. N §165).
דִֽי־מַלְכָּ֔א = ˈMèṯèḡ is always added to the vowel of an open ultima, which is joined by Maqqēp̄ to a word beginning with a toneless syllable (G §16d).
אֱדַ֣יִן מִלְּתָ֔א הוֹדַ֥ע אַרְי֖וֹךְ לְדָנִיֵּֽאל׃
הוֹדַ֫ע = Haphel of יְדַע (Heb. יָדַע) = ܝܺܕܰܥ, Aph. ܐܰܘܕܰܥ
With SBL Hebrew, לְדָנִיֵּאל shows slightly confusing when a ˈMèṯèḡ is added (the ṣērē is shown too right, partly below the nūn); in Shlomo, לְדָנִיֵּֽאל.

Brown-Driver-Briggs: A Hebrew and English lexicon of the Old Testament (Emory University) (Clean DjVu); A Hebrew and English lexicon of the Old Testament (Microsoft)

2016-09-30

Daniel (arc) 2:16⁎

וְדָ֣נִיֵּ֔אל עַ֖ל וּבְעָ֣ה מִן־מַלְכָּ֑א דִּ֚י זְמָ֣ן יִנְתֵּן־לֵ֔הּ וּפִשְׁרָ֖א לְהַֽחֲוָיָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא׃ פ
עַל‎ = ܥܰܠ “to enter”
אא֣א אא֗א בב֤ב בבב֙ גג֣ג גג֔ג = (G §15f) Yĕṯīḇ as in דִּ֚י is used in place of Pašṭā when the latter would stand on a monosyllable or on a foretoned word, not preceded by a conjunctive accent [which would be Mĕhuppāḵ (Mahpāḵ) בב֤ב]. Note that Rĕḇīaʕ does not have an isolated version like this.
יִנְתֵּן‎ = impf. of NTN, with the thematic vowel é (or ē as it is written). The first N is not assimilated here. [Greenspahn, p. 78; Rosenthal, para. 118]

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 38] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 38 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܡܳܢܝܐ]: ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܳܢ

2015-12-09

ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܰܢ ܣܳܓܝ ܪܰܒܐ:
ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܳܗ̇ ܫܘܪܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܓܰܒܐ.
ܘܺܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫ̈ܰܝ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ:
ܘܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܢ ܕܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܛܳܒ ܫܰܦܝܪ̈ܐ.
tmr שׁוּר,‎ שׁוּרָא ‎= سور ⟦mūrus⟧
tmr גַּב,‎ גַּבָּא “back” ‎= جَنْب “side” ‎= ገቦ (gabbo?) LLA 1173 ⟦lătus⟧: ܡܢ ܟܠ ܓܰܒܐ, more frequently ܡܢ ܟܠ ܓܰܒܝ̈ܢ or ܡܢ ܟܠ ܓܶܒ, “on every side, from every side”
ܐܳܕ̥ܫܐ = εἶδος “sort, kind, species” ܐܳܕ̥ܫ̈ܰܝ pl. constr.
ܢܶܨܒܐ and ܢܶܨܒܬ̥ܐ “plant”: pl. ܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܢ and ܢܶܨ̈ܒܳܬ̥ܳܐ
ܛܳܒ adv. “very”

2015-12-10

ܗܳܪܟܐ ܘܬܰܡܳܢ ܬܰܦ̈ܐ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ:
ܪܳܕܶܝܢ ܠܫܶܩܝܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ ܪ̈ܓ̥ܰܝܳܐ.
ܡܐ ܦܐܶܝܢ ܘܰܪ̈ܕܐ ܒܓܰܘܢܐ ܘܪܝܚܐ:
ܚܙܳܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ ܠܢܰܦܫܐ ܡܢܝܚܐ.
tappā “a stream, smaller than a river", usually ܏ܬ ܕܡܰܝܴ̈ܐ (Jess); m. and f. N §87
RDY “to flow”
šeqyā “irrigation, pool, canal”
ܝܰܪܩܳܐ “a herb, garden- or pot-herb, vegetable”
ܪܰܓ̥ܝܐ “moist, soft; tender, fresh, green” (like ܚܰܠܝܐ “sweet”, pl. ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ)
ܦܶܐܝܢ = pl. abs. of ܦܰܐܝܐ “pretty”: ܦܺܐܝ “to be beautiful” ‎= יָפֶה “beautiful” ‎= وَفَى “to fulfill” ‎= ወፈረ “rad. inus. [inūsitātus=uncommon] completus fuitአወፈየ (ʔäwäfäyä) “committere” LLA 949
gaunā = “color”
rḗḥā = “smell” (maybe related to rūḥā ?) ‎= רֵיחַ ‎= ريح ‎= ርሔ (rəḥe) LLA 274
ḥzāṯā = “sight”; nap̄šā = “soul”
ܡܢܝܚܐ = “pleasing, resting” fem. abs. part. of ܐܰܢܝܚ “to give rest”, Aph. of ܢܳܚ √NWḤ “to be at rest”

Yarqā, yarqē, yarqṓnē

2015-12-11

Although ܝܰܪܩܘܿܢܐ may be a diminutive form of ܝܰܪܩܐ (so says TS/Jess; CAL: The plural of this form is also the plural of yrq n.m.! As a singular, perhaps it is indeed a diminutive (so Audo) rather than just a back-formation.), ܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܐ is believed to be a plural form of ܝܰܪܩܐ (N §74 fn3). The normal plural form ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ does also exists. For yarqā + nā = yarqṓnā, see N §45.

ܘܗܝ ܙܥܘܪܝܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܙܰܪ̈ܥܘܿܢܐ. ܡܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܕܰܪܒܳܬ̥܉ ܪܰܒܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܐ. ܘܗܳܘܝܐ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ܉ ܐܰܝܟ ܕܬ̥ܐܬ̥ܐ (ܕܬܹܐܬܶܐ) ܦܳܪܰܚܬ̥ܐ ܕܰܫܡܳܝܐ ܬܰܩܶܢ ܒܣܰܘ̈ܟ̊ܶܝܗ̇ ܀
zarʕṓnē “seeds”, similarly from zarʕā; rḇā √RBY; pāraḥṯā: T is soft, N §23E, LS2; hard in CAL. ʾaqqen Aph. “to nest” √QNN
sawkēh “its (f.) branches”: “its (f.)” = probably “of a grain (f.) of mustard (m.)”; it can’t be “mustard (m.)” nor “tree (m.)”. In Greek, “its” is mas. or neut. sg., so it may refer to “a grain (m.) of mustard (n.)”. “a grain (m.) of mustard (n.)”, or “a tree (n.)”; but it can’t be “birds” (n. pl.); “birds” is plural also in H. (and collectively “birds” in C/S, probably).
And it [a grain of mustard] is smaller than all of them — seeds (=smaller than any other seeds). When, however, it has become big, it is bigger than all of them — herbs (=bigger than any other herbs), and becomes a tree such that a bird of the sky will come and will nest in its branches. (Mt13:32⁎)

2015-12-12

Old Syriac

ܘܗܝ ܙܥܘܪܝܐ ܗܝ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܙܪܥ̈ܘܢܐ. ܘܡܐ ܕܪܒܬ ܪܒܐ ܗܝ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܝܪܩ̈ܘܢܐ. ܘܗܘܝܐ ܐܝܠܢܐ. ܘܐܬܝܐ ܚܝܘܬ ܟܢܦܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ ܘܫܟܢܐ ܒܣ̈ܘܟܝܗ ܀
ܘܙܥܘܪܝܐ ܗܝ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܙܪܥܘܢܐ. ܘܡܐ ܕܪܒܬ ܪܒܐ ܗܝ ܡܢ ܟܘܠܗܘܢ ܝܪ̈ܩܘܢܐ ܘܗܘܝܐ ܐܝܠܢܐ ܘܐܬܝܐ ܚܝܘܬ ܟܢܦܐ ܘܫܟܢܐ ܒܣܘܟܝܗ܇
ܘܗܝ‎] ܗܝ CAL/P-Tool. — ܐܳܬ̥ܝܐ part. — ܚܰܝܘܰܬ̥ ܟܶܢܦ̥ܐ “bird (lit. animal of wing), wild foul”: soft P (N §94C): probably “birds”, collectively (LS2 avēs) — ŠKN = “to inhabit, to nest”
ὃ μικρότερον μέν ἐστι(ν) πάντων τῶν σπερμάτων, ὅταν δὲ αὐξηθῇ μεῖζον τῶν λαχάνων ἐστὶ(ν) καὶ γίνεται δένδρον, ὥστε ἐλθεῖν τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ κατασκηνοῦν (κατασκηνοῖν) ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ.
αὐξάνω, aor. ηὔξησα “increase”: pass. subj. αὐξηθῇ “grow”: ὅταν works like ἐάν, i.e. «ὅταν + subj., pres. ind.» — λάχανον [λᾰχᾰ], τό “garden herbs” — ἐλθεῖν aor. inf.: with ὥστε denoting result — πετεινόν “winged”
κατασκηνόω “to settle” [to pitch one's camp or tent, take up one's quarters, encamp: ŠDY “to throw, cast down” in H]: inf. *κατασκηνόειν > -νοῦν, -νοῖν?: according to Babbitt, A grammar of Attic and Ionic Greek (1902) §19, ο-ει becomes οι (δηλόει > δηλοῖ), except when ο-ει = ο-εε (δηλόειν > δηλοῦν); then again, this is koine we’re talking about. Perseus: κατασκηνοῦν = pres inf act epic doric contr
κλάδος [ᾰ], ου, ὁ “branch”

2015-12-13

Harklean

ܗ̇ܝ ܕܝܬܝܪ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܡ̇ܢ ܐܝܬܝܗ̇ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܙܪ̈ܥܐ. ܟܕ ܕܝܢ ܬ̣ܪܒܐ (ܬܶܪܒܶܐ)܆ ܕܝܬܝܪ ܪܒܐ ܐܝܬܝܗ̇ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܝܪ̈ܩܐ. ܘܗ̇ܘܝܐ ܐܝܠܢܐ. ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܢܐܬܝ̈ܢ (ܕܢܹܐܬ̥ܝ̈ܳܢ) ܦܪ̈ܚܬܐ (ܦܳܪ̈ܚܳܬ̥ܳܐ) ܕܫܡ̈ܝܐ ܘܢ̣ܫܕ̈ܝܢ (ܘܢܶܫ̈ܕܝܳܢ) ܒܣܘ̈ܟܝܗ̇܀
quod minimum quidem est omnibus sēminibus: cum autem crēverit, maius est omnibus oleribus, et fit arbor, ita ut volucrēs (volūcrēs?) cæli veniant, et habitent in rāmīs eius.
crēscō, crēvī = “to grow”; olus = holus, holeris, “vegetable”; volŭcer, volucris = “a bird”, habitō āre

2015-12-14 The feminine adjective is understandably in the absolute state in d-yattīr rabbā ʾīṯēh “[That] which is the biggest”. However, in hāy d-yattīr zʕṓrtā man ʾīṯēh, the emphatic state is used, as if saying “That which is the smallest thing, on the one hand”, rather than just saying “That which is the smallest, on the one hand”. Why the difference? Possibly ὃ μικρότερον μέν ἐστι(ν) was felt like “something smallest = that which is the smallest thing” (smallest is restrictive) rather than “that which is smallest” (smallest is predicative), maybe because and μικρότερον are so close to each other, while μικρότερον and ἐστι(ν) are separated by μέν? This is the difference between “That thing is the smallest” and “That is the smallest thing”. In S/C/P, the expression is simply zʕṓryā (h)y. It seems that the difference in H stems from the fact that it keeps in its dry, non-idiomatic, word-by-word translation.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 37] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 37 [ܕܰܬܠܳܬܝܢ ܘܫܰܒܥܐ]: ܚܰܪܬ̥ܐ ܕܢܶܟ̥ܠܐ

2015-12-07

ܚܳܝܶܐ ܡܡܰܙܶܓ̥ ܢܰܚܠܐ ܩܦܰܚ ܢܶܟ̥ܠܐ
ḥāyē mmazzeḡ naḥlā qp̄aḥ neḵlā
to live to mix; Pa. to mingle torrent, valley, wadi #1 to strike guile, deceit, a plot
ܓܰܒܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܝܬ̥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܶܗ ܬܘܿܪܬ݁ܐ، ܘܚܳܝܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܥܰܠ ܚܰܠܒ݂ܳܗ̇. ܘܟܽܠ ܟܡܐ ܕܚܳܠܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܡܡܰܙܶܓ̥ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܒܚܰܠܒܳܗ̇ ܘܰܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܶܗ.
ܐ̱ܢܳܫ = after a descriptive term for a person: a certain (CAL).
tṓrtā (CAL): tmr תּוֹרְתָּא or תּוֹרְתָא from תּוֹרָא “ox” = שׁוֹר ‎= ثَوْر
ܟܠ ܟܡܐ ܕ “so much as; as much, how much, how long” (Jess). ḥālèḇ = “to milk”: ܠܗ̇ prob. “milk her (the cow)”.
ܒܚܰܕ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܰܘܡܐ، ܟܰܕ ܗܝ ܬܘܪܬܐ ܪܳܥܝܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܒܢܰܚܠܐ، ܢܚܶܬ̥ ܡܶܛܪܐ ܘܰܫܦܰܥܘ̱ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܘܛܰܒܥܘܗ̇ ܠܬܘܪܬܐ.
tmr מִטְרָא ‎= מָטָר ‎= مَطَر ⟦imber⟧
šp̄aʕ “to pour forth, overflow, rise as a river in flood”. ṭabbaʕ Pa. “to drown”, ṭab(bə)ʕū̆h “they drowned her”.
ܢܰܗܪܐ ‎= נָהָר ‎= نَهْر from which Persian نهر /næhr/, Tajik наҳр

2015-12-08

ܘܟܰܕ ܫܡܰܥ ܡܳܪܳܗ̇ ܕܬܘܪܬܐ، ܩܦܰܚ ܪܝܫܶܗ ܘܫܰܪܝ ܒܳܟ̥ܶܐ. ܘܰܫܡܰܥ ܫܒܳܒܶܗ ܘܳܐܬ̥ܐ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܠܶܗ: ܠܡܘܢ ܒܳܟ̥ܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟ ܗܐ ܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܕܰܡܡܰܙܶܓ̥ ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ ܒܚܰܠܒܐ ܕܬܘܪܬܐ، ܐܶܬܟܰܢܰܫܘ̱ [ܐܶܬ̥ܟܰܢܰܫܘ̱] ܘܰܗܘܰܘ ܢܰܗܪܐ ܘܛܰܒܥܘܗ̇ ܀
mārāh = “her owner”; šḇāḇā = “neighbor”
ܟܢܶܫ “to gather”: Ethpe. ܐܶܛ̥ܟܢܶܫ “to be gathered”: Ethpa. ܐܶܛ̥ܟܰܢܰܫ “to be assembled; to collect oneself; to be summed up; to be concluded”

Selected Words

From Lesson 37:

From Lesson 36:

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 36] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 36 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܶܫܬܐ]: ܓܰܙܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܰܘܦܶܐ

2015-12-03

ܚܒܰܢܳܢ̈ܐ ܢܥܰܝܶܕ ܣܝܡܬܐ ܓܰܙܐ ܐܰܥܬܰܪܘ̱
ḥḇanānē #1 nʕayyeḏ sīmṯā #2 gazzā ʾaʕtar
lazy Pa. to accustom treasure, something placed treasure Aph. to make rich
ܣܳܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܐܝܬ̥ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠܶܗ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܒܢܝ̈ܢ ܚ̈ܒܰܢܳܢܐ. ܘܰܨܒܐ ܣܳܒܐ ܕܰܢܥܰܝܶܕ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܘܠܐ ܐܶܫܟܰܚ.
pulḥānā “work”

2015-12-04

ܘܟܰܕ ܩܪܶܒ ܕܰܢܡܘܬ̥، ܩܪܐ ܐܶܢܘܢ ܠܰܒܢܰܘܗ̱̈ܝ [ܠܰܒܢܰܘܗ̱̈ܝ̱].
QRB “to approach, to be near”; ܡܝܬ impf. ܢܡܘܬ N §177A
ܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܫܡܰܥܘ̱ ܘܺܐܡܰܪ ܠܟ̥ܘܢ: ܣܝܡܬܐ [ܣܝܡܬ̥ܐ] ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܕܕܰܗܒܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܝ ܒܟܰܪܡܐ، ܗܐ ܡܶܢ ܝܰܘ̈ܡܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܰܐܒܳܗ̈ܰܝ، ܠܐ ܕܶܝܢ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܡܶܢܟ̥ܘܢ ܕܰܐܝܟܐ ܐܝܬ̥ܶܝܗ̇، ܐܶܠܐ ܗܰܘ ܕܚܳܦܰܪ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ: ܗܳܢܐ ܡܶܫܟܰܚ ܠܳܗ̇.
ܐܰܒ̥̈ܳܗܶܐ or ܐܰܒ̥̈ܳܗܳܬ̥ܳܐ “fathers”: ܐܰܒ̥̈ܳܗܰܝ or ܐܰܒ̥̈ܳܗܳܬ̥ܝ̱ “my fathers”; ḤPR “to dig”
Free standing ܣܝܡܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܝ (which feels like “there is” or even “I have”) vs. ܐܝܟܐ ܐܝܬܶܝܗ̇ (“it exists”) with suffix. A similar example is in John 5:5 (see below).

2015-12-05

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܕܡܝܬ̥ ܣܳܒܐ، ܫܰܪܝ ܟܽܠ ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܒܟܰܪܡܐ ܡܶܢܶܗ ܘܠܶܗ.
šarrī Pa. “to begin”; ܡܶܢܶܗ or ܡܶܟܶܗ ܘܠܶܗ or (less commonly) ܡܶܢܶܗ ܘܒܶܗ “by himself, of himself, by itself alone” (Jess).
ܘܟܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܬܠܳܬ̥ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ، ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܟܰܪܡܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܺܝ̈ܶܐܐ ܘܰܐܥܬ̥ܰܪܘ̱ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ، ܘܺܝܕܰܥܘ̱: « ܕܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ ܓܰܙܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܕܠܐ ܡܰܘܦܶܐ » ܀
ܣܰܓܝ, emph. ܣܰܓܝܐܳܐ; pl. m. ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܺܝܢ, emph. ܣܰܓܝ̈ܐܶܐ: s2 He שָֹגָא (śāḡā ?) cogn. ሥጋ (śəga) “carō et corpus” √ ሠገወ “propriē crēscere” LLA (Dillm.) 267
ܥܬܰܪ “to be rich”; Aph. ܐܰܥܬܰܪ

ʾīṯ “there is” vs. ʾīṯaw “he is”, where the topic is the same person

ܐܝܬ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܬܰܡܳܢ ܓܒܪܐ ܚܰܕ܉ ܕܰܬܠܬܝܢ ܘܰܬܡܢܶܐ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ ܐܝܬܰܘܗ̱ܝ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܒܟ̥ܘܪܗܳܢܐ.
ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ ܕܹܝܢ ܬܲܡ̇ܢ ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܚܲܕ ܕܲܬ݂ܠܵܬ݂ܝܼܢ ܘܲܬ݂ܡܵܢܹܐ ܫܢ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܝܼܬ݂ܵܘܗܝ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ ܒܟ݂ܘܼܪܗܵܢܵܐ.܀
And there was a certain man there; who, [for] thirty and eight years, was in sickness {kurḥānā} (=had been sick). (Jn5:5⁎)
ἦν δέ τις ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ τριάκοντα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη ἔχων ἐν τῇ ἀσθενείᾳ (αὐτοῦ).
τριᾱκοντα; ἔτος, ἔτεος, τό = “year”; ἔτεα pl. acc.
Erat autem quīdam homō ibi trīginta et octō annōs habēns in īnfirmitāte {īnfirmitās tātis} suā.

The phrase “in sickness” in P seems to be a literal translation of Greek; C is freer, simply saying ܟܪܝܗ ܗܘܐ “was sick”. Also, P keeps δέ, whereas C simply says ܘܐܝܬ ܗܘܐ ܬܡܢ. H even says ܐܝܬ ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ, where τις and ἄνθρωπος are translated word by word (almost absurdly faithful), repating nāš. H however does not have anything for αὐτοῦ, suggesting that it was not there originally. The page for this verse is lost in S.

Old Syriac: ḥzâ(w)wūy

2015-12-07

ܘܳܐܡ̇ܪܝܢ ܠܗ ܝܺܗܘܼܕܳܝ̈ܐ ܠܗܰܘ̇ ܕܶܐܬ̥ܰܐܣܝ. ܫܰܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ ܗ̱ܝ. ܠܐ ܫܰܠܝܛ ܠܳܟ ܕܬ̥ܶܫܩܘܿܠ ܥܰܪܣܳܟ.
ܘܐܵܡ̇ܪܝܼܢ ܠܹܗ ܝܗ݇ܘܼ̈ܕܵܝܹܐ ܠܗܘ̇ ܕܐܸܬ݂ܐܲܣܝܼ: ܫܲܒ݁ܬ݂ܵܐ ܗ݇ܝܼ: ܠܵܐ ܫܲܠܝܼܛ ܠܵܟ ܕܬܸܫܩܘܿܠ ܥܲܪܣܵܟ.܀
ܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ ܝܗ̈ܘܕܝܐ. ܫܒܬܐ ܗܝ ܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ ܠܟ ܕܬܫܩܘܠ ܥܪܣܟ.
ܘܟܕ ܚܙܘܘܗܝ ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ ܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ ܠܟ ܕܬܫܩܘܠ ܥܪܣܟ
yīhūḏāyē OR y(h)ūḏāyē — ʾeṯa(ʾ)ssī Ethpa. — šallīṭ “permitted” — šqal “to lift up, carry” — ʕrsā “bed” (Jn5:10⁎) // S ḥzâwū(h)y OR ḥzâwwū(h)y = ḥzaʾū(h)y In the forms of the 3rd pl. masc. Perf. with siffixes we find -ܘܘ- always written in S for -ܐܘ-, and generally in C. but ܚܙܐܘܗܝ occurs Matt xiv 26 C, where S has ܚܙܘ without suffix. (Burkitt (1904), vol. 2, p. 55)
ἔλεγον οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τῷ τεθεραπευμένῳ· Σάββατόν ἐστιν· οὐκ ἔξεστί(ν) σοι ἆραι τὸν κράβαττον.
θεραπεύω “to cure”: Pf. τεθεράπευμαι, part. τεθεραπευμένος // ἀείρω “to lift”: aor. ἤειρα, inf. ἆραι (ἄειραι)
Dicebant ergō Iudæī illī, quī sānātus fuerat {=sānātus erat}: Sabbatum est, nōn licet tibi tollere grabātum tuum.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 35] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 35 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܺܐܝܕܐ

2015-11-22

ܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܡܶܬܒܥܶܐ ܝܰܬ݁ܝܪ ܥܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ
mānē meṯbʕẹ̄ yattīr ʕel(l)ṯā hwayyā
vessels, utensils, garments to be sought, needed, inquired excessive, greater, more pretext, cause essences
ܢܦܰܩ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ ܠܰܡܨܳܕ.
ṣayyāḏā = “hunter” ⟦vēnātor⟧
ܚܰܩܠܐ f. “field”: ሐቅል (ḥăq(ĕ)l) /ħækʼ(ə)l/ “ager” LLA 96
ܨܳܕ √ṢWD “to hunt”: inf. ܠܰܡܨܳܕ N §177A

2015-11-23

ܥܒܰܪ ܕܶܝܢ ܝܰܘܡܐ ܘܠܐ ܨܳܕ ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܢ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ.
ʕbar = “to pass away (esp. of time)”; ܐܶܠܐ ܐܶܢ = “except for”
ܘܟܰܕ ܪܳܡܶܐ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܳܗ̇ ܒܟܝܣܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܐܳܘ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ، ܥܒܶܕ ܛܰܝܒܘ ܐܰܪܦܳܢܝ̱ ܐܺܙܰܠ ܠܩܶܢܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱.
RMY = “to throw”
ܟܝܣܐ ‖ He כִּיס ‖ Ar كيس ‖ Et ኪስ (kīs) “crumēna” LLA 870
ṭaybū = “kindness”; ܐܰܪܦܝ √RPY Aph. “to leave, let alone; allow”: Impt. ܐܰܪܦܐ
ܐܹܙܰܠ Impf. sg. 1c N §174H (Here used without ܕ while the main verb is suffixed)

2015-11-24

ܘܦܰܢܝ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ: ܘܡܘܢ ܝܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܶܢ ܐܰܪܦܝܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ̱؟
YTR = “to be left over (remain); to have profit”
ܐܰܪܦܝܬ̥ܶܟ̥ܝ̱: -t- is hard in ES: N §194; 20140911. ʾen + Perfect, somewhat like “sī fēcerō”.
ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܨܶܦܪܐ: ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܝܰܪܚܐ، ܟܰܕ ܬܘܒ ܬܺܐܬ̥ܶܐ ܠܰܡܨܳܕ ܗܳܪܟܐ، ܨܳܐܶܕ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ ܟܰܕ ܐܶܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܘܝܰܬܝܪ ܫܰܡܝܢܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܐ ܕܺܐܝܬ̥ܰܝ ܗܳܫܐ.
yarḥā = “month” PS *warḫ ‖ He יֶרַח “month”, יָרֵחַ “moon” ‖ Et ወርኅ (wärḫ(ə)) /wærχ(ə)/ “lūna, mēnsis” LLA 898: Ti ወርሒ (wärəḥi) /wɜrɨħi/
tūḇ = “again”; tḗṯē impf.; rabbā abs. fem.; šammīn, -nā, -ntā “fat”, here abs. fem.;
ܦܰܢܝ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ: ܐܳܘ، ܠܐ ܐܶܢܐ ܡܶܢ ܟܰܕܘ ܝܳܕܰܥ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܡܰܬ̥ܠܐ ܕܳܐܡܰܪ « ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܺܐܝܕܐ: ܛܳܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܣܰܪ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܝܢ ܕܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ » ܀
men kaddū = “long since, long before”
maṯlā = “proverb, parable” ‖ He מָשָׁל (?) ‖ Ar مِثَال ‖ Et ምስል (məsl) “parabola” LLA 173

2015-11-25

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܠܰܐܝܟܐ ܢܦܰܩ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ؟
ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܢܦܰܩ ܠܚܰܩܠܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܨܳܕ؟
ܨܳܕ ܨܶܦܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܨܶܦܪܐ؟
ܨܶܦܪܐ ܐܶܡܪܰܬ̥ ܠܶܗ: ܐܳܘ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ، ܥܒܶܕ ܛܰܝܒܘ ܐܰܪܦܳܢܝ̱ ܐܺܙܰܠ ܠܩܶܢܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱.
4 ܐܰܝܢܐ ܡܰܬ̥ܠܐ ܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܠܳܗ̇ ܨܰܝܳܕܐ؟
ܨܰܝܳܕܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܠܳܗ̇: « ܨܶܦܪܐ ܒܺܐܝܕܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܥܣܰܪ ܨܶܦܪ̈ܝܢ ܕܥܰܠ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ. »

2015-11-26

ܡܳܢܐ ܦܘܫܳܩ:

5 ܥܒܶܕ ܛܰܝܒܘ
ܥܒܶܕ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܛܳܒ
ܐܰܪܦܳܢܝ̱
ܐܰܦ̊ܶܣ ܠܝ
ܫܰܡܝܢܐ
ܦܰܓ̥ܪܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܕܝܰܩܝܪ
ܡܶܢ ܟܰܕܘ
ܡܶܢ ܢܘܓ̥ܪܐ

2015-11-27

ܐܰܝܢܰܘ ܦܘܢܳܝܐ ܕܚܰܬ̥ܝܬ̥ [ܕܚܰܬ̊ܝܬ̥]؟

pūnāyā = m. “reply, answer”; ḥattīṯā = “diligent, precise”

6 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܩܘܪܝܳܝܐ ܩܳܢܶܐ ܥܳܢ̈ܳܐ؟
qūryāyā = “villager”; qnā = “to get”
ܕܢܶܫܬ̥ܥܶܐ [ܕܢܶܫܬ̊ܥܶܐ] ܥܰܡܳܗ̇ ... ܕܢܶܬܦܰܪܓܶܐ ܥܠܶܝܗ̇ ... ܕܢܺܐܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܢܳܗ̇.
ܐܶܫܬܥܝ Ethpe. “to play” [hard T in Lesson 19]; ܐܶܬ̥ܦܰܪܓܝ “delight oneself” “dēlectāts est”, ʾEṯpaʕlī (Qt: reflexive quadriliteral) of √PRGY, the Paʕlī (Q) form being ܦܰܪܓܝ “dēlectāvit”: behaves like 3rd-Y Pa/Ethpa. N §180 (4), §181; Min §115 (10); Thackston §20.5 (3), (4). ܝܺܬ̥ܪ “to have profit, advantage; to gain”: impf. ܢܹܐܬ̥ܰܪ N §175A.
7 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܓܰܢܳܢܐ ܢܳܨܶܒ ܐܝܠܳܢܐ؟
nṣb = “to plant”
ܢܨܰܒܶܬ̥ ܚܰܩܠܶܗ ... ܕܢܶܩܢܶܐ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ... ܕܢܶܥܒܶܕ ܛܶܠܳـ̈ܠܐ.
ܨܰܒܶܬ̥ Pa. “to decorate”
ܛܶܠܳܠܐ (ṭellālā) “shade” ‖ jar טְלָלָא ‖ He צֵל ‖ Ar ظِلّ ‖ Et ጽላሎት (ṣ(ĕ)lālōt) “umbra” LLA 1256/1257: Ti ጽላሎት (ṣəlalotə) /sʼɨla̠lotɨ/
8 ܠܡܳܢܐ ܛܠܳܝ̈ܐ ܐܳܙܺܠ̱ܝܢ ܠܒܶܝܬܣܶܦܪܐ؟
*ʾāzlīn > ʾāzīn N §183 (4)
ܕܢܶܕ̊ܥܘܼܢ ܠܰܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ ... ܕܢܰܥܒܪܘܼܢ ܠܥܶܕܳܢܐ ... ܕܢܺܐܠܦܘܼܢ ܩܶܪܝܳܢܐ.
yīḏaʕ “to know”: impf. *neyd(ə)ʕūn > nedd(ə)ʕūn N §175A; ʕḇar “to pass (intr.)”, ʾaʕbar Aph.

2015-11-28

Impf. of 1st-Y

1. ܝܺܕܰܥ (yīḏaʕ) becomes ܢܶܕܰܥ (neddaʕ); ܝܺܬܶܒ (yīṯeḇ) becomes ܢܶܬܶܒ (netteḇ).

ܐܰܝܟܰܢܐ ܐܶܕ̊ܰܥ ܗܳܕܶܐ؟
How shall I know this?

2. Other verbs of this type are like 1st-A [with ES ē; WS usually ī, rarely ē]: e.g. ܝܺܬܰܪ (yīṯar) becomes ܢܹܐܬܰܪ (nḗṯar); the impf. has a.

2015-11-30

Mississippi and 1st-Y

Unlike ʾèq(q)ūm (2nd-W), where the vowel è is used in ES, the vowel e (i) is used in ES in ʾeddaʕ “I will know”, and probably also in ʾetteḇ “I will sit”: ܐܸܕܲܥ ‎(Lk1:18, 1Co13:12), ܕܐܸܕܲܥ ‎(2Co2:9, etc.), ܘܐܸܕܲܥ ‎(1Co4:19, etc.). There are no examples of ܐܬܒ in NY-P, but Mingana 147/148 says: Le iodh quiescent, et ne commençant pas un mot assimilé, se change en waw [...] Mais si la lettre qui précède le iodh quiescent ci-dessus, est ponctuée zélam, le iodh se change, dans les verbes, en alaph; ce zélam est un zélam dur chez les Orientaux (86), et un ḥibaṣ chez Occidentaux (28), ex. ܝܼܪܸܬ݂ il a hérité ܢܹܐܪܲܬ݂. ܢܺܐܪܰܬ݂. Exceptions: ܝܼܕܲܥ il a su devient à l’aoriste ܢܸܕܲܥ, et ܝܼܬܸܒ݂ il s’est assis ܢܸܬܸ݁ܒ݂. So, it’s -eddaʕ and -etteḇ, where the 2nd rad. is hard (netteḇ occurs in Mt13:2, etc.).

In the other 1st-Y verbs, the 2nd rad. should be soft; atm I’m not 100% sure if this is true also in ES, but it’s probable (Alan 134 has ܢܹܐܒ̥ܰܫ “He will dry up”). If so, the form like ʾḗṯar is not so Mississippi as it would be if it were *ʾèttar.

UK-P has ʾḗṯar in Mk10:17, but it seems that originally it was ʾḗraṯ, as in S and NY-P.

ܡܰܠܦ̥ܳܢܐ ܛܳܒܐ܅ ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܥܒܶܕ ܕܹܐܬ̥ܰܪ [ܕܹܐܪܰܬ̥] ܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܰܠܥܳܠܰܡ؟
Good Teacher, what shall I do so that I may gain [inherit, κληρονομέω] a life that is forever?
Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;
Magister bone, quid faciam ut vītam aeternam percipiam?

2015-12-01

2nd-W Inf. has ā (lamqām)

ܘܠܐ ܡܶܫܟܚܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܠܰܡܩܳܡ ܠܘܩܒ̥ܰܠ ܚܶܟ̥ܡܬ̥ܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ܂ ܕܰܡܡܰܠܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̥ ܒܶܗ.
ܘܠܐ ܡܸܫܟ݁ܚܝܢ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܘ ܠܲܡܩܵܡ ܠܘܩܒܲܠ ܚܸܟ݂ܡ݈ܬ݂ܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܲܡܡܲܠܠܐ ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܬ݂ ܒܹܗ.܀
καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυον ἀντιστῆναι τῇ σοφίᾳ καὶ τῷ πνεύματι ᾧ ἐλάλει.
And they were not able to stand against {luqḇal rt. qḇal “to confront in complaint”} the wisdom and the spirit, which was speaking within him. (Acts6:10⁎) {ἰσχύω, impf. ἴσχυον [ῑ] “to be strong, to have power”: ῡ in Att., later sometimes ῠ in Pres./Impf.}
Et non poterant resistere {resistō} sapientiae, et Spīrituī, qui loquebātur.

2015-12-01

1st-Y Impf. pl. (neddʕūn, teddʕūn, etc.)

ܡ̣ܢ ܦܹܐܪܲܝ̈ܗܘܿܢ ܕܹܝܢ ܬܸܕ݁ܥܘܼܢ ܐܸܢܘܿܢ.
By their fruits, however, you will know them.
ܗܵܠܹܝܢ ܟܸܬ݂ܒܹ̇ܬ݂ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ: ܕܬܸܕܥܘܼܢ ܕܚܲܝܹ̈ܐ ܕܲܠܥܵܠܲܡ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܠܟ݂ܘܿܢ:
I wrote these to you guys so that you guys may know that there are eternal lives for you guys.

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 34] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 34 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ

2015-11-16

ܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ ܡܶܬܒܥܶܐ ܝܰܬ݁ܝܪ ܥܶܠܬ̥ܐ ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ
mānē meṯbʕẹ̄ yattīr ʕel(l)ṯā hwayyā
vessels, utensils, garments to be sought, needed, inquired excessive, greater, more pretext, cause essences #1
ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܒܚܰܕ ܝܘܡ ܢܦܰܩܘ̱ ܠܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ.
ܢܦ݂ܩ ܠـ “to go out into” (as in Matthew 11:7)
ܘܟܰܕ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒܝܢ] ܗ̱ܘܰܘ، ܚܰܕ ܡܶܢܗܘܢ ܐܶܡܰܪ: ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܐܒܝ̱ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܦܳܠܰܚ ܟܽܠܶܗ ܝܰܘܡܐ، ܘܙܳܒܶܢ ܡܶܢ ܫܘܩܐ ܟܽܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܕܡܶܬܒܥܶܐ ܠܝ.
ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒ (yattīḇ): Verbal Adj. “having seated oneself” i.e. “sitting”: Hard T (N §118, CAL, LS2; cf. N §280fn). Pass. Part. would be ܝܺܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ with ī after the 1st rad. The second radical seems to be PS *θ (Heb š — Arab ṯ — Syr t — Et s?): יָשַׁב.
2015-11-19 The word could be ܝܳܬ̥ܒܝܢ (Peal Act. Part. mas. pl.), but it isn’t; in the vocabulary section at the end of the book, ܝܳܬ̥ܒܝܢ and ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ are listed separately.
2017-03-03 [Cf. Book 4 Lesson 17]
PLḤ “to work”. ܟܽܠܶܗ ܝܰܘܡܐ “the whole day” (as in Acts 20:18): N §218.

2015-11-17

ܡܶܬ̥ܒܥܶܐ ܠܝ = “to buy things that are necessary for me”, not “to buy me things that are necessary”: the second construction is also possible with a verb like “to give”, but then ܠܝ would be put near the verb, as in: ܢܶܬ̊ܶܠ ܠܶܗ ܟܡܐ ܕܡܶܬ̥ܒܥܶܐ ܠܶܗ (Lk11:8)

ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ: ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܐܡܝ̱ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܠܰܝ̈ܠܰܝ ܐܝܡܳܡ ܝܳܨܦܐ ܕܝܠܝ̱، ܘܰܡܛܰܝܒܐ ܠܝ ܟܽܠ ܡܐ ܕܒܳܥܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
ܠܰܝܠܰܝ ܐܝܡܳܡ “day and night (adv.); a day and night”: according to N §146, laylay (ES lāylay) is one of the Abs. St. forms. A seyame may be added when the phrase is used to mean “days and nights”, as in ܬܪ̈ܶܝܢ ܠܰܝ̈ܠܰܝ ܐܝܡܳܡ (Jess).
ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܝܠܝ̱ “to care for my state/welfare” (Philippians 2:20).
ܛܰܝܶܒ Pa. “to prepare, get ready” √ṬWB #2 (CAL √ṬYB): Part. ܡܛܰܝܶܒ̥ and ܡܛܰܝܒ̥ܐ N §177E.

#2 This is different from √ṬʔB ܛܶܐܒ (ṭeḇ < *ṭəʾeḇ intr.) “to be good”: Aph. ܐܰܛܶܐܒ (ʾaṭeḇ < *ʾaṭʾeḇ) “to do good, treat well”: Part. ܡܰܛܶܐܒ̥ and ܡܰܛܶܐܒ̥ܳܐ (maṭeḇā < *maṭʾəḇā; in ES, possibly written ܡܲܛܐ݈ܒ݂ܵܐ), where the ܐ falls away in pronunciation when it comes after a consonant without a full vowel, and the vowel of the ܐ is transferred to the 1st radical. This applies also to the vowel which has to appear with ܐ in place of the mere shᵉva [e or a]. (N §171A)

√ṬʔB is used in Lk6:33: ܘܶܐܢ ܥܳܒܕܝܢ ܐ̱ܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܕܛܳܒ ܠܰܐܝܠܶܝܢ ܕܡܰܛܶܐܒ̥ܝܢ “and if you guys are doing what is good to those who treat you well” ܘܐܸܢ ܥܵܒ݂̇ܕ݁ܝܼܢ ܐܢ݇ܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܕܛܵܒ݂ ܠܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܡܲܛܐ݈ܒ݂ܝܼܢ

2015-11-18

ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ: ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܳܦ ܠܳܐܒܝ̱ ܐܳܦ ܠܶܐܡܝ̱ ܐܰܝܟ ܚ̈ܕܳܕܐ. ܐܶܠܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܝܰܬ݁ܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ!
ܚ̈ܕܳܕܶܐ (ḥḏāḏē) usually “each other, one another”; here probably “like both of you”, though possibly “like [my father and mother loving] each other”.
ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܗܽܘܝܘ ܝܳܗܶܒ ܚܰܝܠܐ ܠܳܐܒܝ̱ ܘܶܐܡܝ̱، ܘܗܽܘܝܘ ܥܶܠܰܬ̥ ܚܰܝ̈ܐ ܕܟܽܠ܀
ḥaylā “power, strength, essence”. ʕel(l)ṯā f. “cause, pretext”: constr. ʕellaṯ. ḥayyē “lives”.

VERBES HAMZÉS A LA 2e RADICALE (Mingana §§167–168)

167 - FORMES PRIMITIVES. Au prétérit trilitère, ces verbes ont toujours un zélam, ex ܣܐܸܒ݂ il a été vieux; excepté, bien entendu, le cas où la 3e radicale est une gutturale, ex. ܟܐܲܪ il a eu honte.

A l’aoriste ils ont toujours un phatah, ex. ܢܸܣܐܲܒ݂‎, ܢܸܟ݂ܐܲܪ.

168 - FORMES DÉRIVÉES. Les formes dérivées n’offrent aucune difficulté, ainsi (ܦܲܥܸܠ) fait ܟܲܐܲܪ passif: ܐܸܬ݂ܟܲܐܲܪ‎. (ܐܲܦܥܸܠ)‎: ܐܲܟ݂ܐܲܪ passif: ܐܸܬ݁ܬܲܟ݂ܐܲܪ. D’ailleurs ces verbes n’ont dans la langue actuelle que les deux formes dérivées susdites.

2015-11-19

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܐ ܝܰܬ̥ܝܒܝܢ [ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒ݂ܝܢ] ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ؟
ܝܳܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܝܰܬ̊ܝܒ݂ܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܰܘ ܒܓ̥ܢܬ̥ܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ؟ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ؟ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ؟
ܩܰܕܡܳܝܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܐܶܡܰܪ: «ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܳܐܒܝ̱.» ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܬܪܰܝܳܢܐ: «ܐܶܢܐ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܶܐܡܝ.» ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܬܠܝܬ̥ܳܝܐ: «ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ ܝܰܬ̊ܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܟܽܠ!»
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܣܳܒܐ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟ ܘܰܒܛܰܗܪܐ؟ ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ؟
(ܗܶܪܓܐ ܪܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ)
4 ܐܰܝܕ݁ܐ ܪܶܚܡܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܒܟܽܠ؟ ܘܰܠܡܘܢ؟
ܪܶܚܡܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܬ̥ܠܝܬ̥ܝܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܐ ܪܰܒܐ، ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕܗܝ ܪܰܒܐ ܡܶܢ ܪܶܚܡܰܬ̥ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܘܼܬ̥ܐ.

ʾaydā = “which (f.)”; reḥmṯā (CAL reḥəmtā) = “love”; reḥmaṯ (ʾ)nāšūṯā = “love towards man” (Jess).

2015-11-20

ܡܳܢܐ ܣܘܟܳܠ:

sukkālā “intelligence, meaning”: sukkāl const.: שֵׂכֶל *śkl: tmr סִכְלָא or שִׂכְלָא “reason, sense” (but סַכְלָא “foolish, fool”)

5 ܝܰܬܝܪ
ܠܐ ܒܨܝܪ. ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܬܠܳܬ̥ܐ، ܘܚܰܡܫܐ ܝܰܬܝܪ ܡܶܢ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ.
ܥܶܠܬ̥ܐ
ܠܡܳܢܐ ܗܳܢܐ ܥܒܝܕ؟
ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ
ܗܳܠܝܢ ܕܰܥܒܝܕܝܢ.
ܡܐܢ̈ܐ
ܠܒܳܫܐ.

2015-11-21

ܦܰܢܐ:

6 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܪܳܚܶܡ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ؟
ܐܶܢܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܪܳܚܡܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܐ ܠܰܐܠܳܗܐ.
7 ܨܳܐܶܡ ܟܰܝ ܘܰܡܨܰܠܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ؟
ܐܝܬ ܐܶܡܰܬܝ̱ ܕܨܳܝܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܘܰܡܨܰܠܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
8 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܝܳܡܶܐ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܒܰܐܠܳܗܐ؟
ܐܶܢܐ ܠܐ ܝܳܡܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܒܰܐܠܳܗܐ.
9 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܫܳܡܰܥ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ ܕܰܐܒ݂ܘܼܟ݂؟
ܐܶܢܐ ܫܳܡܥܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܶܠܬ̥ܶܗ ܕܳܐܒ݂ܝ̱.
10 ܐܰܪܰܐ ܡܥܰܕܰܪ ܐܰܢ̱ܬ ܠܰܐܒܘܟ ܒܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ؟
ܐܝܬ ܐܶܡܰܬܝ̱ ܕܶܐܢܐ ܡܥܰܕܪܐ ܐܢ̱ܐ ܠܳܐܒܝ̱ ܒܦܘܠܚܳܢܐ.

ܨܳܡ ŠWM = “to fast”; ܟܰܝ = interrogative enclitic; ܨܰܠܝ = Pa. “to pray”; ܝܺܡܐ = “to swear”; ܥܰܕܰܪ = Pa. “to help”; pulḥānā = “work”

Qarahbaš [vol. 3, L. 33] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 33 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܓܰܢܳܢܐ ܛܳܒ݂ܐ

2015-11-10

gannānā = “gardener”

ܚܕܝܪܐ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ ܢܶܒ݂ܥܐ ܚܳܦܰܪ
ḥḏīrā yarqē neḇʕā ḥāp̄ar
surrounded #1 vegetables #2 fountain, spring, source to dig (pt)
ܣܳܒܐ ܕܐܶܠܺܝܐ [ܕܶܐ‌ܠܻܝܳܐ] ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ، ܚܕܝܪܐ ܒܫܘܪܐ ܪܳܡܐ. ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ، ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܙܢܰܝ̈ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ.
ܚܠܶܐ and ܚܰܠܝܐ “sweet”; pl. (emph.) ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ: generally, CaCyā becomes CCayyā (Alan 63): e.g. samyā “blind”: smayyā.
2015-11-20 Lesson 34 has ܗܘܰܝ̈ܳܐ, though it is from ܗܘܳܝܐ.
2016-11-02 hwayyā above is actually pl. emph. of ܗܰܘܝܐ hawyā, so this is also CaCyā–CCayyā. ܗܰܘܝܐ can be seen as the pass. pt. m. emph. of ܗܘܐ, that is “created things, derived beings”. Similarly, ܚܰܠܝܐ is pass. pt. of √ḥly “to sweeten”, from which ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ (pl. m. emph.). Generally -ayyā appears in the plural emphatic state, especially of a masculine passive participle, whose singular form ends in -ē (ES -ḗ) and -yā (N §72). Also note that, with Serto Kharput, ܐܠܝ (ʾly) ܠܠܝ (lly) are confusing.
znā “kind”; pl. znayyā, constr. st. znay (N §146); said to be from Old Persian (peo ca. 600–400 BC ≈ Achaemenid Empire 550–330) zana.
2016-11-06 cf. pal gōn, sān, šōn

2015-11-11

ܘܺܐܝܬ ܒܳܗ̇ ܢܶܒܥܐ ܕܡܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܠܓܰܢܬܐ، ܘܥܰܡ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܢܶܒܥܐ ܩܳܝܡܐ ܣܰܬܐ ܕܥܶܢܒ݂̈ܐ.
ʾašqī, mašqē Aph. “to water”; ʕam (probably) “along”; gabbā “side”; sattā “stem” N §80: Jess. f, CAL m;
ܥܶܢܒ̊ܬ̥ܐ (ʾenbṯā ʾinbəṯā) but ܥܶܢܒ̥̈ܐ, fem. ⟦ūva⟧ N §81, §94E; somewhat like ܥܶܣܒ̊ܐ and ܥܶܣܒ̥̈ܐ N §93: עֵנָב and עֲנָבִים (masc.); עֲנָבָה and עֲנָבִים (fem.) — عِنَبٌ and أَعْنَابٌ (masc.)
ܣܳܒܐ ܕܶܐ‍ܠܺܝܐ ܓܰܢܳܢܰܐ ܗ̱ܘ ܛܳܒܐ. ܣܰܓܝ ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܶܐ.
WS gannānā+u > gannānău N §49B. ܝܺܨܶܦ “to take care of something/someone” [often with ܕ]

2015-11-12

ܟܽܠ ܝܘܡ ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܠܳܗ̇، ܘܰܒܛܰܗܪܐ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܚܕܳܪ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ، ܘܦܳܣܶܩ ܠܣܰܘܟ̈ܐ ܝܰܒܝܫ̈ܐ.
ܚܳܦܰܪ “to dig”; ܚܕܳܪܐ “circle”: The const. forms ܚܕܳܪ,‎ ܚܕܳܪ̈ܰܝ are in common use as a prep. round about, surrounding, hard by (Jess.): usually pl. (CAL).
[2015-11-21 Under ܨܰܦܪܐ LS2 says: md. ציפרא, and now I know md. means Mandaic, after seeing Mandäische Grammatik [2015-12-06 Better Link: uni-halle.de], §16: ציפרא „Morgen”: which would be ࡑࡉࡐࡓࡀ. BTW the Unicode name of U+0851 [ ࡑ ] MANDAIC LETTER ASZ is crazy; it was named that way only because the logical name MANDAIC LETTER ASS would be embarrassing for English speakers!N3485]
ܦܳܣܶܩ “to cut off”; ܣܰܘܟ̊ܬ̥ܐ pl. ܣܰܘ̈ܟܳܬ̥ܳܐ et ܣܰܘܟ̈ܐ “branch”; yabbīšā “dry, dried, withered” [N §118; here, in the emph. st. pl. mas.]
ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ، ܘܡܰܘܟܶܠ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܫܘܩܐ، ܟܶܢ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ ܀
ܐܶܟ̥ܰܠ “to eat”: Aph. ܐܰܘܟ̊ܶܠ “to give to eat, feed” N §174E

2015-11-13

ܦܰܢܐ ܒܝܰܕ ܟܬ̥ܝܒ݂ܬ݁ܐ

1 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܕܣܳܒܐ؟
ܐܝܬ̥ ܒܳܗ̇ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ، ܘܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ، ܘܟܽܠ ܙܢܰܝ̈ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ.
2 ܡܳܢܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܥܰܡ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܢܶܒܥܐ؟
ܥܰܡ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܢܶܒܥܐ ܩܰܝܡܐ ܣܰܬܐ ܕܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ.
3 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܣܳܒܐ ܒܟܽܠ ܨܰܦܪܐ؟ ܘܰܒܛܰܗܪܐ؟ ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ؟
ܒܨܰܦܪܐ ܡܰܫܩܶܐ ܠܳܗ̇، ܘܰܒܛܰܗܪܐ ܚܳܦܰܪ ܚܕܳܪ ܐܝܠܳܢ̈ܐ، ܘܦܳܣܶܩ ܠܣܰܘܟ̈ܐ ܝܰܒܝܫ̈ܐ. ܘܰܒܪܰܡܫܐ ܩܳܛܶܦ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ، ܘܡܰܘܟܶܠ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܫܘܩܐ، ܟܶܢ ܗܳܦܶܟ ܠܒܰܝܬܐ.

2015-11-14

4 ܪܰܟܶܒ 4 [ܐܰܪܒܥܐ] ܦܶܬ݂ܓ̥ܳܡ̈ܐ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ

  1. ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܗܳܕܐ، ܪܰܒܐ. ܗܳܕܐ، ܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ.
  2. ܗܕܶܐ ܓܢܬܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܗ̇ ܗܒܒ̈ܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ.
  3. ܐܶܢܐ ܚܙܝܬ̥ܶܗ ܒܓܢܬܐ.
  4. ܣܳܒܐ ܣܰܓܝ ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܓܰܢܬ̥ܶܗ.

2015-11-15

5 ܡܢܝ ܫܶܡ 5 [ܚܰܡܫܐ] ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܗܳܘܶܝܢ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ

  1. ܥܶܢܒ̥̈ܐ
  2. ܬܹܐܢ̈ܐ
  3. ܙܰܝ̈ܬܐ
  4. ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ
  5. ܪܘܡܳܢ̈ܐ

זַיִת: Ar. زَيْتُون “olive” but زَيْت “oil”

רִמּוֹנ: Ar. رُمَّان

ܡܳܢܐ ܐܳܡܪܝܢܰܢ؟

6 ܠܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܰܥܒܰܪ؟
ܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠ (ܐܶܬ̥ܡܳܠܝ̱)
ܠܫܰܢ̱ܬ݁ܐ ܕܥܶܒܪܰܬ̥؟
ܐܶܫܬܩܰܕܝ̱
7 ܠܝܰܘܡܐ ܕܳܐܬ̥ܶܐ؟
ܡܚܳܪ
ܠܫܰܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܳܐܬ̥ܝܐ؟
ܠܡܰܢܚܰܝ

ʕḇar = “to pass”; ʾeṯmāl(ẙ) “yesterday”, ʾešt(ə)qaḏ “last year” N §50A (5): אֶתְמוֹל

mḥār “tomorrow” מָחָר

l-manḥay (adv) “the next year”

Wheelocks 38

2015-12-29

1. Rēgī persuāsī ut sorōrī frātrīque tuō grātiōra praemia libenter daret.
I persuaded the king to give more pleasing {grātus, grātior tius, grātiōris} rewords to your sister and brother.
2. Deinde, ab eā īnsulā nāve profecta, vīsum amīcōs Athēnās iniit.
Then, from that island started by ship, she went into Athens to see her friends.
3. Eum hortātī sumus ut ad Caesarem sine timōre accēdere cōnārētur.
We encouraged him to try to approach Caesar without fear.
4. Solitī sunt eī crēdere quī philosophiae servīret, virtūtem sequerētur, et cupīdinēs superāret.
They were accustomed to trust the kind of a man who served philosophy, pursued virtue, and overcame cupidity {cupīdō dinis}.

2015-12-30

5. Sapiēns nōs ōrat nē virīs sententiārum adversārum noceāmus.
The wisdom man begs us not to harm men of different opinions.
6. In illīs terrīs nōn licet litterīs bonīs vērīsque studēre, ut sub tyrannō saepe fit; dēbēs, igitur, exīre et peregrīnārī.
In those lands it is not allowed to study good, true literature, as often happens under a tyrant; you have to, therefore, exit and travel abroad.
7. Cūrēmus nē cīvitātem eīs trādāmus quī sē patriae antepōnant.
Let us be careful not to surrender [our] state to the kind of men who put themselves before their nation.
8. Sunt īnfīrmī quī levia opera mīrentur et semper sibi ignōscant.
There are some weak people who would admire [their own?] minor works and always lenient to themselves.

2015-12-31

9. Iste dux, diū absēns, tam stultīs cōnsiliīs cīvitātī ūtēbātur ut mīlia cīvium adversa patī cōgerentur atque multī bonī perīrent.
That leader, long absent, was using such stupid plans for the state that thousands of citizens were forced to suffer bad things and many good men died.
10. Haec locūtus, fassus est illōs, quī odium immōtum ergā cīvitātem multōs annōs habēbant, Rōmae interfectōs esse.
Having said these things, he confessed {fateor} that those men, who were having an unchanged hatred toward {ergā} the state for many years, had been killed in Rome.

2016-01-03

11. Initium operis nōs saepe impedit.
The beginning of work often impedes us.
12. Sator sublīmis hominum atque animālium omnibus nōbīs animās dedit; cum corpora obeant, animae numquam morientur.
The supreme sower of humans and animals has given souls to us all. Although [our] bodies may die {ob-eō}, [our] souls never will die.

2016-01-07

13. Cum rūs rediimus, tum domī invēnimus — mīrābile vīsū! — plūrimōs amīcōs.
When we returned to the countryside, we then at home came upon — amazing to see! — so many friends.
14. Cicero, who was the greatest Roman orator, was a consul who would obey the senate.
Cicerō, quī fuit maximus ōrātor Rōmānus, erat/fuit cōnsul quī senātuī pārēret.

2016-01-08

15. I shall persuade him to become better and to return to Rome, I assure you.
Eī persuādēbō tibi ut melior fīat et Rōmam redeat.
Eī persuādēbō ut melior fīat et Rōmam tibi redeat.
16. We begged them not to trust a man whom a tyrant pleased.
Eōs ōrāvimus (Ab eīs petīvimus) nē crēderent istī/virō cui tyrannus placēret.
17. Wherefore, let that man who hesitates to defend our country depart to another land.
Quārē, ille ad aliam terram abeat/discēdat quī patriam dēfendere dubitat.

2016-01-10

SA1. Sē omnēs Caesarī ad pedēs prōiēcērunt.
They all knelt at Caesar’s feet.
Textbook says *prō-iaciō, but it should be prō-iciō icere iēcī iectum: sē prōicere ad pedēs alicui = “to approach as a suppliant, to fall at one’s feet”
2. Hīc in nostrō numerō sunt quī lēgēs contemnant ac dē exitiō huius urbis cōtīdiē cōgitent.
Here among us, there are the kind of men who despise {contemnō ere} the laws and every day think about the destruction of this city.

2016-01-14

3. Quis est cui haec rēs pūblica atque possessiō lībertātis nōn sint cārae et dulcēs?
Who is there to whom this republic and the posession of liberty are not lovely and sweet?
4. Quae domus tam stabilis est, quae cīvitās tam fīrma est quae nōn odiīs, invidiā, atque īnsidiīs possit contundī?
Which home is so stable, [and] which state is so strong that it can not be distroyed {contundō} with hatred(s) {odium}, envy {invidia}, and plots?
5. Quārē, quid est quod tibi iam in hāc urbe placēre possit, in quā nēmō est quī tē nōn metuat?
Wherefore, what is there that can actually please you in this city, in which there is no one who does not fear you?
Wherefore, what is there anyway that can please you in this city, in which there is no one who does not fear you?
iam = A. To denote that something will certainly, properly, or easily occur, under certain circumstances. then surely: B. In transitions. To a new subject, now, moreover: C. For emphasis. Pressing the strict sense of a word or clause, now, precisely, indeed. (Lewis–Short)

2016-01-19

6. Quis enim aut eum dīligere potest quem metuat aut eum ā quō sē metuī putet?
In fact, who can love the kind of man whom he fears and by whom he thinks he is feared?
7. Tibi sōlī necēs multōrum cīvium impūnītae ac līberae fuērunt.
To you alone, murders of many citizens were unpunished and free.
8. Habētis autem eum cōnsulem quī exigere officium et pārēre vestrīs dēcrētīs nōn dubitet atque vōs dēfendere possit.
You guys, however, have him as the kind of consul who would not hesitate to complete his duty and follow you guys’ decrees and who also would be able to defend you guys.
9. Ille mihi semper deus erit.
He will always be a god to me.

2016-01-21

10. Nūllus dolor est quem nōn longinguitās temporis minuat ac molliat.
There is no grief that the length of time wouldn’t diminish and soften.
11. Parāvisse dīvitās fuit multīs hominibus nōn fīnis sed mūtātiō malōrum.
For many persons, having acquired riches was not the end [of the story] but the change of bad things (=trading one bad thing with another, e.g. hunger with obesity).
12. Nihil est opere et manū factum quod tempus nōn cōnsūmat.
There is nothing made by work and hand that time doesn’t consume.
13. Vīribus corporis dēficientibus, vigor tamen animī dūrāvit illī ad vītae fīnem.
Although the strength of his body had been lost, the vigor of his spirit lasted for him until the end of his life.
14. Nunc est bibendum; nunc pede līberō pulsanda tellus [tellūs?].
Now [something good] is to be drunk; now, with the unbound foot, the earth {tellūs ūris f} is to be struck.

2016-01-26

Sunt quīdam quī mē dīcant nōn esse poētam;
sed quī mē vēndit bibliopōla putat.
There are the kind of certain men who would say that I am not a poet;
but the book dealer who sells me judges.

2016-01-31

Cum quīdam, querēns, dīxisset uxōrem suam dē fīcū suspendisse sē, amīcus illīus “Amābō tē,” inquit, “dā mihi ex istā arbore surculōs quōs seram!”
When someone, lamenting, had said that his own wife had hung herself from a fig tree, a friend of that man said, “I will love you (Please), give me sprigs from that tree which I may plant!”

ܬܹܐܬ̊ܐ or ܬܹܬ̊ܐ from ܬܐܢܬܐ (N §28) cf. תְּאֵנָה and تينة: *t(ʾ)ēntā > tē(t)tā CAL tēttā; pl. ܬܹܐܢ̈ܐ (N §81)

2016-02-21

Cum quīdam ōrātor sē misericordiam ōrātiōne fortasse mōvisse putāret, rogāvit Catulum vidērēturne misericordiam mōvisse. “Ac magnam quidem, mihi,” inquit, “putō enim nēminem esse tam dūrum cui ōrātiō tua nōn vīsa sit digna misericordiā!”
As a certain orator thought that he had perhaps aroused sympathy with his oration, he asked Catulus whether he [the orator] seemed to have aroused sympathy. “[It] even [aroused] great [sympathy] indeed, in my opinion,” he [Catulus] said, “Truly I think that there is nobody so harsh (insensible) that to him your oration would not be seen as deserving sympathy (pity)!”

2016-11-19

Gn. Magnus Prōcōnsul Salūtem Dīcit Cicerōnī Imperātōrī
Gn[aeus] Magnus, governor, says greeting[s] to Cicero, commander-in-chief
Sī valēs, bene est. Tuās litterās libenter lēgī; recognōvī enim tuam prīstnam virtūtem etiam in salūte commūnī.
If you are fine, it is good. I read your letter with pleasure; for I recognized your early virtue also in the public welfare.

2016-11-20

Cōnsulēs ad eum exercitum vēnērunt quem in Āpūliā habuī.
The consuls came to that army {exercitus ūs}, which I had in Apulia {Āpūlia, Abl. -ā}. PNG
Magnopere tē hortor ut occāsiōnem carpās et tē ad nōs cōnferās,
Greatly I urge you to take the opportunity and betake yourself to us,
ut commūnī cōnsiliō reī publicae miserae opem atque auxilium ferāmus.
so that, with the plan for the community, we may bring power and aid to the miserable republic.

2016-12-14

Moneō ut Rōmā exeās, viā Appiā iter faciās, et quam celerrimē Brundisium veniās.
I advise/recommend that you go out from Roma, travel via Appia, and come to Brundisium as quickly as possible.
Caesar Imperātor Salūtem Dīcit Cicerōnī Imperātōrī
General Caesar says greetings to General Cicero
Cum Brundisium celerius adeam atque sim in itinere, exercitū iam praemissō, dēbeō tamen ad tē scrībere et grātiās idōneās tibi agere, etsī hoc fēcī saepe et saepius factūrus videor;
While I am going to Brundisium rather in haste and I am on a journey, with my army having been already sent; I still have to write to you and suitably {idōneus} thank you, even thought I have done this often and I seem to be going to do [this] more often [in the future];

2016-12-30

ita dignus es.
you are so worthy.
Imprīmīs, quoniam crēdō mē celeriter ad urbem ventūrum esse, ā tē petō ut tē ibi videam ut tuō cōnsiliō, dignitāte, ope ūtī possim.
Especially, since I believe I will come to the city rather quickly, I ask you so that I may see you there so that I may be able to use your plan, prestige, help.
Festīnātiōnī meae brevitātīque litterārum ignōscēs; cētera ex Furniō cognōscēs.
You will overlook my haste and the shortness of [my] letter. You will know the rest from Furnius.

Ask me if I Care (Catullus 93)

Nīl nimium studeō, Caesar, tibi velle placēre,
Not too much I am eager, O Caesar, to wish {volō, velle, voluī} to please you,
nec scīre utrum sīs albus an āter homō!
nor to know whether {uter, utra, utrum} you are a white man or a black man!

Armenian

2015-12-31

Hole, Basket

  1. գ is “g” (γ); it is not ց ( aka cʿ) /t͡sʰ/, nor զ /z/.
  2. ո looks like “n” (ο); it’s a mid [ɔ].
  3. ու, however, is “ow” (ου), read [u].
  4. բ “b” looks like “β”.
  5. So we have գուբ “hole, puddle”.
  6. կ vaguely looks like “k” (κ).
  7. վ vaguely looks like “v”.
  8. ղ /ʁ/ (Classical /ɫ/) looks like “η” or “ɳ” (λ); it is not դ “d” (δ).
  9. So we have կողով “basket”.

2016-01-01

Cat

  1. ա [ɑ] or [ɐ] (The University of Texas at Austin: Original Link / New Link). The letter vaguely looks like “α”. տ [t] vaguely looks like “τ”.
  2. We have կատու, perhaps from ܩܰܛܘ.

2016-01-02

Olive

  1. ձ is /d͡z/; uppercase Ձ; translit. j. Like δ+ζ.
  2. է (η) is an old letter for ē /e/; ե ((y)eč̣ aka (y)ečʿ: ε) is a mid e /ɛ/.
  3. թ (tʿ) /tʰ/ is θ.
  4. xcl ձէթ = hy ձեթ = ܙܰܝܬܐ

2016-01-03

Jordan (river)

  1. յ is y; uppercase Յ. Word-initially this is read /h/ in the modern language, and written as such in hy-arevela.
  2. ր is r (ρ) — but ռ is ṙ (ρ).
  3. դ is d (δ).
  4. ն or ն is n (ν).
  5. We have Յորդանան.
  6. հ is h; uppercase Հ or Հ.
  7. We have Հորդանան.

2016-01-04

Sabbath

  1. շ is š (ξ).
  2. We have շաբաթ “Sabbath (xcl), Saturday, week”.
  3. ս looks like “u”, but it is s (σ).
  4. In xcl, sometimes սաբատ or սաբբատ is used instead of շաբաթ.

2016-01-05

Street market

  1. շուկայ from ܫܘܩܐ.
  2. շուկայ is also used in the modern language (traditional orthography), where այ at the end of a polysyllabic word is pronounced /ɑ/, i.e. յ becomes silent.
  3. Or simply: շուկա

2016-01-06

Friday, Child

  1. ուրբաթ from ܥܪܘܒ̥ܬ̊ܐ (ʕrūḇtā).
  2. File:Hy-EA-ուրբաթ.ogg: ա sounds like a near-open [ʌ̞] or [ʌ]. In this recording, /b/ is realized as [pʰ].
  3. տղայ (tłay, Modern tġa) or տղա.
  4. File:Hy-տղա.ogg: ա sounds like a near-open [ʌ̞] or an open-mid [ʌ], but less than [ɑ]. In this, /ġ/ is realized as a trill, probably [ʀ], possibly a dark [r].

2016-10-20 In Western Armenian, բ /b/ is [pʰ] (same as փ /pʰ/), while պ /p/ is [b]. In fact, B and P are swapped in the W. Arm. KL.

2016-01-07

Philosopher

  1. փ (φ) is pʿ: uppercase Փ.
  2. ի (ι) is i. Uppercase Ի.
  3. լ is l; not ւ (w).
  4. We have փիլիսոփայ or փիլիսոփա.

2016-01-08

Priest

  1. ք is kʿ (χ), uppercase Ք.
  2. In the Armenian Eastern keyboard layout, կ is [K] and ք is [G]; in the Armenian Western KL, these two are swapped. գ is [C] in both (which means, you type [A][B][C][D] to get աբգդ).
  3. հ is h, uppercase Հ. The lowercase version looks like “h” in most fonts, but it may be shown as a simplified version of the uppercase, that is, a zigzag line.
  4. So we have քահանայ and քահանա, from ܟܳܗܢܐ. So was the Syriac K aspirated? Or was this affected by the second letter H?

2016-01-10

Herald

  1. զ Զ is /z/ (ζ); this is not ձ Ձ j /d͡z/.
  2. We have քարոզ “herald, precher” from ܟܳܪܘܿܙܐ. In Classical Armenian it also means “preach”; in Modern Armenian, this word means “preach, sermon”. Maybe Syriac K was really aspirated?
  3. File:Hy-քարոզ.ogg. In this, ա is [ɑ]; ո is near [ɔ] but narrower (mid-open).
  4. Աա Բբ Գգ Դդ is [A][B][C][D]* on the keyboard. Եե Զզ Էէ Ըը is [Y][Z][E][U].

    * [A][P][C][T] on the Western layout.

  5. Թթ Ժժ (tʿ ž) is [;] and [=].

2016-01-11

Furnace

  1. քուրայ and քուրա from ܟܘܪܐ (kūrā). Again, aspirated K for Syriac K.
  2. From ի (i) to մ (m), the alphabet goes basically ικλμ, where λ means ղ (ł) and not լ (l).
  3. However, there are additional, “inserted” letters: the number of such letters is: ι(3)κ(2)λ(1)μ.
  4. Between ի (i) and կ (k) there are: լ (l), խ (x [x~χ]), ծ (c = unaspirated ts). On the keyboard, [L][Q][/]. A mnemonic would be LoXaC, as in LOHAS. Also, placing /x/ near /k/ makes sense.
  5. Between կ (k) and ղ (ł), there are: հ (h) and ձ (j = dz). On the keyboard, [H][2] (notice “j” is not [J]).
  6. Finally, between ղ (ł) and մ (m), there is: ճ (č = unaspirated ch). On the keyboard, this is [J].
  7. Obviously, the bad guys are ծ (c [t͡s]), ձ (j [d͡z]), ճ (č [t͡ʃ]). Bad letter design! So confusing! For now, just realizing that the problem is here is enough. I’ll deal with this later.

2016-01-12

Armenian Handwriting

2016-01-13

Disambiguate Armenian Letters: c vs. j

PNG 2 KiB
Handwritten ծ and ձ, based on Lucin’s post. Here’s my analysis.

  1. When handwritten, both ծ and ձ have the same vibe — a “head of ” vibe. Or it could be called a ɤ (ram’s horns) vibe.
  2. While ծ has a simple, short stroke ´ attached to its head, ձ has a ء (hamza)-like head. This hamza-like thing is the key!
  3. If you know hiragana, it may be very helpful to think that ծ is a version of and ձ is a distorted ; this will help you remember both the correct phonetic values and letter shapes.
  4. That is, it’s not difficult to think ծ is ; and when you see ձ, you can think: “Okay, it has a hamza (or a dakuten). So this should be the voiced version.”

2016-01-15

limb

  1. մ is m (μ).
  2. We have անդամ “limb” (also “member” in hy). This is a cousin of Syriac ܗܰܕܳܡ and Aramaic הַדָּם (see Daniel 2:5).
  3. Between մ (μ) and ն (ν), there is յ (y): [3]. A mnemonic would be “my-n (mine)”.
  4. Then, ξο(1)π(1)ρ:
    1. շ (š): [,] ξ Semkaṯ
    2. ոο ʕē
    3. չ (čʿ): [[]
    4. պπ
    5. ջ (ǰ /d͡ʒ/): []] ϻ Ṣāḏē
    6. ռ (ṙ): [-] ρ Rḗš
  5. If you pretend ǰ is ϻ (San), then all you need to remember is the fact that there is Čʿa after ο. (And no, there is no ϙ.) [2016-01-16 Curiously, ջ actually means 900 as a number sign just like ϡ does; this relationship, though most probably accidental, gives a convenient reference point of the numeric values (See below).]
  6. Ոո (o) and Ռռ (ṙ) are similar-looking, but the difference is easy to see, at least when printed.
  7. Lowercase “2” guys are: voiceless շ; and voiced affricate ջ. This is not so difficult, either.
  8. The problem is, uppercase “2” guys: Especially, Զ (Z) and Ջ (J̌) look confusing! I’ll deal with these problems later.

2016-01-16

Numeric Values of the Armenian Letters

  1. Entry Zone
  2. Middle Zone
  3. Sampi Zone
  4. Post-Sampi Zone
  5. Final Zone

Arian AMU Fonts (Armenian)

Arian AMU, Arian Grqi, etc.

2016-01-17

He-goat

  1. քաւշ or քօշ is “he-goat”, from ܟܶܒ̥ܫܐ (wether sheep), from كَبْش [LS2]. Heb. כֶּבֶשׂ “sheep”. օ (ō) [0] is a newer form of աւ (aw).
  2. The final part of the Armenian Alphabet is ρσ(1)τ(2)υφχ.
  3. ռ (ρ) ս (σ) վ (v) տ (τ)
  4. ր (r) ց (cʿ /t͡sʰ/) [x]: Possibly the form of ց is based on τ+ς.
  5. ւ (υ) [W] փ (φ) ['] ք (χ) [g]

So this is how Mashtots (Maštocʿ) is spelled: Մաշտոց or Մաշթոց, where Մ is the uppercase version of մ.

The Armenian alphabet is said to be invented by him. It is interesting that he used the “similar phoneme = similar glyph” method. However, practically, similar-looking letters are always confusing and problematic (e.g. ܪ and ܕ in Syriac). Maybe he was too modest, reusing the same glyph-elements again and again with slight modification, instead of inventing something radically different for each letter. Obviously, he didn’t like Syriac/Arabic/Persian writing systems where vowels are generally not written at all. He decided to write vowels — a sane decision, probably inspired by the Greek system. Still, /ə/ is not always written in Armenian — possibly this part was influenced by the Syriac system.

The Armenian Western keyboard layout is based on the Arasan (non-Unicode) font, but it has և() instead of 789. Arasan supported numbers 1456789; the missing “230” could be substituted by the Armenian letters ՁՅՕ. This number hack is broken in the current keyboard layouts.

2016-10-26 The Arasan font seems to have “230” also in the extended ASCII range, as ª£¼.

The Eastern and Western Keyboard Layouts are different in 4 pairs: (1) bd/pt swaps; (2) k/kʿ swap (“g” is [C] on both); and (3) v/w swap.

2016-01-18

Remarks on KLs

In Armenian KLs, one can map [C][K][G] to կքգ.

In Western Armenian, they have one G and two Ks: as such [G]=կ is obvious, and since ք and գ are the same sound for them, [C] and [K] can be used freely. Maybe it is wise to map [A][B][C][D] to the first four letters of the Armenian Alphabet. So I think the Western KL makes sense.

In the Eastern KL, the mapping is questionable. If I were the creator, I’d use [G] for գ, obviously. That is the only “g” sound. As for [C] and [K], it would be more intuitive to use [K] for the normal կ, and [C] for the aspirated version. Then, you would also have aspirated guys next to each other at [X][C] and at [;][']. This would feel good. In reality, however, [G] is mapped to ք and [C] is mapped to գ. A nice aspect of this is that [A][B][C][D] thing, but problems are bigger than that profit: you want to type [G] to get “g”, not [C]! It would be ideal to swap the values of [C] and [G], although it is too late; doing that now would cause even more confusion.

Something more practical and doable:

And while we’re at it:

2016-10-26 W.Arm. has two letters for /kʰ/ ([K] and [C] on its KL) and one letter for /ɡ/ ([G]). Most probably this [K][C][G] mapping was a choice made by Hrant Papazian (born in 1968 in Beirut), the creator of the original Arasan font, who essentially made the current W.Arm. KL by ASCII-encoding Armenian letters. The reason behind this choice may have been that ք vaguely looks like k while գ looks like c. Now, in the E.Arm. KL, [C] and [G] (of the W.Arm. KL) should have been swapped to make it phonetic, but in reality somehow [K] and [G] were swapped. So in this sence, we have գ on [C] because it is /kʰ/ in W.Arm, and also perhaps because it looks like “c”. However, maybe the best way to remember this is just thinking that the first four letters of the Armenian Alphabet are typed as [A][B][C][D].

Phonetic Value of “r”

It seems that in Classical Armenian, ր was an approximant [ɹ]: this is the sound in “run”, except not backed (i.e. more fronted than in English).

According to Wikipedia, Iranian-Armenians still use the same [ɹ]. The others use a tap [ɾ] today: this is the sound often heard in “butter” in English. A very similar sound (a backed version) may be also heard in Japanese “karai”.

I suppose that the [ɹ] in Classical (and Iranian) Armenian is better in that it is higher contrasted with the trill [r], than [ɾ] with [r].

On Some Phonemes

/t d/ etc. are dental.

/t͡s/ is also dental. This makes it harder for me to distinguish ծ and ց, because this tsss-like sharp sound is kind of like aspiration already, even when not aspirated. I guess I need to ignore this tsss part, and listen to the “puff” after it, or its non-existance.

File:Hy-EA-ձախ-ծախ-ցախ.ogg: In this audio file, /x/ is realized like [(χ)ʀ̥] (though it is simply written [χ]).

I’m now 90% sure that /ġ/ is also realized as [ʀ] in this: File:Hy-տղա.ogg. Just like Eastern Syriac, Eastern Armenian seems to be a strong-sounding language. While ES speakers often use [χ] as well, [ʀ̥] is something even stronger. But then again, pronunciation in these audio files may be exaggerated; probably they pronounced the words more slowly and clearly than usual just for demonstration.

Letters 1–9

  1. այբ
  2. բեն
  3. գիմ
  4. դա
  5. եչ
  6. զա
  7. է
  8. «ը» եթ
  9. թո

2016-10-25

2016-10-28

2016-01-19

Letters 10–18

  1. ժէ
  2. ինի
  3. լիւն
  4. խէ
  5. ծա
  6. կեն
  7. հո
  8. ձա
  9. ղատ

2016-10-26

2016-10-28

2016-11-15

2016-01-20

Letters 19–27

  1. ճէ
  2. մեն
  3. յի
  4. նու
  5. շա
  6. ո
  7. չա
  8. պէ
  9. ջէ

2016-10-28

2016-01-21

Letters 28–36

  1. ռա
  2. սէ
  3. վեւ
  4. տիւն
  5. րէ
  6. ցո
  7. հիւն
  8. փիւր
  9. քէ

2016-10-30

2016-01-25

Cncłay

ծնծղայ : Ծնծղայ

PNG 3 KiB

2016-01-26

Burgn

բուրգն : Բուրգն

PNG 3 KiB

2016-01-28

Dar

դար : Դար

PNG 2 KiB

2016-01-30

Tʿargman

թարգման : Թարգման

PNG 3 KiB

2016-12-27 თარგმანი /tʰäɾɡmänɪ/ “translation, interpretation, commentary”

2016-01-31

Xanutʿ

խանութ : Խանութ

PNG 3 KiB

2016-02-02

X(ə)lurd

խլուրդ : Խլուրդ

PNG 3 KiB

2016-02-10

Com

Ծոմ : ծոմ

PNG 1 KiB

2016-02-18

Jētʿ

Ձէթ : ձէթ = ܙܰܝܬܐ

PNG 2 KiB

2016-02-19

Kacʿin

Կացին : կացին = ܚܰܨܝܢܐ (ḥaṣṣīnā) “axe” fem. in Syriac (N §84): /ḥ/ mapped to /k/, /ṣṣ/ to /t͡sʰ/

PNG 3 KiB

2016-02-22

Kakʿaw (Kakʿav)

Կաքաւ : կաքաւ = Կաքավ : կաքավ = ܩܰܩܒܳܢܐ (qaqqəḇānā ? CAL qaqbānā) = κακκάβη

PNG 5 KiB

Jpeg 12 KiB

2016-02-29

Hałbkʿ (Xałbkʿ)

հաղբք (խաղբք)

PNG 5 KiB

2016-10-22

A Few Words

Հայաստան
hayasˈtan: a is [ɑ]
Հայաստանը
(definite form)
փոքր
pʿokʿər = “small”
հայերեն
hayeren
հայերէն
xcl: -rēn
անգլերեն
angleren
ֆրանսերեն
franseren
գերմաներեն
germaneren
ասորերեն
asoreren = “Syriac”
ասորի
asori = “a Syriac person”

2016-11-14

Vew: vard “rose”

վարդ
vard = “rose”: pronounced [vɑɾtʰ] in (Modern) Eastern Armenian, like in Western Armenian. گل - Wiktionary says the word was borrowed from Old Persian [peo] *vr̥da; if so, it was borrowed before ca. 400 BCE, which is amazing (the Armenian form can’t be derived from Middle Persian [pal] gul, nor from Parthian [xpr] wār). However, վարդ might be from PIE *wr̥dʰo via Proto-Armenian, or from Sogdian [sog] ward, having nothing to do with peo. Also, it’s strange that pal PNG gul came from peo *vr̥da. Am I supposed to believe that *v became gu and *r̥d became l?

2016-11-16 I think վարդ is not directly from peo, but from syc ܘܰܪܕܐ.

2016-11-15 Vew is a potentially confusing letter. If you think it as υ, it’s like “υ is before τ” and you may be confused. No, Vew is not υ. The letter for W, “hiwn” is the wanna-be. In Syriac, W is one of the first letters, but it’s one of the last in Armenian. Besides, in the final 9 letters, Vew is the least memorable: Cʿo is fun and impressive, two R’s are obvious (we know the language has a trill-R and an approximant-R), and the other letters are “Greek” — except Vew! Even the phonemic status of /v/ vs. /w/ is questionable. But anyway, Armenian has separate letters for V and W, where W corresponds to Greek υ (think Hiwn as “hün”). In fact, վ (vew) looks like ւ (hiwn) + big ւ (hiwn): this is opposite of W = V+V.

2016-12-27 ka ვარდი /väɾdɪ/

0.5 mil Western Armenian Speakers

Armenian | Ethnologue

102,000 in Iran [IR] (2015 J. Leclerc) are (mostly?) E-Arm speakers. Curiously, hy-AZ is classified as W-Arm.

Unknown Dialects: if hy-GE is W-Arm, then the total number of W-Arm speakers will be 1 million.

2016-11-18

(Y)etʿ: ənker “companion, friend”

ընկեր Ընկեր : Անկարա

The second word above is Ankara, similar sounding but unrelated.

2016-11-19 The schwa ը is written only in initial position for monosyllabic words and for words derived from these by nominal composition. In modern printed texts it is written in polysyllabic words when hyphenated. In Classic Armenian, ընդ (ənd) is an preposition like Lat. ante, Gr. ἀντί, and it means “with, in the company of” when followed by a noun in locative. կեր means “food”.

2016-11-21

(Y)ečʿ: erg “song”

երգ (erg, yerkʿ): տխուր երգ (txur, təχur ~) “sad song”

2016-11-22

Čē: čanačʿel “to know”

ճանաչել

When handwritten, ճ looks like the Russian soft sign ь [мягкий знак], or the left half of ы.

ճառ (čaṙ) = “speech”

Heinrich Hübschmann (1895) uses č (tš) for ճ and č̣ (t̔š) for չ. Antoine Meillet (1913) uses č for ճ and č̣ (čh) for չ. Antoine Meillet (1936) uses č for ճ and č̣ for չ. Confusingly†, ISO 9985 (1996) does the opposite — č for the aspirated չ and č̣ for the non-aspirated ճ.

As a number sign, ճ menas “100”.

† 2017-01-13 However, this confusing transliteration system is at least Georgian-compatible, where č is /t͡ʃʰ/ and č̣ is /t͡ʃʼ/. Furthermore, this Georgian system (the unaspirated version of a consonant is makred with a dot, while the aspirated version is not marked) is compatible with the transliteration of Semitic languages in general, in which for example may be /tʼ/ or /tˤ/ while t is /t/ — the phoneme commonly realized as [tʰ]. The same system is also used for Iranian languages, for example when one is dealing with Arabic loanwords in Persian.

2016-11-23

Men: mayr “mother”

մայր

մեծ մայր (mec ~) = “grandmother”: Gr. mega-, Lat. magnus, Skt. mahā

Ranko Matasović (2009): A Grammatical Sketch of Classical Armenian
http://mudrac.ffzg.unizg.hr/~rmatasov/ARMENIAN2.pdf

2016-11-28

Šā: šun “dog”

շուն — շուն ու կատու “dog and cat”

2016-11-29

Pē: panir “cheese”

պանիր — պ is unaspirated… mysterious ܦ̈

Kurdish and Scheherazade

2016-12-01

J̌ē: ǰur “water”

ջուրջ is 900, like ϡ

2016-12-05

połotay “plaza”

պողոտայպողոտա

The leg of պ is in the right side, like η and not like μ — the “back side” in the left-to-right direction. Actually, the letter in question looks like U+0270 [ ɰ ] LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M WITH LONG LEG.

2016-12-06

duṙn “door”

դուռնդուռ

2016-12-26

Adam

Ադամ

zōr

զօր = զաւր — “strength, army” — fa زور (prs zōr: pes zūr) “force, strength” — Tajiki: зӯр (literary/northern), зур (central/southern), where ӯ is [ɵː] — It is similar to, although slightly lower [=wider] than, the German “ü[= /ʏ/, /yː/] and, in English, somewhat similar to the “ir” sound in the words first and girl. To produce it, the lips should be rounded, as thought to pronounce “o”, while making the English schwa sound (A Beginner’s Guide to Tajiki)

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